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          Free trade or fair trade? An enquiry into the causes of failure in recent trade negotiations (English)
          Discussion paper by Mehdi Shafaeddin, UNCTAD, 2000, 44 pages
          Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

          What: Trade policy is at a crossroads. So is trade diplomacy. The failure of the traditional import substitution policies of the 1950s-1970s has been followed by the failure of trade liberalization in the 1980s and 1990s by developing countries. In particular, the deadlock in the negotiations during the recent meetings of WTO has demonstrated the severe differences among various groups of member countries. Focusing on frictions between developing countries and industrial economies in the particular area of trade in manufactured goods, this paper argues that the failure of the negotiations is related to a number of fallacies and contradictions surrounding the concepts and practices of universal trade liberalization and infant industry protection. Who: Can be used for course and/or research work on trade negotiations, policy and diplomacy, liberalization and WTO issues. How: As a background reading material on trade negotiations and WTO issues.