A partnership with academia

Building knowledge for trade and development

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          15 Years of the Information Technology Agreement: Trade, Innovation and Global Production Networks
          Report by WTO, 2012, 112 pages
          Categories: Science and Technology, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

          This publication charts the history of the WTO Information Technology Agreement and the effect it has had on the global trade in information technology (IT) products. Details of the latest trends in IT trade and discussions on the future of the ITA make this publication a useful source of information for government officials and policy-makers as well as academics, students and all those involved in the IT sector.

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          Costa Rica: Trade Opening, FDI Attraction and Global Production Sharing (English)
          Working paper by WTO, 2011, 38 pages
          Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

          Costa Rica has managed to combine an active agenda in the Multilateral Trade Negotiations (MTNs) at the WTO with the negotiation of several Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs). Such PTAs, most notably those with the US, China and the EU, will boost the share of total exports benefiting from preferential access in the destination markets from 24% to over 83%. Along this path of trade liberalization, the country has placed a strong emphasis on the attraction of FDI in high-tech manufacturing and services activities, producing a substantial transformation in the structure of its exports and inserting a fair share of the economy into Global Value Chains (GVCs) . As a result, about 43% of the country’s total exports are related to GVCs, with an average of 36% of such exported value being added domestically.

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          Deep Integration and Production Networks: an Empirical Analysis (English)
          Working paper by WTO, 2011, 35 pages
          Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

          This working paper describes the two-way relationship between deep integration and production networks trade.The results show that on average, signing deeper agreements increases production networks trade between member countries by almost 35%, integration being more prominent in trade in automobile parts and information technology products.The study also shows that a 10% increase in the share of production network trade increases the depth of an agreement by approximately 6%.In addition, the probability of signing deeper agreements is higher for country pairs involved in North-South production sharing and for countries belonging to the Asia region.

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          The Design of Preferential Trade Agreements: A New Dataset in the Making (English)
          Working paper by WTO, 2011, 47 pages
          Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

          Since 1990 the number of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) has increased very rapidly. This paper aims to contribute to this literature by presenting a new database on PTAs called Design of Trade Agreements (DESTA). Starting from 690 negotiated trade agreements between 1945 and 2009, 404 agreements were coded. The aim is to have a database for about 550 agreements by 2012. The agreements cover a number of sectors, namely market access, services, investments, intellectual property rights, competition, public procurement, standards, trade remedies, non-trade issues, and dispute settlement. This working paper describes the DESTA data set and provides selected descriptive statistics.

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          The Future of Trade: The Challenges of Convergence Report of the Panel on Defining the Future of Trade Convened by WTO Director-general Pascal Lamy (English)
          Report by WTO, 2013, 54 pages
          Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

          Chapter 1 of the Panel on Defining the Future of Trade Report discusses the contribution that trade opening has made to growth, development prosperity, the challenges of managing jobless growth, high unemployment, poverty, inequality, the environment and sustainable development, and the role of trade as well as investment in this context. Chapter 2 examines certain transformational actors that have shaped trade in recent years and will continue to do so in the future. Finally, chapter 3 contains a number of recommendations for possible action.

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          Harnessing Trade for Sustainable Development and a Green Economy
          Manual by WTO, 2011, 24 pages
          Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

          In 1992 the United Nations convened a landmark conference in Rio de Janeiro which set the tone and ambition for global policy on development and environment for the years to come. The results of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, popularly known as the Earth Summit, were reaffirmed in Johannesburg in 2002 at the World Summit on Sustainable Development. Global leaders will reconvene in Rio in 2012 at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20). They will consider progress made since the two earlier meetings, assess remaining challenges, and reset the world on a path towards sustainable development. Part II of this brochure offers a set of messages on sustainable development and trade that may be pronounced at the Rio+20 Conference. Part III looks at the workings of the WTO and how the multilateral trading system supports countries’ efforts to realize sustainable development and a green economy. Part IV examines the contribution of trade to sustainable development. Part V refers to green economy measures and discusses how WTO rules and monitoring mechanisms help ensure such measures are not disguised protectionism. Part VI looks at WTO efforts to help developing countries maximize the benefits of participation in international trade. And Part VII discusses the contribution to sustainable development that can be made through a successful completion of the Doha Round.

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          International Trade Statistics 2008 (English)
          Report by WTO, 2008, 255 pages
          Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

          International Trade Statistics is the WTO’s annual compilation of global trade statistics. This Report provides comprehensive statistics on trade in merchandise and commercial services, with an assessment of world trade flows by country, region and main product groups or service categories. Some 250 tables and charts depict trade developments from various perspectives and provide a number of long-term time series. Major trade developments are summarized and discussed in the first part of the report under Overview. Detailed trade statistics are provided in Appendix tables.

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          International Trade Statistics 2009
          Data by WTO, 2009, 262 pages
          Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

          International Trade Statistics 2009 offers a comprehensive overview of the latest developments in world trade, covering the details of merchandise trade by product and trade in commercial services by category. Each chapter is introduced by a highlights section that identifies the most salient trends in the data and illustrates them with numerous charts and maps. There is also a methodological chapter that explains essential concepts and definitions used in compiling the statistics, and an appendix with detailed data on trade by region up to 2008. International Trade Statistics 2009 continues to serve as an invaluable reference for researchers, policy makers, and anyone interested in international trade.

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          International Trade Statistics 2012
          Book by WTO, 2012, 274 pages
          Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

          The 2012 edition provides comprehensive and detailed data required to describe major trends and developments in international trade and market access.

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          International Trade Statistics 2013
          Report by WTO, 2013, 208 pages
          Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

          International trade statistics provides the facts that firms and policy makers need to take decisions. Equally, it provides the information that analysts and academics need to provide advice to decision makers. This year's edition includes a new chapter on trade in global value chains, offering new perspectives on world trade and economic growth. The new data highlight, for example, that trade in intermediate goods is just as concentrated among large players as overall trade. The new data in this publication reveal the leading exporters and importers of intermediate goods, an important indicator of increased fragmentation in production chains. The new chapter also highlights the sectoral contributions of the value added to exports, demonstrating the interdependency of domestic and foreign sectors. Finally, the new chapter provides information outlining the level of exchanges within their multinational parent company carried out by US-owned affiliates.

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          Trade and Market Access Data for Policy Makers
          Summary by WTO, 2010, 40 pages
          Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

          This brochure has been prepared from a compilation of documents received from agencies and panellists who participated at the "Data Day at the WTO" on 18-19 May. It focuses on databases maintained by international agencies. For the most part, databases maintained by regional and national entities are not included. The brochure is divided into six main sections: services, tariffs and trade, non-tariff measures, agriculture-specific issues, trade facilitation, and indicators and modelling. Each section contains an introduction to the subject as well as a list of the main datasets and tools prepared by international organizations in order to support trade policy analysis and decision making.

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          Trade Profiles 2007 (English)
          Data by WTO, 2007, 197 pages
          Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

          These Trade Profiles combine information on trade flows and trade policy measures of Members, Observers and other selected economies. The information is presented in standardized format for quick reference. The indicators are divided into five categories: I. Basic economic indicators II. Trade policy indicators III. Merchandise trade indicators (customs-based statistics) IV. Commercial services indicators (balance of payments based statistics) V. Industrial property indicators

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          Trade Profiles 2008 (English)
          Report by WTO, 2009, 196 pages
          Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

          This trade profile combines information on trade flows and trade policy measures of members, WTO observers and other selected economies. The information is derived from various WTO divisions and external sources and presented in standardized format for quick reference.

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          Trade Profiles 2009
          Report by WTO, 2009, 197 pages
          Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

          Trade Profiles provides a country-by-country breakdown of trade flows and trade policy measures for WTO members and countries seeking to join the WTO. With information provided in a standardized format for each country, this publication is an invaluable quick reference tool for anyone looking for essential trade statistics. The data provided for each country includes basic economic indicators (such as GDP), trade policy indicators (such as tariffs and import duties), merchandise trade flows (broken down by broad product categories and major origins and destinations), commercial trade flows (with a breakdown by major components) and industrial property indicators (such as annual number of patents granted). Presented in a handy format, with one page devoted to each country, Trade Profiles offers a concise overview of global trade.

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          Trade Profiles 2010 (English)
          Report by WTO, 2010, 198 pages
          Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

          Trade Profiles provides the latest information on the trade flows and trade policy measures of WTO members, observers and other selected economies. With information for each country provided in a standardized format, the publication is an invaluable quick reference tool for anyone looking for essential trade statistics. The data provided for each country include basic economic indicators(such as GDP), trade policy indicators (such as tariffs, import duties,number of disputes, notifications outstanding and contingency measures in force), merchandise trade flows (broken down by broad product categories and major origins and destinations), services trade flows (with a breakdown by major components) and industrial property indicators. With one page devoted to each country, Trade Profiles offers a concise overview of global trade.

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          Trade Profiles 2012 (English)
          Report by WTO, 2012, 194 pages
          Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

          Trade Profiles 2012 provides a country-by-country breakdown of trade flows and trade policy measures for WTO members and countries seeking to join the WTO. The data provided in a standardized format for each country includes basic economic indicators, trade policy indicators, merchandise trade flows, commercial trade flows and industrial property.

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          Trade Profiles 2013
          Report by WTO, 2013, 206 pages
          Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

          Trade Profiles 2013 provides the latest information on the trade flows and trade policy measures of WTO members, observers and other selected economies. The data provided for each economy include basic economic indicators (such as GDP), trade policy indicators (such as tariffs, import duties, number of disputes, notifications outstanding and contingency measures in force), merchandise trade flows (broken down by broad product categories and major origins and destinations), services trade flows (with a breakdown by major components) and industrial property indicators. With one page devoted to each economy, Trade Profiles 2013 offers a concise overview of global trade.

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          World Tariff Profiles 2014 (English)
          Report by WTO, 2014, 204 pages
          Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

          World Tariff Profiles 2014 provides a unique collection of data on tariffs imposed by WTO members and other countries. It is jointly published by the WTO, the International Trade Centre (ITC) and the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). The first part of the publication provides summary tables showing the average tariffs imposed by individual countries. The second part provides a more detailed table for each country, listing the tariffs it imposes on imports (by product group) as well as the tariffs it faces for exports to major trading partners. The profiles show the maximum tariff rates that are legally “bound” in the WTO and the rates that countries actually apply. This edition of World Trade Profiles has anti-dumping measures as its special topic, and includes a compilation of frequently asked questions.

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          World Trade Report 2007: Six Decades of Multilateral Trade Cooperation: What have we learnt? (English)
          Report by WTO, 2007, 436 pages
          Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

          The Report begins with a brief account of recent trade developments. Turning to its core topic, the Report starts with a summary account of international trade cooperation before the Second World War. It then devotes some space to reviewing what theorists have to say about why governments are motivated to cooperate with one another through an institution like the WTO. The longest section of the Report is an exploration of the history of the multilateral trading system, with particular emphasis on a range of policy issues and challenges that have arisen over the years, and many of which are still with us today. It also focuses on a selection of issues that have arisen over the years and played a dominant role in the evolution of the system. These issues include dispute settlement, developing countries in the trading system, regionalism, decision-making, and the formation of the negotiating agenda.

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          World Trade Report 2009: Trade Policy Commitments and Contingency Measures
          Report by WTO, 2010, 196 pages
          Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

          The theme of this year’s Report is “Trade policy commitments and contingency measures”. The Report examines the range of contingency measures available in trade agreements and the role that these measures play. Also referred to as escape clauses or safety valves, these measures allow governments a certain degree of flexibility within their trade commitments and can be used to address circumstances that could not have been foreseen when a trade commitment was made. Contingency measures seek to strike a balance between commitments and flexibility. Too much flexibility may undermine the value of commitments, but too little may render the rules unsustainable. The tension between credible commitments and flexibility is often close to the surface during trade negotiations. For example, in the July 2008 mini-ministerial meeting, which sought to agree negotiating modalities — or a final blueprint — for agriculture and non-agricultural market access (NAMA), the question of a “special safeguard mechanism” (the extent to which developing countries would be allowed to protect farmers from import surges) was crucial to the discussions.

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          World Trade Report 2010: Trade in Natural Resources (English)
          Report by WTO, 2010, 256 pages
          Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

          A key question is to what extent countries gain from open trade in natural resources. Some of the issues examined in the Report include the role of trade in providing access to natural resources, the effects of international trade on the sustainability of natural resources, the environmental impact of resources trade, the so-called natural resources curse, and resource price volatility. The Report examines a range of key measures employed in natural resource sectors, such as export taxes, tariffs and subsidies, and provides information on their current use. It analyzes in detail the effects of these policy tools on an economy and on its trading partners. Finally, the Report provides an overview of how natural resources fit within the legal framework of the WTO and discusses other international agreements that regulate trade in natural resources. A number of challenges are addressed, including the regulation of export policy, the treatment of subsidies, trade facilitation, and the relationship between WTO rules and other international agreements.

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          World Trade Report 2012 - Trade and Public Policies: A Closer Look at Non-tariff Measures in the 21st Century (English)
          Report by WTO, 2012, 252 pages
          Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

          The 2012 World Trade Report is split into two main parts. The first is a brief summary of the trade situation in 2011. The second part focuses on the special theme of non-tariff measures in the 21st century.Section A of the Report presents an overview of the history of non-tariff measures in the GATT/WTO. Section B examines the reasons why governments use NTMs and services measures and the extent to which public policy interventions may also distort international trade. The phenomenon of offshoring and the crosseffects of services measures on goods trade are also considered. The section analyses choices among alternative policy instruments from a theoretical and empirical perspective. Finally, case studies are presented on the use of NTMs in particular contexts. These include the recent financial crisis, climate change policy and food safety concerns. The case studies consider how far measures adopted may pose a challenge for international trade. Section C of the Report surveys available sources of information on NTMs and services measures and evaluates their relative strengths and weaknesses. It uses this information to establish a number of “stylized facts”, first about NTMs (TBT/SPS measures in particular) and then about services measures. Section D discusses the magnitude and the trade effects of NTMs and services measures in general, before focusing on TBT/SPS measures and domestic regulation in services. It also examines how regulatory harmonization and/or mutual recognition of standards help to reduce the trade-hindering effects of the diversity of TBT and SPS measures and domestic regulation in services. Section E looks at international cooperation on NTMs and services measures. The first part reviews the economic rationale for such cooperation and discusses the efficient design of rules on NTMs in a trade agreement. The second part looks at how cooperation has occurred on TBT/SPS measures and services regulation in the multilateral trading system, and within other international forums and institutions. The third part of the section deals with the legal analysis of the treatment of NTMs in the GATT/WTO dispute system and interpretations of the rules that have emerged in recent international trade disputes. The section concludes with a discussion of outstanding challenges and key policy implications of the Report.

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          World Trade Report 2014 - Trade and development: recent trends and the role of the WTO (English)
          Report by WTO, 2014, 1 pages
          Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

          The report examines how four recent major economic trends have changed how developing countries can use trade to facilitate their development. These trends are the economic rise of developing economies, the growing integration of global production through supply chains, the higher prices for agricultural goods and natural resources, and the increasing interdependence of the world economy. The Report also looks into the role that the WTO plays.

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          The World Trade Report 2015 - Speeding Up Trade: Benefits and Challenges of Implementing the Wto Trade Facilitation Agreement (English)
          Also available in French, Spanish
          Report by WTO, 2015, 157 pages
          Categories: Trade Facilitation, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

          The World Trade Report 2015 summarizes the trade situation in 2014 and early 2015 and examines the benefits and challenges of implementing the WTO’s Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA). The Report finds that developing countries will benefit significantly from the TFA, capturing a large part of the available gains. In addition, it identifies a range of other benefits from the TFA. These include diversification of exports from developing countries and least-developed countries to include new products and partners, increased involvement of these countries in global value chains, expanded participation of small and medium-sized enterprises in international trade, increased foreign direct investment, greater revenue collection and reduced incidence of corruption.

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          World Trade Statistical Review 2016 (English)
          Report by WTO, 2016, 165 pages
          Categories: International Financial System, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

          The 2016 World Trade Statistical Review provides an overview of current trends in world trade and policy developments. This year's publication uses statistics within a global economic context to explain the reasons how and why global trade is changing. It provides comprehensive data with a particular focus on trade policy, the participation of developing economies in world trade and a more detailed look at selected goods and services.

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          WTO Agreement Series: Technical Barriers to Trade (English)
          Book by WTO, 2014, 156 pages
          Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

          The WTO’s agreements are the legal foundation for the international trading system that is used by the bulk of the world’s trading nations. This series offers a set of handy reference booklets on selected agreements. Each volume contains the text of one agreement, an explanation designed to help the user understand the text, and in some cases supplementary material. They are intended to be an authoritative aid for understanding the agreements, but because of the legal complexity of the agreements, the introductions cannot be taken as legal interpretations of the agreements.

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          WTO Agreements Series Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (English)
          Book by WTO, 2010, 50 pages
          Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

          The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the “SPS Agreement”) entered into force with the establishment of the World Trade Organization on January 1995. It concerns the application of food safety and animal and plant health regulations. This booklet discusses the text of the SPS Agreement as it appears in the Final Act of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations, signed in Marrakesh on 15 April 1994. This Agreement and others contained in the Final Act, along with the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade as amended (GATT 1994), are part of the treaty which established the World Trade Organization (WTO). The WTO superseded the GATT as the umbrella organization for international trade. The WTO Secretariat has prepared this booklet to assist public understanding of the SPS Agreement. The first section of the booklet presents the basic structure of WTO agreements; the second looks at the key features of the SPS Agreement; the third addresses a number of frequently-asked questions; and the fourth is the legal text of the agreement. The booklet is not intended to provide a legal interpretation of the agreement.

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          WTO Analytical Index: Supplement Covering New Developments in WTO Law and Practice October 2011 – January 2013 (English)
          Book by WTO, 2013, 218 pages
          Categories: International Economic Law, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

          As a supplement to the legal research tool "The Analytical Index", this resource covers developments in WTO law and practice after 30 September 2011. The Supplement is divided into two parts: "New Dispute Settlement Reports, Awards and Decisions" covers jurisprudence and "Other Developments in WTO Law and Practice" contains summaries and extracts on decisions and other significant activities of WTO bodies. Its coverage includes the WTO, the GATT 1994, the SPS, the TBT, the TRIMS and the SCM Agreements as well as the Agreements on Anti-Dumping, Safeguards and Government Procurement.

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          WTO Dispute Settlement - One-page Case Summaries (1995-2007) (English)
          Case study by WTO, 2008, 172 pages
          Categories: International Economic Law, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

          This second edition publication offers case-by-case, single page summaries of panel and Appellate Body reports adopted by the WTO Dispute Settlement Body as of 31 December 2007. Intended to facilitate understanding of WTO dispute settlement cases among WTO Members by providing core facts, substantive findings contained in the adopted panel, summaries of key findings on significant procedural matters and, where applicable, Appellate Body reports for each decided case are documented. Other matters of particular significance raised during the proceedings are listed in accompanying footnotes to each case. Cases are indexed by article and by WTO agreement.

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          Wto - International Trade Statistics 2007 (English)
          Data by WTO, 2007, 262 pages
          Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

          The WTO International Trade Statistics 2007 provides a comprehensive collection of statistical data on trade in merchandise and commercial services relevant for an assessment of world trade flows by country, region and main product groups or services by category. This year's report provides a more user-friendly presentation of statistical tables, and covers new fields, in particular to satisfy the increasing demand for data on international trade in services. The report, furthermore, provides for the first time information on sales of foreign affiliates relating to trade in services.

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          Wto Public Forum 2007 - How Can the Wto Help Harness Globalization? (English)
          Report by WTO, 2008, 384 pages
          Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

          This publication summarizes the views and concerns expressed during the two-day programme of the WTO Public Forum 'How can the WTO help harness globalization?'. Topics for debate included the challenges presented by globalisation, the need for a coherent multilateral trading system, trade as a vehicle for growth and development, and the interaction of trade and sustainable development.

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          WTO Public Forum 2007 - How Can the WTO Help Harness Globalization?
          Report by WTO, 2008, 424 pages
          Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

          This publication summarizes the views and concerns expressed during the two-day programme of the WTO Public Forum 'How can the WTO help harness globalization?'. Topics for debate included the challenges presented by globalisation, the need for a coherent multilateral trading system, trade as a vehicle for growth and development, and the interaction of trade and sustainable development.

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          WTO Public Forum 2007 - How Can the WTO Help Harness Globalization? (French)
          Report by WTO, 2008, 410 pages
          Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

          This publication summarizes the views and concerns expressed during the two-day programme of the WTO Public Forum 'How can the WTO help harness globalization?'. Topics for debate included the challenges presented by globalisation, the need for a coherent multilateral trading system, trade as a vehicle for growth and development, and the interaction of trade and sustainable development.

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          Wto Report on G-20 Trade Measures
          Report by WTO, 2011, 45 pages
          Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

          This sixth Report reviews trade and trade-related measures undertaken by G-20 economies in the period from 1 May 2011 to mid-October 2011. Section II of the Report presents a comprehensive description of all trade and trade-related developments during the reviewed period. Government support measures implemented during this period are covered in section III, and developments in Trade Finance in section IV. The final section of the Report provides the context of recent economic and trade trends.

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          Wto Report on G-20 Trade Measures
          Report by WTO, 2011, 45 pages
          Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

          Covering the period of May to mid-October 2011, the report concludes that the pace of implementation of new trade restrictions by G-20 countries, particularly in the manufacturing sector, has not decelerated over the past six months. Also confirmed is the upward trend in the imposition of export restrictions affecting mainly food and some minerals.

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          WTO World Trade Report 2011: the WTO and the preferential trade agreements - From co-existence to coherence (English)
          Report by WTO, 2011, 256 pages
          Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

          The World Trade Report 2011 describes the historical development of PTAs and the current landscape of agreements. It analyses the reasons behind establishing PTAs, their impact on economy, and also covers the contents of the agreements themselves. Finally identifies areas of synergies and potential conflicts between PTAs and the multilateral trading system and examines ways in which the two "trade systems" can be made more coherent.

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