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Building knowledge for trade and development

    • Resources discussing the necessity, impact and design of an efficient competition policy, including the consequences of lacking or insufficient competition policy.
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        Commercial policies - Course syllabus (English)
        Outline by Amir Bakir, University of Jordan, Department of Economics, 2004
        Categories: Competition Policy, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The course analyzes trade policy tools in both perfect and imperfect competition. Trade restrictions are common in the world, so micro and macro-economics' trade tools are used to study the effects of these restrictions on the different countries of the world. Economic integrations (regionalism), world trade organization, and trade strategies for developing countries are among the topics of interest in this course.

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        Commodity Dependence and Development: Suggestions to Tackle the Commodities Problem (English)
        Report by South Centre; ActionAid, 2008, 33 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Competition Policy, Finance for Development

        This report has the objective to provide solutions for the commodities problem in developing countries. Causes and implications for the commodity problem are analysed such as price volatility and market concentration, followed by a case study on market concentration in the coffee sector and policy recommendations.

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        Competition, Competitiveness and Development: Lessons from Developing Countries, Chapter 1 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 90 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy, Competitiveness

        What: The paper tries to identify, at both the theoretical and applied level, the necessary political, institutional and economic background for developing countries to implement efficient competition policies. It includes in-depth case studies of Nepal or Thailand, or a course on the prerequisites for competition policy in developing countries.

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        Competition, Competitiveness and Development: Lessons from Developing Countries - Introduction (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 21 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy, Competitiveness

        This introduction to the report on competition, competitiveness and development covers the main issues, e.g. the need for competition policy, trade liberalisation, market regulation. Who: Students or teachers concerned with international law, international economics or the relationship between competition and development How: A general introduction on competition policy, including group discussion or group work on the issues raised in the document. A broad bibliography on the subject is also available.

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        Competition, Development and a Possible Multilateral Framework (English)
        Presentation by Philippe Brusick, Chief, Competition and Consumer Policies Branch, UNCTAD, 2002, 31 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy

        What: A PowerPoint presentation (in PDF format) defining competition policy and relating it to developing countries and to international cooperation. Who: Teachers in international relations, economics or law (especially competition law). How: A helpful layout for a course on competition policy. The presentation may also be adapted by the teacher according to the specificities of his course.

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        Competition Policy as a Stimulus for Enterprise Development (CCD Report, Ch.3) (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 80 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy, Enterprise Development

        What: A paper dealing with such themes as market concentration, the relation of competition to privatisation, to investment and to SMEs, with many helpful instances. The second and third parts are whole case studies on South Africa and Korea. Who: Teachers in economics, law or development with a special interest in market regulation and competition policy. How: The first part would be relevant to a general course on competition policy and development, and can also lead to class discussions. The two last parts give all the necessary information and data for case studies.

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        Competition Policy, Supply Capacity and Export Competitiveness (CCD Report, ch.4) (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 73 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy

        What: A study of the effect of competition policy on productivity and economic performance based on the instances of Korea, Tanzania and Peru. Could be used by teachers of economics and economic development in case studies or group work

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        A Composite Index of Market Access for the Export of Rice from Thailand
        Report by Dechachete, Thawatchai/ICTSD, 2009, 19 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy, Trade and Environment

        This study of the Composite Index of Market Access (CIMA) of the rice industry of Thailand is part of the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD) pilot project on market access for three selected countries (Uruguay, the United States and Thailand). The objective of this project is to build an indicator of market access of main rice importing countries that would include not only tariffs but also other barriers affecting market access for agricultural product such as sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures, technical barriers to trade (TBT), private standards, excise taxes in importing countries and other non-tariff barriers. This tool should be of assistance in trade negotiation and giving a clear indication of whether any particular negotiated outcome result in a real liberalization. In Thailand’s case the three import markets which are the US, the Philippines and South Africa have been selected. These countries are major markets for three major types of rice that Thailand exports to the International market.

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        The Effects of Anti-competitive Business Practices on Developing Countries and Their Development Prospects (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2008, 687 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy

        The publication illustrates some of the benefits of competition law enforcement for developing countries, and the intensification of legal frameworks in this area over the last decades. The lengthy (687 pages) publication is a collection of papers by academics and practitioners trying to identify the effects of anti-competitive practices on developing countries. The studies attempt to quantify the effects of anti-competitive practices and to show the benefits of competition policies and their interaction with other areas, such as consumer protection laws and macroeconomic policies. The last part of the collection looks at specific anti-competitive practices, such as cartels, abuse of dominance, and patent policy, and would provide a useful introduction to the issues in a taught course. The report also highlights further areas of research for developing countries, in particular, case studies of competition authorities and quantitative analysis of anti-competitive practices and the lack of competition regimes

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        EXAMEN COLLÉGIAL VOLONTAIRE DE LA POLITIQUE DE CONCURRENCE: TUNISIE - RAPPORT DE SYNTHÈSE (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2006, 41 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Ce rapport de synthèse résume les principales informations tirées de « l'Examen collégial volontaire de la politique de la concurrence en Tunisie ». Après un bref rappel du contexte politique et économique du pays, le rapport présente la politique de la concurrence (la loi, les organes et le fonctionnement) en Tunisie. Cette synthèse comprend également un examen de l’application de cette politique au cours des dernières années, compte tenu du contexte tunisien (prix contrôlés, politiques sectorielles, etc.), ainsi qu’une série de conclusions et de recommandations.

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        Experiences Gained so far on International Cooperation on Competition Policy and the Mechanisms used (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Commission on Investment, Technology and Related Financial Issues, 2002, 43 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy

        What: The paper looks through the typology of legal instruments for cooperation on competition policy, be they bilateral, regional or multilateral. It also describes experiences in such cooperation Who: Teachers interested in international legal instruments and in competition policy How: The examples of instruments for cooperation presented in the first chapter and on the cooperation between the EU and the US can be an introduction for case studies or group work.

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        Implementing Competition-related Provisions in Regional Trade Agreements: Is It Possible to Obtain Development Gains? (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2006, 198 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        What: This publication presents the results of an UNCTAD/IDRC project on Trade and Competition Issues: Experiences at Regional Level. It consists of three chapters written by UNCTAD and academic experts on the topic as well as an annex with reports from the workshops that have been conducted for the project. This publication considers the interrelationship between competition law and policy, economic development and trade. It sHows the constraints faced by developing countries in using existing cooperation mechanisms and suggests ways to foster a culture of competition in developing-country markets. It also stresses the importance of improving the institutional capacities of recently established competition authorities in developing countries to deal with anti-competitive practices in their own markets and help their enterprises deal with them in international markets. How: Raising awareness and enhancing expertise among all stakeholders. Who: Policy makers wanting to understand the negotiation and implementation of regional and bilateral trade agreements with respect to competition policies, but also other stakeholders in the process.

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        International Cartel Enforcement: Lessons from the 1990s (English)
        Working paper by Simon J. Evenett, Margaret C. Levenstein, and Valerie Y. Suslow, 2001, 34 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy

        What: A study of international cartels and the possible measures that would prevent them from distorting the rules of developing countries' economies. Who: Researchers in competition and economic distortions, teachers in international economic relations/law. How: A good source of information for a course on international business or competition policy. Table 2 also gives ideas for possible case studies.

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        Model Law on Competition (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2004, 107 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy

        This is a revised version of the 1999 UN model law which incorporates changes in legislation.

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        Model Law on Competition (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2010, 114 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy

        The Intergovernmental Group of Experts on Competition Law and Policy, at its tenth session (7–9 July 2009),requested the UNCTAD secretariat to prepare a further revised and updated version of the Model Law on Competition, on the basis of submissions to be received from member States no later than 30 May 2010. In addition, the secretariat was asked to redesign the format of the presentation and its updates. The design of the Model Law 2010 has been made more “reader-friendly” in that recent developments in legislation, case law and commentaries are contained in comparative tables indicating the types of laws or solutions adopted by countries for different aspects of the competition issues.

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        The Petroleum Industry in Zambia. A Study on Market Structure and Competition (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2011, 119 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Competition Policy

        The objective of this study is to evaluate the context, the structure and the functioning of the sector from the competition point of view. The energy sector is one of the key sectors of the Zambian economy, in particular the petroleum industry. Petroleum is the only energy source that is 100 per cent imported in Zambia. Hence, in agreement with the Competition and Consumer Protection Commission, the petroleum sector has been identified as a special sector which requires analysis.

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        Policy Alternatives in Reforming Power Utilities in Developing Countries: A Critical Survey (English)
        Discussion paper by Alberto Gabriele / UNCTAD, 2004, 25 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Competition Policy

        What: Given the importance of energy to all aspects of development, this paper examines the liberalization and privatization of energy utilities before going on to suggest some alternative policies based on the experiences of a number of countries. The paper provides short case studies of energy reforms including Chile, Brazil, Argentina, China and India. The paper also provides a number of reference materials for more in-depth reading. Who: Anyone interested in the impact of liberalization on development in particular key public utilities. How: Could be used as a key reading or the basis of a presentation on reform of the energy sector and the impact of liberalization.

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        Rebalancing the Supply Chain (English)
        Study by South Centre; Traidcraft, 2008, 17 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Competition Policy

        This paper is an attempt to explore the extent to which competition policy can be used to address problems caused by corporate concentration and the exercise of 'buyer power' in agricultural commodity markets. It assesses the conceptual and practical opportunities of current competition policy to tackle this phenomenon and also highlights its limitations.

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        Regulatory Design and Competition Policy Implementation (CCD Report, Ch.2) (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 60 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy

        What: An in-depth study of competition policy implementation through the analysis of some sample sectors of the economy in Brazil and in Latin America. It looks at the impact of regulatory design on competitiveness and at specific policies that could be designed according to specific industries Includes case studies on sample sectors in Brazil and on the Latin America beer sector

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        Study on Prospects for Harmonizing Cyberlegislation in Latin America (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2010, 73 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy

        The development of e-commerce and the increasing interaction between enterprises and government agencies via electronic means call for a regulatory framework that promotes secure online transactions and provides legal security for those opting to use electronic means rather than conventional means of communication. Since 2003, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) has been active in providing cooperation and technical assistance to governments of developing countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America, for the purpose of developing legal frameworks to regulate ICT use. One of the principal objectives of UNCTAD is to provide technical assistance to those countries for developing public policy and regulation, based on international best practices that encourage the development of e-commerce and e-government services.

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        The United Nations Set of Principles and Rules on Competition (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2000, 27 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy

        The UN Set is a multilateral agreement on competition policy that provides a set of equitable rules for the control of anti-competitive practices;recognizes the development dimension of competition law and policy; and provides a framework for international operation and exchange of best practices.

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        United States’ Unfair Competition Acts and Software Piracy– Which Asia-pacific Countries Are at Risk and What Recourse Do They Have?
        Policy brief by Puutio, Teemu Alexander, 2014, 12 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy

        In response to tightening global competition and the ripple effects of the 2008 economic crisis United States' state and federal level competition law is being applied to counter software piracy’s effects on the competitiveness of foreign exporters. Sanctions range from fines to import bans. Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, China, Pakistan and Vietnam are among the countries with the highest levels of software piracy and dependence on exports to the United States and thus among the most exposed to the acts.Weighed against the general trade interests of the United States, China, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Thailand, India and Indonesia emerge as the most exposed. Adjusting to the legislation requires long-term actions which aim at reducing piracy rates through awareness, education, and enforcement. In the short term, countries may wish to avoid exposure by steering exports to different export destinations within or outside the United States.

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        Voluntary Peer Review of Competition Law and Policy: Botswana (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 47 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This report is based on information gathered during a fact-finding mission to Botswana carried out in October 2017 and current information available from various sources, including Government Ministry websites. Legislative developments since the time of information collection have been considered in finalizing the report.

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        Voluntary Peer Review of Competition Policy: Tunisia - Overview (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2006, 43 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This overview summarizes the most important points of the voluntary peer review of competition policy in Tunisia. After a brief recap of the political and economic context in the country, the report describes competition policy – the law, organizations and practice – in Tunisia. It also includes a review of the implementation of competition policy over the past few years in the Tunisian context (price controls, sectoral policies, etc.), as well as a set of conclusions and recommendations. The full version of the report is published under the title Voluntary Peer Review of Competition Policy: Tunisia, 2006

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        Voluntary Peer Review of Competition Policy: Tunisia - Overview (Chinese)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2006, 33 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy

        This overview summarizes the most important points of the voluntary peer review of competition policy in Tunisia. After a brief recap of the political and economic context in the country, the report describes competition policy – the law, organizations and practice – in Tunisia. It also includes a review of the implementation of competition policy over the past few years in the Tunisian context (price controls, sectoral policies, etc.), as well as a set of conclusions and recommendations.

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