A partnership with academia

Building knowledge for trade and development

    • Resources looking at the role played by domestic and foreign investment in fostering economic development, in particular, trends, features and challenges in attracting and managing Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) for developing countries, as well as investment policy reviews of a number of countries.
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        ASEAN Investment Report 2016 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 276 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Investment

        With the theme “Foreign Direct Investment and MSME Linkages”, this latest edition examines the drivers and motivations that underpin investments in ASEAN. It takes a closer look at MNE activities and operations in the ASEAN region. Specifically, it examines the case of two important sources of FDI to ASEAN, that of Korea and the United States, with useful insights on the approaches taken, and the success and challenges faced. An additional feature of this year’s report is the study and analysis on the investment activities of micro, small and medium enterprises (MSME) in ASEAN – namely on their linkages and internationalization strategies – why and how they do so. The Report analyses the role of ASEAN MSMEs in realizing the goals of the ASEAN Economic Community and in improving the overall investment environment. The Report is prepared under a technical cooperation arrangement between the ASEAN Secretariat and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD).

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        Asean Investment Report 2018: Foreign Direct Investment and the Digital Economy in Asean (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 296 pages
        Categories: Investment

        The 2018 Report looks into the investment landscape and implications of digital economy and e-Commerce in ASEAN, and also discusses the policy options and digital economy strategy for the region. ASEAN needs to keep the momentum of rising investment in the ICT sector by intensifying its collective effort to narrow the digital divide, develop digital skills, address logistical bottlenecks and payment systems, and manage the potential risks of the digital revolution, as it moves forward to embrace the fourth industrial revolution (4IR).

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        Asia-pacific Trade and Investment Report 2014 (English)
        Report by UNESCAP, 2014, 124 pages
        Categories: Investment, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The Asia-Pacific Trade and Investment Report 2014 provides analysis of trends and developments in regional trade and investment, as well as insights into their impact on countries’ abilities to achieve inclusive and sustainable development. It shows that while the Asia-Pacific region remained the most dynamic pole of the global economy, growth in trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) flows in 2013 did not yet return to the pre-crisis levels. Growth in services exports from the Asia-Pacific region lagged behind the world total in 2013, with 65 per cent of all services exports originating from just six countries: China, India, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Singapore and Hong Kong, China, which suggests large gaps between the countries in the region in terms of their trade competitiveness. In 2013, Asia-Pacific attracted almost 38 per cent of global FDI inflows. The increase in investment inflows was lower than at the global level and in other fast-growing regions such as Latin America, but was accompanied by a noticeable diversification of FDI destinations within the region. With regard to trade policies, the report points to a trend of increasingly restrictive measures across the region, dominated by behind-the-border non-tariff measures, many of which have had a negative impact on the region’s least developed countries and small and medium sized exporters. The proliferation of preferential trade agreements continued, although there is evidence of a plateau being reached, especially with regard to the involvement of Asia-Pacific countries. Much attention is now focused on the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), which involves 16 Asia-Pacific economies, and the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) between 12 countries from Asia and the Pacific Rim.

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        Asia -pacific Trade and Investment Report 2015, Supporting Participation in Value Chains
        Report by ESCAP, 2015, 211 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        The Asia-Pacific Trade and Investment Report 2015 published by the Trade and Investment Division of the United Nations, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific analyzes trends and developments in intra- and inter-regional trade in goods and services; foreign direct investment; trade facilitation measures; trade policy measures; and preferential trade policies and agreements in the region.

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        Asia-Pacific Trade and Investment Report 2015: Supporting Participation in Value Chains - Executive Summary (English)
        Also available in Russian, Chinese
        Summary by ESCAP, 2015, 26 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        The Asia-Pacific Trade and Investment Report 2015 published by the Trade and Investment Division of the United Nations, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific analyzes trends and developments in intra- and inter-regional trade in goods and services; foreign direct investment; trade facilitation measures; trade policy measures; and preferential trade policies and agreements in the region.

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        Aspectos Normativos De La Inversion Extranjera En Colombia (English)
        Discussion paper by Ceron Z., Pilar V./Universidad EAFIT, 2007, 112 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Investment, VI Members Research

        La presente investigación tiene como objetivo central hacer un estudio detallado y profundo -estado del arte- de las normas domésticas e internacionales en materia de inversión extranjera, a la luz de las principales teorías de las Relaciones Internacionales. En el nivel doméstico la normatividad sobre este tema se encuentra dispersa a lo largo de todo el ordenamiento jurídico, en diferentes regímenes, haciéndose difícil la comprensión del tema. En el estudio además de unificar estas disposiciones se hizo un análisis extenso sobre las mismas. El mismo ejercicio se realizó en el ámbito internacional, para lo cual se analizaron todos los acuerdos, convenios y tratados internacionales en materia de inversión, ratificados o negociados por Colombia hasta la fecha, como quiera que son éstos los que marcan la pauta en materia de elaboración de normas locales con base en modelos propuestos por la comunidad internacional.

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        Assessing the Impact of the Current Financial and Economic Crisis on Global FDI Flows (English)
        Study by UNCTAD, 2009, 72 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Investment

        The year 2008 marked the end of a growth cycle in international investment that started in 2004 and saw world foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows reach a historic record of $1.9 trillion in 2007. Due to the impact of the ongoing worldwide financial and economic crisis, FDI flows are estimated to have declined by 15 per cent in 2008. A further decrease in FDI flows can be expected in 2009, as the full consequences of the crisis on transnational corporations’ (TNCs) investment expenditures continue to unfold. The fall in global FDI in 2008–2009 is the result of two major factors affecting domestic as well as international investment. First, the capability of firms to invest has been reduced by a fall in access to financial resources, both internally – due to a decline in corporate profits – and externally – due to the lower availability and higher cost of finance. Second, the propensity to invest has been affected negatively by economic prospects, especially in developed countries that are hit by the most severe recession of the post-war era. The impact of both factors is compounded by the fact that, as of early 2009, a very high level of risk perception is leading companies to extensively curtail their costs and investment programmes in order to become more resilient to any further deterioration of their business environment. All of the three major types of FDI (market-seeking, efficiency-seeking and resources-seeking) will be impacted by these factors, although with different magnitudes and consequences on location patterns. For dealing effectively with the crisis and its economic aftermath, it is important for policymakers to resist the temptation of “quick fix” solutions or protectionism, and to maintain a favourable business and investment climate overall. Recent announcements and commitments made at the London Group of Twenty (G-20) Summit in April 2009 have reconfirmed this policy stance.

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        Best Practices in Investment for Development - Case Studies in FDI (Canada and Singapore) (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2011, 82 pages
        Categories: Investment

        This report, addressing principally policymakers in the field of investment, analyses practices adopted in selected countries in which investment has contributed to development,with the aim of disseminating best practice experiences to developing countries and countries with economies in transition. More specifically, it analyses the policies set in place by two countries, Canada and Singapore to use Foreign Direct Investment to improve the national skill set.

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        Best Practices in Investment for Development - Case Studies in FDI (Estonia and Jamaica) (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2011, 112 pages
        Categories: Investment

        The objectives of this study are to compare and contrast: first, Estonia’s and Jamaica’s approach to setting objectives relating to inward FDI; second, the methods in the form of policy instruments used to achieve these objectives; and third, the results and impact. This study draws out the characteristics of policies that illustrate best practices, and identifies policies that were not as effective, with the aim of distilling policy lessons for small countries in attracting and benefiting from FDI. Estonia and Jamaica are interesting cases to compare because of their different policy approaches. Jamaica’s emphasis on State planning contrasts with Estonia’s pro-market reform strategy. Thus, this study does not seek to identify which approach is best for small countries in all circumstances, but more about how to adapt general policy lessons to unique national contexts.

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        Best Practices in Investment for Development - Case Studies in FDI (Malaysia and Singapore) (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2011, 106 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Investment

        This case study outlines the best practices used by Singapore and Malaysia in using Foreign direct investment (FDI) to enhance local SME development, focusing principally on the linkages between foreign affiliates and domestic SMEs.

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        Best Practices in Investment for Development. How Post-conflict Countries Can Attract and Benefit from Fdi: Lessons from Croatia and Mozambique
        Study by UNCTAD, 2009, 139 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment

        The Investment Advisory Series provides practical advice and casestudies of best policy practice for attracting and benefiting from foreign direct investment (FDI), in line with national development strategies. The series draws on the experiences gained in, and lessons learned through, UNCTAD’s capacity-building and institution-building work in developing countries and countries with economies in transition.

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        Best Practices in Investment for Development: How to Attract and Benefit from FDI in Mining: Lessons from Canada and Chile (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 141 pages
        Categories: Investment

        The purpose of this report is to identify best practice policies that successfully attract foreign direct investment (FDI) in mining, while optimizing its economic, environmental and social impacts. The report focuses on two cases, Canada and Chile, relying on primary and secondary research, including interviews with some 20 stakeholders in both countries.1 The first chapter provides an overview of mining as an economic activity and the challenges facing host governments in balancing the interests of foreign investors and those of the host country. The following two chapters look at how Canada and Chile, respectively, have addressed these challenges. The final chapter compares the two cases, and draws out lessons for policymakers in mineral-rich developing countries.

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        Blue Book on Best Practive in Investment Promotion and Facilitation: Ghana (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, GIPC and JBIC, 2006, 49 pages
        Categories: Investment

        The Blue Book for Ghana provides concrete measures that will improve the investment climate and can be implemented by the Government within 12 months. These measures are intended to support Ghana´s development goals as articulated in the National Medium Term Private Sector Development Strategy 2004-2008 (PSDS). This Strategy outlines an action plan for revitalizing the private sector and achieving a "Golden Age of Business" in Ghana. Four objectives are presented in the PSDS. 1) An enhanced position for Ghana in regional and global markets 2) Increased efficiency and accessibility of national markets 3) Increased competence and capacity at the firm level and 4) Strengthened government private sector policy formulation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. To achieve these objectives, the PSDS contains actions at the international, national and firm levels. The Blue Book on Ghana proposes measures that support the Strategy.

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        Broadening The Sources Of Growth In Africa: The Role Of Investment
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2015, 4 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This policy brief outlines some of the key messages and recommendations of the UNCTAD Economic Development in Africa Report 2014: Catalysing Investment for Transformative Growth in Africa. Achieving the African Union’s vision of an integrated, prosperous and peaceful Africa that can serve as a pole of global growth in the twenty-first century requires broadening the sources of growth on the continent to lay the foundation for sustained growth and poverty reduction. For this to happen, however, it is necessary to enhance the contribution of investment to the growth process.

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        China and Central and Eastern European Countries: Regional Networks, Global Supply Chain, or International Competitors? (English)
        Working paper by Fung , K.C.; Korhonen, Iikka; Li, Ke; Ng, Francis / World Bank, 2008, 45 pages
        Categories: Investment

        China has emerged as one of the top recipients of foreign direct investment in the world. Meanwhile, the successful transition experience of many Central and Eastern European countries has also allowed them to attract an increasing share of global foreign direct investment. In this paper, the authors use a panel data set to investigate whether foreign direct investment flows to these two regions are complements, substitutes, or independent of each other. Taking into account the role of host country characteristics - such as market size, degree of trade liberalization, and human capital - the authors find no evidence that foreign direct investment flows to one region are at the expense of those to the other. Instead, the results suggest that foreign direct investment flows are driven by distinct regional production networks (and thus are largely independent of each other) and the development of global supply chains (indicating that foreign direct investment flows are complementary).

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        Climate Change, Biodiversity and Livelihoods: Lessons Learned from UNCTAD Project Impletmentation (English)
        Report by Castro, Lorena/UNCTAD, 2015, 45 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Environment

        This publication highlights the contribution of biodiversity investment in fostering sustainable development through business opportunities in sectors such as agriculture, pharmaceuticals and housing. The report outlines the implementation of UNCTAD BioTrade and REDD+ projects, its outcomes, lessons and the way forward.

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        Competitiveness, Restructuring and FDI: an Analytical Framework (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2002, 24 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Investment

        What: This is a study of the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) on industrial restructuring in selected industries in some developing countries. The focus is on how FDI affects the ability of economic actors - directly, foreign affiliates, and indirectly, local firms or the economy at large - to compete better in a globalizing world, primarily by raising, upgrading and diversifying exports. It is about the impact of transnational corporations (TNCs) on the industrial competitiveness of host countries, an issue of growing concern in the developing world. Who: Useful for teachers and students focusing on FDI. How: Can be used as a background reading and/or research work on competitiveness, restructuring and FDI.

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        Costa Rica: Trade Opening, FDI Attraction and Global Production Sharing (English)
        Working paper by WTO, 2011, 38 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        Costa Rica has managed to combine an active agenda in the Multilateral Trade Negotiations (MTNs) at the WTO with the negotiation of several Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs). Such PTAs, most notably those with the US, China and the EU, will boost the share of total exports benefiting from preferential access in the destination markets from 24% to over 83%. Along this path of trade liberalization, the country has placed a strong emphasis on the attraction of FDI in high-tech manufacturing and services activities, producing a substantial transformation in the structure of its exports and inserting a fair share of the economy into Global Value Chains (GVCs) . As a result, about 43% of the country’s total exports are related to GVCs, with an average of 36% of such exported value being added domestically.

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        Developing Business Linkages For Green Affordable Housing In Zambia
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 50 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Enterprise Development, Investment

        This report investigates the potential for building business linkages between micro, small and medium sized enterprises (MSMEs) in the construction industry in Zambia and large domestic and international companies and investors. It adopts a step-by-step methodology, taking international firms and property developers through the full process of doing business in the low and middle income housing sector in Zambia – highlighting opportunities to partner with local MSMEs and others stakeholders.

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        Developing Countries and Their Natural Resources. From the Elaboration of the Principle of Permanent Sovereignty over Natural Resources to the Creation of Sovereign Wealth Funds (English)
        Article by Barbieri, Michele, 2009
        Categories: International Economic Law, Investment, VI Members Research

        The paper will study, mainly under the point of view of international law, the relation between natural resources, foreign investments and economic development in third world countries, focusing on the role the principle of permanent sovereignty over natural resources has played, and still can play, in this context. It will try to propose a notion of the right of peoples over natural resources which takes into account the recent developments of international environmental law and of international investment law (the latter being represented in particular by the increase of bilateral investment treaties in force). It will finally prove that the creation of sovereign wealth funds by developing countries can represent a new tool to ensure the promotion of the right of peoples to sovereignty over natural resources and it will investigate the importance that transparency of sovereign wealth funds might have to this purpose.

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        Do Trade And Investment Agreements Lead To More Fdi? Accounting For Key Provisions Inside The Black Box (English)
        Working paper by Berger, Axel, Busse, Matthias, Nunnenkamp, Peter, Roy, Martin, 2009, 29 pages
        Categories: Investment, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The previous literature provides a highly ambiguous picture on the impact of trade and investment agreements on FDI. Most empirical studies ignore the actual content of BITs and RTAs, treating them as "black boxes", despite the diversity of investment provisions constituting the essence of these agreements. We overcome this serious limitation by analyzing the impact of modalities on the admission of FDI and dispute settlement mechanisms in both RTAs and BITs on bilateral FDI flows between 1978 and 2004. We find that FDI reacts positively to RTAs only if they offer liberal admission rules. Dispute settlement provisions play a minor role. While RTAs without strong investment provisions may even discourage FDI, the reactions to BITs are less discriminate with foreign investors responding favourably to the mere existence of BITs.

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        Economic Development in Africa Report 2014: Catalysing Investment for Transformative Growth in Africa (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 110 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment

        The report examines how to boost and use investment in support of economic transformation and sustained growth in Africa. The focus of the report on total investment reflects the fact that all components of investment matter for growth and development and so the focus of policy should be on how to exploit the complementarities among the various components, rather than promoting one component at the expense of the other. The report also provides actionable policy recommendations on how African countries could accelerate investment for transformative growth.

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        Economic Development in Africa: Rethinking the Role of Foreign Direct Investment (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005, 115 pages
        Categories: Investment

        What: In this report UNCTAD affirms that the recent surge of FDI to Africa is largely due to increased demand for fuels and minerals. The traditional FDI attraction to Africa into enclaves of export-oriented primary production with limited linkages to the rest of the economy has not changed much in recent years and has contributed to undermining a self-sustaining and dynamic investment process. UNCTAD says it is time to rethink the one-sided emphasis on attracting FDI and its replacement with a more balanced and more strategic approach tailored to African socio-economic conditions and development challenges. Who: For anyone teaching and researching development challenges in Africa. How: A report that can be used to teach and/or research on approaches to FDI in Africa and the development challenges.

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        Economists and Lawyers Working Together. A Multidisciplinary Approach for Policy Orientated Researches in the Fields of Foreign Investments and Economic Development
        Working paper by Michele Barbieri, 2010, 31 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Investment, VI Members Research

        The objective of the paper is to describe a methodology which can be applied in policy orientated researches on the following topic: the impact international investment agreements (IIAs) have on the relation between foreign investments on one side and economic development of the host States on the other side. The researches which adopt such method should provide guidance to policymakers of host States as to the way they can simultaneously achieve the following goals: to attract foreign investments and to fully benefit from them, to preserve their ability to adopt and maintain policies for the promotion of domestic development, to maximise the consistency of such policies with applicable IIAs. The peculiarity of the methodology consists in its multidisciplinary approach, which combines the efforts of economists and legal experts both.

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        Empirical Insights on Market Access and Foreign Direct Investment (English)
        Working paper by Fugazza, Marco and Trentini, Claudia, 2014, 35 pages
        Categories: Investment, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper conducts a general examination of the influence of market access conditions on FDI decisions using a unique data set on bilateral FDI outward stocks and novel measures of market access. Authors find that over the period 1990–2010, export platform and complex-vertical investment strategies have been driving FDI decisions around the world.

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        Enter the Dragon: Policies to Attract Chinese Investment
        Working paper by Ramasamy, Bala and Yeung, Matthew, 2014, 38 pages
        Categories: Investment

        Over the last ten years, Chinese enterprises have become more multi-national in nature. China’s outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) has been growing at a phenomenal rate. In 2012, China became the third largest investor, after the US and Japan; and the largest investor among developing countries. How can host governments attract more of this Chinese capital? What are some short to medium term policies that host governments can initiate to make their respective nations attractive to Chinese investors? This paper considers these questions by utilizing a best-worst choice exercise among 114 senior corporate decision-makers of Chinese companies who have planned or are planning to globalize. Using the maximum difference scaling methodology, this paper ranks 19 most common determinants that influence FDI location choice. It also proposes five “low hanging fruits” that policy-makers should consider that could ensure their countries come within the radar of Chinese multi-nationals.

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        An Evaluation of Tanzania’s EPZ Programme – Challenges and Prospects (English)
        Case study by Charles T L T Domician, 2009
        Categories: Competitiveness, Investment, VI Members Research

        This study employs OECD-DAC criteria to evaluate the Tanzania Export Processing Zones programme over the 2006 to May 2009 period. It finds that the programme is relevant for the country and global developmental orientations, although some respondents had a misguided opinion. On the other hand, the programme remains largely ineffective and inefficient due to the prevailing risks, including heavy hard and soft infrastructural challenges as well as the existing burden of the fiscal incentive regime. The study notes, however, that if properly handled, the discovery of uranium is potentially key to transforming the country’s energy and industrial sectors for domestic and international competitiveness. It is further suggested that unless necessary socioeconomic interventions are made well in time, the identified weaknesses stand to threaten the programme’s envisaged developmental impact and sustainability. Therefore, it is recommended that the government (through the Export Processing Zones Authority), in collaboration with all relevant EPZ stakeholders, devise an efficient and effective mechanism for financing export-enhancing infrastructures; and that special purpose vehicles in public-private partnership arrangements provide one such option. Other policy measures should include a review for streamlining the incentive regime, addressing inefficiencies at the Dar es Salaam port, financial empowerment for domestic export-oriented SMEs, enhanced stakeholder awareness of EPZ legislation and practices, and regional and global marketing of the programme’s production/exports.

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        Examen De La Politique D'investissement De Djibouti (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2013, 115 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The Investment Policy Review (IPR) of Djibouti identifies a number of weaknesses in the policy, legal, regulatory and institutional frameworks for investment in Djibouti. Taking into account Djibouti's development objectives and the Government's will to improve the investment environment, the IPR proposes remedial actions and puts forward a multidimensional strategy to attract FDI.

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        Examen De La Politique D'investissement: République Du Congo
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 70 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The Investment Policy Review (IPR) of the Republic of the Congo analyses the role that foreign direct investment (FDI) can play in meeting the country's development goals and proposes concrete recommendations to address the policy, legal, regulatory and institutional barriers to investment. The IPR also analyses the potential role of FDI in addressing food security and poverty through agriculture development. It advises the Government to adopt a clear vision for the sector and to pay particular attention to the agricultural development model that is advocated. In particular, it stresses the important role of the Government to promoting inclusive agriculture development and the integration of local operators in FDI-led value chains as it can maximize the sustainable development impact of FDI projects. It also highlights the fact that regular monitoring and rigorous evaluation of projects, based on reliable indicators, are among the best tools to ensure good results.

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        FDI-assisted Development in the Light of the Investment Development Path Paradigm: Evidence from Central and Eastern European Countries (English)
        Article by Boudier-Bensebaa, Fabienne, 2008, 32 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment

        This article analyzes the case of the Central and Eastern European countries (CEECs) as an interesting case of FDI-assisted development strategies in transition economies. CEECs saw a surge of inward FDI over the past decade and a recent increase in outward FDI from the region. The analysis is based on the investment development path (IDP) framework. First, a cluster analysis is used to divide the CEECs into more homogeneous groupings. Econometric and statistical analyses are then carried out to delineate the different IDPs followed by the CEECs. The results indicate that (i) the position of the CEECs is at stage one or two (out of five stages) of the IDP; (ii) the CEECs are diverging from EU15 in terms of outward investment position but converging in terms of GDP; (iii) the IDPs within the five sub-groups are converging, and (iv) within the group of the CEECs less developed and more developed countries converge in terms of outward investment position but not in terms of GDP.

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        FDI in Landlocked Developing Countries at a Glance (English)
        Working paper by Division on Investment, Technology and Enterprise Development, UNCTAD, 2003, 112 pages
        Categories: Investment

        This is an examination of national experiences and policy options for developing countries. Key data for selected developing countries are also given. Of interest to anyone teaching or researching investment and transfer of technology in developing countries This paper provides excellent tables, data and figures for several countries with special focus on LDCs

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        FDI in Least Developed countries at a glance: 2002 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2002, 136 pages
        Categories: Investment

        What: With only 2 per cent of all FDI to developing countries or 0.5 per cent of the global total, the 49 least developed countries remain marginal recipients. This report initially depicts recent trends in FDI to least developed countries and changes that have taken place in relevant areas of the regulatory legal framework. The second part presents country profiles for each of the 49 least developed countries to enable the reader, at a glance, to get a general picture of the role of FDI in these countries. Who: Useful for teachers and students focusing on FDI in LDCs. How: Can be used as a background reading for courses on FDI and its role in LDCs.

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        FDI In South Asia - Do Incentives Work? (English)
        Presentation by S.K. Das and Manoj Pant, 2003
        Categories: Investment, VI Members Research

        What: The paper deals with the role and impact of incentives in attracting Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in South Asia. Studies on cost-benefit analysis of incentives are rare and hence only such focused studies can tell us which set of incentives are effective and thus should be offered. The studies on incentives in South Asia seem to identify such benefits as the increase in employment and/or wages, reduced prices or improved product quality, more revenues for the government and indirect benefits through professionalism, learning and technology diffusion. The latter is also the principal motivation for developing countries. Who: Relevant for anyone teaching or learning the role of incentives in attracting FDI in relation to developing economies. How: Can be used for research or courses on FDI.

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        FDI participant activity workbook and reading list (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD Virtual Institute, Investment Division, 2004
        Categories: Investment

        This activity workbook and reading list complements other presentations on FDI covered in the investment section. This simulation exercise provides students with an opportunity to synthesize their learning by preparing FDI proposals based on particular country profiles. The reading list covers a wide range of publications that deal with FDI and related topics.

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        Financing the Climate Mitigation and Adaptation Measures in Developing Countries (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2009, 26 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Investment, Trade and Environment

        Climate funding currently available under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol is less than $10 billion per year, most of it through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). Additional funding is provided by the World Bank and by bilateral aid programmes, but the annual total of all existing multilateral and bilateral climate funding is less than $15 billion. This is too small, by an order of magnitude, to meet the needs for climate investments in developing countries. Streamlined and improved institutional arrangements, such as a much-simplified replacement for CDM, will be needed.

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        The Flying Geese Paradigm: a Critical Study of its Application to East Asian Regional Development (English)
        Discussion paper by Shigehisa Kasahara, 2004, 34 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        What: A discussion paper outlining the different versions of the flying gees paradigm of dynamic comparative advantage that try to provide a conceptual underpinning to the process of regional integration through transfer of technology and foreign direct investment in East Asia. The author analyzes the paradigm in the light of current developments in the region and makes some critical conclusions about its applicability. Who: Teachers and students of courses dealing with trade, regional integration, transfer of technology and foreign direct investment. Anyone interested in East Asian experience. How: Can serve as background reading to provide basic knowledge of the theory (good explanation with a graphical presentation), and to stimulate a discussion about its merits and shortcoming, its relevance to the current situation in the region and possibly also other regions.

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        Foreign Direct Investment in the Ldcs: Lessons Learned from the Decade 2001-2010 and the Way Forward
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 244 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment

        This report provides a broad overview of FDI trends in LDCs over the last decade, focusing on the challenges LDCs face in attracting and benefitting from FDI, and suggests a plan of action to increase FDI and enhance its development impact in the next decade.

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        Foreign Investments in Belarus: Recent Developments in Regulatory Issues
        Article by Barbieri, Michele; Petrushkevic, Alena, 2010, 16 pages
        Categories: Investment, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research

        The article examines the policy and legal frameworks governing foreign direct investments (FDI) in Belarus and their consistency with commitments undertaken by the country through bilateral trade agreements.

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        Fourth Report on G20 Investment Measures (English)
        Report by OECD/UNCTAD, 2010, 33 pages
        Categories: Investment

        At the London, Pittsburgh and Toronto Summits, G20 Leaders committed to foregoing protectionism and requested public reports on their adherence to this commitment. Several G20 member countries reiterated this commitment at the UNCTAD World Investment Forum 2010, held on 6-9 September 2010 in Xiamen, China and at the Meeting of the OECD Council at Ministerial Level, held on 27-28 May 2010 in Paris, France. The present document is the fourth report on investment and investment-related measures in response to this mandate.2 It has been prepared jointly by the OECD and UNCTAD Secretariats and covers investment policy and investment-related measures taken between 21 May 2010 and 15 October 2010.

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        Frontier Markets in Africa: Misperceptions in a Sea of Opportunities
        Report by UNECA, 2014, 27 pages
        Categories: Investment

        This report identifies the opportunities for investment in Africa, corrects misperceptions about the business environment on the continent and suggests general areas of focus for future partnership between Africa and the United States of America.

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        Global and Regional FDI Trends in 2010 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 8 pages
        Categories: Investment

        Global FDI inflows remained stagnant in 2010 at an estimated $1,122 billion, compared to $1,114 billion in the previous year. However, they showed an uneven pattern among regions, components and modes of FDI. While FDI inflows to developed countries contracted further in 2010, those to developing and transition economies recovered, surpassing the 50% mark of global FDI flows. The improvement of economic conditions in 2010 drove up reinvested earnings, while equity capital and intra-company loans remained relatively subdued. Cross-border M&A volume rebounded in 2010, whereas greenfield investments continued to decline. The quarterly fluctuations during 2010, as reported in previous Global Trends Monitors, indicate that the worldwide FDI recovery is still hesitant, although after an unexpectedly weak second quarter, global FDI flows registered an increase in the third quarter of 2010. UNCTAD’s FDI Global Quarterly Index jumped upwards, reaching 121 for the quarter, its highest reading in 2010.

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        The globalisation of R&D by TNCs and implications for developing countries (English)
        Presentation by Anne Miroux, UNCTAD, 2005, 20 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Investment, Science and Technology

        What: The presentation outlines the main actors of the process of R&D outsourcing. TNCs play a key role but public sector research institutions, universities and domestic enterprises should not be neglected. It provides the rationale for the increase in R&D-related FDI activities in developing countries. The impact as well as the benefits, costs and risks and the enabling policies are reviewed. Finally, it offers a few issues for discussion. Who: Can be used by a lecturer on a course on R&D outsourcing to developing countries. How: For a course on R&D and the role of TNCs.

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        The globalisation of R&D: Key features and the role of TNCs (English)
        Presentation by Robert Pearce, University of Reading, United Kingdom, 2005, 13 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Investment, Science and Technology

        What: The aim of this paper is to elaborate on relevant aspects of strategic restructuring in TNCs and then provide some detail on how this becomes operational in terms of the increased decentralisation of their R&D programmes. This paper could also provide a basis for discussion of the implications of these more differentiated and dynamic strategic orientations in TNCs for host countries in which they operate, with particular emphasis on countries at early stages of competitiveness development and on economies in transition. The strategic changes in TNCs now involve them with creative resources (R&D; technology stocks; market research; entrepreneurial management) in national economies in a way not envisaged 40 years ago Who: Relevant for anyone teaching or studying strategic changes in TNCs and their R&D programmes. How: Can be used for a lesson/course on the role of TNCs in the globalization of R&D.

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        Globalization of R&D and developing countries - Proceedings of the Expert Meeting (English)
        Presentation by United Nations, 2005, 242 pages
        Categories: Investment, Science and Technology

        What: This publication aims to elaborate key issues related to the trends towards globalization of research and development and their implications for developing countries: What is its development potential? How can the establishment of research and development abroad affect the transfer of technology – one of the main potential benefits from foreign direct investment? What types of research and development are the most desirable for development? What benefits and costs are involved and, how can policies in home and host countries influence the allocation of such activities and their economic impact?

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        Globalization of R&D and TNC Strategies: Siemens (English)
        Presentation by Armin Sorg, 2005, 18 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Investment, Science and Technology

        What: An interesting power point presentation by Siemens chief economist for an UNCTAD expert meeting on Globalization of R&D and TNC strategies. The presentation deals with Siemens globalization of its R&D activities. Who: Relevant for anyone teaching globalization of R&D. How: Can be used for a lesson/course on globalization of R&D and TNC strategies.

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        Global R&D activities in India (English)
        Presentation by Prasada Reddy, Research Policy Institute, Lund University, Sweden, 2005, 9 pages
        Categories: Investment, Science and Technology

        What: The presentation explains why India is an interesting location for outsourced R&D and then analyses the impact of such a process within the national economy. The question which sectors are particularly interesting for FDI in R&D is discussed in depth. The role of adequate policies forms the last part of the presentation. Who: Relevant for anyone studying or teaching R&D. How: This presentation can be used as a background reading for a course on R&D.

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        Global Value Chains and Development: Investment and Value Added Trade in the Global Economy (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 40 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Investment, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This study presents the value-added patterns in the global economy and in the developing world. It looks at the global value chains (GVCs) and their increasing complexity, which often results in distorted statistics on global trade due to double counting. The report estimates that the value chains administered in various ways by transnational corporations (TNCs) now account for 80 percent of global trade. Moreover, the data shows that developing countries are participating more and more in GVCs and this can play an important role in economic growth in the future. In addition, the report states that the balance of opportunities and risks associated with GVCs makes it important for governments to carry out well-informed policy debates on GVCs’ development impacts.

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        Good Faith (lack Of) in Investment Arbitration and the Conduct of the Ethiopian Government in the Salini Case: Exercise of Legitimate Right or “exhibit A” for Guerrilla Tactics?
        Paper by Hailu, Martha Belete, Addis Ababa University, 2012
        Categories: Investment, VI Members Research

        This article looks at tactics that may frustrate investor-state arbitration, using arguments from the principles of good faith and equality of arms, and describing the case of Salini Consoruttori SPA Vs The FDRE Addis Ababa Water and Sewage Authority (ICC Arbitration No 10623/AER/ACS).

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        Highlights of Recent Trends in Global Infrastructure: New Players and Revised Game Rules (in UNCTAD's Transnational Corporations (Vol. 17, No.1) (English)
        Note by Ryan J. Orr and Jeremy R. Kennedy, 2008, 36 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Investment

        This article highlights recent trends in global infrastructure, focusing on new sources and sponsors of funds and their objectives as they relate to foreign direct investment in developing countries and regions. It also discusses the role of new geopolitical strategic investors such as China and addresses the implications of these developments for research, government policy and company strategy. It concludes by providing an overview of the implications of these developments for project sponsors, construction and engineering firms, pension funds and micro lenders, as well as for the multilateral institutions. The article finally highlights the areas where additional research is needed to ascertain the future characteristics of international infrastructure financing.

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        How to Prevent and Manage Investor-state Disputes - Lessons from Peru (English)
        Working paper by UNCTAD, 2011, 86 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Investment

        This study examines the case of Peru which designed a dispute prevention policy (DPP) and implemented a dispute prevention mechanism (DPM), which foresees the promotion of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) mechanisms and the implementation of prevention policies. This is an example of a case of good practice in the prevention and management of investor-State disputes.

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        How To Utilize FDI To Improve Transport Infrastructure - Ports: Lessons From Nigeria (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2011, 87 pages
        Categories: Investment, Trade Facilitation

        The international trading system relies on the fast, low-cost movement of goods through global value chains. Maritime transportation systems are the most cost-effective way to ship freight over long-distances.Despite their importance, ports in many developing countries are characterized by underinvestment, low productivity, inefficient use of resources, high user prices, long delays, and ineffective services. In response to these problems, a rising number of developing countries have reformed governance models and introduced private investment and management in formerly State-dominated ports. Nigeria has been selected as a case study of a developing country that has exhibited best policy practices in attracting and benefiting from FDI in port terminals. This report reviews the reforms and concession process to identify lessons for other developing countries.

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        IIA Issues Note No. 1/2013: Recent Developments in Investor-state Dispute Settlement (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2013, 36 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, International Financial System, Investment

        This issue note analyses the recent developments in investor state dispute settlement (ISDS). As the public discourse about the usefulness and legitimacy of the ISDS mechanism is gaining momentum, reform options with respect to their feasibility, expected effectiveness and implementation methods remains wanting. The note advocates a multilateral policy dialogue to help to develop a consensus about the preferred course for reform and ways to put it into action.

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        IIA Monitor No. 1/2007: Intellectual Property Provisions in International Investment Arrangements (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2007, 8 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Investment

        This IIA Monitor takes an initial look at the variety of ways in which intellectual property provisions are treated in bilateral investment treaties and preferential trade and investment agreements. While there are similarities between certain sets of agreements in their provisions relating to IP, there are also differences that have important legal ramifications.

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        The impact of FDI on Development: Globalization of R&D by TNCs (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2004, 16 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Investment, Science and Technology

        What: A note prepared by UNCTAD identifying key issues related to the trends in the globalization of R&D and its implications for developing countries. Who: Relevant for anyone studying or teaching FDI and development, and its impact on processes of globalization. How: Background reading for courses on FDI, globalization. Also offers a lot of relevant reference materials.

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        Impact of Qualifying Industrial Zones (QIZ) on Egypt and Jordan: A Critical Analysis (English)
        Case study by Ahmed Farouk Ghoneim and Taleb Awad, 2009
        Categories: Investment, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research

        Paper presents a detailed outlook on the impact of qualifying industrial zones (QIZ)from the perspective of both Egypt and Jordan. It explains the objective and purpose of the QIZ, the performance of the QIZ (in terms of employment opportunities, gender and technology transfer) and it concludes with a comparative analysis between Egypt and Jordan.

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        Implications of Global Value Chains for Trade, Investment, Development and Jobs (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD OECD WTO, 2013, 29 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Brief prepared for the G-20 Leaders Summit Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)on the highlights on trade and investment openness. Main points regarding value chains encompassing an emphasis on trade facilitation, non-tariff measures, market efficiency, competitiveness, investment trade policy implications and strategies for development and job creation.

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        Incentives - UNCTAD Series on Issues in International Investment Agreements (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 108 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Investment

        What: Incentives are frequently used as a policy instrument to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) and to benefit more from it. They can be classified as financial, fiscal or other (including regulatory) incentives. The issue of incentives is a relatively new phenomenon in international investment agreements (IIAs). Up to now, the great majority of IIAs have not contained specific provisions related to them. Who: Relevant for anyone researching or teaching the new trend of incentives in international investment agreements. How: Can be used for research or lectures on incentives to attract FDI.

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        India: A New Player in Asian Production Networks (English)
        Case study by ESCAP, 2011, 181 pages
        Categories: Investment

        While the IPN phenomenon has accelerated trade and investment linkages between countries in East and South-East Asia, the remainder of the region has not matched those countries in this process. The objective of the study is to explore the reasons for this by using India's performance in the Asian IPNs as a case study for other countries that are trailing behind in this area. The study seeks to identify the reason why India has performed below its potential in this new form of international division of labour, even though that country possess several supportive factors including: (a) the sheer size of the economy and population; (b) a large pool of engineers; (c) relatively sound intellectual property protection; and (d) an increasingly open trade and investment climate resulting from progressive economic reforms.

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        Investment and Enterprise Responsibility Review. Analysis of Investor and Enterprise Policies on Corporate Social Responsibility. (English)
        Report by Unctad, 2010, 95 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Investment

        Transnational corporations (TNCs) play an ever more important role in sustainable development as conduits of capital, technology and management know-how. Increasingly, TNCs are being called upon to address broader environmental, social and governance (ESG) issues. At the same time, large, globally active investment institutions are becoming increasingly aware of the potential impact of a range of non-financial issues (e.g. climate change, human rights, corporate governance practices) of an investment proposition. This review of the current state of practices in the area of corporate social responsibility (CSR)among the world's 100 largest TNCs and responsible investment (RI)among the 100 largest institutional investors reveals a number of important insights.

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        Investment and technology policies for competitiveness: review of successful country experiences (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD Division on Investment, Technology and Enterprise Development, 2003, 79 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Investment, Science and Technology

        Paper that discusses the role of foreign direct investment in the transfer of technology and policy options for developing countries. The annex provides good examples of FDI and development policies in South East Asia. Of interest for teacher/researcher interested in the issues of investment and technology transfer Gives interesting case studies of development policies through transfer of technology.

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        Investment by TNCs and Gender: Preliminary Assessment and Way Forward (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 62 pages
        Categories: Investment, Trade and Gender

        This report examines the impact that investment by transnational corporations (TNCs) – that is, direct investment conducted by TNCs as well as activities by non-equity modalities (NEMs), has on gender, particularly in the context of developing host countries. The objective is to review the gender-related effects of investment by TNCs, in the context of investment and social sustainability, and provide initial evidence with regard to the positive and negative effects on women.

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        Investment Country Profile : Greece (English)
        Data by UNCTAD, 2012, 28 pages
        Categories: Investment

        This paper from the Division on Investment and Enterprise of UNCTAD presents data collected on the inward and outward Foreign Direct Investment in Greece. It shows the situation of the FDI flows and stock in general, by type of investment. More precisely, it looks at the flows and the stocks in the host economy and abroad by industry and by geographical origin. It also presents data on the employment, of the sales and of the on value added of foreign affiliates of home-based TNCs, all of them by industry and by geographical origin.

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        Investment Country Profile : South Africa (English)
        Data by UNCTAD, 2012, 15 pages
        Categories: Investment

        Paper by the Division on Investment and Enterprise of UNCTAD, that presents data collected about Foreign Direct Investment flows in South Africa ; its composition, sources, investing countries and share of industry.

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        Investment Country Profile : Tunisia (English)
        Data by UNCTAD, 2012, 20 pages
        Categories: Investment

        This paper from the Division on Investment and Enterprise of UNCTAD presents data collected on the inward and outward Foreign Direct Investment in Tunisia. It presents the situation of the FDI flows and stock in general, by type of investment. More precisely, it looks at the flows in the host economy and abroad by industry and by geographical origin. It also presents data on the number of affiliates of foreign TNCs and of employment of affiliates of foreign TNCs in the host economy, also by industry and geographical origin.

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        Investment Country Profile : Turkey (English)
        Data by UNCTAD, 2012, 26 pages
        Categories: Investment

        This paper from the Division on Investment and Enterprise of UNCTAD presents data collected on the inward and outward Foreign Direct Investment in Turkey. It presents the situation of the FDI flows and stock in the host economy and abroad, by industry, by geographical origin and by type of investment. It also looks at the number of affiliates of foreign TNCs in the host economy by industry and by geographical origin.

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        An Investment Guide to Rwanda (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, ICC, 2006, 90 pages
        Categories: Investment

        This document is published as part of the UNCTAD–ICC series of investment guides. The publications in this series are intended for the use of foreign investors who are largely unfamiliar with the countries covered. They are thus designed to offer overviews of potential locations for investment, rather than constitute exhaustive works of reference or provide detailed practical instruction. They do, however, offer pointers to sources of further information in the private as well as the public sector. There are two other features of these publications that the reader will find worth noting. One is that they are third-party documents, intended to offer a balanced and objective account of investment conditions. Their principal advantage in drawing the attention of investors to the countries they cover is credibility. The other feature is that both their general structure and some of their specific content are the result of consultations with the private sector.

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        The Investment Guide to the Silk Road (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2009, 78 pages
        Categories: Investment

        The Investment Guide to the Silk Road is an integral part of UNCTAD’s work in the Silk Road region, which comprises the States of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and the Western Chinese provinces. The first phase of the project was part of the UNDPUNWTO- UNCTAD Silk Road Initiative. This Guide is intended to give readers comprehensive introductory information about the investment climate and opportunities in the Silk Road region, but its primary goal is to encourage potential investors to explore in more detail their own ideas for possible regional investment projects. The publication was jointly prepared with UNDP China in 2006 and was updated by UNCTAD in 2009, and includes an abstract from an UNCTAD report on an investment promotion strategy for the tourism sector of China’s Silk Road Provinces and Autonomous Regions.

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        Investment in Pharmaceutical Production in the Least Developed Countries - A Guide for Policy Makers and Investment Promotion Agencies (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2011, 59 pages
        Categories: Investment, Science and Technology

        An overview of important trends affecting the local pharmaceutical production in developing countries, intended as a guide for policymakers, investment promotion agencies and investment negotiators in their efforts to encourage the expansion of local pharmaceutical production capacity.

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        Investment Policy Developments In G-20 Countries
        Report by UNCTAD, 2009, 9 pages
        Categories: Investment

        The report is in response to UNCTAD´s mandate to monitor investment policy developments and their implications for development. It is also meant to contribute to a joint effort by WTO, UNCTAD, OECD and IMF to respond to the 2 April 2009 G-20 Leaders’ request for quarterly reporting on their adherence to maintain an open trade and investment regime and to avoid a retreat into protectionism. The summit called upon international bodies to monitor and report publicly on G 20 members´ adherence to this pledge.

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        Investment Policy Framework for Sustainable Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 73 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment

        This report takes a fresh look at investment policymaking – focusing on direct private investment in productive assets (i.e. excluding other capital flows which should be addressed by the financial system and policies) – by taking a systemic approach that examines the universe of national and international policies through the lens of today’s key investment policy challenges. It also aims explicitly to strengthen the development dimension of investment policies, and presents a comprehensive Investment Policy Framework for Sustainable Development (IPFSD). The IPFSD consists of a set of Core Principles for investment policymaking, guidelines for national investment policies, and guidance for policymakers on how to engage in the international investment policy regime, in the form of options for the design and use of international investment agreements (IIAs).

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        Investment Policy Monitor (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 13 pages
        Categories: Investment

        This Monitor is the third of a new series launched by the UNCTAD secretariat in order to provide policymakers and the international community with up-to-date information about the latest developments and salient features in foreign investment policies at the national and international level. It covers measures taken in the period between April and the beginning of October 2010. The policy measures mentioned in the Monitor are identified through a systemic review of government and business intelligence sources. Measures are verified, to the fullest extent possible, by referencing government sources.

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        Investment Policy Monitor (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2009, 8 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This Monitor is the first of a new series launched by the UNCTAD Secretariat. Its objective is to provide policy-makers and the international investment community at large with up-to-date information about the latest developments in foreign investment policies at the national and international level. It also seeks to identify the overall trends and salient features of these developments. By doing so, the Monitor aims to assist policy makers and other interested stakeholders in their discussions of foreign investment policy issues, and contribute to preparing the ground for future policymaking in the interest of making foreign investment work for growth and development.

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        Investment Policy Monitor (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 13 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Seventy-five percent of the observed national policy measures were in the direction of investment liberalization and promotion. In particular many countries from Asia and Europe introduced new investment promotion policies such as simplifying investment procedures, enhancing the protection of foreign investors and easing foreign exchange regulations. In addition, some countries in these regions introduced new promotion programmes for outward foreign direct investment (FDI). Although the recent deepening of the financial and economic crisis in parts of the world has yet to impact national investment policies, signs are visible that major economies are becoming more and more concerned about the impact of inward and outward investment on their economies. Recent fears about possible macroeconomic shocks and a reoccurrence of the recession could increase the risk of new protectionist measures vis-á-vis foreign investors. The number of investment restrictions accumulated over the recent years and the tightening of administrative procedures, point in this direction.

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        Investment Policy Review: Botswana (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2003, 107 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        What: Botswana emerged from least developed country (LDC) status within one generation and is now a middle income country. Foreign direct investment (FDI) was a driving force in this dramatic change. The Government’s handling of the fiscal, social and economic pressures of this transformation could serve as a model for other resource-dependent economies. Who: Useful for teachers and students focusing on a case study in investment. How: Can be used as a background reading and/or research work in investment policy and FDI in resource rich developing economy.

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        Investment Policy Review: Colombia (English)
        Review by UNCTAD, 2006, 99 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The review proposes ways to strengthen the government's investment promotion arm, Proexport, as well as enhance policies to attract more technology-driven firms to its growing knowledge-based economy. While praising the government for its market reforms, the review notes that investors are concerned by a number of contradictory fiscal measures and the difficulty of resorting to international arbitration in case of disputes. The review urges the government to extend its network of bilateral investment treaties and double taxation agreements to fully tap market opportunities offered by the bilateral trade agreement with the United States. It also encourages the government to begin negotiations with the European Union.

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        Investment Policy Review, Djibouti - Summary (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2013, 5 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The Investment Policy Review (IPR) of Djibouti identifies a number of weaknesses in the policy, legal, regulatory and institutional frameworks for investment in Djibouti. Taking into account Djibouti's development objectives and the Government's will to improve the investment environment, the IPR proposes remedial actions and puts forward a multidimensional strategy to attract FDI.

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        Investment Policy Review: Dominican Republic (English)
        Review by UNCTAD, 2009, 134 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Over the last three decades, the Dominican Republic has adopted policies of greater openness to international trade and investment as part of its quest for economic and social progress. As a result, foreign direct investment (FDI) has played a prominent role in its economic development and in decisively shifting the export structure of the country to light manufacturing, thereby reducing commodity dependence. A new and more ambitious development goal has now been set. It focuses on making the country a regional leader in high-value-added manufacturing and services. To this end, the Dominican authorities have embarked on a number of policy initiatives to increase the international competitiveness of the economy. They acknowledge that FDI can again play a key role in promoting this second transition into higher-valueadded activities. In light of this ambitious objective, the Government of the Dominican Republic has requested that UNCTAD carry out a review of the country’s investment policies and of the national investment promotion effort. This investment policy review is the result of research and analysis carried out by UNCTAD in 2007.

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        Investment Policy Review: Egypt (English)
        Review by UNCTAD, 1999, 119 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        At the time of the review, Egypt had the potential to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) of higher quantity and quality, commensurate with the fundamental strengths and opportunities that its economy offered. These strengths included a large domestic market, a wide industrial base, a skilled and competitively priced workforce and a strategic location in the region. The IPR recognized the efforts that the Government of Egypt had made to establish an adequate investment regulatory framework and improve the business environment. However, while current FDI inflows had been meeting the objectives of job creation and output expansion, most industrial projects had so far failed to boost exports. The IPR concluded that overcoming the limited involvement of TNCs in manufacturing sectors with export potential such as food, garments and electronics, would require a policy emphasis on the following: - Infrastructure investments relating to the physical, technological and educational infrastructure. - Specific sectors to promote clusters of related enterprises and self-sustaining development.

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        Investment Policy Review: Kenya (English)
        Review by UNCTAD, 2005, 126 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        While Kenya was a magnet for foreign direct investment in East Africa in the 1960s and 1970s, the country has underperformed significantly in the past couple of decades. A wide array of TNCs are nevertheless present in the country, and FDI has played a key role in some of the dynamic sectors of the economy. The IPR recommended a more pro-active strategy of FDI attraction and proposes policy measures to enhance the impact of FDI on growth and economic development, focusing on: - The manufacturing of basic consumer goods and industrial inputs for the regional market. - The development of Kenya into a regional services hub. - Agri-business activities. - Diversification of activities in export processing zones. The IPR also warned the government on the possible drawbacks of the then recently adopted Investment Promotion Act, which introduced minimum capital requirements for FDI entry. Subsequently, the Government proposed amendments to Parliament to lift these requirements.

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        Investment policy review: Mauritius (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2001, 92 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        What: Mauritius is an economic success story. The economy has sustained high 6 per cent annual growth for two decades – first driven by sugar, then textiles and clothing, and tourism, and most recently by financial services. Economic growth and structural change were achieved while maintaining national stability and social cohesion. A generation of Mauritians has enjoyed a rise in living standards that few countries can match, reaching an income per capita of $4,000 today. What was once, only another commodity producer, today is the leading manufactures exporter in sub-Saharan Africa. Who: Useful for teachers and students focusing on a case study in investment. How: Can be used as a background reading and/or research work in investment policy and FDI in a

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        Investment Policy Review: Nigeria (English)
        Review by UNCTAD, 2009, 154 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The Review focussed on the objective of increasing non-oil foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows to Nigeria. Reforms carried out under Nigeria´s home-grown development strategy, NEEDs, are more advanced than generally appreciated outside Nigeria. These include measures addressing both macroeconomic and investment climate issues. Despite these accomplishments, Nigeria continues to attract low quality FDI in manufacturing. In this regard, there is little evidence of the participation of foreign affiliates in the country to the process of integration into the regional and global production networks of the transnational corporations that characterize more advanced strategic corporate response to globalization. Few and very basic linkages exist between foreign companies and local suppliers. Against this background, the UNCTAD investment policy review of Nigeria considers what needs to be done to enable FDI to make its full contribution to the orientation set by the Government.

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        Investment Policy Review of Cabo Verde (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 107 pages
        Categories: Investment

        The IPR of Cabo Verde was initiated at the request of the Government. It analyses the legal and regulatory framework for investment, and contains a strategic analysis on how to better utilize FDI in the tourism sector as a leverage for sustainable development. It is based on two fact-finding missions undertaken in July and December 2017 and information current at that time, as well as additional information made available to UNCTAD until May 2018. The mission received the full cooperation of the relevant ministries, departments and agencies, in particular Cabo Verde tradeInvest. The mission also benedited from the views of the private sector, both foreign and and domestic, as well as bilateral donors and development agencies. The Government and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in Cabo Verde provided substantive contributions as well as logistical support to the IPR process.

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        Investment Policy Review of Mozambique
        Review by UNCTAD, 2012, 126 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This Review provides a comprehensive assessment of the regulatory framework for investment and identifies a number of key weaknesses, including in particular: (1) the general approach to investment rulemaking; (2) corporate taxation and the structure of tax incentives; (3) the employment of foreigners and access to skills; (4) access to land; (5) PPPs and the management of mega-projects; and (6) licensing and inspections. It concludes by proposing a strategy to attract the type of FDI that could best support Mozambique achieve its development goals and address its main challenges, including job creation.

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        Investment Policy Review: Peru (English)
        Review by UNCTAD, 2000, 109 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        At the time of the IPR, Peru had been extremely successful in attracting foreign direct investment (FDI), although this was to some extent linked to its privatization programme. The challenge Peru faced was to build on its success to attract investments in new areas. The IPR recommended the following measures: - Fine-tuning the investment framework. - Strengthening investment promotion. - Strengthening Peru´s competitiveness and broadenening FDI. - Encouraging regional cooperation.

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        Investment Policy Review: Republic of Belarus (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2009, 126 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The UNCTAD Investment Policy Reviews (IPRs) are intended to help countries improve their investment policies and to familiarize governments and the international private sector with an individual country's investment environment.The Investment Policy Review of Belarus, initiated at the request of the Belarusian Governement, assesses the suitablitly and effectiveness of the regulatory regime of the country against several related criteria: (a) whether the regulation adequately promotes and protects the public interest; (b) whether the regulation adequately promotes investment and sustainable socio-economic development; and (c) whether the policies employed are effective and well administered, given the public interest and development objectives and the legitimate concerns of investors that rules and procedures do not unduly burden their competitiveness.\\nIn addition, the report elaborates on a strategy to maximize the positive impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) on the development of a local small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) sector.

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        Investment Policy Review: Rwanda (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2006, 145 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Rwanda is among the world´s poorest nations, and it faces particular challenges in leveraging FDI for development. Foreign investment flows have been negligible since independence, and Rwanda missed out on the global surge in FDI flows to developing countries in the 1990s. Rwanda has nevertheless achieved remarkable political and social progress since 1994. It has become one of Africa's countries with the highest degree of personal safety and lowest incidence of corruption. It has also started to rebuild its economy, and the Government is fully committed to building a peaceful, stable and prosperous nation through sustainable private sector led development. Much progress in reforming the investment climate has been achieved so far, even though much remains to be done. The Investment Policy Review suggests three policy avenues to promote FDI and ensure that it contributes to achieving the national development goals: • Turn Rwanda into a centre of excellence in soft infrastructure and governance. • Develop a skills attraction and dissemination programme. • Put in place focused strategic initiatives. Since the IPR was published, UNCTAD has, with funding from the Government of Germany (unless otherwise indicated), assisted the government in the following ways: • It sensitized Members of Parliament and the Senate on the findings of the IPR of Rwanda. • It produced an Investment Guide to Rwanda. • It prepared a strategy for the promotion of the industrial mining sector. • It drafted a model mining convention. • It is preparing a client charter for the investment promotion agency. • It is helping the government to set up a skills attraction and dissemination programme, as recommended in the IPR.

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        Investment Policy Review - Sierra Leone (English)
        Report by Investment Policy Review team/ UNCTAD, 2010, 126 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The paper presents an overview of the economic structure and the impact of FDI in Sierra Leone; it examines its investment framework and proposes a number of recommendations to deepen the reforms and to position Sierra Leone’s investment framework on more competitive grounds; finally, it proposes an overall strategy to enhance the role of FDI in achieving national development goals.

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        Investment Policy Review: Tanzania (English)
        Review by UNCTAD, 2002, 109 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The United Republic of Tanzania was fast becoming a foreign direct investment (FDI) front-runner in Africa. As market reforms reached critical mass, Tanzania received a billion dollars of investment inflows in 1995-2000 compared with only $90 million during the preceding six years. The challenge at the time of review was to achieve higher levels of inflows and increase the scale and scope of their benefits. The IPR recommended that, as a short-term strategy, the Government should continue to focus on immediate FDI potential in mining, utilities and tourism. The long-term challenge would be to make Tanzania an attractive location for FDI in East and Southern Africa. To achieve this, the IPR suggests the following: - Completing the privatization programme. - Expanding and consolidating international market assess. - Enhancing competitiveness of human resources. - Building a dynamic private enterprise.

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        Investment Policy Review The Sudan
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2014, 67 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Through its national development plans and legislative reforms, the Sudan has made efforts to diversify the economy and attract FDI into new industries. However, more is needed to build a transparent and predictable business environment. The analysis of the Investment Policy Review (IPR) completed by UNCTAD shows that the Sudan has put in place a relatively open investment legislative framework and several laws are modern and in line with good practices. However, their implementation is often impeded by the absence of secondary legislation, insufficient institutional capacity and lack of coordination among different levels of the Government. The IPR proposes a number of concrete recommendations to address these shortcomings and to build a favourable business environment.

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        Investment Policy Review: Uganda (English)
        Review by UNCTAD, 2000, 71 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The IPR revealed that Uganda had the essential conditions to attract FDI, including an exemplary investment policy framework, a diversified natural resource base and a growing regional market. But tapping these opportunities would require continued public efforts to improve the microeconomic environment, hampered by inadequate transport, electricity and telecommunications facilities. The central message of this report is that Uganda needs to continue the momentum of recovery to achieve sustainable development. The IPR makes the following recommendations: - To modernize the Investment Code and re-orient the Uganda Investment Agency firmly towards FDI promotion. - To promote FDI into core infrastructure and services. - To promote investment into natural-resource-based industries for the domestic, regional and international markets. - To adopt a "big push" strategy to ensure speedy implementation of projects on the ground and to implement innovative ways of overcoming institutional and structural obstacles.

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        Investment Policy Review: Viet Nam (English)
        Review by UNCTAD, 2008, 177 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Viet Nam opened its economy to foreign investors in the late 1980s under the Doi Moi policy of renovation and economic reforms. Viet Nam managed to quickly attract significant inflows of FDI and their impact has been very strong. As a result, foreign investors have been a major force in the economic transformation of Viet Nam during the past two decades and in its integration into the world economy. To fully exploit the potential of the country in attracting and benefiting from FDI, the Investment Policy Review (IPR) highlights a number of areas where Viet Nam could focus its attention for further reforms. This includes a policy to ensure that the economy has the skills it needs as it evolves and develops, using foreign workers where necessary. Measures to clearly separate the State´s ownership and regulatory functions are also proposed, together with a rationalization and simplification of fiscal incentives on corporate taxes. It is also suggested to selectively lift certain FDI entry restrictions and to shift the regulatory stance from "steer and control" to "regulate, monitor and enforce". Furthermore, the IPR, on the basis of an analysis of the electricity sector, proposes a number of measures to enable Viet Nam to attract FDI in power generation.

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        Investment Promotion Handbook For Diplomats
        Manual by Wessendorp, Paul, Whiteway, Paul, Wigren, Andreas, 2011, 78 pages
        Categories: Investment

        This handbook is aimed at diplomats who may be new to investment promotion. It deals with the role of diplomats posted abroad, seen from the perspective of the host country (i.e. the country receiving FDI). The handbook explains what FDI is, provides an insight into the process through which companies go when they are making investment decisions, and describes the parallel activity which governments undertake in order to persuade firms to locate in their economy. The intention is both to equip diplomats with the tools needed in the promotion of FDI and to give them confidence that many of their existing skills are directly relevant to the process.

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        Investment Promotion Provisions in International Investment Agreements (English)
        Study by UNCTAD, 2008, 119 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Investment

        International investment agreements (IIAs) are an element of investment promotion strategies as contracting parties seek to encourage foreign investment through the granting of investment protection. The emphasis of IIAs is clearly on investment protection with investment promotion primarily perceived as a side effect. However, this effect - an increase in investment flows - remains often behind the expectations of the contracting parties. A recent UNCTAD survey of IIAs shows that only a minority of IIAs includes explicit investment promotion provisions. Their content varies considerably among treaties. What option contracting parties finally choose depends on various factors. Countries that basically pursue a laisser faire policy with regard to foreign investment might favour promotion strategies aimed at improving the general policy and institutional framework, while governments applying strategic investment policies might have a preference for sector-specific or activity-specific promotion measures, or those aimed at fostering linkages between foreign investors and domestic companies. Financial considerations may also play a role, since many developing countries may not have the means to agree upon expensive promotion programmes, such as investment incentives, in IIAs. Recent developments in the evolution of the IIA universe might be an indication that more countries are ready to explore new approaches in investment rulemaking. From a development perspective, it is worthwhile considering how to strengthen the investment promotion component in IIAs.

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        More Stringent BITs, Less Ambiguous Effects on FDI? Not a Bit! (English)
        Working paper by Berger, Axel, Busse, Matthias, Nunnenkamp, Peter, Roy, Martin, 2010, 14 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Investment

        In this paper, we focus on investor-state dispute settlement provisions contained in various, though far from all, bilateral investment treaties as a possible determinant of BIT-related effects on bilateral FDI flows. Our estimation results prove to be sensitive to the specification of these provisions as well as the inclusion of transition countries in the sample. Stricter dispute settlement provisions do not necessarily result in higher FDI inflows so that the effectiveness of BITs as a credible commitment device remains elusive.

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        Potential and Prospects for Trade and Investment Between Developing Countries and Transition Economies (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2008
        Categories: Investment, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        What: The note, prepared for the UNCTAD XII, analyses the expansion of trade between transition economies and developing countries, especially in the Commonwealth of Independent States and developing Asia. In the first part, through graphics and tables, the document points the main import and export sectors, tariffs applied and a short prospect. The second part is dedicated to Foreign Direct Investments' expansion in developing countries and transition economies and the role of Transnational Corporations (TNC). The document notes the importance of regional integration schemes and gives a prospect for South-South FDI. How: Background document on trade and FDI between developing countries and transition economies. Who: Policy makers, researchers and lecturers dealing with south-south trade and FDI.

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        Promoting Foreign Investment in Tourism
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 78 pages
        Categories: Investment

        Tourism is a key sector for economic development: it is a fast-growing and labour-intensive industry that involves many economic activities. Available data indicate that FDI in tourism is still quite limited, and that non-equity forms of investment are more frequently used as a mode of entry for transnational corporations (TNCs). Furthermore, tourism-related FDI is concentrated in a few activities, mostly accommodation, restaurants and car rentals. There is little FDI in high-profile activities such as tour operations, reservations systems and airlines. Investment promotion agencies (IPAs) can play an important role in the development of a country’s tourism industry.

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        Promoting Low-carbon Investment (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 75 pages
        Categories: Investment, Trade and Environment

        The Investment Advisory Series provides practical advice and case studies of best policy practice for attracting and benefiting from foreign direct investment (FDI), in line with national development strategies. The Series draws on the experiences gained in, and lessons learned through, UNCTAD’s capacity and institution building work in developing countries and countries with economies in transition. This Series deals with issues related to investment promotion and facilitation and to the work of investment promotion agencies (IPAs) and other institutions that promote FDI and provide information and services to investors. The publication is intended to be pragmatic, with a how-to focus, and includes toolkits and handbooks. The prime target audience for it is practitioners in the field of investment promotion and facilitation, mainly in IPAs.

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        Promotion of Investment into Infrastructure: a Survey of Investment Promotion Agencies (English)
        Note by UNCTAD - CNUCED, 2008, 25 pages
        Categories: Investment

        This note describes the results of a survey of TNCs carried out by UNCTAD and the World Association of Investment Promotion Agencies (WAIPA) to determine the extent to which investment promotion agencies (IPAs) are targeting TNCs in the infrastructure sector. The note was originally used as an input to UNCTAD's 2008 World Investment Report, and concludes that competition for foreign investment means IPAs are increasingly targeting TNCs for investment in infrastructure, especially in the sub-sectors of electricity generation and internet services.

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        Proposal Required for Obtaining Capital Resources Focused on Small and Medium Enterprises Located in the Province of Guayas by Issuing Equity Tools Throughout the Ecuadorian Stock Market. (Spanish)
        Article by Renato Garzon, Mauricio Garzon, Mao Garzon, 2016
        Categories: Commodities, Finance for Development, Investment

        The following article looks forward to develop a new proposal focused in incrementing production and export oriented activities focused on Small and Medium Enterprises (SMES) located in the province of Guayas, coastal region of the Republic of Ecuador. The proposal involves raising new capital throughout the issue of equity documents negotiated in stock markets based in Guayaquil and Quito. In order to accomplish the proposal, a group of fellow researchers obtained a sample and gathered primary market data threw individual surveys. The information obtained, helped to construct variables such as how SME finance the acquisition of fixed/productive assets, amount of earnings generated in a year basis, products and services exported to countries where the Ecuadorian Government do have a Trade Office among other variables.

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        R&D-related FDI in developing countries - Implications for host countries (English)
        Presentation by Prasada Reddy, 2005, 11 pages
        Categories: Investment, Science and Technology

        What: The paper categorizes R&D activities and then outlines the historical evolution of the internationalization of R&D. It describes the implications for host countries in the developing world. Finally it deals with the spill over effects of globalization of R&D. Who: Relevant for anyone studying or teaching FDI and globalization of innovation. How: Can be used as a background reading for a course on FDI and globalization of innovation. The paper also offers a lot of relevant reference materials.

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        Report on the Implementation of the Investment Policy Review - United Republic of Tanzania (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 58 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This report is a review of the progress made in implementing the Investment Policy Review of the United Republic of Tanzania (IPR), published in 2002. The report notes that there has been a great deal of activity related to improving the investment climate in the United Republic of Tanzania since the completion of the IPR. However, progress implementing the recommendations has ben mixed.

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        The Role of Technology and Human Capital in the EPZ Life-cycle (UNCTAD Transnational Corporations, Vol. 17/No.1) (English)
        Article by Omar, Karima; Stoever, William A., 2008, 26 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment, Science and Technology

        This article proposes an alternative perspective for examining export processing zones (EPZs) by modifying the life-cycle approach. It highlights the two crucial aspects of a successful EPZ development, namely the nature of backward linkages and gradual integration into the rest of the host economy. It argues that successful EPZs can be a catalyst for structural transformation of the wider economy and discusses what policy measures are needed to achieve such outcome. The article concludes by identifying venues for future research.

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        Scaling Up Finance for the Sustainable Development Goals - Experimenting with Models of Multilateral Development Banking (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 28 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Investment

        This report discusses some of the new modalities MDBs have been adopting or considering for adoption to relax their lending constraints. It explores, in particular, the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) model for scaling up as a new experiment that may provide significant sums of development finance, as well as inject new ideas for operational improvements in other banks. It focuses on AIIB’s articles of agreement and argues that such articles give the bank a potential institutional mechanism to become an important intermediary in channeling sizeable amounts of official (but also private) resources to development-oriented projects around the world.

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        A Selective Review of Foreign Direct Investment Theories
        Working paper by Nayak, Dinkar and Choudhury, Rahul, 2014, 39 pages
        Categories: Investment

        Several theories have been put forward by researchers to explain foreign direct investment. However, no single theory fits the different types of direct investment or the investment made by a particular multinational corporation or country in any region. This paper traces the evolution of the theories of foreign direct investment (FDI) during the past few decades. It also attempts to explain the growth phenomenon of Third World multinational companies. The applicability of the theory differs with the type and origin of investment. Nevertheless, all these theories are unanimous in their view that a firm moves abroad to reap the benefits of the advantages in the form of location, firm-specific or internationalization of markets.

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        Survey of Best Practices in Investment Promotion (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2001, 50 pages
        Categories: Investment

        The objective of the survey forming the basis of this study was to provide comparative data on investment promotion practice in as large a number of countries as possible with differing economic strengths, developmental levels, resource endowments, geographical locations, policies and experiences. This study is a first step towards developing criteria regarding what constitutes best practice in investment promotion.

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        Tax Incentives and Foreign Direct Investment, A Global Survey (English)
        Other by UNCTAD, 2000, 177 pages
        Categories: Investment

        A survey of tax incentive regimes in over 45 countries from all regions of the world. Nearly all countries surveyed offer incentives that target specific sectors and around 70% also offer regional incentives aimed at assisting the economic development of rural or underdeveloped areas. · Tax officials and managers, policymakers, and specialists who formulate or evaluate tax incentive programs will find the study beneficial, as will anyone interested in the economics of tax policy as a tool for investment promotion and economic development. · Main contents: I: Objectives of tax incentives, Issues relating to tax incentives, Classification, Design and administration, Home country measures and tax treaties; II: Survey: Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Europe and Economies in Transition, Latin America.

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        Third Report on G20 Investment Measures
        Report by OECD; UNCTAD, 2010, 35 pages
        Categories: Investment

        At the London and Pittsburgh Summits, G20 Leaders have committed to forego protectionism and have requested public reports on their adherence to this commitment. The document is the third report on investment and investment-related measures in response to this mandate. It has been prepared jointly by the OECD and UNCTAD Secretariats and covers investment and investment-related measures taken between November 2009 and May 2010.

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        Towards Coherent Policy Frameworks: Understanding Trade and Investment Linkages (English)
        Book by UNESCAP, 2007, 231 pages
        Categories: Investment, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The publication brings together a number of papers that highlight the increasing significance of trade and investment linkages and their effect on the development of domestic industries and services. The first two chapters focus on investment provisions and regulation through trade agreements, while the third chapter concentrates on the issue of rules of origin in those agreements and the need for more coherent and harmonized approaches to the design of those rules. The fourth chapter explores in some detail the interactions between foreign direct investment flows and import and export flows using a gravity model approach. Chapters V and VI are country case studies that examine the linkages between trade and investment liberalization and the development of small- and medium-sized enterprises in Indonesia, and education services in Malaysia, respectively. The last Chapter examines the drivers of outward foreign direct investment from the developing economies in the region.

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        Trade and Investment Linkages and Policy Coordination: Lessons from Case Studies in Asian Developing Countries (English)
        Policy brief by Duval, Yann; Bhattacharya, Debapriya; Jayawardhana, Tilani; Khanal, Dilli; Tahsina, Tazeen; Shreshta, Prakash / ARTNet, 2008, 4 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        ARTNeT launched an exploratory study on trade and investment policy linkages and coordination in 2007, which included small-scale exploratory surveys of private sector stakeholders in three South-Asian countries (Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka). The purpose of the pilot surveys was to identify the needs and priorities for improved trade and investment policy coordination and coherence in these countries. Following a short overview of trade and investment linkages from an Asian perspective, this brief summarizes the key findings from the surveys and draws preliminary policy implications.

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        Trade Misinvoicing in Primary Commodities in Developing Countries: the Cases of Chile, Cote D’ivoire, Nigeria, South Africa and Zambia (English)
        Policy brief by Ndikumana, Léonce/UNCTAD, 2016, 38 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Investment, Trade Related Capacity Building

        This policy brief discusses features of the regulatory environment, notably tariffs, customs, export subsidies, exchange controls, coupled with imperfect monitoring and poor enforcement of regulations which may create incentives for trade misinvoicing by agents seeking to maximize profits and other gains such as access to foreign exchange out of control of the regulating authority. It argues these factors contribute to the undermining developing countries’ gains from commodity trade. This study specifically aims to contribute to research and policy debates by providing empirical evidence on the magnitude of trade misinvoicing in the particular case of primary commodity exports from a sample comprising four resource-dependent developing countries (Chile, Côte d’Ivoire, Nigeria and Zambia) and a more diversified resource-rich middle-income country (South Africa). This study describes in detail the process of using UN Comtrade data to identify major products and leading partners that will be the focus of the analysis based on the established statistical methodology for estimation of export misinvoicing at the product and partner levels.

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        UNCTAD Investment Brief, No. 1, 2007: Foreign Direct Investment Surged Again in 2006 (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2007, 2 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Global flows of foreign direct investment (FDI) reached their second highest level ever in 2006, reaching $1.2 trillion. According to new UNCTAD estimates, significant growth was recorded in FDI inflows to developed, developing as well as transition economies. The United States attracted the largest capital inflows, followed by the United Kingdom and France. Record levels were in Africa, Asia and in South-East Europe and the CIS.

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        UNCTAD Investment Brief, No. 2, 2007: Rising FDI into China: The facts behind the numbers (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2007, 2 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Over the past decade, China has established itself as the top recipient of foreign direct investment (FDI) among developing countries. In 2005, inflows reached the new record high of $72 billion - corresponding to a 20% rise from 2004. In this Investment Brief, we take a closer look at the Chinese data. There are several factors explaining the FDI increase but there are also reasons to interpret the overall numbers with care.

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        UNCTAD Investment Brief, No. 3, 2006, New Sources of FDI Attracting Attention from IPAs (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2006, 2 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Investment promotion agencies (IPAs) from all parts of the world recognize the emerging role of developing and transition economies as sources of foreign direct investment (FDI). A new UNCTAD survey shows that 74% of IPAs already target FDI from these economies. The interest is particularly pronounced among IPAs in the developing world, in which “South-South” FDI accounts for a large share of total inflows.

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        UNCTAD Investment Brief, No. 4, 2006: Developing Countries Are Beginning to Promote Outward FDI (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2006, 2 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        A number of developing countries are now actively encouraging their firms to invest abroad. This is a growing practice especially in Asia, where several governments have established dedicated bodies that provide different firms of support to outward investors. For some economies such activities can help boost the competitiveness of firms involved. However a certain minimum level of capabilities in the domestic enterprise sector may be needed to secure economic gains from outward FDI promotion.

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        UNCTAD Investment Brief, No. 5, 2006, Top TNCs Present in 40 Host Countries on Average (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2006, 2 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The world's largest transnational corporations (TNCs) are present in 40 foreign countries on average. The geographic coverage of their developing-country counterparts is less extensive as they tend to expand mainly into neighbouring countries. New UNCTAD research shows that some locations host virtually all of the top TNCs.

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        UNCTAD Investment Policy Monitor No. 2/2014 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 16 pages
        Categories: Investment

        The Investment Policy Monitor provides the international investment community with country-specific, up-to-date information about the latest developments in foreign investment policies, both at the national and international levels.

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        UNCTAD Training Manual on Statistics for FDI and the Operations of TNCs - Volume I: FDI Flows and Stocks (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2009, 162 pages
        Categories: Investment, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This volume aims to assist developing countries to compile timely, accurate and internationally comparable statistics on foreign direct investment (FDI) and on the operations of transnational corporations (TNCs). The overall objective is to promote a better understanding of the FDI situation in their respective economies and to assist policymakers in formulating development-oriented FDI policies.

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        UNCTAD Training Manual on Statistics for FDI and the Operations of TNCs - Volume II: Statistics on the Operations of Transnational Corporations (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2009, 138 pages
        Categories: Investment, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The purpose of this volume is to clarify concepts, definitions and methodologies needed to collect and compile information on the operations of transnational corporations (TNCs) – in their respective economies. Its aim is to provide practical guidance on collecting statistics on the operations of home-based as well as foreign-based TNCs. Concrete and useful examples are collected from various countries to illustrate key points.

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        UNCTAD Training Manual on Statistics for FDI and the Operations of Ts - Volume III: Collecting and Reporting FDI/TNC Statistics: Institutional Issues (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2009, 104 pages
        Categories: Investment, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The third in a series, this volume provides an overview of the methodologies being used in the countries where FDI and TNC data are collected and reported. The aim is to examine how the surveys are actually conducted and how the work of various institutions is coordinated. Based on the findings, best practices of standard survey questionnaires are provided.

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        Virtual Institute Teaching Material on Economic and Legal Aspects of Foreign Direct Investment (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD Virtual Institute, 2010, 331 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Investment

        The Virtual Institute teaching material on "Economic and Legal Aspects of Foreign Direct Investment" has been updated. The publication is divided into four modules that cover: (1) the economic aspects of FDI in general; (2) policy aspects of FDI in developing countries; (3) key issues in International Investment Agreements; and (4) the interaction between investment and other areas, such as services, technology transfer, employment, etc.

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        World Investment Directory, Volume X, Africa 2008 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2008, 726 pages
        Categories: Investment

        What: This report provides an overview of foreign direct investments (FDI) inflows and the activity of Transnational corporations (TNC) in Africa. To introduce the subject, the document analyses the geographical and industrial distribution of FDI, the legal framework in which investments take place, policy measures and prospects. Through tables, figures and statistics on FDI and the operation of TNC, the report covers 53 African economies, giving each country profile. How: The report offers up-to-date information and statistics on FDI and trends as well as in-depth analysis on the activity of TNC in Africa. Who: Policy makers, especially in developing countries, researchers and lecturers interested in better understanding the character and trends of FDI and TNC activities.

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        World Investment Prospects Survey 2007-2009 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2007, 82 pages
        Categories: Investment

        In addition to the WIR, the World Investment Prospects Survey 2007-2009 (WIPS) was released October 4. The most recent in a series begun in 1995, the survey aims to provide an outlook on future trends in FDI based on responses from the largest TNCs in the world.

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        World Investment Prospects Survey 2009-2011 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2009, 85 pages
        Categories: Investment

        The focus of this year's World Investment Prospects Survey is the global economic and financial crisis and its impact on the FDI plans of TNCs. UNCTAD surveyed a sample of 240 company executives from the largest non-financial TNCs about the effect of the crisis on their international investment strategies during the next three years. Chapter 1 provides an assessment of the global FDI outlook for 2009–2011. Chapters 2 and 3 offer insights into specific trends by home region and industry respectively, and chapter 4 focuses on prospects by host region and country.

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        World Investment Prospects Survey 2010-2012 (English)
        Note by Unctad, 2010, 35 pages
        Categories: Investment

        UNCTAD’s World Investment Prospects Survey 2010–2012 provides an outlook on future trends in foreign direct investment (FDI) by the largest transnational corporations (TNCs). The present publication is the most recent in a series of similar surveys that have been conducted regularly by UNCTAD since 1995 as part of the background work for its annual World Investment Report.

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        World Investment Prospects Survey 2012-2014
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 178 pages
        Categories: Investment

        This UNCTAD publication provides an outlook on future trends in foreign direct investment (FDI) by the largest transnational corporations (TNCs). This year’s survey is the most recent in a series of similar surveys that have been conducted regularly by UNCTAD since 1995 as part of the background work for its annual World Investment Report.

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        World Investment Report 2000: Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions and Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2000, 368 pages
        Categories: Investment

        An examination of the impact of cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As) on the structure of global business taking into account the concerns about the market power of transnational corporations (TNCs) and the potential anti-competitive implications of M&As. · Useful to anyone concerned with investments, transnational corporations, market structure and competition policy from the point of view of developing countries. including Valuable information to scholars specialized in international finance and investment as well as · Main contents: I: Global Trends: The Expanding International Production System, II: Regional Trend, III: The Largest Transnational Corporations, IV: Trends In Cross-Border Mergers & Acquisitions, V: Performance, Motivations And Outlook, VI: FDI And Development: Does Mode Of Entry Matter?

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        World Investment Report 2000: Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions and Development - Overview
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2015, 47 pages
        Categories: Investment

        An examination of the impact of cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As) on the structure of global business taking into account the concerns about the market power of transnational corporations (TNCs) and the potential anti-competitive implications of M&As. · Useful to anyone concerned with investments, transnational corporations, market structure and competition policy from the point of view of developing countries. including Valuable information to scholars specialized in international finance and investment as well as · Main contents: I: Global Trends: The Expanding International Production System, II: Regional Trend, III: The Largest Transnational Corporations, IV: Trends In Cross-Border Mergers & Acquisitions, V: Performance, Motivations And Outlook, VI: FDI And Development: Does Mode Of Entry Matter?

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        World Investment Report 2001: Promoting Linkages (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2001, 380 pages
        Categories: Investment

        Analysis of the linkages between foreign affiliates of multinational enterprises and local companies in developing countries and their impact on foreign direct investment (FDI) flows. · This report will appeal to a wide-range audience including international relations specialists and policy makers wanting to have a closer look at the patterns of international production and investment and the instruments that contribute to the diffusion of knowledge and skills from TNCs to local enterprise sectors. · Main contents: I: The Global Picture, II: Mapping International Production, III: The Largest Transnational Corporations, IV: Backward Linkages: Impact, Determinants And TNC Experience, V: Policies To Strengthen Linkages, VI: Key Elements Of A Linkage Promotion Programme.

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        World Investment Report 2001: Promoting Linkages - Overview
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2001, 31 pages
        Categories: Investment

        Analysis of the linkages between foreign affiliates of multinational enterprises and local companies in developing countries and their impact on foreign direct investment (FDI) flows. · This report will appeal to a wide-range audience including international relations specialists and policy makers wanting to have a closer look at the patterns of international production and investment and the instruments that contribute to the diffusion of knowledge and skills from TNCs to local enterprise sectors.

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        World Investment Report 2002: Transnational Corporations and Export Competitiveness
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2002, 44 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Investment

        Enquiry into the decline of foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows in 2001 in light of a prolonged economic recession and a fall in cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As), which had been the driving force behind FDI flows.· Particularly relevant to social sciences scholars looking at FDI flows and the state of the global economy post-September 11th 2001. · This report introduces two new FDI benchmarking tools - the Inward FDI Performance Index and the Inward FDI Potential Index, which measure performance by standardizing a country’s inflows to the size of its economy, and measure potential by using a set of economic and policy factors of importance to foreign investors.

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        World Investment Report 2002: Transnational Corporations and Export Competitiveness (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2002, 347 pages
        Categories: Investment

        Enquiry into the decline of foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows in 2001 in light of a prolonged economic recession and a fall in cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As), which had been the driving force behind FDI flows.· Particularly relevant to social sciences scholars looking at FDI flows and the state of the global economy post-September 11th 2001. · This report introduces two new FDI benchmarking tools - the Inward FDI Performance Index and the Inward FDI Potential Index, which measure performance by standardizing a country’s inflows to the size of its economy, and measure potential by using a set of economic and policy factors of importance to foreign investors. Main contents: I: Global Trends, II: Benchmarking FDI Performance and Potential, III: Regional Trends, IV: The Largest Transnational Corporations, V: International Production System , VI: Patterns of Export Competitiveness.

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        World Investment Report 2003: Fdi Policies for Development: National and International Perspectives
        Report by UNCTAD, 2003, 322 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Investment

        Analysis of the foreign direct investment (FDI) downturn, its reasons and the role of national policies and international investment agreements (IIA) in attracting FDI to a country and for a country to benefit from it. · A key reading for anyone interested in the global economy as this reports looks at the various institutional, micro and macroeconomic causes behind the most significant FDI downturn in three decades. · Main contents: I: FDI Down 21% Globally, II: Uneven Performance Across Regions, III: Key National FDI Policies And International Investment Agreements, IV: Eight Key Issues: National Experiences And International Approaches, V: The Importance of National Policy Space, VI: Home Countries and Investors.

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        World Investment Report 2003: Fdi Policies for Development: National and International Perspectives - Overview (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2003, 48 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Investment

        Analysis of the foreign direct investment (FDI) downturn, its reasons and the role of national policies and international investment agreements (IIA) in attracting FDI to a country and for a country to benefit from it. · A key reading for anyone interested in the global economy as this reports looks at the various institutional, micro and macroeconomic causes behind the most significant FDI downturn in three decades.

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        World Investment Report, 2004: The Shift Towards Services (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 468 pages
        Categories: Investment

        A thorough examination of the global and regional trends in foreign direct investment (FDI) particularly regarding the shifting patterns of FDI towards services and an assessment of the challenges and opportunities that arise for development. : Valuable information to scholars specialized in international finance and investment as well as to those focusing on the service economy. : Main Contents: I Global FDI Growth Set To Resume, Regional FDI Trends: A Mixed Picture, III The Growth Of FDI In Services And Its Implications, IV The Off shoring Of Corporate Service Functions: The Next Global Shift?, V National Policies, VI National And International Policies: A Complex And Dynamic Interaction. It also includes a substantial statistical annex.

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        World Investment Report, 2004: The Shift Towards Services - Overview
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2004, 54 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment

        A thorough examination of the global and regional trends in foreign direct investment (FDI) particularly regarding the shifting patterns of FDI towards services and an assessment of the challenges and opportunities that arise for development. : Valuable information to scholars specialized in international finance and investment as well as to those focusing on the service economy.

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        World Investment Report 2005: Transnational Corporations and the Internationalisation of R&D (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005, 366 pages
        Categories: Investment

        What? This years WIR highlights the recovery of FDI and analyses in detail the current trends and patterns in FDI and TNC activity. In particular it exmaines research and development and the role of TNCs in the increased internationalisation of R+D. Who? For anyone interested in current trends in FDI and TNCs and their impact on development How? Contains invaluable source material and data, that can provide the basis for analysis and discussion. There are also useful graphs and charts and many case studies.

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        World Investment Report 2005: Transnational Corporations and the Internationalisation of R&d - Overview
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2005, 50 pages
        Categories: Investment, Science and Technology

        What? This WIR highlights the recovery of FDI and analyses in detail the current trends and patterns in FDI and TNC activity. In particular it exmaines research and development and the role of TNCs in the increased internationalisation of R+D. Who? For anyone interested in current trends in FDI and TNCs and their impact on development How? Contains invaluable source material and data, that can provide the basis for analysis and discussion. There are also useful graphs and charts and many case studies.

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        World Investment Report 2006 - FDI from Developing and Transition Economies (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2006, 372 pages
        Categories: Investment, Science and Technology

        This World Investment Report looks specifically at the increase in FDI by developing countries' TNCs. The report examines the magnitude of this phenomenon and investigates its drivers and determinants. In particular, the report analyses its impact on global economic development and discusses policy responses for both home and host developing countries. As in previous years, the report also presents the latest data on FDI and traces its global and regional trends. The main finding is that FDI inflows increased considerably in 2005, including a surge of FDI in developing countries' commodity-producing sectors and maintained a high-level of FDI in developing countries' service sectors. While Asia remained the main magnet for FDI flows, followed by Latin America, FDI in Africa has also increased, albeit from a low level. A substantial Statistical Annex is also included, with data on FDI flows and stock for more than 200 economies. How: Standard source for data on TNC activities and FDI flows; in addition in-depth treatment of the activities of developing countries' TNCs that can be used in international investment courses. Who: Researchers and lecturers in the area of FDI or international economics more broadly.

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        World Investment Report 2006: FDI from Developing and Transition Economies - Overview (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2006, 51 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Investment

        This year's World Investment Report looks specifically at the increase in FDI by developing countries' TNCs. The report examines the magnitude of this phenomenon and investigates its drivers and determinants. In particular, the report analyses its impact on global economic development and discusses policy responses for both home and host developing countries. As in previous years, the report also presents the latest data on FDI and traces its global and regional trends. The main finding is that FDI inflows increased considerably in 2005, including a surge of FDI in developing countries' commodity-producing sectors and maintained a high-level of FDI in developing countries' service sectors. While Asia remained the main magnet for FDI flows, followed by Latin America, FDI in Africa has also increased, albeit from a low level. A substantial Statistical Annex is also included, with data on FDI flows and stock for more than 200 economies. How: Standard source for data on TNC activities and FDI flows; in addition in-depth treatment of the activities of developing countries' TNCs that can be used in international investment courses. Who: Researchers and lecturers in the area of FDI or international economics more broadly.

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        World Investment Report 2007: Transnational Corporations, Extractive Industries and Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2007, 323 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Investment

        This year's World Investment Report (WIR) from UNCTAD focuses on the role of transnational corporations (TNCs) in the extraction of oil, gas and minerals. It emphasises the need for coherent and well-designed host country policies that involve all stakeholders in order to maximize development gains from such industries. As in previous years, the WIR07 presents the latest data on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), and traces global and regional trends in FDI and in international production by TNCs. The main finding is that the growth of FDI has been the largest in 2006 since 2000, and occurred in all three groups of economies: developed countries, developing countries, and the transition economies. Despite the general positive prospects for global FDI, it is predicted that the world economy will face several challenges and risks, which may have implications for FDI flows in 2007 and 2008. These include global current account imbalances causing exchange rate shifts, volatile oil prices, and a potential tightening of financial market conditions.

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        World Investment Report 2007: Transnational Corporations, Extractive Industries and Development - Overview
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2007, 49 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Investment

        This year's World Investment Report (WIR) from UNCTAD focuses on the role of transnational corporations (TNCs) in the extraction of oil, gas and minerals. It emphasises the need for coherent and well-designed host country policies that involve all stakeholders in order to maximize development gains from such industries. As in previous years, the WIR07 presents the latest data on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), and traces global and regional trends in FDI and in international production by TNCs. The main finding is that the growth of FDI has been the largest in 2006 since 2000, and occurred in all three groups of economies: developed countries, developing countries, and the transition economies. Despite the general positive prospects for global FDI, it is predicted that the world economy will face several challenges and risks, which may have implications for FDI flows in 2007 and 2008. These include global current account imbalances causing exchange rate shifts, volatile oil prices, and a potential tightening of financial market conditions.

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        World Investment Report 2008: Transnational Corporations and the Infrastructure Challenge (English)
        Report by UNCTAD - CNUCED, 2008, 411 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Investment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The Report explores how TNC participation in infrastructure has increased since the 1990s (although from a low level), and how this investment has helped mobilise further financial resources for investment. It also examines the policy environment and the challenges facing developing countries seeking to attract TNCs to infrastructure sectors, such as transport or electricity supply. As in previous years, the report also contains data on trends in FDI, which show that global inflows peaked in 2007 but appear to have been affected by the credit crisis in 2008, with TNCs cautious about investment commitments.

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        World Investment Report 2008: Transnational Corporations and the Infrastructure Challenge - Overview
        Report by UNCTAD, 2008, 43 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Investment

        This report explores how TNC participation in infrastructure has increased since the 1990s (although from a low level), and how this investment has helped mobilise further financial resources for investment. It also examines the policy environment and the challenges facing developing countries seeking to attract TNCs to infrastructure sectors, such as transport or electricity supply. As in previous years, the report also contains data on trends in FDI, which show that global inflows peaked in 2007 but appear to have been affected by the credit crisis in 2008, with TNCs cautious about investment commitments.

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        World Investment Report 2009: Transnational Corporations, Agricultural Production and Development
        Report by UNCTAD, 2008, 314 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Investment

        This year's World Investment Report (WIR) concentrates on the changes in the FDI landscape induced by the current economic and financial crisis. Global FDI flows have been severely affected, and investments to developing and transition economies, which surged in recent years, are expected to suffer from a decline in 2009. This poses challenges for many developing countries, as FDI has become their largest source of external financing. The impact is analysed in detail, and regional trends for developing and developed countries are identified in the first part of the WIR. The second part of the report looks at transnational corporations (TNCs), Agricultural Production and Development. Foreign participation can play a significant role in agricultural production in developing countries. Therefore, the report proposes that governments should formulate an integrated strategic policy and regulatory framework for TNC activities in agricultural production, considering business as well as social and environmental interests.

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        World Investment Report 2009: Transnational Corporations, Agricultural Production and Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2009, 313 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Investment

        This year's World Investment Report (WIR) concentrates on the changes in the FDI landscape induced by the current economic and financial crisis. Global FDI flows have been severely affected, and investments to developing and transition economies, which surged in recent years, are expected to suffer from a decline in 2009. This poses challenges for many developing countries, as FDI has become their largest source of external financing. The impact is analysed in detail, and regional trends for developing and developed countries are identified in the first part of the WIR. The second part of the report looks at transnational corporations (TNCs), Agricultural Production and Development. Foreign participation can play a significant role in agricultural production in developing countries. Therefore, the report proposes that governments should formulate an integrated strategic policy and regulatory framework for TNC activities in agricultural production, considering business as well as social and environmental interests.

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        World Investment Report 2009: Transnational Corporations, Agricultural Production and Development - Overview Arabic
        Report by UNCTAD, 2009, 68 pages
        Categories: Investment

        This year's World Investment Report (WIR) concentrates on the changes in the FDI landscape induced by the current economic and financial crisis. Global FDI flows have been severely affected, and investments to developing and transition economies, which surged in recent years, are expected to suffer from a decline in 2009. This poses challenges for many developing countries, as FDI has become their largest source of external financing. The impact is analysed in detail, and regional trends for developing and developed countries are identified in the first part of the WIR. The second part of the report looks at transnational corporations (TNCs), Agricultural Production and Development. Foreign participation can play a significant role in agricultural production in developing countries. Therefore, the report proposes that governments should formulate an integrated strategic policy and regulatory framework for TNC activities in agricultural production, considering business as well as social and environmental interests.

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        World Investment Report 2009: Transnational Corporations, Agricultural Production and Development - Overview English (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2009, 55 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Investment

        This year's World Investment Report (WIR) concentrates on the changes in the FDI landscape induced by the current economic and financial crisis. Global FDI flows have been severely affected, and investments to developing and transition economies, which surged in recent years, are expected to suffer from a decline in 2009. This poses challenges for many developing countries, as FDI has become their largest source of external financing. The impact is analysed in detail, and regional trends for developing and developed countries are identified in the first part of the WIR. The second part of the report looks at transnational corporations (TNCs), Agricultural Production and Development. Foreign participation can play a significant role in agricultural production in developing countries. Therefore, the report proposes that governments should formulate an integrated strategic policy and regulatory framework for TNC activities in agricultural production, considering business as well as social and environmental interests.

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        World Investment Report 2010: Investing in a Low-carbon Economy
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 221 pages
        Categories: Investment, Trade and Environment

        The World Investment Report 2010 highlights a promising outlook: after a significant global FDI downturn in 2009, flows worldwide are expected to recover slightly this year, with a stronger recovery in 2011 and 2012. The Report focuses on climate change, and in particular the role of transnational corporations. As enterprises with formidable knowledge, cutting-edge technology, and global reach, TNCs are necessarily among the primary actors in the global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and shift towards a low-carbon economy. The Report stresses that with the right policy initiatives, incentives and regulatory framework, TNCs can and must contribute significantly to both mitigation and adaptation. It also proposes a global partnership to galvanize low-carbon investment and advocates concrete initiatives such as a new technical assistance centre to support policy formulation and implementation in developing countries.

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        World Investment Report 2010: Investing in a Low-carbon Economy - Overview
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2010, 54 pages
        Categories: Investment, Trade and Environment

        The World Investment Report 2010 highlights a promising outlook: after a significant global FDI downturn in 2009, flows worldwide are expected to recover slightly this year, with a stronger recovery in 2011 and 2012. The Report focuses on climate change, and in particular the role of transnational corporations. As enterprises with formidable knowledge, cutting-edge technology, and global reach, TNCs are necessarily among the primary actors in the global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and shift towards a low-carbon economy. The Report stresses that with the right policy initiatives, incentives and regulatory framework, TNCs can and must contribute significantly to both mitigation and adaptation. It also proposes a global partnership to galvanize low-carbon investment and advocates concrete initiatives such as a new technical assistance centre to support policy formulation and implementation in developing countries.

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        World Investment Report 2011: Non-equity modes of international production and development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 251 pages
        Categories: Investment

        Global foreign direct investment (FDI) has not yet bounced back to pre-crisis levels, though some regions show better recovery than others. The reason is not financing constraints, but perceived risks and regulatory uncertainty in a fragile world economy. The World Investment Report 2011 forecasts that, barring any economic shocks, FDI flows will recover to pre-crisis levels over the next two years. The challenge for the development community is to make this anticipated investment have greater impact on our efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.

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        World Investment Report 2011: Non-equity Modes of International Production and Development - Overview
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2011, 44 pages
        Categories: Investment

        Global foreign direct investment (FDI) has not yet bounced back to pre-crisis levels, though some regions show better recovery than others. The reason is not financing constraints, but perceived risks and regulatory uncertainty in a fragile world economy. The World Investment Report 2011 forecasts that, barring any economic shocks, FDI flows will recover to pre-crisis levels over the next two years. The challenge for the development community is to make this anticipated investment have greater impact on our efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.

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        World Investment Report 2012 - Towards a New Generation of Investment Policies (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 239 pages
        Categories: Investment

        The World Investment Report (WIR) 2012 is dedicated to the development of a new generation of investment policies, which place inclusive growth and sustainable development at the heart of efforts to attract and benefit from investment. In addition to surveying global investment trends, regional trends in FDI and recent policy developmentsthe WIR presents UNCTAD's "Investment policy framework for sustainable development", and outlines its core principles for investment policymaking, guidelines for national investment policies, and options for the design and use of international investment agreements (IIAs).

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        World Investment Report 2012 - Towards a New Generation of Investment Policies - Overview (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2012, 48 pages
        Categories: Investment

        The World Investment Report 2012 is dedicated to the new generation of investment policies in 2012. It concerns with the globals investment trends, regional trends in FDI, as well as recent policy developments in the world investment. It also presents UNCTAD's "Investment policy framework for sustainable development", which consists of (i) core Principles for investment policymaking, (ii) guidelines for national investment policies, and (iii) options for the design and use of international investment agreement (IIAs).

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        World Investment Report 2013: Global Value Chains: Investment and Trade for Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 264 pages
        Categories: Investment

        The WIR 2013 puts forward the latest trends in foreign direct investment and in-depth analysis of policy developments, investment prospects, and key emerging issues of investment -- including offshore financial flows and divestments. This year’s edition focuses on strategic development options to maximize the benefits and minimize the risks of global value chains.

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        World Investment Report 2013 : Global Value Chains, Investment and Trade for Development - Overview
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2013, 44 pages
        Categories: Investment

        The WIR 2013 puts forward the latest trends in foreign direct investment and in-depth analysis of policy developments, investment prospects, and key emerging issues of investment -- including offshore financial flows and divestments. This year’s edition focuses on strategic development options to maximize the benefits and minimize the risks of global value chains.

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        World Investment Report 2014 - Investing in the SDGs: An Action Plan (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 265 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment

        This year’s World Investment Report offers a global action plan for galvanizing the role of businesses in achieving future sustainable development goals beyond 2015, and enhancing the private sector’s positive economic, social and environmental impacts. The report reveals an encouraging trend: after a decline in 2012, global foreign direct investment flows rose by 9 per cent in 2013, with growth expected to continue in the years to come. This demonstrates the great potential of international investment, along with other financial resources, to help reach the goals of a post-2015 agenda for sustainable development. The report also identifies the financing gap, especially in vulnerable economies, assesses the primary sources of funds for bridging the gap, and proposes policy options for the future.

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        World Investment Report 2014: Investing in the Sdgs: An Action Plan - Overview
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2014, 56 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment

        This year’s World Investment Report offers a global action plan for galvanizing the role of businesses in achieving future sustainable development goals beyond 2015, and enhancing the private sector’s positive economic, social and environmental impacts. The report reveals an encouraging trend: after a decline in 2012, global foreign direct investment flows rose by 9 per cent in 2013, with growth expected to continue in the years to come. This demonstrates the great potential of international investment, along with other financial resources, to help reach the goals of a post-2015 agenda for sustainable development. The report also identifies the financing gap, especially in vulnerable economies, assesses the primary sources of funds for bridging the gap, and proposes policy options for the future.

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        World Investment Report 2015: Reforming International Investment Governance
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 253 pages
        Categories: Investment

        This Report tackles the key challenges in international investment protection and promotion, including the right to regulate, investor-state dispute settlement, and investor responsibility. It examines the fiscal treatment of international investment, including contributions of multinational corporations in developing countries, fiscal leakage through tax avoidance, and the role of offshore investment links. Furthermore, it offers a menu of options for the reform of the international investment treaties regime, together with a roadmap to guide policymakers at the national, bilateral, regional and multilateral levels. Finally, the Report proposes a set of principles and guidelines to ensure coherence between international tax and investment policies.

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        World Investment Report 2015: Reforming International Investment Governance - Overview (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 66 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Investment

        This Report tackles the key challenges in international investment protection and promotion, including the right to regulate, investor-state dispute settlement, and investor responsibility. It examines the fiscal treatment of international investment, including contributions of multinational corporations in developing countries, fiscal leakage through tax avoidance, and the role of offshore investment links. Furthermore, it offers a menu of options for the reform of the international investment treaties regime, together with a roadmap to guide policymakers at the national, bilateral, regional and multilateral levels. Finally, the Report proposes a set of principles and guidelines to ensure coherence between international tax and investment policies.

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        World Investment Report 2016 - Investor Nationality: Policy Challenges (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 232 pages
        Categories: Investment

        This latest edition of the World Investment Report is being issued as the world embarks on the crucial work of implementing the landmark 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Paris Agreement on climate change. The key findings and policy recommendations of the Report are far reaching and can contribute to our efforts to uphold the promise to leave no one behind and build a world of dignity for all. I therefore commend this Report to a wide global audience.

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        World Investment Report 2016: Key Messages and Overview (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2016, 52 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment

        This latest edition of the World Investment Report is being issued as the world embarks on the crucial work of implementing the landmark 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Paris Agreement on climate change. The key findings and policy recommendations of the Report are far reaching and can contribute to our efforts to uphold the promise to leave no one behind and build a world of dignity for all. I therefore commend this Report to a wide global audience.

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        World Investment Report 2017 - Investment and the Digital Economy (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 252 pages
        Categories: Investment

        In 2016, global flows of foreign direct investment fell by about 2 per cent, to $1.75 trillion. Investment in developing countries declined even more, by 14 per cent, and flows to LDCs and structurally weak economies remain volatile and low. These developments are troublesome, especially considering the enormous investment needs associated with the Sustainable Development Goals, detailed in UNCTAD’s Action Plan for Investment in the SDGs. Progress on sustainable development – and lasting peace – requires more investment in basic infrastructure, energy, water and sanitation, climate change mitigation, health and education, as well as investment in productive capacity to generate jobs and income growth. Now more than ever it is important to ensure that the global policy environment remains conducive to investment in sustainable development. UNCTAD plays an important role in this, by providing guidance on national and international investment policy regimes. Its Investment Policy Framework and Roadmap for Reform of International Investment Agreements have been used by more than 130 countries in formulating a new generation of investment policies. This year’s World Investment Report builds on that track record and presents policy advice on how to deal with close to 3,000 old-generation investment treaties.

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        World Investment Report 2017 - Overview (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 56 pages
        Categories: Investment

        In 2016, global flows of foreign direct investment fell by about 2 per cent, to $1.75 trillion. Investment in developing countries declined even more, by 14 per cent, and flows to LDCs and structurally weak economies remain volatile and low. These developments are troublesome, especially considering the enormous investment needs associated with the Sustainable Development Goals, detailed in UNCTAD’s Action Plan for Investment in the SDGs. Progress on sustainable development – and lasting peace – requires more investment in basic infrastructure, energy, water and sanitation, climate change mitigation, health and education, as well as investment in productive capacity to generate jobs and income growth. Now more than ever it is important to ensure that the global policy environment remains conducive to investment in sustainable development. UNCTAD plays an important role in this, by providing guidance on national and international investment policy regimes. Its Investment Policy Framework and Roadmap for Reform of International Investment Agreements have been used by more than 130 countries in formulating a new generation of investment policies. This year’s World Investment Report builds on that track record and presents policy advice on how to deal with close to 3,000 old-generation investment treaties.

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        World Investment Report 2018: Investment and New Industrial Policies (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 213 pages
        Categories: Investment

        The World Investment Report 2018 aims to provide a better understanding of the interaction between new industrial policies and investment policies. It provides an overview of industrial policy models – based on an inventory of industrial policies adopted by more than 100 countries over the last decade – and the role of investment policies within each model. The Report illustrates how investment policy instruments are used differently across various models and suggests ways to improve the impact of industrial policy through more effective and efficient investment policies. Finally, the Report offers recommendations to update existing investment policy instruments, including investment incentives, special economic zones, investment facilitation and foreign investment screening mechanisms.

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        World Investment Report 2018 - Investment and New Industrial Policies - Overview (English)
        Also available in Arabic, Chinese, Spanish, French, Russian
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 45 pages
        Categories: Investment

        The World Investment Report 2018 aims to provide a better understanding of the interaction between new industrial policies and investment policies. It provides an overview of industrial policy models – based on an inventory of industrial policies adopted by more than 100 countries over the last decade – and the role of investment policies within each model. The Report illustrates how investment policy instruments are used differently across various models and suggests ways to improve the impact of industrial policy through more effective and efficient investment policies. Finally, the Report offers recommendations to update existing investment policy instruments, including investment incentives, special economic zones, investment facilitation and foreign investment screening mechanisms.

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        The World of Investment Promotion at Glance (English)
        Discussion Paper by UNCTAD, 2001, 80 pages
        Categories: Investment

        An overview of the organizational structures and operations of institutions that deal with inward investment promotion, commonly known as investment promotion agencies (IPAs). The study attempts to find a common denominator of different IPAs and to look at the different practices of IPAs in the promotion of foreign investment. - This report provides useful information for those engaged in the promotion of foreign investment as well as those wishing to gain an insight into current investment practices. - Main contents: I: Organizational structures of Investment Promotion Agencies, II: Techniques and Tools used in Promoting Investments; III: Comparative Profiles of Investment Promotion Agencies; IV: Survey Questionnaire.

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