Vi Digital Library
- VI Members Research (76 documents) Selection of discussion papers, studies, policy briefs, presentations and articles by Virtual Institute members.
- PreviewAccommodating an Independent Scotland: How a British-style Constitution for the Eu Could Secure Scotland's FutureDiscussion paper by European Policy Centre, 2012, 12 pagesCategories: VI Members Research
There is a marked wariness at EU level about the prospect of Scottish independence. But British-style constitutional thinking on flexibility could prove useful in reducing the bloc's difficulties with asymmetry that motivate its hostility towards Scottish independence, write Roderick Parkes and Arno Engel in this Discussion Paper.
- PreviewAdapting to Climate Change: What Role for the Eu?Policy brief by European Policy Centre, 2010, 4 pagesCategories: VI Members Research
Although most action on climate-change adaptation will need to be taken at national, regional or local level, there are compelling reasons why the EU should also play a role, says this Policy Brief by Annika Ahtonen.
- PreviewThe Arab Spring, the Changing Mediterranean, and the Eu: Tools As a Substitute for Strategy?Policy brief by European Policy Centre, 2011, 4 pagesCategories: VI Members Research
What is missing, argues Rosa Balfour in this Policy Brief, is a guiding vision to make EU foreign policy more than the sum of its parts.
- PreviewAspectos Normativos De La Inversion Extranjera En Colombia (English)Discussion paper by Ceron Z., Pilar V./Universidad EAFIT, 2007, 112 pagesCategories: International Economic Law, Investment, VI Members Research
La presente investigación tiene como objetivo central hacer un estudio detallado y profundo -estado del arte- de las normas domésticas e internacionales en materia de inversión extranjera, a la luz de las principales teorías de las Relaciones Internacionales. En el nivel doméstico la normatividad sobre este tema se encuentra dispersa a lo largo de todo el ordenamiento jurídico, en diferentes regímenes, haciéndose difícil la comprensión del tema. En el estudio además de unificar estas disposiciones se hizo un análisis extenso sobre las mismas. El mismo ejercicio se realizó en el ámbito internacional, para lo cual se analizaron todos los acuerdos, convenios y tratados internacionales en materia de inversión, ratificados o negociados por Colombia hasta la fecha, como quiera que son éstos los que marcan la pauta en materia de elaboración de normas locales con base en modelos propuestos por la comunidad internacional.
- PreviewCapacity Building for Academia in Trade for Development: A Study on Contributions to the Development of Human Resources and to Policy Support for Developing Countries. (English)Discussion paper by UNCTAD Virtual Institute, 2010, 38 pagesCategories: VI Members Research
The study "Capacity building for academia in trade for development" sheds light on new forms of capacity building and provides an overview of the initiatives and actors dealing with academic capacity building in the area of trade for development. As opposed to traditional capacity building, understood as technical assistance often focusing on short-term goals and prioritizing the objectives of the donor (mainly developed) countries, novel and distinct forms of capacity building have been emerging that emphasize the continuity and sustainability of programmes according to domestic and regional demands. The study analyzes two initiatives, the Latin American Trade Network and the UNCTAD Virtual Institute.
- PreviewCentral Banking, Financial Institutions and Credit Creation in Developing Countries (English)Discussion paper by Dullien, Sebastian/UNCTAD, 2009, 42 pagesCategories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy, VI Members Research
This paper examines how developing countries can embark on a sustained path of strong investment, capital accumulation and economic growth without capital imports. It is argued that the key lies in the Keynesian-Schumpeterian credit-investment nexus: Given certain preconditions, the central bank can allow a credit expansion which finances new investment and creates the savings necessary to balance the national accounts. It is further argued and confirmed in empirical data that one of the biggest impediments to such a process is formal or informal dollarization which limits the policy scope of the central bank. Moreover, a stable banking system with a broad outreach as well as a low degree of pass-through between the exchange rate and domestic prices seem to be a necessary condition for this process to work.
- PreviewChallenges of Access to Clean Water and Healthy Environment: An Inter-link Between Huge Investment Projects and the Surrounding Local Community in Tanzania (English)Article by Ombella, John Sinato / Mzumbe University, 2012, 14 pagesCategories: VI Members Research
This article shades a light on the legal aspects of the access to clean water and clean environment and the extent of access of these basic rights. The discussion revolves around the question of whether investment projects and the local community are living in a symbiotic relation or is one prospering to the detriment of the other.
- PreviewCoaliciones Entre Los Países De América Latina Y Caribe En Las Relaciones Multilaterales Del Comercio AgrícolaStudy by Alfaro, Daniela/Universidad de la República, 2007, 38 pagesCategories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System, VI Members Research
El estudio analiza la consistencia de los rasgos estructurales e influencia de los procesos de integración regional de los países de América Latina y el Caribe (AL y C) y de la modalidad de acceso comercial en Estados Unidos en la posición adoptada en las negociaciones agrícolas multilaterales. Se utiliza la técnica multivariada de cluster para medir las “distancias” entre los países a través de indicadores económicos, de desarrollo, agrícolas, comerciales, política agrícola comercial y de intensidad comercial con EUA. Tres hallazgos merecen resaltarse. El primero refiere a la posibilidad de esperar una convergencia entre los países latinoamericanos hacia una posición agrícola común en las negociaciones agrícolas de la OMC, al utilizar la correspondencia entre los tres clusters hallados y las coaliciones de negociaciones existentes. Una segunda constatación refiere a la influencia de los procesos de integración regional en la formación de las coaliciones para las negociaciones multilaterales. Y por último, se constató que la posición que adopten los países en las negociaciones agrícolas internacionales está “ligada” a la relación comercial con EUA.
- PreviewCoffee, Cooperation and Competition: A Comparative Study of Colombia and Vietnam (English)Study by Adriana Roldán-Pérez, Maria-Alejandra Gonzalez-Perez, Pham Thu Huong, Dao Ngoc Tien, 2009Categories: Commodities, Competitiveness, VI Members Research
This Virtual Institute Joint Project between Vi members EAFIT University and Foreign Trade University identifies links and dynamics in the value chain in both Colombia and Vietnam that have been developed in their respective coffee industries in order to improve competitiveness, increase sustainability and respond to market demands.
- PreviewThe Colombia-Canada Free Trade Area: A Partial Equilibrium Simulation* (English)Article by Pereira-Villa Catherine; Gómez, D. and Herrera, O., 2012, 28 pagesCategories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research
This paper uses disaggregated trade data for 2010 and applies ex-ante partial equilibrium modeling to calculate the impact of the preferential trade agreement between Canada and Colombia. The simulations carried out show aggregate trade creation could be one and a half times larger than trade diversion; trade between the two countries in the first year of the agreement could grow by approximately ten percent and will be focussed on a small number of goods; trade diversion is stronger with the largest trading partner of each signatory, namely the United States; and trade diversion is not strong in the case of Colombia’s neighbors with which there was significant trade prior to the agreement.
- PreviewCommodity Dependency (English)Article by Oscar Farfan, 2005, 38 pagesCategories: Commodities, Trade and Poverty, VI Members Research
Prepared for the Investment Climate Unit International Finance Corporation The World Bank Group This paper uses the Global Value Chain (GVC) framework to discuss commodity dependency and options for economic upgrading in small developing countries. GVC analysis differs from comparable approaches in that it looks at the dynamics of firms/countries within global production networks and focuses on productive “systems” as opposed to sectors or industries in isolation. Examining global commodity chains through the GVC lenses leads to the conclusion that inserting small developing countries into global markets through commodity exports is not sufficient to sustain real income growth, and may even prove detrimental to their long-term development prospects. Only by virtue of upgrading export industries – which entails moving towards differentiated products with a higher content of technology, skills and innovation – will developing countries be in a position to seize the opportunities brought about by globalization.
- PreviewComparing the Performance of Uganda’s Intra-east African Community Trade and Other Trading Blocs: A Gravity Model Analysis (English)Working paper by Shinyekwa, Isaac and Othieno, Lawrence, 2013, 52 pagesCategories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research
This paper examines factors that determine Uganda’s trade flows and specifically compares the impact and performance of the different trade blocs on Uganda’s trade patterns and flows. The empirical question is whether Uganda’s trade is getting more integrated in the East African Community(EAC) region or is still dominated by other trading blocs, namely European Union (EU), Asia and Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). Two analytical approaches are used, namely: trade indicators and estimation of the gravity models using data extracted from COMTRADE for the period 2001–2009 (panel). The results suggest a strong relationship between belonging to a trading bloc and trade flows.
- PreviewConsequences of Agricultural Trade Liberalization: a Food Insecure Country’s Perspective (English)Working paper by Martha B. Hailu, 2011, 26 pagesCategories: VI Members Research
This paper describes how international trade policy adversely affects food security in Ethiopia. It details hows Ethiopia’s accession to the WTO involved reforms in the tariff, export subsidies and domestic support measures as part of the Agreement on Agriculture (AoA) - reforms which impacted negatively on food security. Finally, the chapter outlines the challenges and options Ethiopia may resort to address its food security concerns.
- PreviewCooperation in Coffee Markets: The Case of Vietnam and ColombiaArticle by Gonzalez-Perez, Maria-Alejandra, and Gutierrez-Viana, Santiago, 2012, 18 pagesCategories: Commodities, Competitiveness, VI Members Research
Based on a 2008-2009 joint research project between Universidad EAFIT, Colombia, and Vietnam's Foreign Trade University, this article uses value chain analysis to find that although Colombia and Vietnam produce different types of coffee, and have implemented diverse strategies in order to be more competitive in domestic and foreign markets via product differentiation, there is room for cooperation between these two countries in an international environment where fierce competition persists.
- PreviewDeveloping Countries and Their Natural Resources. From the Elaboration of the Principle of Permanent Sovereignty over Natural Resources to the Creation of Sovereign Wealth Funds (English)Article by Barbieri, Michele, 2009Categories: International Economic Law, Investment, VI Members Research
The paper will study, mainly under the point of view of international law, the relation between natural resources, foreign investments and economic development in third world countries, focusing on the role the principle of permanent sovereignty over natural resources has played, and still can play, in this context. It will try to propose a notion of the right of peoples over natural resources which takes into account the recent developments of international environmental law and of international investment law (the latter being represented in particular by the increase of bilateral investment treaties in force). It will finally prove that the creation of sovereign wealth funds by developing countries can represent a new tool to ensure the promotion of the right of peoples to sovereignty over natural resources and it will investigate the importance that transparency of sovereign wealth funds might have to this purpose.
- PreviewDinámica Del Comercio Ilícito De Personas: El Caso De Colombia-oriente Asiático1 (English)Article by Hurtado, Monica and Pereira, Catherine Universidad de La Sabana, 2012, 28 pagesCategories: Commodities, VI Members Research
Este estudio caracteriza la dinámica de la trata transnacional de personas con fines de explotación sexual desde su dimensión como negocio. Con base en la revisión de expedientes judiciales colombianos (2005-2011), se analizó la interacción entre víctimas, tratantes e intermediarios involucrados en casos de trata entre Colombia y el Oriente Asiático. Esta investigación sostiene que en ocasiones las víctimas de trata tienen una doble condición: por un lado, son sujetos, en la medida que toman decisiones, y por otro, son objetos en situaciones en las que no pueden ejercer su voluntad. El hecho de que las víctimas tomen decisiones con base en información asimétrica facilita su explotación, y explica en parte por qué la trata de personas es un negocio ilícito rentable y creciente. Entre los hallazgos del presente estudio, se estimó la rentabilidad que produce una víctima colombiana a una red en Hong Kong o Singapur, y se identificaron criterios para establecer su situación de explotación.
- PreviewDoes Openness Promote Competition—A Case Study of Indian Manufacturing (English)Discussion paper by Manoj Pant and Manoranjan Pattanayak, 2005Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research
Technical paper on a test of the hypothesis that openness by itself promotes competition.
- PreviewThe Doha Round and Food Security in the Dairy Sector in Cameroon: A Global Simulation Model (gsim) Approach (English)Discussion paper by Roland R. Leudjou, 2012, 20 pagesCategories: Commodities, VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System
In the framework of the new round of trade liberalization launched in Doha, paragraph 13 of the Development Declaration states that members will support special and differential treatment to accommodate development, including food security. This article simulates scenarios of multilateral tariff reduction from the WTO December 2008 draft modalities on agriculture for the Cameroon dairy sector. Using the Global Simulation Model, the analysis shows a substantial increase in world and domestic consumer prices, as the reduction of bound tariffs does not affect the applied tariffs given the high “binding overhang”. As a consequence, consumers’ welfare decreases.
- PreviewDomestic Preparedness for Trade in Services Liberalization: Are East African Countries Prepared for Further Trade Liberalization? (English)Discussion paper by E.P Bagumhe, 2011, 24 pagesCategories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System
Over the past decades East African Countries have witnessed even faster growing rates of the share of trade services in their GDPs. This paper argues that although the importance of services as a share of overall GDP, increase with growth on FDI and employment. Its growth can be driven by number of factors, such as final demand factors and basic structural changes in production, linked to development. Weak domestic preparedness before opening up is likely to be associated with unsatisfactory and undesirable outcomes of Services Trade liberalization. This paper tries to expound issues that are essential on domestic preparedness for Service Trade Liberalization and analyses the associated concerns. The purpose of this paper is not to provide answers but to shed some light on how services Trade liberalization is currently operationalized in the East African Countries, in particular, that is, to open up the “black box,” and indicate the operational design elements around which variance is the highest.
- PreviewDynamics of Human Trafficking: The Colombia-east Asia Case (English)Article by Hurtado, Monica and Pereira-Villa, Catherine Universidad de La Sabana, 2012Categories: VI Members Research
This study characterizes the dynamics of transnational trafficking in humans for commercial sexual exploitation from a business dimension. Based on a review of Colombian judicial records (2005-2011), this study analyses the interaction between victims, traffickers and intermediaries involved in cases of trafficking between Colombia and East Asia. This research argues that victims occasionally have a double-condition for a trafficking network: on the one hand, they are subjects to the extent that they make decisions; and on the other, they are objects as they cannot exercise their free will. Since victims make decisions based on asymmetric information, this facilitates their exploitation and explains in part why trafficking in persons is both a profitable and growing illegal business. Among other topics, this study estimates the profits obtained by a network by exploiting a Colombian victim in Hong Kong or Singapore, and suggests criteria to evaluate exploitation.
- PreviewEconomists and Lawyers Working Together. A Multidisciplinary Approach for Policy Orientated Researches in the Fields of Foreign Investments and Economic DevelopmentWorking paper by Michele Barbieri, 2010, 31 pagesCategories: International Economic Law, Investment, VI Members Research
The objective of the paper is to describe a methodology which can be applied in policy orientated researches on the following topic: the impact international investment agreements (IIAs) have on the relation between foreign investments on one side and economic development of the host States on the other side. The researches which adopt such method should provide guidance to policymakers of host States as to the way they can simultaneously achieve the following goals: to attract foreign investments and to fully benefit from them, to preserve their ability to adopt and maintain policies for the promotion of domestic development, to maximise the consistency of such policies with applicable IIAs. The peculiarity of the methodology consists in its multidisciplinary approach, which combines the efforts of economists and legal experts both.
- PreviewEight Strategies for Development in Comparison (English)Article by Jan Priewe, 2015, 42 pagesCategories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy, VI Members Research
The article provides a broad-based overview on competing development strategies and the economic performance of developing countries, mainly since the year 2000. Four traditional mainstream development strategies are discussed (Washington Consensus, neo-liberalism, “good governance” and MDGs) and three long-debated key strategic issues are reconsidered (inward or outward development with export-led growth, industrialisation or growth with predominant primary goods exports, foreign aid-based development). A heterodox approach to development with a focus on macroeconomic policies and structural change is added and discussed in more detail. Implicitly, this lays the groundwork for a macroeconomic theory of development.
- PreviewEU Financial Market Reform: Status and Prospects (English)Case study by Dullien, Sebastian; Herr, Hansjörg/ HTW, 2010, 19 pagesCategories: International Financial System, Macroeconomic Policy, VI Members Research
The financial and economic crisis has made it clear that the financial markets are in need of far-reaching reform and more effective regulation. Since the most pressing dangers have been averted and the economy in most industrialised countries is clear of recession, however, the topic of financial market regulation has largely disappeared from the public gaze. Having said that, a great deal is happening in the background with regard to financial market regulation, including at the EU level. Against this background, economists Sebastian Dullien and Hansjörg Herr present the current state of the debate in some of the most important areas of EU financial market regulation and ongoing legislative processes and evaluate the most important plans. The authors come to the conclusion that, although the current deliberations on reform are going in the right direction, they are insufficient to ensure the long-term stability of the EU financial system.
- PreviewAn Evaluation of Tanzania’s EPZ Programme – Challenges and Prospects (English)Case study by Charles T L T Domician, 2009Categories: Competitiveness, Investment, VI Members Research
This study employs OECD-DAC criteria to evaluate the Tanzania Export Processing Zones programme over the 2006 to May 2009 period. It finds that the programme is relevant for the country and global developmental orientations, although some respondents had a misguided opinion. On the other hand, the programme remains largely ineffective and inefficient due to the prevailing risks, including heavy hard and soft infrastructural challenges as well as the existing burden of the fiscal incentive regime. The study notes, however, that if properly handled, the discovery of uranium is potentially key to transforming the country’s energy and industrial sectors for domestic and international competitiveness. It is further suggested that unless necessary socioeconomic interventions are made well in time, the identified weaknesses stand to threaten the programme’s envisaged developmental impact and sustainability. Therefore, it is recommended that the government (through the Export Processing Zones Authority), in collaboration with all relevant EPZ stakeholders, devise an efficient and effective mechanism for financing export-enhancing infrastructures; and that special purpose vehicles in public-private partnership arrangements provide one such option. Other policy measures should include a review for streamlining the incentive regime, addressing inefficiencies at the Dar es Salaam port, financial empowerment for domestic export-oriented SMEs, enhanced stakeholder awareness of EPZ legislation and practices, and regional and global marketing of the programme’s production/exports.
- PreviewFDI In South Asia - Do Incentives Work? (English)Presentation by S.K. Das and Manoj Pant, 2003Categories: Investment, VI Members Research
What: The paper deals with the role and impact of incentives in attracting Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in South Asia. Studies on cost-benefit analysis of incentives are rare and hence only such focused studies can tell us which set of incentives are effective and thus should be offered. The studies on incentives in South Asia seem to identify such benefits as the increase in employment and/or wages, reduced prices or improved product quality, more revenues for the government and indirect benefits through professionalism, learning and technology diffusion. The latter is also the principal motivation for developing countries. Who: Relevant for anyone teaching or learning the role of incentives in attracting FDI in relation to developing economies. How: Can be used for research or courses on FDI.
- PreviewFeasibility and Implication of East African Community Monetary Union (English)Article by E.P Bagumhe, 2013, 31 pagesCategories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research
This paper , seeks to employ the Bayoumi and Eichengreen’s (1997) OCA Index methodology as a framework of analysis to examine this objective of EAC. The paper will proceed by providing a brief historical background of monetary and economic arrangements in East African Community. Part two of this paper will review both the theoretical and empirical literature with a view of the theoretical prediction towards the OCA. The specific objective of this paper is to answer four policy questions; Will individual countries increase their welfare when they abolish their national Currency and adopt some currency of a wider area, what is the ideal arrangement of forming regional currency blocs before reaching a complete monetary integration? Thirdly, what is the similarity of output movements of the EAC partner’s states? Fourthly, Does the EAC Partner states meet the convergence criteria as proposed by OCA theory.
- PreviewForeign Investments in Belarus: Recent Developments in Regulatory IssuesArticle by Barbieri, Michele; Petrushkevic, Alena, 2010, 16 pagesCategories: Investment, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research
The article examines the policy and legal frameworks governing foreign direct investments (FDI) in Belarus and their consistency with commitments undertaken by the country through bilateral trade agreements.
- PreviewGains from Varieties: Analysis of the Benefits of Trade Agreements in South AmericaWorking paper by Orlando Monteiro da Silva; Jacqueline Silva Batista, 2015Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research
This study analyzes the gains from imports and the contribution of Regional Trade Agreements to these gains in South America from 1995 to 2011. The results showed that there was a substantial increase in varieties of imported products and that smaller countries had benefited more from falling prices. Openness to international trade and participation in bilateral and regional trade agreements are the major factors leading to gains from importing varieties.
- PreviewGood Faith (lack Of) in Investment Arbitration and the Conduct of the Ethiopian Government in the Salini Case: Exercise of Legitimate Right or “exhibit A” for Guerrilla Tactics?Paper by Hailu, Martha Belete, Addis Ababa University, 2012Categories: Investment, VI Members Research
This article looks at tactics that may frustrate investor-state arbitration, using arguments from the principles of good faith and equality of arms, and describing the case of Salini Consoruttori SPA Vs The FDRE Addis Ababa Water and Sewage Authority (ICC Arbitration No 10623/AER/ACS).
- PreviewThe Hong Kong Ministerial and Beyond (English)Other by Virtual Institute, 2005Categories: VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System
What: A collection of articles by Virtual Institute members assessing the challenges for the current WTO ministerial in Hong Hong and beyond. These articles look at the development challenge of the current multilateral negotiations from the perspective of developed countries, middle income developing countries and the Least Developed Countries. Who: For anyone interested in WTO issues and the current debates around the outcome of the WTO ministerial in Hong Kong. How: A series of short articles introduce several key issues which could provide a succinct resource for discussion and further research.
- PreviewIdentifying New Product And Service Export Opportunities For South Africa Using A Decision Support ModelWorking paper by North-West University, 2013Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research
This paper examines the role of the Decision Support Model (DSM) for products and services. The Decision Support Model (DSM) is an export market selection tool that makes use of a sophisticated filtering process to sift through an extensive range of product-/service- and country-related data to reveal the export opportunities that are the most realistic and sustainable. The paper illustrates how the use of these models can herald the start of a new era in export market selection and promotion in South Africa.
- PreviewThe Impact of Bioethics and Consumer Demand on Process and Production Methods (ppms) in the Wto: Considerations for Colombian Biotrade (English)Working paper by Calle-Saldarriaga, María Alejandra / Universidad EAFIT, 2011, 50 pagesCategories: Trade and Environment, VI Members Research
This paper aims to contribute to the existing legal studies on Process and Production Methods and their connection to consumer preferences for bioethical and environmentally friendly systems of production, in particular by identifying the case of Colombian biotrade.
- PreviewThe Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on Developing Economies and the Environment (English)Article by Luis Carlos Arango Vieira, 2009, 18 pagesCategories: Trade and Environment, VI Members Research
This article is about the impact of foreign direct investment on developing economies and the environment. All of us that are concerned about the environment should ask ourselves if the increase in capital mobility associated with the world-wide process of liberalization, deregulation and privatization, known as the Neo-liberal global regime, has contributed to the problems of higher emissions, ozone layer destruction, and pollution of water sources, as well as to create false economic bubbles that lead to increased consumption in these regions whilst forcing the destruction of the environment by the poor in order to survive and cope with the roles their society demands. Neo-liberal practices such as those enforced in developing countries like Colombia, while seeking to attract foreign investment to push their economies, tend to generate a false aggregated demand growth that in most cases is not sustainable in the long term, increases global unemployment, unleash destructive competitive processes and weaken government’s ability to regulate business in the citizens` best interests.
- PreviewImpact of Qualifying Industrial Zones (QIZ) on Egypt and Jordan: A Critical Analysis (English)Case study by Ahmed Farouk Ghoneim and Taleb Awad, 2009Categories: Investment, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research
Paper presents a detailed outlook on the impact of qualifying industrial zones (QIZ)from the perspective of both Egypt and Jordan. It explains the objective and purpose of the QIZ, the performance of the QIZ (in terms of employment opportunities, gender and technology transfer) and it concludes with a comparative analysis between Egypt and Jordan.
- PreviewImplications of the Asian Miracle on Africa: A Comparative Analysis of the Textile/Garment Sector in Senegal and China (English)Case study by Mbaye, Ahmadou Aly and Yang Weiyong, 2008, 43 pagesCategories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research
In this paper, a case study approach is used to further the understanding of trade patterns between Asia and Africa, focusing on textiles in Senegal and China. It presents an analysis of compared trajectories of textile/clothing in Senegal and China which reveals huge differences between both countries. While this sector is booming in China, it is experiencing tremendous difficulties in Senegal, due mainly to decreasing productivity, high unit labor costs and prices of non-tradable inputs. Hence bilateral trade of textile and clothing is almost one way, flowing from China to Senegal, and supported by a growing community of Chinese traders based in Dakar. The paper argues to support Chinese/Senegalese joint ventures in order to further intensify trade flows between both countries and to reap additional benefits for both countries. The paper is interesting to researchers with an interest either in the international textile sector or in Senegalese economic structures. The interviews with Chinese traders in Dakar make it a piece of primary research that did some data collection, besides the analytical part.
- PreviewIntegración Regional En América Latina: Desafíos Y OportunidadesStudy by UNCTAD Virtual Institute, 2010, 163 pagesCategories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research
The publication comprises six papers (written in Spanish with English summaries) dealing with the regional integration process in Latin America. The authors, from Vi member universities of Argentina, Peru, Uruguay, Brazil, Spain, as well as Switzerland, analyze political, economic and legal aspects of regional trade agreements between South American countries and trading partners from both the South and the North.
- PreviewIntegración Y Convergencia En UnasurWorking paper by Reinoso, Alan Fairlie, 2013, 17 pagesCategories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research
En UNASUR coexisten países con diferentes estrategias de desarrollo e inserción internacional, que han llevado a tensiones y/o conflictos complicados. Por un lado tenemos países que han impulsado un proceso de liberación y apertura combinado con la suscripción de acuerdos comerciales regionales, principalmente Norte-Sur (TLCs). Por otro lado hay países que no solo cuestionan estas estrategias y han planteado una nueva intervención del Estado para manejar la renta de los recursos naturales, sino que también cuestionan los TLC porque entienden que no contribuyen al desarrollo de sus países. Este documento se concentra en discutir sobre las posibilidades de convergencia que habría en el plano económico – comercial, estratégico, en el espacio de UNASUR.
- PreviewInteraction Between Trade and Environment Policies with Special Interest Politics (English)Working paper by Keswani Mehra, Mehra/JNU, 2007, 31 pagesCategories: Trade and Environment, VI Members Research
It is a theoretical paper on the politics of environment and trade policy, useful for analytical research or teaching in an optional course in a graduate program in economics.
- PreviewThe International Regulation of Sovereign Wealth Funds. Which Role for the European Union? (English)Article by Michele Barbieri, 2009Categories: International Economic Law, VI Members Research
The object of this paper is to review the existing international instruments providing for standards and principles applicable to SWFs, to their investments and to the policies adopted by recipient States. The analyse will be carried out from the point of view of the European Union (EU), i. e. paying particular attention to the participation of the EU in the works of the IMF and the OECD in the elaboration of such instruments.
- PreviewInternational Trade and Carbon Leakage: An Analytical Framework for India and Russia (English)Study by Mehra Keswani, Meeta; Sawhney, Aparna; Rastogi, Rashmi; Piskulova, Natalia; Abramova, Anna, 2011Categories: Trade and Environment, VI Members Research
The paper, the result of a Japan-funded Vi joint research project, explores the linkages between international trade and carbon leakage, and formulates recommendations for national and international policies to reduce future emissions and facilitate the negotiating process for signing a new international climate agreement.
- PreviewInternational Trade and Inter-industry Wage Inequality in Developing Countries (English)Discussion paper by KOUTY Manfred, 2012, 18 pagesCategories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research
The last two decades are characterized by the expansion of world trade and inequalities in developing countries (DCs). In contrast to most existing studies that focus on income inequality in particular country or region, this paper focuses on the inter-industry wage inequality. Using the dynamic panel data of 96 developing countries over the 1985- 2003, the study finds that trade flows (import and export) are not significantly related to interindustry wage inequality in DCs. The increase of number of tariff line s increases the interindustrial wage inequality.
- PreviewInternational Trade in Services and Economic Growth: The Case of JordanWorking paper by Buthaina Muhtaseb/ University of Jordan, 2013Categories: Trade Related Capacity Building, VI Members Research
The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of services imports on Jordanian economic growth during 1990 – 2012 . The regression analysis is based on an output growth equation, utilizing the Fully-Modified Ordinary Least Square method after performing the appropriate statistical tests.
- PreviewKnowledge As a Competitive Weapon (English)Case study by Parahoo,A, 2005, 13 pagesCategories: Trade Related Capacity Building, VI Members Research
This presentation, which is essentially developmental in approach, analyses the contribution of the University of Mauritius as an Institution of Higher Learning in knowledge creation to prepare the nation for the challenges of a Knowledge based society.
- PreviewLabour Standards and ILO’s Effectiveness in the Governance of Globalization (English)Discussion paper by Onida, Fabrizio - Università Bocconi, 2008Categories: VI Members Research
The paper reviews International Labor Office (ILO)’s historical milestones, covering the main Conventions on labour standards. Then the paper focuses on ILO’s main duties as a supervisor of labour markets conditions and as an agent and direct player with local governments: designing appropriate policies for a “decent work” agenda in the world, pushing for the widest possible adoption of the Conventions themselves by member countries, monitoring compliance of those standards, promoting bilateral and multilateral actions with governments aimed at correcting major violations of these standards. Special emphasis is given to possible improvements in the effectiveness of ILO’s procedures and initiatives, under the assumption that actions based on positive incentives are far more plausible and effective than negative sanctions. The final section summarizes major conclusions and recommendations that have been approved by CNEL's (National Council of Economy and Labour) general assembly on June 5, 2008, also in view of the annual meeting of AICESIS (International Association of Economic and Social Councils) held in Rome on June 12, 2008.
- PreviewLa Gobernanza Versus GlobalizaciÓn: Estudio De Caso IsaArticle by Carlos Manuel Jiménez Aguilar* Catherine Pereira Villa**, 2011, 21 pagesCategories: Enterprise Development, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research
This article explores the contemporary debate on globalization and governance, in order to study processes of regional integration from networks of cross-border governance in the region. The processes of privatization of the electric sector in Latin America increased public-private coordination and cross-sector partnerships: this is the case of Colombia’s energy sector and the company of electrical interconnection (ISA). This work suggests that the case of ISA can be characterized as one of interactive governance that has connected three countries of the Andean region and one member of Mercosur through a linear infrastructure of more than 35,000 km. This infrastructure has spatially integrated a region characterized by incomplete integration processes. This study analyses ISA’s model and its contribution to the cross-border governance based on information provided by the company and a series of interviews with ISA’s management.
- PreviewLatin American Experience in Wto Dispute Settlement: Recommendations for RussiaWorking paper by St. Petersburg State University, 2013Categories: VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System
The article analyses the experience of Latin American countries (LAC) with regards to their participation in various economic dispute settlement mechanisms. On the basis of this analysis, the paper makes some recommendations for the Russian Federation as a new member of the organization that may use the World Trade Organization dispute settlement mechanism in order to defend its economic interests.
- PreviewLegitimidad Empresarial, Conflicto De Tierras Y Producción Palmera En Colombia* (English)Article by Pereira-Villa, Catherine, 2011, 20 pagesCategories: Commodities, Trade and Environment, VI Members Research
This article analyzes the land conflict that took place in 2009 in the south of Bolivar (Colombia), between the Daabon Group – world leader in the production of organic palm oil – and 123 peasant families who were evicted. Specifically, this paper analyzes the ways in which the Group responded to the incident, to vindicate its legitimacy, internationally challenged as a result of the conflict. Once the profile of Daabon Group and the local context in which it operates are described, some thoughts are formulated on that business group’s handling of issues associated with forced displacement, legal uncertainty and biodiversity. This study argues that in a Colombian context, a company under international scrutiny should manage its legitimacy not only on legal considerations but also on social and political aspects.
- PreviewLiberalizing Agriculture by OECD Countries : Welfare, Growth and Distributional Impact in Developing Countries (English)Report by Hossain, Sharif M., 2011, 10 pagesCategories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research
Although it is often argued that liberalization provides opportunities for growth and development in all over the world, there are divergent views about the effects of agricultural trade liberalization on growth and income distribution in developing countries. The developing countries’ main complaint in this regard is that trade distorting activities in agriculture by developed countries adversely affecting their exports and consequently growth, and income and employment of the people therein. There is a general perception among the policymakers and academia that the developing countries would gain much from the removal of existing distortion in the agricultural market because of the tremendous importance of the agricultural sector in their economies. The current paper has analyzed the effect of trade liberalization in agriculture on welfare, growth and income distribution in developing countries, using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model and indicates that the effect is not similar for all the developing countries.
- PreviewMercosur in South-south Agreements: In the Middle of Two Models of RegionalismStudy by Celli, Umberto; Salles, Marcus; Tussie, Diana; Peixoto, Juliana, 2010, 72 pagesCategories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research
The objective of this paper is to analyse the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) as the case of a regional integration process in transition between different moments: the 1990s neoliberal moment (which concentrated solely on trade liberalization) and the present neo-developmental phase, which now includes structural policies as a new pillar for integration. The pull of each contrasting mindset leads to tensions in both the internal and external agendas. In this analysis, we focus on three specific issues: asymmetries, trade in services and investments. All three have loomed large in the North-South agenda, but as regional agreements make progress and a new mindset emerges they now cast a shadow on South-South relations.
- PreviewO contencioso brasil-estados unidos sobre o algodão: um caso bem-sucedido de desenvolvimento de capacidades (English)Case study by Mário Ferreira Presser e Luciana Togeiro de Almeida, 2015, 6 pagesCategories: Commodities, International Economic Law, VI Members Research
Capacity Building Case Study - Brazil-US: Cotton
- PreviewOpportunities in the Southern Pattern of Trade Specialization: Identifying Potentialities in Natural Resource Activities (English)Case study by Bianchi, Eduardo; Uzquiza, Laura; Fairlie, Alan, 2010Categories: Commodities, VI Members Research
This Vi joint research project between Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales (FLACSO) and Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú (PUCP) analyzes the evolution of natural resource activities in Latin America and the impact of trade liberalization and the Southern pattern on growth, labour, poverty and income distribution. The analysis looks at two case studies in Peru (mining) and Argentina (natural resources) and describes several challenges for public institutions in ensuring export development along the lines of the Southern pattern.
- PreviewO Regionalismo No Século XXI: Comércio, Regulação E Política (English)Discussion paper by Machado Oliveira, Ivan Tiago, 2012, 36 pagesCategories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research
This paper aims to analyze how the waves of regionalism represented changes in the way trade policy has been conducted, expanding the game of political negotiation with variable geometry and determining its influence on the political regulation of international trade. To do so, the concept and a typology of regionalism in its economic bases are presented. Moreover, the relation between the rules of the multilateral trade regime and those of regional agreements will be explored by analyzing the proliferation of the latter and the tensions, antagonisms and complementarities between regionalism and multilateralism. Finally, the waves of regionalism and some of the most relevant theoretical and analytical approaches that seek to explain them will be presented in order to shed light on the study of regionalism in trade policy strategies within the framework of a new political regulation of international trade in the 21st century.
- PreviewOs Brics Na OMC: Políticas Comerciais Comparadas De Brasil, Rússia, Índia, China E África Do Sul (English)Book by Oliveira, Ivan (IPEA) and Thorstensen, Vera (FGV), 2012, 484 pagesCategories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System
The result of a research project of the Department of International Studies at IPEA, in partnership with researchers from FGV, the study analyzes the trade policy of the BRICS countries, particularly with respect to their participation in the multilateral trading system.
- PreviewPacific Alliance: An Ongoing NegotiationWorking paper by Dorotea López; Felipe Muñoz/ University of Chile, 2013Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research
The new integration scheme that arises in Latin America is known as the Pacific Alliance (PA). It brings together Latin American countries which economies are oriented towards trade liberalization like Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru. This article considers that this alliance is an innovative strategy focused on responding to the objectives initially defined by its members. It reviews its construction and status before presenting the specificities of the PA.
- PreviewParticipation Of Non-state Actors In Formulation Of Trade Policy In Vietnam (English)Working paper by Dao Ngoc Tien, Nguyen Quynh Huong, Nguyen Thu Hang, Ngo Chi Le, 2013, 70 pagesCategories: Globalization and Development Strategies, VI Members Research
Vietnam has laid the initial legal foundation for consultation in trade policy development. The current consultation of trade policy in Vietnam can be divided into 3 layers, based on relationships between the bodies. The core layer with frequent and effective consultation includes those currently working in state sector, including government research institutes. At the centre of this core layer is the operation of MoIT as the main ministry relating to trade policy and NCIEC as the inter-ministries coordinating agency. However, this should not be considered as the consultation as all the actors are government with different policy making authority. Expanding from this core, the second layer will includes those are former governmental officials (head of business associations) and VCCI, which has a “special” relation with government. It is a part of business-focus consultation as it only allows indirect interaction rather than direct between enterprises and government.
- PreviewPossible Approaches for the Accession of Iran to WTO (English)Book by Fakheri, Mehdi/SIR, 2007Categories: VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System
The book has been writen for policy makers involved in the process of the Iranian accession and can be useful for other developing countries
- PreviewProduction Methods in the WTO: Considerations for Colombian Biotrade (English)Working paper by Calle-Saldarriaga, Maria Alejandra, 2011, 50 pagesCategories: Trade and Environment, VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System
This paper aims to identify the role of consumers as catalysts of trade policy actions and regulations when implementing bioethical concerns embedded in process and production methods (PPMs), traditionally considered as Non Tariff Barriers and incompatible with the purpose of WTO member states obligations, especially taking the Colombian biotrade initiatives as an example.
- PreviewPublic Consultation and International Trade Policy (English)Discussion Paper by Centre for Trade Policy and Law, 2005, 25 pagesCategories: VI Members Research, Trade Related Capacity Building
This paper provides an overview of the rationale for public consultation in trade policy formulation and various methods. Canada and United States are presented as models. It is a useful for anyone interested in the relationship between domestic governance and international policy formation.
- PreviewRegional Trade Integrations: A Comparative Study - The Cases of GAFTA, COMESA, and SAPTA/SAFTA (English)Case study by Awad, Talib; Bakir, Amir; Mehra, Meeta Keswani; Pant, Manoj; Rojid, Sawkut; Sannassee, Vinesh; Seetanah, Boopen; Suraj, Fowdar, 2008, 92 pagesCategories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research
The study analyzes and compares three regional integration schemes in terms of their impact on intra-regional trade: the Great Arab Free Trade Area (GAFTA), the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), and the South Asia Preferential Trade Agreement (SAPTA). Using revealed comparative advantage and regression analyses, the study finds that there is very limited potential for intra-regional trade within each of the three regions; that there was no substitution effect of the trade agreements between intra-regional trade and trade with the rest of the world; that there was not much trade created by the agreements; and that intra trade was characterized by a high level of geographical concentration, mainly among neighboring countries. A number of obstacles to trade are identified, which are somewhat similar across regions. Finally, policy recommendations are given to tackle these obstacles, which stem from political, economic, administrative, tariff and non-tariff, transportation and external factors. The study will be useful for scholars with an interst in the effectiveness of regional trade agreements, particularly in the three compared regions and might provide useful illustrations for relevant economics classes.
- PreviewA Regulação Do Comércio Internacional Agrícola: Histórico E PerspectivasDiscussion paper by Machado Oliveira, Ivan Tiago, 2011, 36 pagesCategories: VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System
This paper analyzes the multilateral regulation of international trade in agriculture from the GATT/1947 to the Doha Round, under the auspices of the WTO. From a historical-analytical perspective, the international context in which the multilateral system has been built is presented taking into account how the agricultural agenda has been introduced in the system. Furthermore, the conflicts and negotiations among developing and developed countries are analyzed in order to observe the relationship between international agricultural trade and economic development. Finally, we discuss the current round of multilateral negotiations, the Doha Round, and its relevance for developing countries, focusing on agricultural negotiations, considered the center of the multilateral negotiating process. Este texto analisa a regulação multilateral do comércio internacional agrícola desde o GATT/1947 até a Rodada Doha, já sob os auspícios da OMC. Sob uma ótica históricoanalítica, faz-se uma apresentação do contexto internacional no qual o sistema multilateral foi construído e identificam-se as interações entre a formação do sistema e a inserção da temática agrícola nas regras multilaterais no pós-Segunda Guerra Mundial. Ademais, uma análise das lógicas de conflitos e negociação entre os países em desenvolvimento e os desenvolvidos é apresentada no sentido de se observar a relação entre o comércio internacional agrícola e o desenvolvimento econômico. Por fim, são realizadas análises sobre a atual rodada de negociações multilaterais, a Rodada Doha, e sua relevância na ótica dos países em desenvolvimento, tendo em vista as negociações agrícolas, colocadas no centro do processo negociador multilateral.
- PreviewRethinking Pro-growth Monetary Policy in Africa: Monetarist Versus Keynesian Approach / Repenser La Politique Monétaire Pour La Croissance En Afrique: Approche Monétariste Versus Keynesienne (English)Policy brief by Christian Lambert NGUENA, 2013, 8 pagesCategories: Macroeconomic Policy, VI Members Research
The relative positive economic growth experienced by most African countries in the recent decade has come with insufficient demand stimulation. The concern of poverty at the forefront of economic policy, the need for inclusive growth and sustainable development, inter alia, brings forward the inevitable question of the monetary policy responsibility. Accordingly, the monetarist theory that focuses on price stability inherently neglects the demand stimulation aspect of economic prosperity. Since the mid 1980s, the monetarist school driven by its central aim of fighting inflation and maintaining credibility in markets and economic agents has been priority for monetary authorities (especially in Africa). To this effect, while good results in terms of inflation targeting has been achieved in many African countries; economic growth has sometimes been low. Hence, in light of the above, using a statistical and theoretical debate method, the Credible Monetary Policy (CMP)1 paradox is traceable to Africa. Accordingly, with the promising economic environment in Africa, we recommend the promotion of a monetary policy oriented toward improving economic growth under the constraint of price stability. In light of the above view, there are some note worthy signs such the recent decision by the two CFA zone central banks to either maintain interest rates at a low level or reduce it despite tightening measures of monetary policy taken by the European Central Bank (ECB) earlier in the year. In the same vein, the central bank of South Africa has maintained its policy of low interest rates with an objective of economic expansion. Since, the 2008 financial crisis, the consolidation of the Federal Reserve’s declared final objective of lowering interest rates and making emergency loans is an eloquent example to reassure African central banks in the choice of the pro-growth monetary policy option.
- PreviewRussia's Accession to the WTO: Major Commitments, Possible Implications (English)Article by St Petersburg State University, 2012, 35 pagesCategories: VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System
The article provides insights into the terms of Russia’s accession to the WTO in the area of trade in goods and services, as well as domestic reforms of the economy that have been undertaken. The paper shows both advantages and disadvantages of Accession for Russia's economic entities. It includes more focused sections on business implications of Russia’s WTO Accession commitments in the sectors of automobile manufacturing, production of meat and meat products, financial services, and energy services.
- PreviewSituación Reciente De Las Exportaciones Industriales De Colombia (1990-2009)Study by Torres, Danilo, 2011, 93 pagesCategories: VI Members Research
Developed during a Vi fellowship, this study presents assesses Colombian industrial exports in the last two decades, based on conventional research methods and contrasting with the methodology of technological differentiation of export intensities. The analysis demonstrates that the total Colombian exports during this period was characterized by a predominance of primary commodities and natural resource-based low-technology products. Although efforts are being made aimed at export diversification of mid- and high-technology products, the participation of these in total exports of the country is low.
- PreviewSome Issues in the Determination of Dumping and Injury Under China\\'s Antidumping Regulations (English)Article by LI, Yang/UIBE, 2004, 17 pagesCategories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System, VI Members Research
This paper makes case studies of Chinese antidumping practices concerning the determination of dumping and injury, which can be considered the two key aspects in the rendering of all antidumping determinations, to see whether they are in compliance with the standards of the WTO Antidumping Agreement.
- PreviewSovereign Wealth Funds and the Principle of State Immunity from Taxation. Which Implications for Economic Development? (English)Article by Michele Barbieri, 2010, 32 pagesCategories: International Economic Law, VI Members Research
Taxes levied by host States on transnational investments undertaken in their territory by Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs) owned by other countries have a relevant impact on the financial performance of SWFs and, finally, on the amount of wealth available to the States owning SWFs. As most owners of SWFs are developing countries and economies in transition and as SWFs are tools such States can use to promote sustainable economic development, the taxation of SWFs by host countries often has an impact on the developmental policies of the States which own SWFs. Starting from the analysis of the principle of State immunity, the paper will try to elaborate a theory on the taxation of SWFs which at the same time takes into consideration the role that SWFs play in the promotion of economic development.
- PreviewStrengthening The Private Sector To Boost Continental Trade And Integration In AfricaPolicy brief by UNCTAD, 2015, 4 pagesCategories: Enterprise Development, Policy Reviews and Briefs, VI Members Research
Although regional trade has contributed to sustained growth, poverty reduction and inclusive development in Latin America and Asia. In Africa the expected results have been slow to come to the fore. The weakness of the African private sector may be one important factor.
- PreviewStuck in the Middle: “Dutch Disease” and Energy-driven Diversification in Russia (English)Working paper by Olga Garanina/St Petersburg State University of Economics, 2013Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, VI Members Research
The aim of the present paper is to aliment the debate on the impact of resource richness on economic development through the analysis of the Russian case. The paper identifies the patterns of the “Dutch disease” and provides the foresight on energy-driven diversification. It argues that Russia does not clearly demonstrate all symptoms of the “Dutch disease”, but neither it seems to successfully put in place a strategy of energy-driven industrial modernization.
- PreviewTesting the Convergence of Theory and Empirical Evidence on the Determinants of Export Performance: Lessons from Tanzania (English)Study by george gandye, 2008Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research
What determines export performance in Tanzania is the main thrust of this study. This paper briefly surveys literature on the determinants of export performance in general and within the framework of supply capacity and foreign market access various variables are established and tested. Using gravity model a regression analysis is run for the period of thirty years and the result is as anticipated to depict a positive relationship between dependent and the explanatory variable with exception of macro - economic condition and trade fairs. The former reflects the fact that International trade performance demand economic efficiency to ensure long term gains which can partly be derived from better macro economic management and not necessarily the devaluation of currency and the latter depict minimal strategic implementation of trade fairs to promote export oriented products leading to a “fun fairs” kind of trade fair. However, while the relation for other variables remained positive the level of significance has largely been low an indication that the explanatory variable have not sufficiently influenced the dependent variable. Thus, it is notably to recognize that these pillars essential to address the supply side constraints are so embedded and got to be improved in an integrated manner if at all Tanzania is to perform in the external sector given the potential market access.
- PreviewThree Essays in Development Economics (English)Article by Ersado, Lire, 2001, 118 pagesCategories: Commodities, Competitiveness, VI Members Research
Dissertation exploring household risk and savings behavior in Zimbabwe, and agricultural technology adoption, and the impact of public investments on the economy and community health in Ethiopia.
- PreviewTrade And Development Symposium. Perspectives On the Multilateral Trading System. How To Encourage The Network Trade Rules Interconnections? An Application To The Case Of Non Tariff BarriersReport by Vaillant, Marcel, 2011, 8 pagesCategories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System
The focus of this paper is different and is also a by-product of the globalization process. The extension of the set of economic activities in the international economy provokes an extension of the themes that require necessary consideration in trade agreements. The adaptation speed in the multilateral field is structurally slow. Countries are less willing to establish rules on the basis of Most Favored Nation than within preferential trade agreements. Hence the demands to expand and deepen in new topics have been channeled through the proliferation of preferential trade agreements. The content of commitments and themes in the agenda of international trade negotiations between national jurisdictions has widened: from the trade of goods to the trade of services, as well as to the mobility of some production factors. At the same time, the field where commitments are achieved has increased exponentially: bilateral agreements, plurilateral agreements, agreements between groups of countries, extension of agreement . This paper chooses, within the wider subject related to goods, the topic of non-tariff barriers, which will be more thoroughly developed in the third section.
- PreviewTrade Creation & Diversion Effects of the East African Community Regional Trade Agreement: A Gravity Model Analysis (English)Article by Shinyekwa, Isaac and Othieno, Lawrence, 2013, 40 pages
The paper investigates the potential impact of the East African Community (EAC) on trade creation and diversion. The paper seeks to establish whether the EAC regional trade agreement (RTA) has diverted or created trade using an expanded(augmented)gravity model. The authors estimate static and dynamic random effects models using a panel data set from 2001 to 2011 on 70 countries that trade mainly with the EAC partner states. Results suggest that indeed the implementation of the EAC treaty has created trade, contrary to widely held views that South-South RTAs largely divert trade.
- PreviewTrade, Environment and Development:The Brazilian Experience (English)Discussion Paper by Luciana Togeiro de Almeida, Mario Ferreira Presser and Stela Luiza de Mattos Ansa, 2004, 38 pagesCategories: Trade and Environment, VI Members Research
This paper argues that there is a need for reconsideration of the conventional methodologies applied to the study of the relationships of mutual causality involving trade, environment and development, giving priority to historical-inductive approaches
- PreviewTrade Opportunities of an Fta Between Colombia and TurkeyWorking paper by Daniel Gómez-Abella; Catherine Pereira-Villa; Loly-Aylú Gaitán-Guerrero, 2013
The objective of this article is to explore the opportunities for growth, diversification and competition present in trade between Colombia and Turkey, as well as the ones that would result from a free trade agreement. It uses five indicators to characterize trade and trade policy. Disaggregated data from 2010 is used to conduct partial equilibrium simulations yielding estimates on trade, welfare and income effects. The paper shows that Turkish and Colombian consumers would gain in terms of welfare while Turkish tax revenues would fall more than those of Colombia.
- PreviewTrade Policy and Food Security: The Implications of the WTO’s Agreement on Agriculture for Caribbean Small Vulnerable Economies (English)Working paper by Pennycooke, Camiel / University of the West Indies, 2011, 46 pagesCategories: Commodities, VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System
The paper focuses on the impact of the Agreement on Agriculture on food security in Caribbean SVEs and was approached by examining its three pillars. In terms of the objectives and commitments made under the Uruguay Round an assessment was made on the implementation of such commitments and the outcomes for the SVEs. The research showed that to date, the objectives of the Agreement have not been fully realized and protectionism has actually increased in developed countries. The multilateral agricultural trade negotiations under the auspices of the World Trade Organization had projected the reduction in trade distortions and protectionism in international trade, thereby creating a fair trading environment for WTO members. This has resulted in the SVEs bringing to attention, in the current round of negotiations (Doha), trade-related problems experienced by the group, among which are the implications of the WTO agreements on their open economies, agriculture and sustained development.