A partnership with academia

Building knowledge for trade and development

    • Evaluation of policies, including national trade policies of WTO members.
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        Access To Financial Services As A Driver For The Post-2015 Development Agenda
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2015, 4 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, International Financial System, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This policy brief aims to highlight several components of a best-fit policy mix to expand financial inclusion. New technologies and innovative business models exhibit great potential to overcome access barriers. Governments have an important role in setting up sound regulatory frameworks and conditions to expand the supply and affordability of financial services, to ensure that such services remain supportive of the real economy, and to create an expanded demand for them, such as through financial education and empowerment. Actions towards financial inclusion could contribute to facilitated, speedier, safer and less costly transfer of remittances, the importance of which is also recognized within the sustainable development goals (SDGs).

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        The African Continental Free Trade Area: the Day After the Kigali Summit (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2018, 4 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The African Continental Free Trade Area is a remarkable achievement. At a time when trade is questioned in some parts of the world, African leaders gathered in Kigali on 21 March 2018, and took a bold step in favour of trade and of the economic integration of the continent. This policy brief examines the expectations for the Free Trade Area and outlines areas that require prompt action by African nations for the agreement to deliver on its expectations. In the challenges that lie ahead, including the next chapter of the Kigali Agreement on the African Continental Free Trade Area, UNCTAD will continue supporting African nations.

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        African Governance Report Ii (English)
        Report by UNECA, 2009, 290 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The report assesses and monitors the progress on governance in Africa, identifies capacity gaps in governance institutions and proposes policy interventions to promote good governance. It combines three research instruments: a national expert opinion panel, a scientific sample household survey and desk research. The report covers 35 countries.

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        Broadening The Sources Of Growth In Africa: The Role Of Investment
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2015, 4 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This policy brief outlines some of the key messages and recommendations of the UNCTAD Economic Development in Africa Report 2014: Catalysing Investment for Transformative Growth in Africa. Achieving the African Union’s vision of an integrated, prosperous and peaceful Africa that can serve as a pole of global growth in the twenty-first century requires broadening the sources of growth on the continent to lay the foundation for sustained growth and poverty reduction. For this to happen, however, it is necessary to enhance the contribution of investment to the growth process.

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        Burkina Faso : Perspectives Des Entreprises - Série De L’itc Sur Les Mesures Non Tarifaires
        Report by ITC, 2012, 93 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Rapport faisant partie d'une série de publications qui identifient les principaux obstacles relatifs aux mesures non tarifaires (MNT), auxquels le secteur privé est confronté - analyse l'expérience des entreprises exportatrices et importatrices au Burkina Faso, à travers une enquête directe de grande échelle; identifie les principaux obstacles MNT d'ordre réglementaire et procédurale, imposés par les pays partenaires ainsi que parle Burkina Faso; fournit une analyse sectorielle des problèmes relatifs aux MNT dans le secteur agricole et manufacturier; les appendices incluent la Classification internationale des mesures non tarifaires, et les références bibliographiques.

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        Climate Change, Biodiversity and Livelihoods: Lessons Learned from UNCTAD Project Impletmentation (English)
        Report by Castro, Lorena/UNCTAD, 2015, 45 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Environment

        This publication highlights the contribution of biodiversity investment in fostering sustainable development through business opportunities in sectors such as agriculture, pharmaceuticals and housing. The report outlines the implementation of UNCTAD BioTrade and REDD+ projects, its outcomes, lessons and the way forward.

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        Climate Change: Turning Costs into Income Opportunities (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2009, 2 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Environment

        Concerns about the high costs of climate change mitigation dominate the global debate to be resumed at Copenhagen. The question of who is to pay for the investments that will undoubtedly be needed receives far greater attention than the corollary question of who is to gain from them. From a macroeconomic perspective, one economic agent’s cost is always another agent’s income. But as this policy brief argues, the concept of cost is misleading in the context of climate change mitigation. Once the process of structural change necessitated by climate change mitigation is in full swing, there will be huge new market opportunities. The policy issue is: how will costs and incomes be distributed in this process? UNCTAD believes that developing countries, although they face considerable costs, can also generate new income if they adapt their development strategies to the requirements of climate change mitigation. This policy brief also stresses the role of government in facilitating the process of structural change, not only by fostering “green” consumer preferences, but also by implementing pro-active industrial policies that support the production of climate-friendly equipment and appliances. In short: The world can move to a low-carbon economy without feeling paralysed by the costs – and can do so without sacrificing growth in the developing world.

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        Competition Guidelines: Leniency Programmes (English)
        Also available in Arabic, French
        Policy brief by Brusick, Philippe/UNCTAD, 2016, 25 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Hard-core cartels constitute very serious violations of competition rules. However, they are often very difficult to detect and investigate without the cooperation of an insider. Accordingly, leniency programmes are designed to give incentives to cartel members to take the initiative to approach the competition authority, confess their participation in a cartel and cooperate with the competition law enforcers in exchange for total or partial immunity from sanctions. This publication, by the UNCTAD Secretariat, seeks to set specific guidelines for countries of the MENA region which envisage adoption or improvement of leniency programmes on competition. The view is to help them achieve a substantive degree of convergence in this field, as a practical way to increase the overall efficiency of the system in their struggle against hard core cartels. To this end, it draws attention to specific considerations for MENA Project countries, such as limits of leniency in small, less developed markets. It also reflects on how to make leniency programmes attractive for potential whistle-blowers, describes possible procedural guidelines along with cases deserving total or partial immunity, and lists some difficulties encountered in practice.

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        Costing MDG Gaps in the Asia-Pacific (English)
        Policy brief by UNESCAP, 2010, 4 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Poverty

        Although the Asia-Pacific region has made significant progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs),most of its countries are still off-track on one or more indicators. This policy brief examines what would it take for countries in the Asia-Pacific region to meet their MDG targets by 2015. It first focuses on the income-poverty gap which continues to persist despite high rates of growth. It then goes on to provide estimates of the resources needed for closing the MDG gaps in the areas of education, health, nutrition and sanitation. It concludes with a few remarks on policy challenges in the light of the findings.

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        Côte D’ivoire: Company Perspectives – An Itc Series on Non-tariff Measures (English)
        Report by ITC, 2014, 124 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report is part of a series of publications that identify the main obstacles related to non-tariff measures (NTMs) that the private sector faces. It analyzes the experience of exporting and importing companies in Côte d'Ivoire through a large scale survey as well as identifies the main obstacles in NTM regulatory and procedural order imposed by partner countries as well as Côte d'Ivoire.

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        Does TRIPS Art. 66.2 Encourage Technology Transfer To The LDC’s?: An Analysis Of Country Submissions To The TRIPS Council (1999-2007) (English)
        Policy brief by Suerie Moon /Harvard University, 2008, 12 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Science and Technology

        Developing countries, in general, see technology transfer as part of the bargain in which they agreed to strengthened intellectual property protection under the TRIPS Agreement. The TRIPS Agreement includes a number of specific provisions in this regard. Most notably, Article 66.2 requires developed countries to provide incentives for to enterprises and institutions in their territories for the purpose of promoting and encouraging technology transfer to LDCs in order to enable them to create a sound and viable technological. In this policy brief, Suerie Moon (Harvard University) examines, based on country self-reports to the TRIPS Council from 1999-2007, whether the Article 66.2 obligation led developed countries to increase incentives to enterprises and institutions in their territories for the purpose of promoting and encouraging technology transfer to WTO LDC Members. Her study underlines that the lack of definitional clarity regarding the terms “technology transfer” and “developed country” in these reports makes it unclear which countries are obligated to do what. Furthermore, it points to the fact that many developed countries have never submitted a report, and among countries that did, submissions have largely been irregular. In addition, a majority of the programmes and policies reported do not specifically target LDCs and a significant proportion of programmes for LDCs do not actually target technology transfer. The author highlights that country reports do not provide sufficiently detailed data to determine whether Article 66.2 led to any additional incentives beyond business-as-usual foreign aid. The policy brief includes a number of recommendations to improve the reporting system under Article 66.2. The author suggests, for example, the use of a uniform reporting format that will be comparable across countries and time periods. She also proposes developing a “toolkit” for assessing best practices in both the reporting and functioning of incentives. As the policy brief ultimately shows, significant work remains to be carried out in order to ensure an effective implementation of Article 66.2.

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        Don’t Blame the Physical Markets: Financialization is the Root Cause of Oil and Commodity Price Volatility (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2012, 4 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The sharp price movements of many primary commodities, including oil, have fuelled intense debate about the causes of the price hikes and possible remedies. Growing demand from large developing economies and frequent supply shocks, such as adverse weather and export bans, are generally accepted as more tangible factors that explain volatility, rather than the hundreds of billions of dollars of bets placed on expectations of temporarily rising prices. Despite a growing body of evidence on the destabilizing influences emanating from financial markets, the “real economy” explanations still dominate the debate. It is not commonly recognized that demand from financial investors in the commodity markets has become overwhelming during the last decade. Of course, supply and demand shocks can still move commodity prices time and again. But with the volumes of exchange traded derivatives on commodity markets now being 20 to 30 times larger than physical production, the influence of financial markets has systematically transformed these real markets into financial markets. This calls for strong and prompt policy and regulatory responses in the financial markets, rather than in the physical markets.

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        Ensuring Gender-sensitive Implementation Of The Post-2015 Development Framework
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2015, 4 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Gender

        This policy brief offers stakeholders (government, civil society) some suggestions on elements and data that may help them to assess whether they are implementing the Post-2015 development framework in a gender-sensitive manner. The suggestions are linked to the proposed goals, targets and indicators and are meant to guide the implementation process once the post-2015 «package» is agreed upon by member States. While gender equality should be promoted throughout the goals, this brief offers suggestions on SDGs 1, 2, 5 and 17, the goals that are intimately related to the role of women as economic agents.

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        Ensuring Trade Policy Supports Food Security Goals (English)
        Policy brief by ICTSD, 2009, 13 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Policy Reviews and Briefs, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        While analysts, negotiators and policy-makers have long been aware of the trade barriers and distortions facing developing country agriculture, the renewed attention to food insecurity has yet to spark concrete action on trade policy reform. Indeed, if progress is to be achieved towards achieving food security goals, action to tackle the trade-related causes of hunger has to be an integral part of a broader set of development-oriented reforms in both the developed and developing world. This short analytical note attempts to summarise some of the relationships between trade policy and food security, and pinpoint some of the changes that might be required if governments are to achieve their goals in this area.

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        Escaping the “middle Income Trap”: the Divergent Experiences of the Republic of Korea and Brazil
        Policy brief by ARTNeT, 2015, 12 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This policy brief reviews the key drivers behind the successful catch-up through a comparative analysis of the Republic of Korea and Brazil. These two economies represent an interesting case in that until the 1980s, the GDP of Brazil was higher than that of Republic of Korea. Thereafter, the two economies took different paths, with Brazil becoming stuck in the “middle-income trap” and the Republic of Korea making a significant progress.

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        Estimating the Impact of Trade Specialization and Trade Policy on Poverty in Developing Countries- Trade and Poverty Paper Series No. 6 (English)
        Discussion paper by Santos-Paulino, Amelia and Thornquist, Disa/UNCTAD, 2015, 23 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Poverty

        The paper investigates the impact of trade specialization on reducing poverty in developing countries. It evaluates the contribution of agriculture in low-income economies as a primary source of income. It also examines how developing countries can move out from commodities to agriculture. The paper argues that agriculture has more potential benefits when placed with the right policy approach in relation to improving livelihoods, jobs, productive capacity, and enabling inclusive sustainable development.

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        EXAMEN COLLÉGIAL VOLONTAIRE DE LA POLITIQUE DE CONCURRENCE: TUNISIE - RAPPORT DE SYNTHÈSE (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2006, 41 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Ce rapport de synthèse résume les principales informations tirées de « l'Examen collégial volontaire de la politique de la concurrence en Tunisie ». Après un bref rappel du contexte politique et économique du pays, le rapport présente la politique de la concurrence (la loi, les organes et le fonctionnement) en Tunisie. Cette synthèse comprend également un examen de l’application de cette politique au cours des dernières années, compte tenu du contexte tunisien (prix contrôlés, politiques sectorielles, etc.), ainsi qu’une série de conclusions et de recommandations.

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        Examen De La Politique D'investissement De Djibouti (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2013, 115 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The Investment Policy Review (IPR) of Djibouti identifies a number of weaknesses in the policy, legal, regulatory and institutional frameworks for investment in Djibouti. Taking into account Djibouti's development objectives and the Government's will to improve the investment environment, the IPR proposes remedial actions and puts forward a multidimensional strategy to attract FDI.

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        Examen De La Politique D'investissement: République Du Congo
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 70 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The Investment Policy Review (IPR) of the Republic of the Congo analyses the role that foreign direct investment (FDI) can play in meeting the country's development goals and proposes concrete recommendations to address the policy, legal, regulatory and institutional barriers to investment. The IPR also analyses the potential role of FDI in addressing food security and poverty through agriculture development. It advises the Government to adopt a clear vision for the sector and to pay particular attention to the agricultural development model that is advocated. In particular, it stresses the important role of the Government to promoting inclusive agriculture development and the integration of local operators in FDI-led value chains as it can maximize the sustainable development impact of FDI projects. It also highlights the fact that regular monitoring and rigorous evaluation of projects, based on reliable indicators, are among the best tools to ensure good results.

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        From Declarations to Actions on Commodities: Marking the Turning Point at UNCTAD XII (English)
        Policy brief by South Centre, 2008, 8 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This Policy Brief appeals to UNCTAD’s historical role to address the global development problems, including the commodities problem, and to start taking concrete actions within the framework of UNCTAD XII. After a short overview of the commodities problem and its implications, failures and lessons from previous conferences are pointed out, followed by corresponding policy recommendations how to tackle this problem within the international community.

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        G20 Policies and Export Performance of Least Developed Countries (English)
        Discussion paper by Nicita, Alessandro and Seiermann, Julia/UNCTAD, 2017, 34 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Negotiations

        This volume of the Policy Issues in International Trade and Commodities Research Study Series provides an overview and analysis of G20 trade policies, in particular tariffs and non-tariff measures, and provides suggestions on how they could be improved to increase the export competitiveness of LDCs. It finds that G20 tariffs remain restrictive in several sectors of importance for LDCs. More importantly, the results indicate that the G20 countries’ regulatory frameworks and the corresponding non-tariff measures (NTMs) alter relative competitiveness to the advantage of exporters that are capable of efficient compliance with NTMs, therefore penalizing exports originating in LDCs. The paper concludes with recommendations and suggests progress in Aid for Trade initiatives and increases in technical assistance programmes, both on bilateral and multilateral levels will help minimize LDCs' costs of compliance with NTMs and facilitate the integration of LDCs in the global economy.

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        Global Imbalances: The Choice of the Exchange Rate-indicator is Key (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 2 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The path towards a more stable, balanced and equitable global economy received an important boost in recent days. In December 2010 in Seoul, the G-20 leaders acknowledged the need for a co-ordinated multilateral response to global trade imbalances and asked for “indicative guidelines composed of a range of indicators” which “would serve as a mechanism to facilitate timely identification of large imbalances that require preventive and corrective action to be taken”(paragraph 9 of the Seoul Summit Declaration). This is very much in line with UNCTAD's recent proposals (see, for example, Policy Brief No 17, published prior to the summit). UNCTAD recommended the use of the Real Effective Exchange Rate (REER) as a practical and effective indicator to differentiate between sustainable and unsustainable trade imbalances. This policy brief argues that a REER based on unit labour costs (the premium of nominal wages over productivity for the economy as a whole) is better suited to grasp changes in competitiveness than one based on consumer price inflation. The latter misses out important elements of the catching-up process of developing countries and may result in significant misinterpretation for some important emerging economies like China.

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        Good Governance Guidelines: Independence and Transparency (English)
        Also available in Arabic, French
        Policy brief by Brusick, Philippe/UNCTAD, 2016, 43 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Sound policy outcomes are better assured when decisions by the competition authority are not politicized, discriminatory or implemented on the basis of narrow goals of interest groups. Hence, it is widely accepted that competition authorities should be insulated from undue political interference. Thus, the independence of competition authorities is often defined as their distinct legal personality and structural separateness from Government. In addition to defining the authority’s structure, enabling legislation usually prescribes functions, powers, the manner in which members of management and staff are to be appointed, their tenure and removal, and how the authority is to be financed, often providing financial autonomy. This also includes its obligations with respect to transparency, confidentiality and the possibility of recourse. Even when the law is quite explicit, “de-facto” practice may deviate from the “de-jure” letter of the law. Independence should, therefore, be considered in terms of degrees of independence rather than as absolute independence. This publication examines the degree of independence and transparency which the MENA Project countries, which have competition laws, have inscribed within their legislation and to a certain extent, how this is implemented in actual enforcement practice, taking into consideration the general trends of this particular subject, as observed worldwide.

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        Implications of Global Value Chains for Trade, Investment, Development and Jobs (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD OECD WTO, 2013, 29 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Brief prepared for the G-20 Leaders Summit Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)on the highlights on trade and investment openness. Main points regarding value chains encompassing an emphasis on trade facilitation, non-tariff measures, market efficiency, competitiveness, investment trade policy implications and strategies for development and job creation.

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        Improving Market Access for the Least Developed Countries in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2015, 4 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This policy brief proposes a package of actions for attaining the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. In particular it addresses the goals of doubling the share of global exports of the least developed countries (LDCs) by 2020; and providing duty-free and quota-free (DFQF) market access to LDCs as one of the main pillars of international support for export expansion by LDCs.

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        International Climate Change Negotiations and Agriculture (English)
        Policy brief by ICTSD, 2009, 14 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Environment

        The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the existing international climate change agreements and the international negotiations underway and to point out the ways in which the agricultural sector - is - or may be - addressed in the international climate regulatory framework. In 2008 the International Food & Agricultural Trade Policy Council (IPC) and the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD) launched The ICTSD-IPC Platform on Climate Change, Agriculture and Trade: Promoting Policy Coherence. This paper is part of this initiative. This interdisciplinary platform of climate change, agricultural and trade experts seeks to promote increased policy coherence to ensure effective climate change mitigation and adaptation, food security and a more open and equitable global food system.

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        Investment Policy Monitor (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2009, 8 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This Monitor is the first of a new series launched by the UNCTAD Secretariat. Its objective is to provide policy-makers and the international investment community at large with up-to-date information about the latest developments in foreign investment policies at the national and international level. It also seeks to identify the overall trends and salient features of these developments. By doing so, the Monitor aims to assist policy makers and other interested stakeholders in their discussions of foreign investment policy issues, and contribute to preparing the ground for future policymaking in the interest of making foreign investment work for growth and development.

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        Investment Policy Monitor (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 13 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Seventy-five percent of the observed national policy measures were in the direction of investment liberalization and promotion. In particular many countries from Asia and Europe introduced new investment promotion policies such as simplifying investment procedures, enhancing the protection of foreign investors and easing foreign exchange regulations. In addition, some countries in these regions introduced new promotion programmes for outward foreign direct investment (FDI). Although the recent deepening of the financial and economic crisis in parts of the world has yet to impact national investment policies, signs are visible that major economies are becoming more and more concerned about the impact of inward and outward investment on their economies. Recent fears about possible macroeconomic shocks and a reoccurrence of the recession could increase the risk of new protectionist measures vis-á-vis foreign investors. The number of investment restrictions accumulated over the recent years and the tightening of administrative procedures, point in this direction.

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        Investment Policy Review: Botswana (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2003, 107 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        What: Botswana emerged from least developed country (LDC) status within one generation and is now a middle income country. Foreign direct investment (FDI) was a driving force in this dramatic change. The Government’s handling of the fiscal, social and economic pressures of this transformation could serve as a model for other resource-dependent economies. Who: Useful for teachers and students focusing on a case study in investment. How: Can be used as a background reading and/or research work in investment policy and FDI in resource rich developing economy.

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        Investment Policy Review: Colombia (English)
        Review by UNCTAD, 2006, 99 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The review proposes ways to strengthen the government's investment promotion arm, Proexport, as well as enhance policies to attract more technology-driven firms to its growing knowledge-based economy. While praising the government for its market reforms, the review notes that investors are concerned by a number of contradictory fiscal measures and the difficulty of resorting to international arbitration in case of disputes. The review urges the government to extend its network of bilateral investment treaties and double taxation agreements to fully tap market opportunities offered by the bilateral trade agreement with the United States. It also encourages the government to begin negotiations with the European Union.

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        Investment Policy Review, Djibouti - Summary (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2013, 5 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The Investment Policy Review (IPR) of Djibouti identifies a number of weaknesses in the policy, legal, regulatory and institutional frameworks for investment in Djibouti. Taking into account Djibouti's development objectives and the Government's will to improve the investment environment, the IPR proposes remedial actions and puts forward a multidimensional strategy to attract FDI.

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        Investment Policy Review: Dominican Republic (English)
        Review by UNCTAD, 2009, 134 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Over the last three decades, the Dominican Republic has adopted policies of greater openness to international trade and investment as part of its quest for economic and social progress. As a result, foreign direct investment (FDI) has played a prominent role in its economic development and in decisively shifting the export structure of the country to light manufacturing, thereby reducing commodity dependence. A new and more ambitious development goal has now been set. It focuses on making the country a regional leader in high-value-added manufacturing and services. To this end, the Dominican authorities have embarked on a number of policy initiatives to increase the international competitiveness of the economy. They acknowledge that FDI can again play a key role in promoting this second transition into higher-valueadded activities. In light of this ambitious objective, the Government of the Dominican Republic has requested that UNCTAD carry out a review of the country’s investment policies and of the national investment promotion effort. This investment policy review is the result of research and analysis carried out by UNCTAD in 2007.

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        Investment Policy Review: Egypt (English)
        Review by UNCTAD, 1999, 119 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        At the time of the review, Egypt had the potential to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) of higher quantity and quality, commensurate with the fundamental strengths and opportunities that its economy offered. These strengths included a large domestic market, a wide industrial base, a skilled and competitively priced workforce and a strategic location in the region. The IPR recognized the efforts that the Government of Egypt had made to establish an adequate investment regulatory framework and improve the business environment. However, while current FDI inflows had been meeting the objectives of job creation and output expansion, most industrial projects had so far failed to boost exports. The IPR concluded that overcoming the limited involvement of TNCs in manufacturing sectors with export potential such as food, garments and electronics, would require a policy emphasis on the following: - Infrastructure investments relating to the physical, technological and educational infrastructure. - Specific sectors to promote clusters of related enterprises and self-sustaining development.

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        Investment Policy Review: Kenya (English)
        Review by UNCTAD, 2005, 126 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        While Kenya was a magnet for foreign direct investment in East Africa in the 1960s and 1970s, the country has underperformed significantly in the past couple of decades. A wide array of TNCs are nevertheless present in the country, and FDI has played a key role in some of the dynamic sectors of the economy. The IPR recommended a more pro-active strategy of FDI attraction and proposes policy measures to enhance the impact of FDI on growth and economic development, focusing on: - The manufacturing of basic consumer goods and industrial inputs for the regional market. - The development of Kenya into a regional services hub. - Agri-business activities. - Diversification of activities in export processing zones. The IPR also warned the government on the possible drawbacks of the then recently adopted Investment Promotion Act, which introduced minimum capital requirements for FDI entry. Subsequently, the Government proposed amendments to Parliament to lift these requirements.

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        Investment policy review: Mauritius (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2001, 92 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        What: Mauritius is an economic success story. The economy has sustained high 6 per cent annual growth for two decades – first driven by sugar, then textiles and clothing, and tourism, and most recently by financial services. Economic growth and structural change were achieved while maintaining national stability and social cohesion. A generation of Mauritians has enjoyed a rise in living standards that few countries can match, reaching an income per capita of $4,000 today. What was once, only another commodity producer, today is the leading manufactures exporter in sub-Saharan Africa. Who: Useful for teachers and students focusing on a case study in investment. How: Can be used as a background reading and/or research work in investment policy and FDI in a

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        Investment Policy Review: Nigeria (English)
        Review by UNCTAD, 2009, 154 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The Review focussed on the objective of increasing non-oil foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows to Nigeria. Reforms carried out under Nigeria´s home-grown development strategy, NEEDs, are more advanced than generally appreciated outside Nigeria. These include measures addressing both macroeconomic and investment climate issues. Despite these accomplishments, Nigeria continues to attract low quality FDI in manufacturing. In this regard, there is little evidence of the participation of foreign affiliates in the country to the process of integration into the regional and global production networks of the transnational corporations that characterize more advanced strategic corporate response to globalization. Few and very basic linkages exist between foreign companies and local suppliers. Against this background, the UNCTAD investment policy review of Nigeria considers what needs to be done to enable FDI to make its full contribution to the orientation set by the Government.

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        Investment Policy Review of Mozambique
        Review by UNCTAD, 2012, 126 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This Review provides a comprehensive assessment of the regulatory framework for investment and identifies a number of key weaknesses, including in particular: (1) the general approach to investment rulemaking; (2) corporate taxation and the structure of tax incentives; (3) the employment of foreigners and access to skills; (4) access to land; (5) PPPs and the management of mega-projects; and (6) licensing and inspections. It concludes by proposing a strategy to attract the type of FDI that could best support Mozambique achieve its development goals and address its main challenges, including job creation.

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        Investment Policy Review: Peru (English)
        Review by UNCTAD, 2000, 109 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        At the time of the IPR, Peru had been extremely successful in attracting foreign direct investment (FDI), although this was to some extent linked to its privatization programme. The challenge Peru faced was to build on its success to attract investments in new areas. The IPR recommended the following measures: - Fine-tuning the investment framework. - Strengthening investment promotion. - Strengthening Peru´s competitiveness and broadenening FDI. - Encouraging regional cooperation.

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        Investment Policy Review: Republic of Belarus (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2009, 126 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The UNCTAD Investment Policy Reviews (IPRs) are intended to help countries improve their investment policies and to familiarize governments and the international private sector with an individual country's investment environment.The Investment Policy Review of Belarus, initiated at the request of the Belarusian Governement, assesses the suitablitly and effectiveness of the regulatory regime of the country against several related criteria: (a) whether the regulation adequately promotes and protects the public interest; (b) whether the regulation adequately promotes investment and sustainable socio-economic development; and (c) whether the policies employed are effective and well administered, given the public interest and development objectives and the legitimate concerns of investors that rules and procedures do not unduly burden their competitiveness.\\nIn addition, the report elaborates on a strategy to maximize the positive impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) on the development of a local small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) sector.

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        Investment Policy Review: Rwanda (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2006, 145 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Rwanda is among the world´s poorest nations, and it faces particular challenges in leveraging FDI for development. Foreign investment flows have been negligible since independence, and Rwanda missed out on the global surge in FDI flows to developing countries in the 1990s. Rwanda has nevertheless achieved remarkable political and social progress since 1994. It has become one of Africa's countries with the highest degree of personal safety and lowest incidence of corruption. It has also started to rebuild its economy, and the Government is fully committed to building a peaceful, stable and prosperous nation through sustainable private sector led development. Much progress in reforming the investment climate has been achieved so far, even though much remains to be done. The Investment Policy Review suggests three policy avenues to promote FDI and ensure that it contributes to achieving the national development goals: • Turn Rwanda into a centre of excellence in soft infrastructure and governance. • Develop a skills attraction and dissemination programme. • Put in place focused strategic initiatives. Since the IPR was published, UNCTAD has, with funding from the Government of Germany (unless otherwise indicated), assisted the government in the following ways: • It sensitized Members of Parliament and the Senate on the findings of the IPR of Rwanda. • It produced an Investment Guide to Rwanda. • It prepared a strategy for the promotion of the industrial mining sector. • It drafted a model mining convention. • It is preparing a client charter for the investment promotion agency. • It is helping the government to set up a skills attraction and dissemination programme, as recommended in the IPR.

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        Investment Policy Review - Sierra Leone (English)
        Report by Investment Policy Review team/ UNCTAD, 2010, 126 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The paper presents an overview of the economic structure and the impact of FDI in Sierra Leone; it examines its investment framework and proposes a number of recommendations to deepen the reforms and to position Sierra Leone’s investment framework on more competitive grounds; finally, it proposes an overall strategy to enhance the role of FDI in achieving national development goals.

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        Investment Policy Review: Tanzania (English)
        Review by UNCTAD, 2002, 109 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The United Republic of Tanzania was fast becoming a foreign direct investment (FDI) front-runner in Africa. As market reforms reached critical mass, Tanzania received a billion dollars of investment inflows in 1995-2000 compared with only $90 million during the preceding six years. The challenge at the time of review was to achieve higher levels of inflows and increase the scale and scope of their benefits. The IPR recommended that, as a short-term strategy, the Government should continue to focus on immediate FDI potential in mining, utilities and tourism. The long-term challenge would be to make Tanzania an attractive location for FDI in East and Southern Africa. To achieve this, the IPR suggests the following: - Completing the privatization programme. - Expanding and consolidating international market assess. - Enhancing competitiveness of human resources. - Building a dynamic private enterprise.

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        Investment Policy Review The Sudan
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2014, 67 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Through its national development plans and legislative reforms, the Sudan has made efforts to diversify the economy and attract FDI into new industries. However, more is needed to build a transparent and predictable business environment. The analysis of the Investment Policy Review (IPR) completed by UNCTAD shows that the Sudan has put in place a relatively open investment legislative framework and several laws are modern and in line with good practices. However, their implementation is often impeded by the absence of secondary legislation, insufficient institutional capacity and lack of coordination among different levels of the Government. The IPR proposes a number of concrete recommendations to address these shortcomings and to build a favourable business environment.

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        Investment Policy Review: Uganda (English)
        Review by UNCTAD, 2000, 71 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The IPR revealed that Uganda had the essential conditions to attract FDI, including an exemplary investment policy framework, a diversified natural resource base and a growing regional market. But tapping these opportunities would require continued public efforts to improve the microeconomic environment, hampered by inadequate transport, electricity and telecommunications facilities. The central message of this report is that Uganda needs to continue the momentum of recovery to achieve sustainable development. The IPR makes the following recommendations: - To modernize the Investment Code and re-orient the Uganda Investment Agency firmly towards FDI promotion. - To promote FDI into core infrastructure and services. - To promote investment into natural-resource-based industries for the domestic, regional and international markets. - To adopt a "big push" strategy to ensure speedy implementation of projects on the ground and to implement innovative ways of overcoming institutional and structural obstacles.

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        Investment Policy Review: Viet Nam (English)
        Review by UNCTAD, 2008, 177 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Viet Nam opened its economy to foreign investors in the late 1980s under the Doi Moi policy of renovation and economic reforms. Viet Nam managed to quickly attract significant inflows of FDI and their impact has been very strong. As a result, foreign investors have been a major force in the economic transformation of Viet Nam during the past two decades and in its integration into the world economy. To fully exploit the potential of the country in attracting and benefiting from FDI, the Investment Policy Review (IPR) highlights a number of areas where Viet Nam could focus its attention for further reforms. This includes a policy to ensure that the economy has the skills it needs as it evolves and develops, using foreign workers where necessary. Measures to clearly separate the State´s ownership and regulatory functions are also proposed, together with a rationalization and simplification of fiscal incentives on corporate taxes. It is also suggested to selectively lift certain FDI entry restrictions and to shift the regulatory stance from "steer and control" to "regulate, monitor and enforce". Furthermore, the IPR, on the basis of an analysis of the electricity sector, proposes a number of measures to enable Viet Nam to attract FDI in power generation.

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        It's Not All About Trade: Preferential Trading Agreements Induce Economic Reforms in Developing Countries (English)
        Article by Leonardo Baccini, Johannes Urpelainen, 2012, 5 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        In this brief, the authors present results of their empirical analysis on two stages of cooperation between the EU and the US and devloping countries. In their remarkable conclusion they prompt that the deepest and broadest preferential North-South trading agreements signed by most developing countries are ultimately about economic reform.

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        Kenya: Company Perspectives – An Itc Series on Non-tariff Measures (English)
        Report by ITC, 2014, 124 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report is part of a series of publications assessing the impact of Non-Tariff Measures (NTMs) on the business sector, based on a large-scale survey conducted in Kenya with companies directly reporting burdensome NTMs and the reasons why they consider them to be trade obstacles. It analyses survey findings and compares them to other sources on NTMs to identify regulatory, procedural and infrastructural obstacles in Kenya and its partner countries. It also gives trade and trade policy overview of Kenya and covers food and agro-based products including tea and horticultural products, manufacturing sectors such as chemicals, metal and non-electric machinery, plastics and rubber products, and textiles and clothing.

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        La Política Comercial En América Latina Durante La Crisis: Algunas Observaciones Preliminares (English)
        Policy brief by Durán Lima, José; Herreros, Sebastián/ LATN, 2010, 5 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs

        En el marco de la coordinación regional de Global Trade Alert, LATN presenta este brief donde se analiza la diversidad de medidas implementadas en materia de política comercial a lo largo América Latina tras el desencadenamiento de la crisis financiera internacional.

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        Las TIC Como Instrumento Para Acceder Al Mercado Mundial (English)
        Policy brief by Osterlof Obregón, Doris, 2011, 6 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Science and Technology

        Las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (TIC) cada vez más se han convertido en un instrumento para facilitar la competitividad de las exportaciones en el comercio mundial. Asimismo, pueden servir para incrementar la productividad de las empresas. Son instrumentos habilitadores del desarrollo de un país y, por lo tanto, su utilización incide en el crecimiento de los diversos sectores productivos. A la vez, son también en sí mismas una oportunidad de negocios.

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        Latest Developments In Investor-state Dispute Settlement (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2012, 21 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        In 2011, the number of known treaty-based investor-State dispute settlement (ISDS) cases filed under international investment agreements (IIAs) grew by at least 46, bringing the total number of known treatybased cases to 450 by the end of 2011 (figure 1).1 This constitutes the highest number of known treatybased disputes ever filed in one year. Since most arbitration forums do not maintain a public registry of claims, the total number of actual treatybased cases is likely to be higher.

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        Madagascar: Company Perspectives – An Itc Series on Non-tariff Measures
        Policy brief by ITC, 2013, 136 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The majority of trade obstacles in Madagascar involve the high number and complexity of national controls and inspections as well as cumbersome and opaque Malagasy administrative procedures.A recent survey on non-tariff measures conducted with 400 exporters and importers in Madagascar also reveals that companies have difficulty meeting stringent quality and certification requirements imposed by partner countries. These obstacles underline the need for the government to strengthen its national quality strategy by streamlining and upgrading national inspection and certification procedures and infrastructure.

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        Making Regional Integration Work : Company Perspectives on Non-tariff Measures in Arab States
        Report by ITC, 2015, 74 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report is part of the ITC series of developing-country surveys on non-tariff measures (NTMs). It analyses four business surveys conducted by ITC in Egypt, Morocco, the State of Palestine and Tunisia. The surveys focus on NTMs imposed by governments; procedures that make compliance difficult; and inefficiencies in the trade-related business environment.The publication offers insights into what businesses perceive as their main challenges to trade, within and beyond the region, and suggests how to address these bottlenecks which hamper international and regional trade of the countries covered by the surveys.

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        Making Regional Trade Work for Africa: Turning Words into Deeds
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2015, 4 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        This policy brief deals with the implementation of regional trade agreements (RTAs) in Africa. A well-known characteristic of the regional integration process in Africa is the multiplicity of RTAs however the African continent is faced with a low rate of their implementation. This policy brief identifies some of the main barriers to implementation and proposes remedies for them. It identifies and examines specific policy measures that African Governments and their development partners should consider adopting to address the challenge of implementing RTAs in Africa.

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        Malawi: Company Perspectives - An ITC Series on Non-Tariff Measures (English)
        Report by ITC, 2013, 107 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This survey of exporters and importers in Malawi reveals that their main challenges to access markets abroad are twofold in relation to non-tariff measures. First, product certification is problematic: companies have difficulties to meet international standards. In addition, Malawi lacks an internationally accredited facility to certify products. Second, export licensing is a real challenge due to the many institutions involved, which contributes to inefficiency in issuing licenses. This report presents and analyses the survey results, including trade policy implications for Malawi. It also outlines the recommendations established in a public-private dialogue on the survey results.

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        Maroc: Perspectives Des Entreprises - Série de l'ITC sur les Mesures Non Tarifaires (English)
        Report by ICT, 2012, 107 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Rapport faisant partie d'une série de publications qui identifient les principaux obstacles relatifs aux mesures non tarifaires (MNT), auxquels le secteur privé est confronté – analyse l'expérience des entreprises exportatrices et importatrices au Maroc, à travers une enquête directe de grande échelle; identifie les principaux obstacles MNT d'ordre réglementaire et procédurale, imposés par les pays partenaires ainsi que par le Maroc; fournit une analyse sectorielle des problèmes relatifs aux MNT dans le secteur agricole et manufacturier; les appendices incluent : la méthodologie globale des enquêtes sur les MNT, les principaux résultats des entretiens face à face par secteur, une liste des obstacles procéduraux, et les références bibliographiques.

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        Mauritius: Company Perspectives – An ITC Series on Non-tariff Measures (English)
        Report by ITC, 2014, 132 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This country report analyses survey findings from the ITC business surveys on non-tariff measures (NTM) and compares them to other sources on NTMs to identify regulatory, procedural and infrastructural obstacles in Mauritius and its partner countries covering food and agro-based products, textiles and clothing, manufacturing sectors and intellectual property issues before outlining policy options.

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        Mauritius: Company Perspectives – An Itc Series on Non-tariff Measures
        Policy brief by ITC, 2014, 132 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Mauritian exporters claim to be less affected by trade barriers than many other countries that have participated in the ITC business surveys on non-tariff measures. Among the 400 Mauritian firms surveyed, 27% of exporters were adversely affected by non-tariff measures; 36% of importing firms reported they were affected by non-tariff measures.The main concern is conformity assessment for the European Union, the largest market for Mauritian exports. In addition, companies reported a disproportionate share of measures related to the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). COMESA countries comprise only 6% of Mauritian agricultural exports, however, they accounted for 29% of company concerns related to non-tariff measures. Among other countries surveyed by ITC that report higher barriers due to non-tariff measures are: Paraguay (69%), Peru (42%), Sri Lanka (70%), and Uruguay (56%).

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        National Services Policy Review - Uganda (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2011, 107 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This publication presents the results of the National Services Policy Review (NSPR) undertaken by the Government of Uganda in cooperation with UNCTAD

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        Negociación De Un Acuerdo Comercial Con La Ue: Impactos Estimados De Pobreza En Ecuador (English)
        Policy brief by Wong, Sara/ LATN, 2010, 4 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade and Poverty

        En este brief se analizan los posibles resultados de un acuerdo comercial entre la Unión Europea y Ecuador recurriendo a un modelo de micro-simulaciones y considerando los impactos potenciales sobre los índices de pobreza.

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        O Papel Dos Sistemas Gerais De Preferências (English)
        Policy brief by Barral, Welber, Pancotto Bohrer, Carolina, 2011, 12 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        O trabalho abordará o papel dos SGPs no comércio exterior brasileiro, specialmente no que tange às exportações para EUA e UE. O Brasil é usuário de ambos os sistemas, que passam por momento de transformação. Nos últimos anos, o país tem empreendido considerável esforço para manter as vantagens tarifárias no âmbito do SGP norte-americano, o que constitui elemento importante nas relações comerciais entre Brasil e EUA. No entanto, existem questionamentos tanto internos quanto externos relativos à participação do Brasil no SGP daquele país. No caso do SGP europeu, existe também bastante preocupação, especialmente em função do recente anúncio de que o bloco vai rever seu SGP, o que provavelmente terá como resultado a exclusão de países médios como o Brasil. Esta pode ser, inclusive, uma estratégia européia para forçar um acordo com o MERCOSUL e os impactos para o comércio exterior brasileiro podem ser relevantes.

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        Paraguay: Company Perspectives – An Itc Series on Non-tariff Measures (English)
        Report by ITC, 2013, 135 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        According to an ITC survey, non-tariff measures (NTMs) affect Paraguayan companies more than those in other Latin American countries. This report outlines policy recommendations to overcome the negative impacts of identified burdensome NTMs, particularly testing and product certification requirements, taxes and charges, quantity control measures and procedural obstacles which make export and import processes more complex.

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        Paraguay: Company Perspectives – An Itc Series on Non-tariff Measures
        Policy brief by ITC, 2013, 135 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Non-tariff measures (NTMs) affect Paraguayan companies more than those in other Latin American countries, an ITC survey reveals.Of 406 exporters and importers, 62% report problems linked to burdensome NTMs, particularly testing and product certification requirements. Taxes and charges and quantity control measures are hampering regional integration in MERCOSUR. Procedural obstacles, such as inefficiencies in institutions, make export and import processes more complex. The report outlines policy recommendations to overcome the negative impacts of identified NTMs.

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        Peru: Company Perspectives – An ITC Series on Non-tariff Measures (English)
        Report by ITC, 2012, 134 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        A recent ITC survey of 960 Peruvian companies shows that 40% face challenges related to non-tariff measures, mostly in their major export markets in the USA, the EU and some countries in Latin America. This report outlines survey results and policy options discussed at a national roundtable in Peru in February 2012. While Peru’s exports doubled in five years, resources of specialized technical agencies have not increased accordingly. Certification and inspection have thus become a bottleneck. Information systems about NTMs need strengthening, as many issues faced particularly by small and medium-sized firms emerged from their lack of knowledge about regulations.

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        Practical Solution for Cameroonian SMEs Financing Issue / Solutions Pratiques Au Problème De Financement Des Pme Au Cameroun (English)
        Policy brief by Christian Lambert NGUENA, 2013, 5 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Finance for Development, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Le rôle des petites et moyennes entreprises (PME) dans la lutte contre le chômage et la relance de l’activité économique n’est plus à démontrer. Le Cameroun souffre jusqu’à nos jours d’un secteur privé à plus de 90 % constitué de PME peu viables faute de financement, situation qui tend à s’accentuer avec l’avènement des crises financières. L’essor des PME demande donc la mise en oeuvre d’un mécanisme efficace pour leur financement, pierre angulaire de leur santé et de leur épanouissement. Fort de ce constat, ce policy brief, basé sur une étude, propose différentes actions que les acteurs peuvent engager pour résoudre le problème de déficit de financement dont souffrent les PME camerounaises. Ainsi : • L’État devrait développer et maintenir une politique d’assainissement et de facilitation des mécanismes de financement des PME ; • Les promoteurs des PME et entrepreneurs devraient remettre en cause et corriger leurs comportements préjudiciables à la recherche de financement ; • Et enfin les institutions financières devraient, à l’instar de l’État, faciliter le processus de financement des PME.

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        Report on the Implementation of the Investment Policy Review - United Republic of Tanzania (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 58 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This report is a review of the progress made in implementing the Investment Policy Review of the United Republic of Tanzania (IPR), published in 2002. The report notes that there has been a great deal of activity related to improving the investment climate in the United Republic of Tanzania since the completion of the IPR. However, progress implementing the recommendations has ben mixed.

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        Review of Maritime Transport 2015 (English)
        Also available in Russian, Chinese
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 122 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Facilitation

        The Review of Maritime Transport aims to foster the transparency of maritime markets and analyzes relevant developments. The year 2015 is a milestone for sustainable development. The international community has a unique opportunity to strengthen its commitment to sustainable development and consider how best to mainstream sustainability principles across all economic activities and sectors, including maritime transport. In this context, in addition to the review of key economic and legal developments, the present edition of the Review of Maritime Transport highlights some issues that are at the interface of maritime transport and sustainability.

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        The Role of International Trade in Climate Change Adaptation (English)
        Note by Nelson, Gerald; Palazzo, Amanda; Ringler, Claudia; Sulser, Timothy; Batka, Miroslav/UNCTAD, 2009, 24 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Environment

        Early studies on the potential impacts of climate change indicated that agriculture was not likely to be severely affected, as carbon fertilization and trade flows were thought to be able to compensate for any productivity declines related to climate change. Recent work, however, has raised doubts about whether carbon fertilization laboratory test results can be replicated in the field. With the effects of carbon fertilization in question, the role of trade in the context of climate change becomes even more important. Climate change is anticipated to increase the incidence of food insecurity around the world, but trade has the potential to help counteract this effect by delivering agricultural goods to areas experiencing productivity declines. This ICTSD-IPC Platform on Climate Change, Agriculture and Trade paper by Gerald Nelson and his colleagues at the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) builds on IFPRI’s important work on estimating the costs of adaptation, and projects a significant increase in agricultural trade flows, in particular from developed to developing countries. In its\\n recommendations to policymakers released in October, the ICTSD-IPC Platform on Climate Change, Agriculture and Trade emphasized that an open and equitable agricultural trade system is necessary to address both climate change and food security concerns. Yet, as this paper also argues, it would be unwise to rely solely on trade to help us adjust to climate change. Alongside ongoing efforts to maintain an open and equitable global food system, the international community must also importantly commit to sustained investment in agricultural productivity. We are pleased to release this paper, trusting that it will enhance the Platform’s efforts to increase understanding of the linkages between climate change, agricultural production, trade and food security, which in turn will yield greater policy coherence among these issues.

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        Rwanda: Company Perspectives – An ITC Series on Non-tariff Measures (English)
        Report by ITC, 2014, 110 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report is part of a series of publications assessing the impact of non-tariff measures (NTMs) on the business sector, based on a large-scale survey conducted in Rwanda with companies directly reporting burdensome NTMs and the reasons why they consider them to be trade barriers. It analyses survey findings and compares them to other sources on NTMs to identify regulatory, procedural and infrastructural obstacles in Rwanda, its partner countries and transit countries and covers food and agro based products including coffee, tea, pyrethrum, other agricultural and agro-based products and chemicals, rubber-based products and other manufactures.

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        Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Review: Ghana (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 169 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Science and Technology

        The Science, Technology and Innovation Policy (STIP) Review of Ghana was prepared at the request of the Government of Ghana. The Review is meant to offer an objective and critical look at the country’s STI capacities and assess how these capacities are being translated into innovations that help meet the country’s socioeconomic development objectives, including supporting economic growth and poverty reduction as well as structural transformation of the economy. It sets out specific recommendations for practical actions and policy reforms to build STI capacity and to create a more dynamic economy that will move more quickly towards middle-income levels. The Review argues that policy action to promote STI development is required if Ghana is to achieve faster, more sustainable growth and development.

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        Science, Technology and Innovation Policy - Review of Mauritania (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2010, 147 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Science and Technology

        This Science Technology and Innovation Policy (STIP) Review provides an outline and assessment of the country’s current science, technology and innovation (STI) capabilities, their STI policies and the effectiveness of their national systems of innovation (NSIs) and knowledge systems in improving the productivity of enterprises and national economic performance, as well as in helping the country to address various economic, social and environmental challenges. It seeks to analyse how these have evolved in recent years, to provide an independent evaluation of whether these capabilities and the NSI need to be strengthened, how they might fit into the country’s development strategy, and suggest how policymakers in Mauritania might go about doing this. It also compares the progress made in upgrading these capabilities in relation to progress made in strengthening the other main elements that contribute to promoting economic growth and development in the country. The main finding of the Review is that STI capabilities, and the ability of enterprises and the public sector to effectively harness them for innovation, are currently inadequate to address the challenges that the country faces.

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        Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Review - Peru (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 184 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Science and Technology

        The ultimate objective of the science, technology and innovation policy review of Peru is to provide the Peruvian Government with an up-to-date diagnostic analysis of the effectiveness of its science, technology and innovation-related policies and measures, and strengthen these policies and measures by integrating them in the national development process, and improve technological capacity, encourage innovation and incorporate greater added value into production

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        Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Review - The Islamic Republic of Iran (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005, 118 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Science and Technology

        A policy review which was discussed during the commission on science and technology.It gives assistance to the country in formulating policies to strengthen the role of science and technology in national capacities and in competitiveness. Can be used by teachers and researchers in science and technology promotion in developing countries. The text contains a lot of information on Iran that can be used as a case study.

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        Science, Technology & Innovation Policy Review - Dominican Republic (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 116 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Science and Technology

        This document has three fundamental goals: first, to offer the Government and Dominican society an up-dated diagnosis of the effectiveness of STI policies, programmes and instruments; second, to facilitate the strengthening of those policies and measures by integrating them into the national development process; and third, to contribute to improve technological capacity, encourage innovation and incorporate greater added value into production.

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        Science, Technology & Innovation Policy Review : El Salvador (English)
        Report by Miroux, Anne, Hamdi, Mongi, Pérez Cusó, Marta, Hernández, René, López Martínez, Roberto, Huidobro, Eduardo, 2011, 181 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Science and Technology

        This review is intended to be a tool for learning and reflection, not a rating mechanism but an analytical tool that examines a series of proposals from a neutral external viewpoint. The ultimate objective of the science, technology and innovation policy review of El Salvador is to provide the Salvadorian Government with an up-to-date diagnostic analysis of the effectiveness of its science, technology and innovation-related policies and measures, and strengthen these policies and measures by integrating them in the national development process. It also seeks to improve technological capacity, encourage innovation and incorporate greater added value into production processes.

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        Science, Technology & Innovation Policy Review: Islamic Republic of Iran (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 112 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Science and Technology

        The Science, Technology & Innovation Policy Review (STIP Review) is a neutral and unbiased assessment of the effectiveness of government policies with regard to STI development and a pointer to the way ahead. It examines Iran’s National Innovation System, along with its oil, gas and petrochemical industries and biopharmaceuticals. The review observed that the national development policy was aiming to shift the country from a natural-resource-based economy to a more knowledge-based one; a need for economic diversification away from the predominant O&G industry through a process of industrialization; and an export-oriented economic approach. The Islamic Republic of Iran’s national policy documents, also includes the following countries: Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Egypt, Georgia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Oman, Palestine, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan and Yemen.

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        Senegal: Company Perspectives – An ITC Series on Non-tariffs Measures (English)
        Report by ITC, 2014, 115 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report is part of a series of publications that identify the main obstacles related to non-tariff measures (NTMs) that the private sector faces. It analyzes the experience of exporting and importing companies in Senegal through a large scale survey as well as identifies the main obstacles in NTM regulatory and procedural order imposed by partner countries as well as Senegal.

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        Services Policy Review: Lesotho (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2013, 101 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The Lesotho Services Policy Review (SPR) aims to investigate policy, regulatory and institutional weaknesses, and to make recommendations addressing such deficiencies in Lesotho's key sectors of tourism, and financial and professional medical services. For each of these, an economic overview is followed by an inventory of legislation, regulations, institutions and policy measures.

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        Services Policy Reviews: A Detailed Methodology for Reviewing Policy, Regulatory and Institutional Frameworks (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD/DITC/TNCD, 2013, 21 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The SPRs are a systematic review of economic, regulatory and institutional frameworks characterizing the services sectors, with the aim of identifying trade policy options that advance national sectoral development objectives. In addition to reviewing the development benefits of services and services trade, this review explains the methodology behind the SPR process itself: the purpose, the structure, the outcome, stakeholder participation and activities that are involved in the process.

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        Sri Lanka: Company Perspectives - An ITC Series on Non-tariff Measures (English)
        Report by ITC, 2011, 112 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report assesses the impact of Non-Tariff Measures (NTMs) on the business sector. It is based on a large-scale survey conducted in Sri Lanka. The survey covers companies directly reporting burdensome NTMs and the reasons why they consider them to be trade barriers. The paper analyzes the survey findings and compares them to other sources on NTMs to identify regulatory, procedural and infrastructural obstacles in Sri Lanka and in its partner countries. Furthermore it outlines policy options for each sector including clothing, textiles, chemicals, plastics and rubber-based products; tea and other agro-based products. The report also includes NTM classification and bibliographical references.

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        STIP Review of Lesotho: An Implementation Strategy (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2009, 104 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Science and Technology

        The present STIP Review has designed a mechanism that would proactively coordinate cross-sectoral linkages, priority setting and fund allocation. It is a mechanism for action that would have a systemic impact on the development of STI in Lesotho in that it would facilitate technology flow, ensure human capital development, engage institutions’ active contribution, promote networking and collaboration and build up the knowledge base. The expected benefits of such a mechanism correspond to the six major strategic priorities identified in a recent UNCTAD study1 for LDCs at the initial and earlier stages of technological catch-up. These are: (1) increasing agricultural productivity in basic staples; (2) promoting the formation and growth of domestic business firms; (3) increasing the absorptive capacity of domestic knowledge systems; (4) leveraging more learning from international trade and foreign direct investment (FDI); (5) fostering diversification through agricultural growth linkages and natural resource-based production clusters; and (6) upgrading export activities.

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        Strengthening The Private Sector To Boost Continental Trade And Integration In Africa
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2015, 4 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Policy Reviews and Briefs, VI Members Research

        Although regional trade has contributed to sustained growth, poverty reduction and inclusive development in Latin America and Asia. In Africa the expected results have been slow to come to the fore. The weakness of the African private sector may be one important factor.

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        Structural Change, Global Imbalances, and Employment in the Least Developed Countries
        Policy brief by ICTSD, 2011, 8 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Economic development in the least developed countries (LDCs) is often seen as being constrained by a range of socio-economic and geophysical impediments, which have made this group of countries extremely vulnerable to external shocks. The current global economic crisis is an extreme example of such an external shock. While the group of LDCs experienced a smaller direct adverse impact of the recent financial turmoil than most other developing countries, some LDCs were also exposed to adverse impacts of increased fuel and food price volatility. These adverse effects have been reinforced by the decline in export opportunities caused by the recent weak economic performance in advanced economies.This essay addresses the effects of changes in the level and composition of global demand, and especially of global rebalancing, on trade flows and employment from a demand perspective. It emphasizes that these effects depend on the relative importance of rich and poor countries, as well as of different components of aggregate demand, in global growth. These effects, in turn, affect export opportunities of all countries, including the LDCs, as well as structural change and employment opportunities in their economies.

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        A Sustainable Development Review Process
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2015, 4 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs

        In negotiating the post-2015 development agenda, it is crucial that the international community also seek a framework that will help countries to deliver that agenda. One of the steps will be to monitor and review results. By monitoring and reviewing, countries can assess, according to their own specificities, the effectiveness of policies and partnerships and ultimately the transformational impact of the sustainable development goals at the national, regional and global levels. This conceptualization of a review process can be converted into a tangible and workable framework within the United Nations system. This policy brief elaborates the objectives, guiding principles and organizational framework within the United Nations system of such a process.

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        Sustainable Development Through Policy Integration in Latin America. A Comparative Approach
        Report by Rival, Laura, 2012, 24 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Environment

        This paper examines how social and political actors in Brazil and in Ecuador propose to govern natural resource use sustainably, and how they work at building an alternative political economy based on ecosystem protection, biodiversity, renewable energy use and poverty reduction.

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        Synthèse De La CNUCED, No. 2, Comment S'attaquer à La Crise Alimentaire Mondiale (English)
        Policy brief by CNUCED, 2008, 2 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The UNCTAD policy briefs are intended to share the results of UNCTAD research and analysis on new and emerging trade and development issues with policy makers and researchers, especially in developing countries. This policy brief addresses the systemic causes of the crisis and identifies strategic policy measures - such as boosting investment, innovation and productivity growth - for creating a more robust and sustainable framework for global agricultural production and trade.

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        Synthèse De La CNUCED, No.6, Soutenir L'agriculture Biologique En Afrique (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2009, 2 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Environment

        Agriculture has returned to the centre of international policy debates. Years of declining investment, inadequate extension services and the availability of subsidized food exports from the developed world have undermined agricultural production in many developing countries, particularly in Africa. This Policy Brief examines the potential contribution of organic agriculture.

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        Towards E-Commerce Legal Harmonization in the Caribbean (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 53 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This publication provides up-to-date information on the legal framework of Caribbean countries following the Regional Workshop on E-Commerce Legislation Harmonization in the Caribbean held from 29 September to 2 October 2015. The report examines the legal and regulatory framework for e-commerce in 10 countries: Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Costa Rica, Cuba, El Salvador, Jamaica, Santa Lucia, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago. It examines progress made by the countries in regard to electronic transactions/electronic signatures, online protection of consumers, protection of personal data, industrial and intellectual property, domain names, cybercrime, security of information and pending legislation and challenges.

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        Trade and Investment Linkages and Policy Coordination: Lessons from Case Studies in Asian Developing Countries (English)
        Policy brief by Duval, Yann; Bhattacharya, Debapriya; Jayawardhana, Tilani; Khanal, Dilli; Tahsina, Tazeen; Shreshta, Prakash / ARTNet, 2008, 4 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        ARTNeT launched an exploratory study on trade and investment policy linkages and coordination in 2007, which included small-scale exploratory surveys of private sector stakeholders in three South-Asian countries (Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka). The purpose of the pilot surveys was to identify the needs and priorities for improved trade and investment policy coordination and coherence in these countries. Following a short overview of trade and investment linkages from an Asian perspective, this brief summarizes the key findings from the surveys and draws preliminary policy implications.

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        Trade Policy Framework: Jamaica (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 126 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This Trade Policy Framework was prepared at the request of Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade of Jamaica. It provides a review of the country’s overall national development objectives and recent economic trends, an analysis of linkages between existing strategies and plans in different spheres of policymaking and trade policy in both the goods and services sectors, and recommendations for integrated strategic approaches to achieving the country’s key vision and objectives for its trade policy.

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        UNCTAD Investment Brief, No. 1, 2007: Foreign Direct Investment Surged Again in 2006 (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2007, 2 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Global flows of foreign direct investment (FDI) reached their second highest level ever in 2006, reaching $1.2 trillion. According to new UNCTAD estimates, significant growth was recorded in FDI inflows to developed, developing as well as transition economies. The United States attracted the largest capital inflows, followed by the United Kingdom and France. Record levels were in Africa, Asia and in South-East Europe and the CIS.

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        UNCTAD Investment Brief, No. 2, 2007: Rising FDI into China: The facts behind the numbers (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2007, 2 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Over the past decade, China has established itself as the top recipient of foreign direct investment (FDI) among developing countries. In 2005, inflows reached the new record high of $72 billion - corresponding to a 20% rise from 2004. In this Investment Brief, we take a closer look at the Chinese data. There are several factors explaining the FDI increase but there are also reasons to interpret the overall numbers with care.

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        UNCTAD Investment Brief, No. 3, 2006, New Sources of FDI Attracting Attention from IPAs (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2006, 2 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Investment promotion agencies (IPAs) from all parts of the world recognize the emerging role of developing and transition economies as sources of foreign direct investment (FDI). A new UNCTAD survey shows that 74% of IPAs already target FDI from these economies. The interest is particularly pronounced among IPAs in the developing world, in which “South-South” FDI accounts for a large share of total inflows.

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        UNCTAD Investment Brief, No. 4, 2006: Developing Countries Are Beginning to Promote Outward FDI (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2006, 2 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        A number of developing countries are now actively encouraging their firms to invest abroad. This is a growing practice especially in Asia, where several governments have established dedicated bodies that provide different firms of support to outward investors. For some economies such activities can help boost the competitiveness of firms involved. However a certain minimum level of capabilities in the domestic enterprise sector may be needed to secure economic gains from outward FDI promotion.

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        UNCTAD Investment Brief, No. 5, 2006, Top TNCs Present in 40 Host Countries on Average (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2006, 2 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The world's largest transnational corporations (TNCs) are present in 40 foreign countries on average. The geographic coverage of their developing-country counterparts is less extensive as they tend to expand mainly into neighbouring countries. New UNCTAD research shows that some locations host virtually all of the top TNCs.

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        Unctad Policy Brief: An Early Harvest Not So Early After All (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2010, 2 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This policy brief describes the 'trade' stimulus that can be achieved through the early conclusion of the Doha Round of WTO negotiations at LDC4. More specifically, it advocates an "early harvest" in specific areas, focusing on the accelerated implementation of duty-free quota-free (DFQF) market access, and an immediate resolution to the problem of trade-distorting cotton subsidies.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief: Building a Development-led Green Economy (no. 23 - June 2011) (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 2 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Environment

        This policy brief describes the challenges faced by governments in transiting to a green economy.It emphasises that a viable transition must take into consideration constraints on growth, competitive disadvantages and unequal benefits, especially for developing countries,and that specific support must be given to green industries to promote this environmentally and socially sustainable economy strategy.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief N° 24/2011: On The Brink : Fiscal Austerity Threatens A Global Recession (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD TDR, 2011, 4 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Due to sluggish private demand, several advanced economies are hovering on the brink of a second bout of recession. Yet, in many of these countries political attention has turned to ways to cut fiscal deficits and reduce the domestic public debt. This has created a dangerous accumulation of risks for the world economy. The private sector can only successfully deleverage (i.e., reduce its debt) if someone else is willing to take on higher debt and support demand. If the private and the public sectors try to deleverage simultaneously, they must either find debtors elsewhere, or the economy will tailspin into a depression. As the developing world is both unable and unwilling to accept the role of debtor of last resort, dangerous pressures are building up. Unless there is a rapid policy turnaround, the world is in danger of repeating the mistakes of the 1930s. In today’s highly integrated global economy, the contractionary contagion will affect all countries. Emerging and developing economies need to prepare contingency plans.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No.1/2007: Coping with Financial Market Crisis (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2007, 2 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Turmoil on the financial markets is back. Despite the fact that some policy measures were effective in stabilizing the interbank market, several observers have criticized the actions of the US Federal Reserve and of the European Central Bank. Although at first glance these criticisms may seem warranted, their fundamental thrust appears to be flawed. This policy brief raises some issues to discuss how to cope with financial market crisis.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 1/2012: The Paradox of Finance-driven Globalization (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2012, 4 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, International Financial System, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Over the past thirty years, many developing countries have experienced spurts of economic growth followed by collapses. In the process, some have fallen further behind the advanced economies, while only a few have enjoyed sustained economic growth. This policy brief explores the reasons for these diverse outcomes. It suggests that the countries with the strongest performance are those that have rejected the dominant economic wisdom of trusting their growth prospects to financial markets, and instead have pursued innovative and heterodox policies, tailored to local conditions. This has allowed them to shift resources to activities that are increasingly productive. Meanwhile, many developing countries that have embraced finance-driven globalization (FDG) have seen their ability to achieve this structural transformation greatly reduced.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 1/2013: The Post-2015 Agenda (English)
        Policy brief by Kozul-Wright, Richard/UNCTAD, 2013, 4 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        UNCTAD has a key role in the post-2015 process. Specifically, as the focal point in the United Nations for the integrated treatment of trade and development, and interrelated issues in the areas of finance, technology, investment and sustainable development, it falls to UNCTAD to take a leadership role in integrating economic development and related global economic issues into the United Nations-led post-2015 agenda.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 12/2010: Global Monetary Chaos: Systemic Failures Need Bold Multilateral Responses (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2010, 2 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Amidst continued financial crisis, the question of the global trade imbalances is back high on the international agenda. A procession of prominent economists, editorialists and politicians have taken it upon themselves to “remind” the surplus countries, and in particular the country with the biggest surplus, China, of their responsibility for a sound and balanced global recovery. The generally shared view is that this means permitting the value of the renminbi to be set freely by the “markets”, so that the country will export less and import and consume more, hence allowing the rest of the world to do the opposite. But is it reasonable to put the burden of rebalancing the global economy on a single country and its currency? This policy brief contends that the decision to leave currencies to the vagaries of the market will not help rebalance the global economy. It argues that the problem lies in systemic failures, and as such, requires comprehensive and inclusive multilateral action.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 16/2010: A Big Public Investment Push Needed in Least Developed Countries to Meet Millennium Development Goals (English)
        Policy brief by Unctad, 2010, 2 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The MDGs have reinvigorated the case for ODA by tying it to an ambitious strategy to reduce poverty and improve human welfare in the most disadvantaged countries and communities. Looking ahead, as argued in this policy brief, LDCs need to refocus their efforts on measures to better mobilize domestic resources, but this will in turn require a serious rethink by the international community of both its policy advice and its use of ODA.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 17/2010: Building a global monetary system, the door opens for new ideas (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2010, 2 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Proposals to avert exchange rate chaos and to reshape the international monetary system have received new impetus recently. For the first time since the end of the Bretton Woods system, a proposal has been tabled to resolve unsustainable global trade imbalances through a multilateral solution. The initiatives under discussion by the G-20 to ensure greater order in international monetary affairs are an implicit recognition that the market cannot solve a major problem that has been blocking the smooth integration of all countries into the globalized economy. UNCTAD research supports this view. Indeed, UNCTAD has consistently shown that without a multilateral approach, it will neither be possible to reap the benefits of an intensified global division of labour, nor to avoid devastating international financial crises of the kind that have been seen in the last two decades.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 18 - Agriculture at the crossroads (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2010, 2 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Environment

        For a large number of developing countries, agriculture remains the single most important sector. Climate change has the potential to damage irreversibly the natural resource base on which agriculture depends, with grave consequences for food security in developing countries. However,agriculture is the sector that has the potential to transcend from being a problem to becoming an essential part of the solution to climate change provided there is a more holistic vision of food security, climate-change adaptation and mitigation as well as agriculture’s pro-poor development contribution. What is required is a rapid and significant shift from conventional, industrial,monoculture-based and high-external-input dependent production towards mosaics of sustainable production systems that also considerably improve the productivity of small-scale farmers. The required transformation is however much more fundamental than simply tweaking the existing industrial agricultural systems.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 20A/2011: The LDC IV Conference: An Agenda for Action (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 2 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The UN LDC IV Conference, to be held in Turkey in May 2011, will have three major objectives: to assess the implementation of the Brussels Programme of Action by LDCs and their development partners; to identify new challenges and opportunities for LDCs; and to agree upon the actions required at national and international levels in response to the inadequate economic and social performance of the LDCs over the last decade. This policy brief proposes elements of a broad agenda for action as an input for the Conference.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 20D/2012: LDCs' Boom and Bust in the 2000's: the Turbulent Decade (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 2 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This policy brief describes the unsustainable growth of LDCs during the 2000s,and the effect of the global recession on these economies, and advocates structural transformation of the LDC economies to become more resilient to external shocks.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 20/E: Poverty Reduction and Progress Towards Mdgs in the LDCs: Encouraging Signs but Much Remains to Be Done (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 4 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Poverty

        This policy brief evaluates the progress of LDCs in achieving the goals set by the MDGs, especially in terms of poverty alleviation.

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        Unctad Policy Brief No. 20F/2011: Development Challenges Facing LDCs in the Coming Decade (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 2 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This policy brief examines the development challenges faced by LDCs in the following decade, namely the employment challenge, the globalization and climate change challenge and the governance deficit challenge.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 20G/2011: Towards a New International Development Architecture for LDCs (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 2 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This policy brief describes the rationale behind establishing a new International Development Architecture (NIDA) for LDCs, the structure of the NIDA, and how it should be implemented.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No.20 - Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security in LDCs (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 2 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This policy brief outlines the major challenges facing LDCs in implementing a sustainable agricultural sector as a means to achieve food security, and provides recommendations to governments and LDC donors to support the development of this important sector.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 2/2011: South-south Integration is Key to Rebalancing the Global Economy (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 2 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The world economy is seriously out of kilter. Over the last 30 years finance-led globalization has distorted developments in the real economy, triggered a series of boom-bust cycles and fuelled the most regressive redistribution of income in the modern era. These trends culminated in a financial meltdown spreading out from the advanced countries in late 2008, and producing the most severe worldwide slowdown since 1945. Imbalances continue to haunt the recovery process, which has been slow and erratic especially in the most heavily financialized and indebted economies, and in the most vulnerable countries in the South, where the economic shocks were compounded by food and energy insecurity and climate variability.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 2/2013, Growth and Poverty Eradication: Why Addressing Inequality Matters
        Policy brief by Kozul-Wright, Richard/UNCTAD, 2013, 4 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Poverty

        The Millennium Development Goals have centred on social outcomes, primarily in the fields of poverty, health and education. The goal of halving extreme poverty globally has already been met, albeit in large part thanks to the remarkable performance over three decades of the Chinese economy. Greater ambition is expected for a post-2015 agenda, with the eradication of extreme poverty a possible new goal. However, this goal is very unlikely to be reached by 2030 if business as usual is the order of the day. Paradoxically, this partly reflects the lack of ambition in the conventional poverty line of $1.25 per day, which is by any standard extremely low; but it is also because poverty eradication, even at this level of ambition, will not happen without addressing the more challenging issue of global inequality.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 26/2012: Greater Income Share for Labour - the Essential Catalyst for Global Economic Recovery and Employment (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2012, 4 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This policy brief examines the weakness of the advanced economies which poses a threat for recovery of the world economy, as developing countries’ domestic demand is not strong enough to sustain their recent growth path. It discusses wage compression in relation to economic development, the revival of demand from traditional markets in the North, the prospects of fiscal austerity and active income policies.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 2, June 2008 - Tackling the Global Food Crisis (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2008, 2 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The UNCTAD policy briefs are intended to share the results of UNCTAD research and analysis on new and emerging trade and development issues with policy makers and researchers, especially in developing countries. This policy brief addresses the systemic causes of the crisis and identifies strategic policy measures - such as boosting investment, innovation and productivity growth - for creating a more robust and sustainable framework for global agricultural production and trade.

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        Unctad Policy Brief No. 3/2008: The Crisis of a Century (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2008, 2 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        As the financial crisis continues its evolution at dizzying speed, the business model underlying a growing share of financial sector activity has been increasingly discredited. This policy brief suggests that a considerable degree of public intervention is required to avoid greater damage to the financial system and the real economy. It is also imperative to strengthen regulation and increase the transparency of financial instruments and institutions. Overall, macroeconomic policy should aim at avoiding a global recession or even depression.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 3/2012: Sovereign Debt Crisis : From Relief to Resolution (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2012, 4 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The current discussion on sovereign debt has concentrated on the predicaments of Europe and other developed countries, which have accumulated new debt very rapidly in recent years.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 4/2008: Rebuilding Financial Multilateralism (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2008, 2 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        With world markets absorbing the first waves of the continuing financial crisis, attention is shifting to ways to collectively manage the unwinding of global imbalances and prevent systemic turmoil. This policy brief argues that global cooperation and global regulation are imperative in both trade and finance, and that the United Nations is the most credible international organization to spearhead the design, discussion and launching of such efforts.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No 4/2012: The Continuing Relevance of Development Banks (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2012, 4 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Finance for Development, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The demand for the mobilization of domestic resources for social inclusion and in support of virtuous circles of investment, productivity increase and income growth has created pressures to direct flows of finance towards priority income groups and strategically important sectors. There is no doubt that commercial financial institutions are part of the required institutional environment. However, the potential contribution of these institutions is limited by widespread financial market failures, and by their procyclical lending patterns and focus on short-term profitability rather than long-term social welfare. National development banks (NDBs) partially or wholly owned by the state can offer an alternative.

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        Unctad Policy Brief No.5/2008: Will We Never Learn? (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2008, 2 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        As the financial crisis becomes increasingly global, the world economy is caught in a loop of weaknesses and seems headed for a deep and synchronized downturn. Some developing and emerging economies will be particularly affected because of their vulnerability to declining exports, falling commodity prices, and negative wealth effects stemming from currency mismatches. But the world seems not to have learned the lessons from previous financial crises: that traditional adjustment packages can be counter¬productive, and that better global exchange rate arrangements will be critical if we are to achieve and maintain monetary and financial stability. This policy brief contends that all countries whose real economies are exposed will need to adopt countercyclical policies to stimulate domestic demand and compensate for shrinking foreign demand. Contrary to conventional wisdom, this also applies to countries with devaluing currencies. The current IMF approach asking for pro-cyclical policies in crisis countries is inadequate. UNCTAD has long argued that multilateral coordination is the only viable solution.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No.7/2009 , Keeping ODA Afloat: No Stone Unturned (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2009, 2 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        If past experience is anything to go by, today’s financial crisis will deal a hard blow to official development assistance flows. It could take ODA years to recover, dampening prospects for achieving the MDGs by 2015. Keeping aid afloat – ensuring that aid flows are sustainable and predictable – is critical to helping developing countries cope and also to stabilizing global demand. This is a tall order, given the scale of the crisis. Fresh new thinking is often the only way out of desperate situations such as this. UNCTAD puts one option on the table in this policy brief. The proposal may strike some as ambitious, naive, or otherwise unviable. But today especially, every possible solution deserves consideration.

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        UNCTAD Policy Briefs, No.6, Sustaining African Agriculture - Organic Production (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2009, 2 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Environment

        Agriculture has returned to the centre of international policy debates. Years of declining investment, inadequate extension services and the availability of subsidized food exports from the developed world have undermined agricultural production in many developing countries, particularly in Africa. This Policy Brief examines the potential contribution of organic agriculture.

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        Voluntary Peer Review of Competition Law and Policy: Botswana (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 47 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This report is based on information gathered during a fact-finding mission to Botswana carried out in October 2017 and current information available from various sources, including Government Ministry websites. Legislative developments since the time of information collection have been considered in finalizing the report.

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        Voluntary Peer Review of Competition Policy: Tunisia - Overview (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2006, 43 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This overview summarizes the most important points of the voluntary peer review of competition policy in Tunisia. After a brief recap of the political and economic context in the country, the report describes competition policy – the law, organizations and practice – in Tunisia. It also includes a review of the implementation of competition policy over the past few years in the Tunisian context (price controls, sectoral policies, etc.), as well as a set of conclusions and recommendations. The full version of the report is published under the title Voluntary Peer Review of Competition Policy: Tunisia, 2006

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        World Intellectual Property Report: Breakthrough Innovation and Economic Growth (English)
        Report by WIPO, 2015, 146 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This report endeavors to provide an analytical input into the debate about whether innovation can continue to deliver rates of growth matching those before the global financial crisis. It explores the channels through which innovation promotes growth, and the ecosystems in which innovation flourishes. In so doing, the report pays special attention to the role of the intellectual property (IP) system, which at its heart seeks to support innovative activity.

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