A partnership with academia

Building knowledge for trade and development

    • Subjects include economic and legal aspects of regional and bilateral trade agreements: theoretical foundations of regional trade integration, trends in regional trade flows, shallow and deep integration, the effect of overlapping agreements, examples of North-South (e.g. EPAs) and South-South agreements.
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        Addressing Non-Tariff Measures in ASEAN (English)
        Working paper by Pasadilla, Gloria/ARTNeT, 2013, 63 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        Intra-ASEAN trade has increased six-fold since 1993 but greater integration challenge looms in addressing non-tariff measures. The paper discusses the various ASEAN work programs on NTMs and assesses the incidence of Members’ NTMs on various products. Various ways of accelerating the reduction of non-tariff barriers are discussed, including dispute settlement mechanisms. The paper highlights the importance of a unilateral approach in addressing NTMs and the use of regulatory impact analysis to improve policy making.

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        African Continental Free Trade Area (English)
        Discussion paper by Agatiello, Osvaldo/UNCTAD, 2016, 52 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Facilitation

        The paper, African Continental Free Trade Area, subtitled 'Advancing Pan-African Integration (Some Considerations),' provides an overview of the opportunities and challenges for African continental economic integration through the Continental Free Trade Area (CFTA) initiative. It discusses complementary building blocks for intra-African trade to flourish within Africa when it is stimulated by the adoption and implementation of the CFTA, and provides guiding principles for approaching the CFTA and priority policy measures for adoption by African countries to ensure sustained trade growth and economic integration following the CFTA.

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        African Continental Free Trade Area: Developing and Strengthening Regional Value Chains (English)
        Discussion paper by Dairon, Emily/UNCTAD, 2016, 78 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Facilitation

        The paper, African Continental Free Trade Area, subtitled 'Developing and strengthening regional value chains in agricultural commodities and processed food products', comes after the African Union Assembly decided in an assembly in 2012 to boost intra-African trade and to fast track the Continental Free Trade Area (CFTA). The study aims to provide an analysis on requisite policies and measures needed for fostering the development and strengthening of regional supply and value chains in agricultural commodities and processed foods. Its aim is to contribute to the setting up and strengthening of regional agro-foods supply chains.

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        African Continental Free Trade Area: Policy and Negotiation Options for Trade in Goods (English)
        Discussion paper by Farahat, M/UNCTAD, 2016, 37 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Facilitation

        This discussion paper is part of the series on the 'African Continental Free Trade Area.' It continues the discussion by presenting an overview of the practical possibilities of an free trade area (FTA) on the African continent. The paper is divided in three main parts. Part I deals with the requirements for establishing FTAs in goods. Part II analyses the harmonization of macro-economic policies, the applicability of non-tariff measures and trade facilitation. Part II considers the negotiation process among key stakeholders and the leaders.

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        The African Growth and Opportunity Act: An Empirical Analysis of the Possibilities Post-2015
        Report by UNECA, 2013, 68 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report provides an analysis of outcomes of U.S.-Africa trade under five categories of post-2015 scenarios. These scenarios look at the trade and income implications of not extending AGOA beyond 2015; expanded product eligibility for AGOA; revisions to the currently eligible countries; a restructuring of AGOA to resemble the economic partnership agreements (EPAs) of the European Union; and the effects that a possible EU-U.S. free trade agreement (FTA) could have on AGOA or an EPA-like situation, with an additional scenario examining how a continental free trade area (CFTA) would play into such an integrated trade environment. The results indicate, first of all, that should AGOA not be extended and current AGOA-eligible countries revert back to the U.S. Generalized System of Preferences (GSP), then trade losses would be distributed in a very unequal fashion across the continent due to the variation in AGOA-eligible products that are exported by different countries. The results also show that expanding product eligibility for AGOA would only have small effects on the exports coming from AGOA-eligible countries— unless complete duty-free and quota-free (DFQF) market access was granted because the most import-sensitive sectors for the U.S. (e.g., sugar, cotton and clothing) are still where Africa would gain the most.

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        Article XXIV and RTAS: How Much Wiggle Room for Developing Countries? (English)
        Note by South Centre, 2008, 33 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The issue of ‘WTO Compatibility’ of regional trade agreements (RTAs) has been intensely debated ever since the days of the GATT. RTAs are governed by Article XXIV in the GATT. The Article however does not have a development dimension. This paper argues for the need to insert strong Special and Differential Treatment clauses into Article XXIV in order to be legally consistent with GATS V. It also looks at the ways in which some WTO Members, especially developed countries, have protected their markets in their RTAs. These are grounds for developing countries to legitimately open up less fully.

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        Asia -pacific Trade and Investment Report 2015, Supporting Participation in Value Chains
        Report by ESCAP, 2015, 211 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        The Asia-Pacific Trade and Investment Report 2015 published by the Trade and Investment Division of the United Nations, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific analyzes trends and developments in intra- and inter-regional trade in goods and services; foreign direct investment; trade facilitation measures; trade policy measures; and preferential trade policies and agreements in the region.

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        Asia-Pacific Trade and Investment Report 2015: Supporting Participation in Value Chains - Executive Summary (English)
        Also available in Russian, Chinese
        Summary by ESCAP, 2015, 26 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        The Asia-Pacific Trade and Investment Report 2015 published by the Trade and Investment Division of the United Nations, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific analyzes trends and developments in intra- and inter-regional trade in goods and services; foreign direct investment; trade facilitation measures; trade policy measures; and preferential trade policies and agreements in the region.

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        Assessing Regional Integration in Africa (English)
        Report by UNECA, 2003, 281 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        What: The ARIA report provides the first comprehensive assessment of regional integration in Africa, analyzing all the sectoral and policy-issues. The report finds that the extent of integration is far below what should have been achieved given the amount of energy devoted to the issue. It recommends further analysis of the challenges facing Africa’s integration agenda. How: Background reading on regional integration in Africa. Who: Policy makers, researchers and lecturers dealing with regional integration in Africa.

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        Assessing Regional Integration in Africa Ii: Rationalizing Regional Economic Communities (English)
        Report by UNECA, 2006, 180 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        What: The ARIA II report examines the effectiveness of Africa's regional economic communities (RECs) in pushing forward the regional integration agenda towards a fully functioning African Economic Community, which will remove all barriers to movement of people, goods and services across the continent, thereby creating a single economic space. The report finds that in general the regional economic communities have made commendable achievements. However, a substantial resource gap exists between the mandates of the RECs and their capacity to deliver, based on their financial and human resources. Furthermore, many RECs are pursuing similar mandates, and with countries belonging to numerous RECs, limited resources are spread thinly thereby limiting their effectiveness. There is therefore an urgent need to strengthen the capacity of the RECs and harmonize their programmes. How: Background reading on regional integration in Africa. Who: Policy makers, researchers and lecturers dealing with regional integration in Africa.

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        Assessing Regional Integration in Africa Ii: Rationalizing Regional Economic Communities - Highlights (English)
        Summary by UNECA, 2006, 12 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        What: The ARIA II report examines the effectiveness of Africa's regional economic communities (RECs) in pushing forward the regional integration agenda towards a fully functioning African Economic Community, which will remove all barriers to movement of people, goods and services across the continent, thereby creating a single economic space. The report finds that in general the regional economic communities have made commendable achievements. However, a substantial resource gap exists between the mandates of the RECs and their capacity to deliver, based on their financial and human resources. Furthermore, many RECs are pursuing similar mandates, and with countries belonging to numerous RECs, limited resources are spread thinly thereby limiting their effectiveness. There is therefore an urgent need to strengthen the capacity of the RECs and harmonize their programmes. How: Background reading on regional integration in Africa. Who: Policy makers, researchers and lecturers dealing with regional integration in Africa.

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        Assessing Regional Integration in Africa Ii: Rationalizing Regional Economic Communities - Key Facts (English)
        Report by UNECA, 2006, 3 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        What: The ARIA II report examines the effectiveness of Africa’s regional economic communities (RECs) in pushing forward the regional integration agenda towards a fully functioning African Economic Community, which will remove all barriers to movement of people, goods and services across the continent, thereby creating a single economic space. The report finds that in general the regional economic communities have made commendable achievements. However, a substantial resource gap exists between the mandates of the RECs and their capacity to deliver, based on their financial and human resources. Furthermore, many RECs are pursuing similar mandates, and with countries belonging to numerous RECs, limited resources are spread thinly thereby limiting their effectiveness. There is therefore an urgent need to strengthen the capacity of the RECs and harmonize their programmes. How: Background reading on regional integration in Africa. Who: Policy makers, researchers and lecturers dealing with regional integration in Africa.

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        Assessing Regional Integration in Africa IV: Enhancing Intra-African Trade (English)
        Book by UNECA, 2010, 527 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        ARIA IV, which is a joint-publication of the ECA, the AUC and the AfDB, finds on average that over the past decades, only about 10 to 12 per cent of African trade is within the continent which is one of the lowest intra-regional trade levels worldwide. Low intra-African trade implies that many opportunities are lost for benefiting from the gains of trade, promoting growth and accelerating development. Indeed, the empirical research reviewed in ARIA IV suggests that there is a positive correlation between trade openness and economic growth, in particular through the transmission of technological innovation and the creation of enhanced capacity to compete with more advanced economies on the international market.

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        Assessing Regional Integration in Africa VI: Harmonizing Policies to Transform the Trading Environment (English)
        Report by UNECA, 2013, 84 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Facilitation

        This paper carries forward the momentum of January 2012’s Decision and Declaration on boosting intra-African trade and fast-tracking the establishment of a Continental Free Trade Area by 2017 by addressing the issue of harmonizing rules of origin and trade facilitation instruments to facilitate Continental Free Trade Area negotiations by member States. The report starts with a brief overview of progress in regional integration, followed by discussions on the harmonization of three key prerequisites to pave the way for a meaningful continental market—namely rules of origin, trade facilitation instruments and cross-border linkages for information and communications technology.

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        Assessing Regional Integration in Africa V - Towards an African Continental Free Trade Area
        Report by UNECA, African Union, African Development Bank, 2012, 168 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        This report is assesing the regional integration in Africa. The focus of attention lies therefore in the establishment of an African Continental Free Trade Area. Chapter one gives an overall introduction to the issue, chapter two continues then with an overview of regional integration in Africa. Further on chapter three describes the theory of free trade areas, while chapter four of the report applies the theory to the case of an African Continental Free Trade Area. Chapter fives looks at the perspectives for a fast-tracking African Continental Free Trade Area. While the report focuses in chapter six on the movement of people and the right of residence and establishment, it concentrates its analysis in chapter seven on the movement of goods and services and in the final chapter on the movement of investment and capital.

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        Assessing South-South regional integration: Same issues, many metrics (English)
        Discussion Paper by Lucian Cernat, UNCTAD, 2003, 33 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        What: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the impact of several Regional Trading Arrangements (RTAs) on the trade flows among participants and with third countries. It examines the possible trade effects of several South-South RTAs by using two different methodologies (the gravity model and CGE analysis). Owing to the differences in assumptions and methods, the results of each methodology do not easily lend themselves to comparison. The findings suggest that regional integration among developing countries can act as a practical instrument for their gradual integration into the global economy. In addition RTAs are very much part of a larger framework for regional cooperation aimed at promoting regional stability, sound and coordinated economic policies and a better regional economic infrastructure. Who: For teachers, students and researchers studying regional economic integration. How: Can be used as a background reading on a course on regional integration and globalization issues.

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        Assessing the Impact of Political Economy Factors on Rules of Origin Under NAFTA (English)
        Working paper by Portugal-Perez, Alberto /World Bank, 2009, 38 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        Rules of origin are legitimate policy instruments to prevent trade deflection in a preferential trade agreement short of a customs union. Trade deflection takes place when a product imported into the preferential trade agreement through the member with the lowest external tariff is transhipped to a higher-tariff member, while yielding a benefit for the re-exporter. Yet, when captured by special interest groups, rules of origin can restrict trade beyond what is needed to prevent trade deflection. By how much do political economy factors account for the stringency of rules of origin? This study quantifies the impact of both determinants - those considered "justifiable" because they prevent trade deflection and those deemed to arise from "political economy" forces - on the restrictiveness of rules of origin under the North American Free Trade Agreement, approximated by a restrictiveness index. The main finding is that political economy forces, especially from the United States, raised significantly the restrictiveness of the rules of origin. Indeed, in industries where political-economy forces were strong prior to the North American Free Trade Agreement, as when the U.S. Most Favored Nation tariff was high or the revealed comparative advantage of Mexico (the United States) was strong (weak), more stringent rules of origin were introduced. Thus, stricter rules of origin are associated with higher production costs reducing the potential benefits of enhanced market access that is initially pursued by this type of agreement.

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        The Changing Landscape of Regional Trade Agreements (English)
        Discussion Paper by Jo-Ann Crawford, Roberto V. Fiorentino, World Trade Organization, 2005, 39 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: A very informative paper with an up-to-date comprehensive overview of existing RTAs in different regions as notified to the WTO. Useful illustrative maps of regions and agreements within. Reviews recent trends in RTAs and reasons behind their proliferation since the 1990s, and discusses relationship of RTAs and the multilateral trading system/WTO. Who:University teachers/students and anyone interested in comprehensive recent information about RTAs. How: Can be used in trade courses to discuss the background and evolution of RTAs, the merits/demerits of regional vs. multilateral liberalization, and the status of RTAs in the WTO.

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        The Colombia-Canada Free Trade Area: A Partial Equilibrium Simulation* (English)
        Article by Pereira-Villa Catherine; Gómez, D. and Herrera, O., 2012, 28 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research

        This paper uses disaggregated trade data for 2010 and applies ex-ante partial equilibrium modeling to calculate the impact of the preferential trade agreement between Canada and Colombia. The simulations carried out show aggregate trade creation could be one and a half times larger than trade diversion; trade between the two countries in the first year of the agreement could grow by approximately ten percent and will be focussed on a small number of goods; trade diversion is stronger with the largest trading partner of each signatory, namely the United States; and trade diversion is not strong in the case of Colombia’s neighbors with which there was significant trade prior to the agreement.

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        Comparing Safeguard Measures in Regional and Bilateral Agreements (English)
        Report by Kruger, Paul; Denner, Willemien; and Cronje, JB/ICTSD, 2009, 72 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        This study provides trade negotiators, policy-makers and other stakeholders with a clear, practical comparative analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the various safeguard clauses included in bilateral and regional free trade agreements (FTAs). It groups together regional agreements on the basis of shared characteristics, examines the extent to which various safeguard clauses have been used in practice, and makes a number of recommendations that policy-makers and negotiators could take into consideration when negotiating safeguard clauses in trade agreements.

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        Comparing the Performance of Uganda’s Intra-east African Community Trade and Other Trading Blocs: A Gravity Model Analysis (English)
        Working paper by Shinyekwa, Isaac and Othieno, Lawrence, 2013, 52 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research

        This paper examines factors that determine Uganda’s trade flows and specifically compares the impact and performance of the different trade blocs on Uganda’s trade patterns and flows. The empirical question is whether Uganda’s trade is getting more integrated in the East African Community(EAC) region or is still dominated by other trading blocs, namely European Union (EU), Asia and Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). Two analytical approaches are used, namely: trade indicators and estimation of the gravity models using data extracted from COMTRADE for the period 2001–2009 (panel). The results suggest a strong relationship between belonging to a trading bloc and trade flows.

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        Costa Rica: Trade Opening, FDI Attraction and Global Production Sharing (English)
        Working paper by WTO, 2011, 38 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        Costa Rica has managed to combine an active agenda in the Multilateral Trade Negotiations (MTNs) at the WTO with the negotiation of several Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs). Such PTAs, most notably those with the US, China and the EU, will boost the share of total exports benefiting from preferential access in the destination markets from 24% to over 83%. Along this path of trade liberalization, the country has placed a strong emphasis on the attraction of FDI in high-tech manufacturing and services activities, producing a substantial transformation in the structure of its exports and inserting a fair share of the economy into Global Value Chains (GVCs) . As a result, about 43% of the country’s total exports are related to GVCs, with an average of 36% of such exported value being added domestically.

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        The Costs of Rules of Origin in Apparel: African Preferential Exports to the United States and the European Union (English)
        Report by Portugal-Perez, Alberto/UNCTAD, 2008, 39 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The European Union and the United States offer, simultaneously, preferential market access to exports of a group of African countries. Although similar regarding the extent of preferences for apparel, a key sector for least developed countries, these agreements differ as regards rules of origin (RoO). While the Everything But Arms initiative and the Cotonou Agreement require yarn to be woven into fabric and then made up into apparel in the same country or in a country qualifying for cumulation, the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) grants a special regime to “lesser developed countries”, which allows them to use fabric of any origin and still meet the criteria for preferences, thus making a case for a natural experiment. This paper aims to assess econometrically the impact of different RoO on those African countries' exports. The main finding is that relaxing RoO by allowing the use of fabric of any origin increased exports of apparel by about 300 per cent for the top seven beneficiaries of AGOA’s special regime, and broadened the range of apparel exported by those countries.

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        Deep Integration and Production Networks: an Empirical Analysis (English)
        Working paper by WTO, 2011, 35 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This working paper describes the two-way relationship between deep integration and production networks trade.The results show that on average, signing deeper agreements increases production networks trade between member countries by almost 35%, integration being more prominent in trade in automobile parts and information technology products.The study also shows that a 10% increase in the share of production network trade increases the depth of an agreement by approximately 6%.In addition, the probability of signing deeper agreements is higher for country pairs involved in North-South production sharing and for countries belonging to the Asia region.

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        Does Regionalism Affect Trade Liberalization Toward Non-Members? (English)
        Working paper by Estevadeordal, Antoni; Freund, Caroline; Ornelas, Emanuel / World Bank, 2008, 61 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper examines the effect of regionalism on unilateral trade liberalization using industry-level data on applied most-favored nation tariffs and bilateral preferences for ten Latin American countries from 1990 to 2001. The findings show that preferential tariff reduction in a given sector leads to a reduction in the external (most-favored nation) tariff in that sector. External liberalization is greater if preferences are granted to important suppliers. However, these "complementarity effects" of preferential liberalization on external liberalization do not arise in customs unions. Overall, the results suggest that concerns about a negative effect of preferential liberalization on external trade liberalization are unfounded.

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        Domestic Preparedness for Trade in Services Liberalization: Are East African Countries Prepared for Further Trade Liberalization? (English)
        Discussion paper by E.P Bagumhe, 2011, 24 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Over the past decades East African Countries have witnessed even faster growing rates of the share of trade services in their GDPs. This paper argues that although the importance of services as a share of overall GDP, increase with growth on FDI and employment. Its growth can be driven by number of factors, such as final demand factors and basic structural changes in production, linked to development. Weak domestic preparedness before opening up is likely to be associated with unsatisfactory and undesirable outcomes of Services Trade liberalization. This paper tries to expound issues that are essential on domestic preparedness for Service Trade Liberalization and analyses the associated concerns. The purpose of this paper is not to provide answers but to shed some light on how services Trade liberalization is currently operationalized in the East African Countries, in particular, that is, to open up the “black box,” and indicate the operational design elements around which variance is the highest.

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        Do Trade And Investment Agreements Lead To More Fdi? Accounting For Key Provisions Inside The Black Box (English)
        Working paper by Berger, Axel, Busse, Matthias, Nunnenkamp, Peter, Roy, Martin, 2009, 29 pages
        Categories: Investment, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The previous literature provides a highly ambiguous picture on the impact of trade and investment agreements on FDI. Most empirical studies ignore the actual content of BITs and RTAs, treating them as "black boxes", despite the diversity of investment provisions constituting the essence of these agreements. We overcome this serious limitation by analyzing the impact of modalities on the admission of FDI and dispute settlement mechanisms in both RTAs and BITs on bilateral FDI flows between 1978 and 2004. We find that FDI reacts positively to RTAs only if they offer liberal admission rules. Dispute settlement provisions play a minor role. While RTAs without strong investment provisions may even discourage FDI, the reactions to BITs are less discriminate with foreign investors responding favourably to the mere existence of BITs.

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        Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific 2010: Sustaining Recovery and Dynamism for Inclusive Development (English)
        Report by ESCAP, 2010, 252 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        The Asia-Pacific region leads the process of recovery from the global financial and economic crisis and emerges as a focus of global growth and stability. However, the recovery of the world economy at large remains fragile. This poses risks for sustained recovery in Asia as well, given its export dependence. A more balanced recovery is needed and this will require more globally concerted policy efforts. In this regard, the 2010 Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific provides a comprehensive analysis of the challenging policy landscape and offers recommendations for the way forward. In the aftermath of the crisis, we see clear momentum for regional economic cooperation.

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        Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific 2010: Year-end Update
        Report by UNESCAP, 2010, 48 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        2010 has seen an impressive recovery of the Asia-Pacific region from the Great Recession of 2008/09. Led by the large economies of China and India, output growth in the region rebounded in 2009 and gathered further strength in 2010. But the region is faced with a weakening of growth in the developed economies which are grappling with a combination of weak household demand and fiscal retrenchment. The Year-end Update of UN-ESCAP’s annual flagship publication, Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific 2010, considers the implications of these challenges for policy-makers in the region. The principal message of the Update is the need for the countries in the region to adopt a cautious approach in ending of fiscal stimulus packages while building in the medium term alternative sources of demand in the region, both domestic and external. For the former, the Update looks to reduce poverty and boost demand combined with more investment in infrastructure. For the latter, it highlights the need to deepen regional integration in the areas of trade and finance and more broadly in policy coordination in order to face the challenges confronting the region in 2011 and beyond. Management of capital flows is another important challenge for the region’s policy makers for maintaining financial stability.

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        The Economic Community of West African States: Fiscal Revenue Implications of the Prospective Economic Partnership Agreement with the European Union (English)
        Working paper by Zouhon-Bi, Simplice G.; Nielsen, Lynge /World Bank, 2007, 30 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper applies a partial equilibrium model to analyze the fiscal revenue implications of the prospective economic partnership agreement between the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the European Union. The authors find that, under standard import price and substitution elasticity assumptions, eliminating tariffs on all imports from the European Union would increase ECOWAS' imports from the European Union by 10.5-11.5 percent for selected ECOWAS countries, namely Cape Verde, Ghana, Nigeria, and Senegal. This increase in imports would be accompanied by a 2.4-5.6 percent decrease in total government revenues, owing mainly to lower fiscal revenues. Tariff revenue losses should represent 1 percent of GDP in Nigeria, 1.7 percent in Ghana, 2 percent in Senegal, and 3.6 percent in Cape Verde. However, the revenue losses may be manageable because of several mitigating factors, in particular the likelihood of product exclusions, the length of the agreement's implementation period, and the scope for reform of exemption regimes. The large country-by-country differences in fiscal revenue loss suggest that domestic tax reforms and fiscal transfers within ECOWAS could be important complements to the agreement's implementation.

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        Economic Development in Africa Report 2009 - Strengthening Regional Economic Integration for Africa's Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2009, 126 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        The global financial crisis requires the re-examination of current approaches to international development. One area which is important for Africa is the role of regional integration in addressing the long-standing structural weaknesses which have lowered the long-term growth performance of most countries on the continent, increased their economic vulnerability and undermined efforts to reduce poverty. The Economic Development in Africa Report 2009 focuses on ways of strengthening regional economic integration for Africa’s development. It complements existing institutional analyses of regional integration in Africa with an economic analysis of trade in goods and services, migration and investment. The report surveys recent trends in these flows and assesses the potential for increasing them in ways that will support economic development. The report finds that — when designed and implemented within a broader development strategy to promote economic diversification, structural changes and technological development — regional integration could help enhance productive capacities of African economies, realize economies of scale, improve competitiveness and serve as a launching pad for African economies’ effective participation in the global economy.

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        Economic Development in Africa Report 2013 Intra-african Trade: Unlocking Private Sector Dynamism (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 158 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Globalization and Development Strategies, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        The main message of this year's report is that intra-African trade presents opportunities for sustained growth and development in Africa, but that seizing these opportunitiesrequires private sector dynamism to be unlocked and a development-based approach to integration to be adopted. Chapter 1 provides empirical facts on intra-African trade and investment. Chapter 2 examines the drivers of intra-Africantrade. Chapter 3 focuses on the structure of enterprises in Africa and identifies the distinctive features of the enterprise structures that inhibit trade. Chapter 4 discusses how to boost intra-African trade in the context of developmental regionalism. Chapter 5 provides a summary of the main findings and recommendations of the report.

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        Economic Development in Africa Report 2015: Unlocking the Potential of Africa's Services Trade for Growth and Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 146 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        This report examines some of the major policy issues that underlie Africa’s services sector and provides policy guidance on how services could contribute to Africa’s regional integration and generate inclusive growth and employment. More broadly, it discusses how services can contribute to sustainable growth and development continent-wide, especially given the enabling role of services and their capacity to link with other sectors. The report makes specific and actionable policy recommendations on how to better leverage Africa’s services trade and the related development, employment and growth benefits.

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        Economic Partnership Agreements and the Export Competitiveness of Africa (English)
        Working paper by Brenton, Paul; Hoppe, Mombert; Newfarmer, Richard / World Bank, 2008, 29 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        Trade can be a key driver of growth for African countries, as it has been for those countries, particularly in East Asia, that have experienced high and sustained rates of growth. Economic partnership agreements with the European Union could be instrumental in a competitiveness framework, but to do so they would have to be designed carefully in a way that supports integration into the global economy and is consistent with national development strategies. Interim agreements have focused on reciprocal tariff removal and less restrictive rules of origin. To be fully effective, economic partnership agreements will have to address constraints to regional integration, including both tariff and non-tariff barriers; improve trade facilitation; and define appropriate most favored nation services liberalization. At the same time, African countries will need to reduce external tariff peak barriers on a most favored nation basis to ensure that when preferences for the European Union are implemented after transitional periods, they do not lead to substantial losses from trade diversion. This entails an ambitious agenda of policy reform that must be backed up by development assistance in the form of "aid for trade".

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        Economic Partnership Agreements: Comparative Analysis of the Agricultural Provisions (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2010, 99 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        This study analyses the development implications of the agricultural provisions of the Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) between the European Union (EU) and 36 African,Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries. It is argued that, for most countries, the loss of EU preferences was the decisive factor in signing the EPA, while the additional gains of improved market access have been limited. With respect to ACP countries’ import liberalization commitments, the analysis shows that ACP agricultural markets are not exposed per se to EU products but are affected very differently.

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        Effects of the EBA initiative on the sugar industries of the Least Developed Countries (English)
        Report by DITC, UNCTAD, 2005, 72 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        What: An analysis of the effects of the EBA initiative on fourteen developing countries. This paper raises some key issues: Do LDCs benefit from this initiative? Which countries benefit from the EBA initiative? What can be done to improve it? Who: For teachers, researchers in regional/preferential trade. How: A well structured analysis with recent information on LDCs

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        Emergence of a New South and South-south Trade As a Vehicle for Regional and Interregional Integration for Development (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2008, 17 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        What: This note provides information about the south-south trade expansion in recent years, identifying its drivers, the impact on world investment flows and the increasing number of southern Transnational Corporations (TNCs). Through an overview about south-south trade in goods and services, the document also points the importance of regional and interregional integration, the role of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) and the need for cooperation on trade logistics, competition and energy-related policies. The note concludes with a review of UNCTAD's role to enhance the emergence of a dynamic south. How: Background document on trends of south-south trade, its potential and prospects. Who: Policy makers, researchers and lecturers interested in south-south trade, new investment flows and developing countries' challenges to enhance exchanges.

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        Employment Dimension Of Trade Liberalization With China: Analysis Of The Case Of Indonesia With Dynamic Social Accounting Matrix (English)
        Case study by Ernst, Christoph, Peters, Ralf, 2011, 42 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The ASEAN – China FTA raises concerns regarding its employment impact in Indonesia. The loss of millions of jobs has been predicted as a consequence of the final liberalization round, though few studies on ACFTA consider employment explicitly. This paper has two objectives. First, the employment effects of ACFTA in Indonesia on different groups of the labour market such as rural and youth employment are assessed. Second, a relatively simple methodology is developed that can be used by government officials, employers, trade unions and civil society organizations to assess and quantify the impact of trade policy changes on employment and to deepen their understanding of the complex relationship between trade and employment. The methodology combines two analytical models. Trade shocks are assessed using SMART that calculates import changes resulting from tariff reductions. The resulting effects on employment are evaluated using a multiplier analysis based on the 2008 Social Accounting Matrix component of a Dynamic Social Accounting Matrix. The impact of the final step of ACFTA is likely to be limited for Indonesia in terms of employment. Our analysis shows a small net loss of employment in Indonesia in the short run with some losses for certain groups, including female and young workers, and gains for other groups, for example agriculture employment.

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        The 'emulator Effect' of the Uruguay Round on United States Regionalism (English)
        Case study by Fugazza, Marco, Robert-Nicoud, Frédéric, 2011, 46 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Using a detailed data set at the tariff line level, we find an emulator effect of multilateralism on subsequent regional trade agreements (RTAs) involving the United States. We exploit the variation in the frequency with which the United States grants immediate duty free access (IDA) to its RTA partners across tariff lines. A key finding is that the United States grants IDA status especially on goods for which it has cut the multilateral most favoured nation (MFN) tariff during the Uruguay Round the most. Thus, the Uruguay Round (multilateral) “concessions” have emulated subsequent (preferential) trade liberalization. We conclude from this that past liberalization may sow the seeds of future liberalization.

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        Erosion of preferences for the least developed countries: Assessment of effects and mitigating optionsErosion of preferences for the least developed countries: Assessment of effects and mitigating options (English)
        Note by UNCTAD Secretariat, 2005, 21 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        A background note by the UNCTAD secretariat for the Trade and Development Board, currently meeting in Geneva for its 52nd session, on the erosion of preferences for the Least Developed Countries. The paper highlights the countries and products benefiting from preferential market access initiatives and the scope of those initiatives. It considers the effects of preference erosion and cautions that the global welfare gains from trade liberalisation may be limited for those communities suffering the effects of preference erosion. The paper also briefly examines possible measures that could be taken to mitigate its effects.

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        EU-ACP Economic Partnership Agreements: Empirical Evidence for Sub-saharan Africa (English)
        Case study by Vollmer S.; Martinez-Zarzoso I.;Nowak-Lehmann D.; Klann N., 2009, 29 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The study estimates the welfare effects of the interim agreements for nine African countries: Botswana, Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, Tanzania, and Uganda. The analysis is based on highly disaggregated data for trade and tariffs (HS six digit level) and follows a simple analytical model by to quantify the welfare effects of trade liberalization.

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        Evolution Of Non-tariff Measures: Emerging Cases From Selected Developing Countries (English)
        Discussion paper by Basu, Ranjan Sudip; Kuwahara, Hiroaki;Dumesnil, Fabien, 2012, 39 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The objective of the paper is to provide a brief account of the international efforts in understanding non-tariff measure-related trade policies. It uses the NTMs classification system to reflect the increasing use and importance of these policy measures, and includes the concept of procedural obstacles, which refers to issues related to the process of applying an NTM, rather than the measure itself.

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        Feasibility and Implication of East African Community Monetary Union (English)
        Article by E.P Bagumhe, 2013, 31 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research

        This paper , seeks to employ the Bayoumi and Eichengreen’s (1997) OCA Index methodology as a framework of analysis to examine this objective of EAC. The paper will proceed by providing a brief historical background of monetary and economic arrangements in East African Community. Part two of this paper will review both the theoretical and empirical literature with a view of the theoretical prediction towards the OCA. The specific objective of this paper is to answer four policy questions; Will individual countries increase their welfare when they abolish their national Currency and adopt some currency of a wider area, what is the ideal arrangement of forming regional currency blocs before reaching a complete monetary integration? Thirdly, what is the similarity of output movements of the EAC partner’s states? Fourthly, Does the EAC Partner states meet the convergence criteria as proposed by OCA theory.

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        Financial Services and Trade Agreements in Latin America and the Caribbean: An Overview (English)
        Working paper by Goncalves, Marilyne Pereira; Stephanou, Constantinos /World Bank, 2007, 50 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        The authors review the international framework governing trade in financial services, describe the treatment of financial services in recent trade agreements involving Latin America and Caribbean countries, and analyze the liberalization commitments made in three selected country case studies-Chile, Colombia, and Costa Rica. They give emphasis to free trade agreements because of the generally deeper level of liberalization and rule-making achieved to-date. The authors discuss some of the causes and potential implications of their findings.

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        The Flying Geese Paradigm: a Critical Study of its Application to East Asian Regional Development (English)
        Discussion paper by Shigehisa Kasahara, 2004, 34 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        What: A discussion paper outlining the different versions of the flying gees paradigm of dynamic comparative advantage that try to provide a conceptual underpinning to the process of regional integration through transfer of technology and foreign direct investment in East Asia. The author analyzes the paradigm in the light of current developments in the region and makes some critical conclusions about its applicability. Who: Teachers and students of courses dealing with trade, regional integration, transfer of technology and foreign direct investment. Anyone interested in East Asian experience. How: Can serve as background reading to provide basic knowledge of the theory (good explanation with a graphical presentation), and to stimulate a discussion about its merits and shortcoming, its relevance to the current situation in the region and possibly also other regions.

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        Foreign Investments in Belarus: Recent Developments in Regulatory Issues
        Article by Barbieri, Michele; Petrushkevic, Alena, 2010, 16 pages
        Categories: Investment, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research

        The article examines the policy and legal frameworks governing foreign direct investments (FDI) in Belarus and their consistency with commitments undertaken by the country through bilateral trade agreements.

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        from Regional Economic Communities to a Continental Free Trade Area - Strategic Tools to Assist Negotiators and Agricultural Policy Design in Africa (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 81 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This handbook provides a general explanation of the preferential tariffs of India for the least developed countries, to allow officials and users responsible or involved in duty-free quota-free issues to gain a better understanding of the Duty Free Tariff Preference Scheme of India. It is meant to serve as a general guide and is not intended to provide legal advice

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        Gains from Varieties: Analysis of the Benefits of Trade Agreements in South America
        Working paper by Orlando Monteiro da Silva; Jacqueline Silva Batista, 2015
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research

        This study analyzes the gains from imports and the contribution of Regional Trade Agreements to these gains in South America from 1995 to 2011. The results showed that there was a substantial increase in varieties of imported products and that smaller countries had benefited more from falling prices. Openness to international trade and participation in bilateral and regional trade agreements are the major factors leading to gains from importing varieties.

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        Growing Together - Economic Integration for an Exclusive and Sustainable Asia-pacific Century (English)
        Book by ESCAP, 2012, 196 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        The Asia-Pacific region’s rapid growth since the 1950s has been supported by a favourable external economic environment and opportunities arising from globalization. But in a dramatically altered post-global financial crisis scenario, the region’s dynamism, which is crucial for the elimination of poverty and hunger and the realization of the Asia-Pacific century, will critically depend on its ability to harness the potential of regional economic integration. Chapter one of the study gives an overview of the key issues in the context of regional economic integration in Asia and the Pacific. The following chapters deal with the process of a broader integrated market. Chapter three looks therefore at the aspect of connectivity, while chapter four is focussing on the financial cooperation aspect. The final chapter concludes with looking at the future - towards an inclusive and sustainable Asia-Pacific century.

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        Handbook on Negotiating Preferential Trade Agreements: Services Liberalization (English)
        Manual by Pierre Sauvé, Simon Lacey, 2013, 94 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        Manual oriented to policymakers and trade negotiators in developing countries and economies in transition. It explains Aid for Trade in services and insights on PTA provisions. It includes a thorough explanation on how to prepare for negotiations by identifying actors, consulting stakeholders, conducting research, setting goals and performance. The second part, describes how to conduct the negotiations themselves and the third part goes into some detail on Aid for Trade and how to increase the capacity for exporting services. Finally, as a final stage of the negotiation process; Implementation, monitoring and enforcement techniques are suggested, as well as a brief introduction to dispute settlement.

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        Handbook on the Special and Preferential Tariff Scheme of China for Least Developed Countries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 219 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Facilitation

        China started to grant duty-free treatment to LDCs with diplomatic relations with China in 2001. In China’s customs tariff schedules (that is, the Customs Tariff of Import and Export of the People’s Republic of China), “duty-free” is referred to as “special and preferential tariff treatment for least developed countries” (herein after referred to as the “LDC scheme”). In response to the WTO decision on DFQF for LDC exports adopted at the sixth Ministerial Conference in Hong Kong (China) in December 2005, China announced at the United Nations High-Level Event on Millennium Development Goals held in 2008 that it would increase gradually the coverage of its LDC scheme to reach 95 per cent of the country’s total tariff lines. As a further step to help boost LDC exports to China, in March 2013 at the BRICS1 Summit held in South Africa, China announced its decision to increase its duty-free coverage to 97 per cent by 2015. The decision was implemented on 1 January 2015. Thus, China became the first developing country in WTO to fully meet the tariff line coverage requirement set out in the sixth Ministerial Declaration.

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        ¿Hay Vida Después del SGP? Implicancias de la Posible Exclusión de Argentina de los Sistemas Generalizados de Preferencias de Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea (English)
        Policy brief by Dalle, Demián, Lavopa, Federico, 2011, 12 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        El Sistema Generalizado de Preferencias (“SGP”) es una de las manifestaciones centrales del principio del “Trato Especial y Diferenciado” que los países desarrollados accedieron a otorgar a aquellos en vías de desarrollo en el ámbito de Acuerdo General sobre Aranceles y Comercio (“GATT”) y su sucesora, la Organización Mundial del Comercio (“OMC”). Este principio deriva de uno de los aspectos más elementales de cualquier noción de justicia: la igualdad entre desiguales no es igualdad. Traducido a la jerga de la OMC, este imperativo implica que los países desarrollados miembros de la OMC están autorizados a realizar concesiones unilaterales a países en desarrollo sin la obligación de extender automática e incondicionalmente dichas preferencias a todos los países miembros de la OMC. Funciona, por lo tanto, como una excepción a uno de los pilares de dicho organismo: el principio de no discriminación y, en particular, la Cláusula de la Nación Más Favorecida.

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        Impact of Qualifying Industrial Zones (QIZ) on Egypt and Jordan: A Critical Analysis (English)
        Case study by Ahmed Farouk Ghoneim and Taleb Awad, 2009
        Categories: Investment, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research

        Paper presents a detailed outlook on the impact of qualifying industrial zones (QIZ)from the perspective of both Egypt and Jordan. It explains the objective and purpose of the QIZ, the performance of the QIZ (in terms of employment opportunities, gender and technology transfer) and it concludes with a comparative analysis between Egypt and Jordan.

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        Implementation of multimodal transport rules - Comparative Tables (English)
        Annex by UNCTAD Trade and transport facilitation branch, 2001, 18 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Facilitation

        Comparative tables based on the paper Implementation of multimodal transport rules. Good summary of legislation in different countries and regional agreements (Mercosur, Asean, India, China, Paraguay…)

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        Implementing Competition-related Provisions in Regional Trade Agreements: Is It Possible to Obtain Development Gains? (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2006, 198 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        What: This publication presents the results of an UNCTAD/IDRC project on Trade and Competition Issues: Experiences at Regional Level. It consists of three chapters written by UNCTAD and academic experts on the topic as well as an annex with reports from the workshops that have been conducted for the project. This publication considers the interrelationship between competition law and policy, economic development and trade. It sHows the constraints faced by developing countries in using existing cooperation mechanisms and suggests ways to foster a culture of competition in developing-country markets. It also stresses the importance of improving the institutional capacities of recently established competition authorities in developing countries to deal with anti-competitive practices in their own markets and help their enterprises deal with them in international markets. How: Raising awareness and enhancing expertise among all stakeholders. Who: Policy makers wanting to understand the negotiation and implementation of regional and bilateral trade agreements with respect to competition policies, but also other stakeholders in the process.

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        The Influence of Preferential Trade Agreements on the Implementation of Intellectual Property Rights in Developing Countries - A First Look (English)
        Report by Tekeste Biadgleng, Ermias, Maur, Jean-Christophe, 2011, 52 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        Preferential trade agreements (PTAs) are gaining prominence among trade liberalization efforts. Yet little remains known about the extent to which the intellectual property (IP) provisions of PTAs translate into actual changes in domestic institutions and laws. This paper investigates one important dimension of this question by looking at disciplines covering intellectual property rights (IPRs) and surveying the implementation of agreements negotiated by the European Union and the United States with developing countries. The EU and United States are the two chief proponents of stronger standards and enforcement of IPRs. This work is among the first to look at implementation issues related to IPRs in the PTA context.

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        Innovation, Competitiveness and Regional Integration: Assessing Regional Integration in Africa Vii (English)
        Also available in French
        Report by UNECA/AUC/AfDb, 2016, 148 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Science and Technology

        This joint publication 'Assessing Regional Integration in Africa VII' reviews the relationship between regional integration, innovation and competitiveness. It argues that by knitting together networks of institutions, people and markets a loose connection between two or more nations is bound to facilitate innovation and related creative activities. The report presents chapters on innovation and global intellectual property regulations and science, technology and innovation policies, along with case studies from India and the Southeast Asian nations.

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        Integración Regional En América Latina: Desafíos Y Oportunidades
        Study by UNCTAD Virtual Institute, 2010, 163 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research

        The publication comprises six papers (written in Spanish with English summaries) dealing with the regional integration process in Latin America. The authors, from Vi member universities of Argentina, Peru, Uruguay, Brazil, Spain, as well as Switzerland, analyze political, economic and legal aspects of regional trade agreements between South American countries and trading partners from both the South and the North.

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        Integración Y Convergencia En Unasur
        Working paper by Reinoso, Alan Fairlie, 2013, 17 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research

        En UNASUR coexisten países con diferentes estrategias de desarrollo e inserción internacional, que han llevado a tensiones y/o conflictos complicados. Por un lado tenemos países que han impulsado un proceso de liberación y apertura combinado con la suscripción de acuerdos comerciales regionales, principalmente Norte-Sur (TLCs). Por otro lado hay países que no solo cuestionan estas estrategias y han planteado una nueva intervención del Estado para manejar la renta de los recursos naturales, sino que también cuestionan los TLC porque entienden que no contribuyen al desarrollo de sus países. Este documento se concentra en discutir sobre las posibilidades de convergencia que habría en el plano económico – comercial, estratégico, en el espacio de UNASUR.

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        Integration of Markets vs. Integration by Agreements (English)
        Working paper by Aminian, Nathalie; Fung, K.C.; Ng, Francis / World Bank, 2008, 38 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper provides an analysis of the two channels of regional integration: integration via markets and integration via agreements. Given that East Asia and Latin America are two fertile regions where both forms of integrations have taken place, the authors examine the experiences of these two areas. There are four related results. First, East Asia had been integrating via markets long before formal agreements were in vogue in the region. Latin America, by contrast, has primarily used formal regional trade treaties as the main channel of integration. Second, despite the relative lack of formal regional trade treaties until recently, East Asia is more integrated among itself than Latin America. Third, from a purely economic and trade standpoint, the proper sequence of integrations seems to be first integrating via markets and subsequently via formal regional trade agreements. Fourth, regional trade agreements often serve multiple constituents. The reason why integrating via markets first can be helpful is because this can give stronger political bargaining power to the outward-looking economic-oriented forces within the country.

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        Intellectual Property Provisions of Bilateral and Regional Trade Agreements in light of U.S. Federal Law (English)
        Case study by Abbott, Frederick M., 2006, 36 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        What: This paper examines recent regional and bilateral Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) from the perspective of the United States law and policies. It also analyzes crucial and sensitive issues in these agreements in light of the background provided by U.S. regulatory and case law experience. One of the lessons of the paper is that existing differences in the capacity of the United States and many developing countries to create and manage legal infrastructure may lead to a disparity in the way FTA rules are implemented. How: Useful to highlight the intellectual property provisions of bilateral and regional trade agreements in international economics classes. Who: Lecturers and researchers in the area of intellectual property rights, particularly when put into the context of trade agreements

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        International trade negotiations, regional integration and South-South trade, especially in commodities (English)
        Note by UNCTAD Division on International Trade in Goods and Services and Commodities, 2005, 19 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        What: Background note on the importance of economic cooperation in South-South trade and in international negotiations. This paper puts the emphasis on the expanding trade between developing countries and elaborates an agenda for South-South trade in the annex. Who: Relevant for students or teachers interested in regional integration and in building capacity for negotiations. How: Good introductory reading to the issue of economic cooperation and regional integration.

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        Is South–South Trade a Testing Ground for Structural Transformation? (English)
        Discussion paper by Klinger, Bailey/UNCTAD, 2009, 37 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        The purpose of this paper is to analyse the composition of South–South as opposed to South– North trade in recent years, applying emerging methodologies and highly disaggregated trade data to consider whether the South as a market provides developing countries with greater opportunities to transform their productive structures and move to more sophisticated export sectors than the Northern market does. The results show that for a group of developing countries, primarily in Africa, Latin America and Central Asia, exports within the South are more sophisticated and better connected in the product space than exports to the North, whereas the opposite is true for the faster-growing economies of Asia and Eastern Europe (excluding the Commonwealth of Independent States). It is shown that the primary source of cross-country variation in export sophistication and connectedness is between Northbound rather than Southbound export baskets. And yet it is clear that for a large group of developing countries, current export flows to the North are not particularly growth-enhancing, nor do they offer learning opportunities to fuel structural transformation, and for these countries South–South trade flows may indeed be a testing ground for structural transformation. This paper focuses on clearly establishing the facts about export composition by market, and identifying promising avenues for further investigation.

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        It's Not All About Trade: Preferential Trading Agreements Induce Economic Reforms in Developing Countries (English)
        Article by Leonardo Baccini, Johannes Urpelainen, 2012, 5 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        In this brief, the authors present results of their empirical analysis on two stages of cooperation between the EU and the US and devloping countries. In their remarkable conclusion they prompt that the deepest and broadest preferential North-South trading agreements signed by most developing countries are ultimately about economic reform.

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        Key Indicators and Trends in Trade Policy 2016 (English)
        Report by Nicita, Alessandro/UNCTAD, 2016, 35 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        This volume of Key Indicators and Trends in Trade Policy 2016, subtitled ‘G20 Policies and Least Developed Countries’ Export Performance’, analysis the outcomes of policies on least developed country growth strategies. It highlights trends in the use of trade policy instruments, movements in exchange rates, the application of sanitary and phytosanitary measures, the use of defensive trade mechanisms, and regional and bilateral economic integration. In describing the measures such as tariffs, antidumping, import restrictions, and preferential trade agreements, the report analysis these by country and region. This report is structured in two parts. The first part presents an overview of the effects of G20 policies on LDCs exports. The second part discusses trends in selected trade policy instruments including illustrative statistics. The second part is divided in five chapters: tariffs, trade agreements, non-tariff measures, trade defense measures, exchange rates and trade costs. Trade trends and statistics are provided at various levels of aggregation illustrating the use of the trade policy measures across economic sectors and geographic regions.

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        Key Indicators and Trends in Trade Policy 2016: a Bad Year for World Trade (English)
        Report by UNCTAD/DITC/TAB/2016/3, 2016, 30 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        This edition of Key Indicators and Trends in Trade Policy 2016, subtitled ‘A Bad Year for World Trade’, explains that the deteriorating trends in 2015 of weaker demand, a declined value of international trade, and an economic collapse carried on to 2016. This report is structured in two parts. The first part presents an overview of the trade collapse of 2015. The second part provides illustrative statistics on international trade in goods and services covering the last 10 years. The second part is divided in two sections. Section 1 provides trade statistics at various levels of aggregation illustrating the evolution of trade across economic sectors and geographic regions. Section 2 presents some of the most commonly used trade indicators at the country level, so as to illustrate trade performance across countries.

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        La Gobernanza Versus GlobalizaciÓn: Estudio De Caso Isa
        Article by Carlos Manuel Jiménez Aguilar* Catherine Pereira Villa**, 2011, 21 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research

        This article explores the contemporary debate on globalization and governance, in order to study processes of regional integration from networks of cross-border governance in the region. The processes of privatization of the electric sector in Latin America increased public-private coordination and cross-sector partnerships: this is the case of Colombia’s energy sector and the company of electrical interconnection (ISA). This work suggests that the case of ISA can be characterized as one of interactive governance that has connected three countries of the Andean region and one member of Mercosur through a linear infrastructure of more than 35,000 km. This infrastructure has spatially integrated a region characterized by incomplete integration processes. This study analyses ISA’s model and its contribution to the cross-border governance based on information provided by the company and a series of interviews with ISA’s management.

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        Las Cascaras Del Banano (English)
        Article by Gustavo Guzman, 2007
        Categories: Commodities, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research

        Análisis de la controversia por el tratamiento a las importaciones de banano en la Union Europea y su impacto social.

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        Las Propuestas De Quito (English)
        Article by Gustavo Guzman, 2007
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        Análisis sobre las posibilidades de integración de Suramérica, a partir de los acuerdos de integración de la región. UNASUR.

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        Making Regional Trade Work for Africa: Turning Words into Deeds
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2015, 4 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        This policy brief deals with the implementation of regional trade agreements (RTAs) in Africa. A well-known characteristic of the regional integration process in Africa is the multiplicity of RTAs however the African continent is faced with a low rate of their implementation. This policy brief identifies some of the main barriers to implementation and proposes remedies for them. It identifies and examines specific policy measures that African Governments and their development partners should consider adopting to address the challenge of implementing RTAs in Africa.

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        Market Access for Trade in Goods in Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) (English)
        Report by South Centre, 2008, 31 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade and Poverty

        This Fact Sheet Nb.7 overviews market access provisions related to the liberalisation of merchandise trade under the Interim Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) that were initialed in the end of 2007 between the EU and 35 countries in Africa, the Caribbean and Pacific (ACP). It is part of a series of Fact Sheets designed to improve stakeholders’ understanding of the legal, economic and developmental implications of specific provisions in the texts agreed to as well as to suggest options for improvement, particularly for the ACP countries and regions which are in the process of finalizing an EPA text.

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        Measuring the Relative Strength of Preferential Market Access (English)
        Report by Nicita, Alessandro / UNCTAD, 2011, 29 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        In the past 20 years, tariffs imposed on international trade have been decreasing both in virtue of multilateral agreements under the auspices of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and of the proliferation of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) at the regional and bilateral level. The consequence of the large number of PTAs is that an increasing share of international trade is not subject to the most favoured nation tariffs, but enters markets through preferential access. Preferential access can be thought of as a policy given comparative advantage where countries discriminate across trading partners by providing some countries with a relative advantage. As the number of PTAs increases, it becomes more difficult to assess the tariff advantage originating from an existing or future trade agreement. This paper proposes two new indices aimed at assessing the value of the preferential margin. The first index measures the relative value of preferential regimes on actual exports flows. It provides the tariff advan age to the exports originating from a given country relative to similar exports originating elsewhere. The second index measures the potential value of the preferential regime and it is calculated not on observed but on “potential” export flows. These indices are useful for calculating both the strength of existing or future trade agreements as well as the preference erosion that a third-parties trade agreement may cause.

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        Mercosur in South-south Agreements: In the Middle of Two Models of Regionalism
        Study by Celli, Umberto; Salles, Marcus; Tussie, Diana; Peixoto, Juliana, 2010, 72 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research

        The objective of this paper is to analyse the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) as the case of a regional integration process in transition between different moments: the 1990s neoliberal moment (which concentrated solely on trade liberalization) and the present neo-developmental phase, which now includes structural policies as a new pillar for integration. The pull of each contrasting mindset leads to tensions in both the internal and external agendas. In this analysis, we focus on three specific issues: asymmetries, trade in services and investments. All three have loomed large in the North-South agenda, but as regional agreements make progress and a new mindset emerges they now cast a shadow on South-South relations.

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        Mobilizing Business for Trade in Services (English)
        Book by ITC, 2013, 156 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The book summarizes key arguments on the role of services in development, providing analysis and explanation of the regulatory reforms and trade negotiations needed to foster a vibrant services sector in developing countries. It provides an overview of how policymakers and people working in business can work together to develop specific services sectors, such as tourism; transport and logistics; communications; audiovisual; computer and business process outsourcing; financial services; professional and other business services; construction; distribution; and cultural and recreational services.

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        Muere La Union Aduanera Andina (English)
        Article by Gustavo Guzman, 2007
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        Opinión sobre los efectos de la Decision 669 de la Comision de la Comunidad Andina en el proceso de integración comunitario.

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        Multilateralism and Regionalism: The New Interface (English)
        Book by Mashayekhi, Mina and Ito, Taisuke /UNCTAD, 2005, 205 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        There is a resurgence of regionalism in today’s international trading system. Regional trade agreements have multiplied worldwide; almost all countries are members of at least one agreement and many are party to multiple agreements. Existing agreements are re-invigorated and expanded while new ones are being negotiated and formed. What: The volume contains papers delivered at a pre-UNCTAD XI Forum on “Multilateralism and Regionalism: The New Interface” held on 8 June 2004 at the BNDES, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, organized during the Rio Trade Week. The publication starts with some initial perspectives on the new interface between the post-WTO multilateralism, with a view to identifying ways and means of addressing important policy challenges. It further provides more in depth-analysis of RTA issues including Rules of Origin, Notification to the WTO of a RTA, New North-South and South-South Models, Market Access and Competition Policy. How: Ideal background paper for regional trade agreements of for further reading purposes. Who: Trade Policy Classes at a higher level.

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        Negociación De Un Acuerdo Comercial Con La Ue: Impactos Estimados De Pobreza En Ecuador (English)
        Policy brief by Wong, Sara/ LATN, 2010, 4 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade and Poverty

        En este brief se analizan los posibles resultados de un acuerdo comercial entre la Unión Europea y Ecuador recurriendo a un modelo de micro-simulaciones y considerando los impactos potenciales sobre los índices de pobreza.

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        Negotiating Services Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) with the European Union: Some Issues for Developing Countries to Consider (English)
        Note by South Centre, 2009, 31 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        This Analytical Note explores the options available to developing countries in negotiating agreements establishing Free Trade Areas (FTAs) involving a trade in services component with the European Union (EU). It examines the issues that are challenging for development in the EU proposals which include amongst other things the EU negotiating template, Mode 4 limitations, the domestic regulatory framework and the MFN clause. Secondly it identifies the options available to developing countries. These include cooperation arrangements with the EU, respect for regional initiatives, recognition of special treatment for LDCs and retaining the GATS architecture and flexibilities.

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        Negotiation theory - An overview (English)
        Summary by Virtual Institute, UNCTAD, 2006
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What:this paper is a brief introduction to the theory of negotiations containing links to more detailed resources on negotiations posted on the Vi site. The paper describes the strategies and tactics used in negotiations and some of the skills required for negotiation. Who: the paper provides an overview for anyone studying negotiations and could be used by teachers to introduce students to the field. How: as a background reading on negotiations defining the scope of the field and linking to more detailed resources for further reading.

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        Non-tariff Measures and Regional Integration in the Southern African Development Community (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 36 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This note provides an overview of the state of play of the political process on NTM policies in the SADC region and presents a non-technical summary of methodologies to assess the regulatory distance between members of a free trade agreement and the potential greater economic benefits from reducing NTMs. The note also contains a discussion of the potential way forward in the SADC region on NTMs.

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        Only Words? How Power in Trade Agreement Texts Affects International Trade Flows (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2018, 23 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Related Capacity Building

        The texts of international trade agreements are often recycled from previous treaties. Large and rich countries are more likely to act as "rulemakers" who have an internally consistent treaty network, while smaller and poorer countries are more likely to be "rule-takers" whose treaties resemble those of their partners more than their own. To study whether rule-makers benefit more from trade agreements than rule-takers, the paper uses a new text corpus of machine-readable trade agreement texts, Texts of Trade Agreements (ToTA). It builds indicators of textual similarity that capture how much an agreement resembles each party's previous agreements and introduce them into a gravity model of international trade. The results show that the exports of countries that had a greater influence on the treaty text increase more than their partners'. In an "average" situation, the rule-maker increases its exports by about 16.3%, while the rule-taker only increases its exports by about 8.8%.The effect is driven by the influence of the importer, suggesting that powerful countries effectively restrict access to their markets. The results demonstrate that the recycling of trade agreements has real economic effects, suggesting that countries should carefully assess text proposals when negotiating a trade agreement.

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        On the Complementarity of Regional and Global Trade (English)
        Working paper by Souleymane,Coulibalya/WB, 2008, 16 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper proposes a closer look at the issue using COMTRADE aggregate exports of capital goods, intermediate goods, consumer goods and raw materials for 2002-06 to evaluate the impact of a country import of intermediate goods from its neighbors on its global export performance using a granger-causality test based on an extended-gravity model. For Sub-Saharan African countries particularly, there is a strong positive correlation between countries previous regional import of intermediate goods and their current exports, indicating that developing neighborhoods are also experiencing such complementarity between regional and global trade, the relation being stronger beyond a threshold of global competitiveness.

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        On the Importance of Market Access for Trade (English)
        Working paper by Fugazza, Marco, Nicita, Alessandro, 2011, 36 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        One of the consequences of the proliferation of preferential trade agreements is that an increasing share of international trade is not subject to the most favoured nation (MFN) tariff, but enters markets through preferential access. Preferential access affects trade because, by providing some countries with a relative advantage, it is essentially a discriminatory practice. This paper examines the extent to which preferential access affects bilateral trade flows. The empirical approach consists first in providing two indices: one summarizing direct market access conditions (the overall tariff faced by exports) and one measuring relative market access conditions (the overall tariff faced by exports relative to that faced by competitors). Then, the indices are used in a gravity model in order to estimate how changes in market access conditions affect international trade. Although those conditions are generally more important, the results indicate that the relative advantage provided by the structure of preferences also affects the magnitude of bilateral trade flows. That is, bilateral trade flows depend on the advantage provided by the system of preferences over other competitors.

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        O Regionalismo No Século XXI: Comércio, Regulação E Política (English)
        Discussion paper by Machado Oliveira, Ivan Tiago, 2012, 36 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research

        This paper aims to analyze how the waves of regionalism represented changes in the way trade policy has been conducted, expanding the game of political negotiation with variable geometry and determining its influence on the political regulation of international trade. To do so, the concept and a typology of regionalism in its economic bases are presented. Moreover, the relation between the rules of the multilateral trade regime and those of regional agreements will be explored by analyzing the proliferation of the latter and the tensions, antagonisms and complementarities between regionalism and multilateralism. Finally, the waves of regionalism and some of the most relevant theoretical and analytical approaches that seek to explain them will be presented in order to shed light on the study of regionalism in trade policy strategies within the framework of a new political regulation of international trade in the 21st century.

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        Pacific Alliance: An Ongoing Negotiation
        Working paper by Dorotea López; Felipe Muñoz/ University of Chile, 2013
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research

        The new integration scheme that arises in Latin America is known as the Pacific Alliance (PA). It brings together Latin American countries which economies are oriented towards trade liberalization like Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru. This article considers that this alliance is an innovative strategy focused on responding to the objectives initially defined by its members. It reviews its construction and status before presenting the specificities of the PA.

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        Poison In The Wine? Tracing GATS-minus Commitments In Regional Trade Agreements (English)
        Working paper by Adlung, Rudolf, Miroudot, Sébastien, 2012, 25 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Commitments in regional trade agreements (RTAs) that fall short of the same countries'obligations under the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) are a relatively frequent phenomenon. However, they have gone widely unnoticed in the literature to date and drawn very little attention in relevant WTO fora either. Nevertheless, 'minus commitments' are potentially poisonous and, for various reasons, would deserve close attention. Given the broad definitional scope of the GATS, extending inter alia to commercial presence, such commitments may impinge upon the rights of third-country investors in the RTA economies. Their existence casts doubts on the legal status of the respective agreements under the GATS and can have severe implications for the trading system overall. If not complemented by comprehensive Most-favoured-Nation clauses, the RTAs concerned are disconnected from the WTO and virtually impossible to multilateralize. Based on a review of some 80,000 commitments in 66 agreements, this study seeks to develop a reasonably comprehensive picture of the frequency of 'minus commitments' and their dosage in terms of sectors, measures and modes of supply. It also discusses potential remedies from a WTO perspective.

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        The Political Economy of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (English)
        Discussion paper by VanGrasstek, Graig/UNCTAD, 2016, 40 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The TransPacific Partnership (TPP) is one of two current mega-regional initiatives that could jointly be the most consequential development in the trading system since the end of the Uruguay Round in 1994. Together with the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) negotiations that are still underway between the United States and the European Union, this agreement could redefine the landscape of the international trading system. The focus of this analysis is primarily upon the TPP, but where appropriate reference is made as well to the TTIP. The principal objective of the present study is to place the TPP in its larger political and economic context, and to define — but not definitively answer the questions that arise concerning its impact on the trading system. The main focus here is on one overarching question and two subsidiary questions. The overall question addressed here is, “What implications does the TPP hold for the evolution of the international trading system?” That system incorporates not just the multilateral agreements of the WTO, but also the larger body of trade law that includes inter alia bilateral and regional RTAs, plurilateral agreements, and other treaties and institutions. The evolution of that system is of interest to all countries no matter what their levels of economic development, trade strategies, or relationship to the TPP. Both of the subsidiary questions speak to important aspects of that overarching question. The paper does not attempt to provide definitive answers to any of these questions, but will instead seek to stimulate discussion. It does so by specifying each of these questions in greater detail, discussing their significance, and providing evidence and arguments on each side of the issue.

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        Potential and Prospects for Trade and Investment Between Developing Countries and Transition Economies (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2008
        Categories: Investment, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        What: The note, prepared for the UNCTAD XII, analyses the expansion of trade between transition economies and developing countries, especially in the Commonwealth of Independent States and developing Asia. In the first part, through graphics and tables, the document points the main import and export sectors, tariffs applied and a short prospect. The second part is dedicated to Foreign Direct Investments' expansion in developing countries and transition economies and the role of Transnational Corporations (TNC). The document notes the importance of regional integration schemes and gives a prospect for South-South FDI. How: Background document on trade and FDI between developing countries and transition economies. Who: Policy makers, researchers and lecturers dealing with south-south trade and FDI.

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        Potential Supply Chains in Textiles and Clothing Sector in South Asia. An Exploratory Study (English)
        Case study by Das, Abhijit, Banga, Rashmi, Kumar, Dinesh, Razzaque, M.A., Ratna, R.S., Moitra, Snighda, 2010, 147 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        The main objective of this study is to identify at HS six digit codes the potential supply chains that can be formed in the T&C sector (HS Chapters 50-63) within South Asia, which will enable South Asia to lower its cost of production and improve its global competitiveness. The analysis is undertaken for the four major economies of the region,namely Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The benefits of regional integration in developing potential supply chains in South Asia are also addressed.

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        Principio De Acumulacion De Origen En Acuerdos De Integración (English)
        Discussion paper by Gustavo Guzman, 2007
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        Análisis detallado del principio de acumulación de reglas de origen en América Latina y propuestas para su homologación en la región

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        R&D in the Network of International Trade: Multilateral Versus Regional Trade Agreements (English)
        Working paper by Teteryatnikova, Mariya / European University Institute, 2008, 34 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Science and Technology

        This paper argues that different types of trade liberalization - multilateral versus regional - may lead to different R&D and productivity levels of firms. Trade agreements between countries are modelled with a network: nodes represent countries and a link between the nodes indicates the existence of a trade agreement. In this framework, the multilateral trade agreement is represented by the complete network while the overlap of regional trade agreements is represented by the hub-and-spoke trade system. Trade liberalization, which increases the network of trade agreements, reinforces the incentives for firms to invest in R&D through the creation of new markets (scale effect) but it may also dampen these incentives through the emergence of new competitors (competition effect). The joint action of these two effects within the multilateral and the regional trade systems gives rise to the result that, for the same number of direct trade partners, the R&D effort of a country in the multilateral agreement is lower than the R&D effort of a hub but higher than the R&D effort of a spoke. This suggests that a “core” country within the regional trade system has higher R&D and productivity level than a country with the same number of trade agreements within the multilateral system whereas the opposite is true for a “periphery” country. Additionally, the paper finds that while multilateral trade liberalization boosts productivity of all countries, regional trade liberalization increases productivity of core economies but may decrease productivity of periphery economies if the level of competition in the new trade partner countries of the periphery economy is “too high”. Furthermore, the aggregate level of R&D activities within the multilateral trade agreement exceeds that in the star - the simplest representative of the hub-and-spoke trade system.

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        Regional Arrangements To Support Growth And Macro-policy Coordination In Mercosur (English)
        Discussion paper by Fanelli, José María /UNCTAD, 2007, 42 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Macroeconomic Policy, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        The main goal of the paper is to discuss the problem of macroeconomic policy coordination in MERCOSUR and how it could contribute to sustaining growth. In the first part, the paper reviews the macroeconomic situation of MERCOSUR, emphasizing the role of the developments that followed the regime change in Brazil in 1999 and in other member countries afterwards. The second part analyses the characteristics of macroeconomic fluctuations in the region. The last section addresses what member countries can do to support growth, macro-policy coordination, and financial integration.

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        Regional Cooperation and Integration in Sub-Saharan Africa (English)
        Discussion paper by Metzger, Martina/UNCTAD, 2008, 42 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        Africa has a long tradition of regional cooperation, its trade and monetary integration schemes being the oldest in the developing world. This paper analyses the state of regional integration with respect to trade and financial relations in selected regional schemes in Central, Southern and West Africa. The paper concludes that in particular regional monetary integration offers advantages in terms of monetary stability, growth, competitiveness, deepening of financial markets and ownership compared with an indiscriminately integration of individual countries into the global economy. Thus, great significance must attached to cooperation between Member States. Although trade and financial integration can be mutually enforcing, a minimum level of regional activities is required to set this process in motion. Until the necessary threshold is achieved, Member States have a vital role in organizing and delivering regional activities, e.g. the development of bond markets or the promotion of production networks.

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        Regional Integration, Growth and Concentration (English)
        Working paper by Dirk Willem Te Velde/ODI, 2007, 61 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This study aims to examine the circumstances under which different types of regional integration leads to convergence and growth, and how such integration could best be fostered. It will cover regions across the world, but the empirics will focus on developing country regions and Africa in particular.

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        Regional Integration in South Asia: What Role for Trade Facilitation? (English)
        Working paper by Wilson, John S.; Otsuki, Tsunehiro /World Bank, 2007, 37 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Facilitation

        The trade performance of countries in South Asia over the past two decades has been poor relative to other regions. Exports from South Asia have doubled over the past 20 years to approximately USD 100 billion. In contrast, East Asia's exports grew ten times over the same period. The low level of intraregional trade has contributed to weak export performance in South Asia. The empirical analysis in this paper demonstrates gains to trade in the region from reform and capacity building in trade facilitation at the regional level. When considering intraregional trade, if countries in South Asia raise capacity halfway to East Asia's average, trade is estimated to rise by USD 2.6 billion. This is approximately 60 percent of the total intraregional trade in South Asia. Countries in the region also have a stake in the success of efforts to promote capacity building outside its borders. If South Asia and the rest of the world were to raise their levels of trade facilitation halfway to the East Asian average, the gains to the region would be estimated at USD 36 billion. Out of those gains, about 87 percent of the total would be generated from South Asia's own efforts (leaving the rest of the world unchanged). In summary, we find that the South Asian region's expansion of trade can be substantially advanced with programs of concrete action to address barriers to trade facilitation to advance regional goals.

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        Regionalism and Trade Facilitation: a Primer (English)
        Working paper by Maur, Jean-Christophe / World Bank, 2008, 40 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Facilitation

        This paper investigates when trade facilitation reform should be undertaken at the regional level. First, looking at both efficiency and implementation considerations, it confirms the perception that the regional dimension matters. Investigating where efficiency gains can be made, this research explains why national markets alone fail to produce the full scale economies and positive externalities of trade facilitation reform. Second, because trade facilitation policies need to address coordination and capacity failures, and because of the operational complexity challenge, the choice of the adequate platform for delivering reform is crucial. The lessons are that regional trade agreements offer good prospects of comprehensive and effective reform and can effectively complement multilateral and national initiatives. However, examples of implementation of trade facilitation reform in regional agreements do not seem to indicate that regional integration approaches have been more successful than trade facilitation through specific cooperation agreements or other efforts, multilateral or unilateral. Customs unions may be an exception here, and the author suggests reasons why this could be the case.

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        Regional Monetary Cooperation and Growth-enhancing Policies: the New Challenges for Latin America and the Caribbean (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2011, 84 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Macroeconomic Policy, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        Using the SUCRE initiative as a starting point, this study aims at raising awareness and building consensus on the issue of regional monetary cooperation and its links to growth and development.

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        Regional Trade Agreements example: the UK and the EU (English)
        Summary by Virtual Institute, UNCTAD, 2005
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        This is a working document giving an example of some of the key issues involved, on a national level, regarding membership in an RTA. The purpose of this example is to provide a "model" for other national examples so that we can compile a series of Factsheets on different RTAs and their relationships with national and international policies.

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        Regional Trade Agreements Template (English)
        Outline by Virtual Institute, UNCTAD, 2005
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        A loose template to use in developing collaborative teaching materials on Regional Trade Agreements. Can be used for compiling information about RTAs that our countries are involved in.

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        Regional Trade Integrations: A Comparative Study - The Cases of GAFTA, COMESA, and SAPTA/SAFTA (English)
        Case study by Awad, Talib; Bakir, Amir; Mehra, Meeta Keswani; Pant, Manoj; Rojid, Sawkut; Sannassee, Vinesh; Seetanah, Boopen; Suraj, Fowdar, 2008, 92 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research

        The study analyzes and compares three regional integration schemes in terms of their impact on intra-regional trade: the Great Arab Free Trade Area (GAFTA), the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), and the South Asia Preferential Trade Agreement (SAPTA). Using revealed comparative advantage and regression analyses, the study finds that there is very limited potential for intra-regional trade within each of the three regions; that there was no substitution effect of the trade agreements between intra-regional trade and trade with the rest of the world; that there was not much trade created by the agreements; and that intra trade was characterized by a high level of geographical concentration, mainly among neighboring countries. A number of obstacles to trade are identified, which are somewhat similar across regions. Finally, policy recommendations are given to tackle these obstacles, which stem from political, economic, administrative, tariff and non-tariff, transportation and external factors. The study will be useful for scholars with an interst in the effectiveness of regional trade agreements, particularly in the three compared regions and might provide useful illustrations for relevant economics classes.

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        Review of Maritime Transport 2016 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 118 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Facilitation

        The 2016 Review of Maritime Transport discusses long-term growth prospects for seaborne trade and maritime business. It argues these prospects are positive and that there are ample opportunities for developing countries to generate income and employment and help promote foreign trade.

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        Rules of Origin and the Web of East Asian Free Trade Agreements (English)
        Working paper by Manchin, Miriam; Pelkmans-Balaoing, Annette O. /World Bank, 2007, 29 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The authors provide an overview of the preferential rules of origin in East Asia, highlighting the aspects that might possibly generate some trade-chilling effects. They review characteristics of existing preferential trade agreements with special emphasis on lessons from the European experience, and analyze some important features of the existing rules of origin in East and South-East Asian regional integration agreements. The empirical analysis of the effectiveness of preferentialism on intra-regional trade flows focuses on the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA), with the aim of providing a rough estimate of the costs of requesting preferences. The results suggest that preferential tariffs favorably affect intra-regional imports only at very high margins (around 25 percentage points). This points to the likelihood of high administrative costs attached to the exploitation of preferences, particularly with regard to the compliance with AFTA's rules of origin.

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        Rules of Origin in Services: A Case Study of Five ASEAN Countries (English)
        Working paper by Fink, Carsten; Nikomborirak, Deunden /World Bank, 2007, 26 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        An important question in the design of bilateral and regional free trade agreements (FTAs) covering services is to what extent non-members benefit from the trade preferences that are negotiated among members. This question is resolved through services rules of origin. The restrictiveness of rules of origin determines the degree of preferences entailed in market opening commitments, shaping the bargaining incentives of FTAs and their eventual economic effects. Even though the number of FTAs in services has increased rapidly in recent years, hardly any research is available that can guide policymakers on the economic implications of different rules of origin. After outlining the key economic tradeoffs and options for rules of origin in services, the paper summarizes the main findings of a research project that has assessed the rules of origin question for five countries in the ASEAN region. For selected service sub sectors and a number of criteria for rules or origin, simulation exercises evaluated which service providers would or would not be eligible for preferences negotiated under a FTA. Among other findings, the simulation results point to the binding nature of a domestic ownership or control requirement and, for the specific case of financial services, a requirement of incorporation.

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        Sand in the Wheels: Non-Tariff Measures and Regional Integration in Sadc (English)
        Report by Vanzetti et al/UNCTAD, 2016, 33 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Facilitation

        Non-tariff measures (NTMs) are policy measures, other than ordinary customs tariffs, that can potentially have an economic effect on international trade in goods, changing quantities traded, or prices or both. The most common NTMs in SADC are sanitary and phyto-sanitary restrictions, certification procedures, quantity control measures, other technical regulations, government procurement, investment restrictions and intellectual property rights. Some measures are legitimate, such as those relating to food safety and the introduction of invasive species, but other measures may be used to limit trade to protect domestic producers or trade restrictiveness unintentionally exceeds what is needed for the measure’s non-trade objectives. It is relatively simple to list the numerous non-tariff measures, but assessing their impact is more difficult. Two methods involve trying to measure the effect on quantity using a gravity model or by looking at the gap between world and domestic prices. To illustrate the methodology and potential impacts of reducing barriers, we assume SADC countries have similar NTMs as the average for Africa. The impacts on trade, output, employment and incomes of reducing these barriers are assessed using a global general equilibrium model. Depending on the initial trade flows and the magnitude and scope for removing the trade distorting effects of non-tariff measures, the increases in national exports are up to 2.2 per cent. National output, employment and incomes will also increase in all SADC countries

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        Social Unrest Paves the Way: A Fresh Start for Economic Growth with Social Equity
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 2 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon has emphasised that the wave of popular revolt that has erupted in the North Africa and West Asia region constitutes a “situation which calls for bold reforms”. Indeed, these momentous events also reflect massive social discontent and crises. The push for political change has been mirrored by equally vocal calls for alleviation of poverty, more and better jobs, better wages and social security, access to basic commodities at affordable prices and equitable distribution of national income. In its economic dimensions the upheaval represents a day of reckoning for the trade and economic policy choices made in the region over past decades. But for policy makers in countries facing similar pressures this is an opportune moment to rebuild neglected public institutions so they can lead the process of reshaping economic and labour governance. This can provide a platform for a re-assignment of macroeconomic policies for sustained growth in ways that trigger a virtuous circle of investment, productivity growth, income growth and employment creation so that the income gains from productivity growth are distributed equitably between labour and capital.

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        Some key issues in South-South trade and economic cooperation (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005, 32 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        What: Report and papers from Doha high-level forum on trade and investment that deals with strengthening capacities in trade negotiations through partnerships and networking between developing countries. Special focus is made on the opportunity to increase South South trade and particularly in commodities. Who: For anyone teaching or researching regional trade agreements and How: This paper provides a case study of Costa Rica and presentations of experts at the forum.

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        South-South Trade in Asia: The Role of Regional Trade Agreements (English)
        Report by UNCTAD and JETRO (Japan External Trade Organization), 2008, 195 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        What: The report analyses Asia's dominance in south-south trade and the impact of Regional Trade Agreements on developing countries' exchanges. Through an overview about the scope of signed RTAs in the region, statistical tables on south-south exports and RTAs, a case study on India and 15 selected FTAs, the document also indicates these agreements' gaps and presents simulations of trade barriers' impact on export performance. The report finishes with business strategies and utilization of RTAs by the private sector, especially in Japan. How: Background document on trends of south-south trade in Asia and on the role of RTAs as a trade expansion tool. Who: Policy makers, researchers and lecturers dealing with international trade and Regional Trade Agreements.

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        Swimming in the spaghetti bowl: challenges for developing countries under the "new regionalism" (English)
        Other by Luis Abugattas Majluf, 2004, 34 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: This paper present the new challenges for developing countries in the context of regional integration and multilateral negotiations and the implications for their development perspectives. It focuses on the issue of preferential trade in services to study its compatibility with the GATS provisions. Who: Students and teachers interested in the new regionalism and its consequences. How: Presentation of new regionalism and opportunities for developing countries that could be used as a basis for a course.

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        Tariff Preferences As a Determinant for Exports from Sub-saharan Africa (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2013, 30 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper examines the impact of market access conditions as a determinant of exports from sub-Saharan Africa. The analysis focuses on tariffs and considers both direct market access (the tariffs faced by exports from sub-Saharan Africa) and relative market access conditions (the preferential margin of African exports relative to that of other competitors). The results find that both direct market access conditions and relative market access conditions matter, although relative market access conditions matter in a larger number of cases. This suggests that the exports from the countries of sub-Saharan Africa often face more competition from foreign competitors than from domestic industries in their destination markets. It also finds that, given the relatively large tariffs currently applied to intraregional trade, complete tariff liberalization within the countries of sub-Saharan Africa represents a significant incentive for intraregional trade.

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        Towards Coherent Policy Frameworks: Understanding Trade and Investment Linkages (English)
        Book by UNESCAP, 2007, 231 pages
        Categories: Investment, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The publication brings together a number of papers that highlight the increasing significance of trade and investment linkages and their effect on the development of domestic industries and services. The first two chapters focus on investment provisions and regulation through trade agreements, while the third chapter concentrates on the issue of rules of origin in those agreements and the need for more coherent and harmonized approaches to the design of those rules. The fourth chapter explores in some detail the interactions between foreign direct investment flows and import and export flows using a gravity model approach. Chapters V and VI are country case studies that examine the linkages between trade and investment liberalization and the development of small- and medium-sized enterprises in Indonesia, and education services in Malaysia, respectively. The last Chapter examines the drivers of outward foreign direct investment from the developing economies in the region.

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        Trade and Development Report 2007 - Regional Cooperation for Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2007, 240 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        What: The first part of the report provides a discussion of global economic trends, which indicate developing countries are likely to continue to benefit from strong demand for primary commodities. In the second part it discusses how regional integration can be useful in reducing the effects of volatile capital flows and under- and over-evaluations on growth and investment. The report analyzes regional cooperation in three dimensions, i.e. trade flows, financial flows and monetary integration, and other aspects (energy, trade logistics, and industrial policy). The report concludes that regional integration can help to strengthen national policies. How: The report provides up-to-date information on trends in the world economy as well as in-depth analysis on the above mentioned dimensions of regional integration. It might thus be used to validate teaching resources in trade-related courses and spark ideas about relevant research. Who: Lecturers and researchers as well as policy-makers interested in trade issues. Overviews available in other UN official languages.

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        Trade And Development Symposium. Perspectives On the Multilateral Trading System. How To Encourage The Network Trade Rules Interconnections? An Application To The Case Of Non Tariff Barriers
        Report by Vaillant, Marcel, 2011, 8 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The focus of this paper is different and is also a by-product of the globalization process. The extension of the set of economic activities in the international economy provokes an extension of the themes that require necessary consideration in trade agreements. The adaptation speed in the multilateral field is structurally slow. Countries are less willing to establish rules on the basis of Most Favored Nation than within preferential trade agreements. Hence the demands to expand and deepen in new topics have been channeled through the proliferation of preferential trade agreements. The content of commitments and themes in the agenda of international trade negotiations between national jurisdictions has widened: from the trade of goods to the trade of services, as well as to the mobility of some production factors. At the same time, the field where commitments are achieved has increased exponentially: bilateral agreements, plurilateral agreements, agreements between groups of countries, extension of agreement . This paper chooses, within the wider subject related to goods, the topic of non-tariff barriers, which will be more thoroughly developed in the third section.

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        Trade and Poverty Paper Series No.1. Transformative Regionalism, Trade and Challenge of Poverty Reduction in Africa (English)
        Report by Osakwe, Patrick/UNCTAD, 2015, 23 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade and Poverty

        The report argues that making regional integration work for Africa requires that African governments change their approach to economic integration and in particular shift emphasis from the current model of integration, which focuses mostly on trade reforms and processes and institutions of integration, to an alternative approach—Transformative Regionalism—in which regional integration promotes and also ensures progress in building productive capacities and achieving structural transformation for sustained development. This paper provides a framework for Transformative Regionalism, examines how it differs from the integration frameworks and strategies of African regional economic communities, and then discusses how to foster it in Africa. Therefore it is an interesting reading as it brings into focus new ideas in terms of development strategies and poverty reduction in Africa.

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        Trade Creation & Diversion Effects of the East African Community Regional Trade Agreement: A Gravity Model Analysis (English)
        Article by Shinyekwa, Isaac and Othieno, Lawrence, 2013, 40 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research

        The paper investigates the potential impact of the East African Community (EAC) on trade creation and diversion. The paper seeks to establish whether the EAC regional trade agreement (RTA) has diverted or created trade using an expanded(augmented)gravity model. The authors estimate static and dynamic random effects models using a panel data set from 2001 to 2011 on 70 countries that trade mainly with the EAC partner states. Results suggest that indeed the implementation of the EAC treaty has created trade, contrary to widely held views that South-South RTAs largely divert trade.

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        Trade Facilitation Beyond the Multilateral Trade Negotiations: Regional Practices, Customs Valuation and Other Emerging Issues (English)
        Working paper by Asia-Pacific Research and Training Network on Trade (ARTNeT), 2007, 333 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Facilitation, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The series of studies provides an overview of trade facilitation in the Asia-Pacific region, both in relation to WTO negotiations and regional and bilateral trade initiatives and agreements. Of particular interest is the information about how trade facilitation is being handled by different regional trade initiatives. Other studies look in greater detail at some broader aspects of concern to exporters and importers, such as rules of origin and customs valuation (a comparative analysis of customs valuation in India, Nepal and Fiji). The collection also contains two studies which focus more broadly on trade logistics - one examining the relationship between liberalization in the logistics sector in Australia and trade facilitation, and the other estimating the effects of trade transaction costs, including transport costs and underdeveloped infrastructure, on bilateral trade flows of 10 Asian developing countries. The value of different studies included in the collection is among others in the empirical data and information about the region that they present. Finally, the concluding chapter provides policy recommendations with regard to a meaningful multilateral agreement on trade facilitation.

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        Trade Opportunities of an Fta Between Colombia and Turkey
        Working paper by Daniel Gómez-Abella; Catherine Pereira-Villa; Loly-Aylú Gaitán-Guerrero, 2013
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research

        The objective of this article is to explore the opportunities for growth, diversification and competition present in trade between Colombia and Turkey, as well as the ones that would result from a free trade agreement. It uses five indicators to characterize trade and trade policy. Disaggregated data from 2010 is used to conduct partial equilibrium simulations yielding estimates on trade, welfare and income effects. The paper shows that Turkish and Colombian consumers would gain in terms of welfare while Turkish tax revenues would fall more than those of Colombia.

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        Trade Remedy Provisions in Regional Trade Agreements (English)
        Working paper by Teh, Robert /WTO; Prusa, Thomas J./ Rutgers University, USA, 2007, 83 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper maps and examines the provisions on anti-dumping, countervailing duties and safeguards in seventy-four regional trade agreements (RTAs). The RTAs vary in size, degree of integration, geographic region and the level of economic development of their members.

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        Transparency, Trade Costs, and Regional Integration in the Asia Pacific (English)
        Working paper by Helble, Matthias; Shepherd, Ben; Wilson, John S. /World Bank, 2007, 39 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The authors show in this paper that increasing the transparency of the trading environment can be an important complement to traditional liberalization of tariff and non-tariff barriers. Our definition of transparency is grounded in a transaction cost analysis. The authors focus on two dimensions of transparency: predictability (reducing the cost of uncertainty) and simplification (reducing information costs). Using the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) member economies as a case study, the authors construct indices of importer and exporter transparency for the region from a wide range of sources. Our results from a gravity model suggest that improving trade-related transparency in APEC could hold significant benefits by raising intra-APEC trade by proximately USD 148 billion or 7.5 pecent of baseline trade in the region.

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        Viewing the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement Through an Agriculture Lens (English)
        Discussion paper by Boonekamp, Clemens/UNCTAD, 2016, 56 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Related Capacity Building

        The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) trade agreement will be one of the most consequential trade agreements in twenty years, on par with the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) or China’s entry to the World Trade Organization (WTO).1 The TPP is deeper and broader than other agreements, containing 30 chapters that bind 12 member countries (Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, United States and Vietnam) together in ways that are often covered in less depth or are even carved out completely. Most the TPP takes effect immediately. As discussed in greater detail below, roughly 90 percent of all tariffs fall to zero on the date of entry into force of the agreement. All of the services and investment provisions kick in immediately. Much of the remainder of the agreement’s rule book also becomes active from the first day, with some flexibility for some of the rules in areas like intellectual property rights protections for countries like Vietnam. Once the TPP has been fully implemented, nearly all of the tariffs will be at zero for all of the TPP members moving goods between markets in the agreement. These provisions apply even to sensitive items like agriculture. The TPP could dramatically reconfigure supply chains in food and processed food items in ways that past trade agreements did not. The deep and broad commitments in the TPP sets up some interesting new dynamics. It is likely to exacerbate tensions in the global trading system that fall most acutely on the smallest, poorest states as companies increasingly “vote with their feet” and shift production, sales and services into TPP member markets and leave behind non-member markets in the region.

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        Virtual Institute Teaching Material on Regional Trade Agreements (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2010, 192 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        The teaching material gives a theoretical and practical overview of the different aspects concerning regional Trade Agreements (RTAs). It consists of five modules which focus on the historical and current relevance of regional integration for developing countries (Module 1); RTAs in economic theory (Module 2); the correlation between RTA rules and the WTO legal framework (Module 3); negotiating issues (Module 4); and regional trade analysis using international databases (Module 5).

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        WTO World Trade Report 2011: the WTO and the preferential trade agreements - From co-existence to coherence (English)
        Report by WTO, 2011, 256 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The World Trade Report 2011 describes the historical development of PTAs and the current landscape of agreements. It analyses the reasons behind establishing PTAs, their impact on economy, and also covers the contents of the agreements themselves. Finally identifies areas of synergies and potential conflicts between PTAs and the multilateral trading system and examines ways in which the two "trade systems" can be made more coherent.

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