A partnership with academia

Building knowledge for trade and development

    • Subjects including: technology transfer through FDI, how developing countries respond to technological and scientific changes, issues relating to intellectual property and research and development, and developing policy instruments to facilitate technology transfer. Moreover, resources addressing the possible opportunities offered by ICT for economic growth and development and analysing how these technologies can serve as tools to foster the production and exchange of goods and services, improve the efficiency in enterprise management and workers' productivity and open new market opportunities for developing countries.
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        15 Years of the Information Technology Agreement: Trade, Innovation and Global Production Networks
        Report by WTO, 2012, 112 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This publication charts the history of the WTO Information Technology Agreement and the effect it has had on the global trade in information technology (IT) products. Details of the latest trends in IT trade and discussions on the future of the ITA make this publication a useful source of information for government officials and policy-makers as well as academics, students and all those involved in the IT sector.

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        Addressing the Global Food Crisis: Key Trade, Investment and Commodity Policies in Ensuring Sustainable Food Security and Alleviating Poverty (English)
        Note by UNCTAD - CNUCED, 2008, 61 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Science and Technology, Trade and Poverty

        UNCTAD publishes this document after a period of price rises and shortages in food commodities - which has led to a "global food crisis" - and in the light of discussions held at UNCTAD XII in Accra on UNCTAD's potential role in ameliorating the crisis. The paper is therefore divided into two sections, addressing the underlying causes of the crisis and the potential policy response to it, including UNCTAD's contribution. The first half of the paper gives a useful summary of the underlying causes of food price rises and shortages: this includes the supply-demand imbalance, the role of speculation and export constraints, the rise in energy costs and the impact of biofuels, low agricultural productivity in developing countries and the lack of investment and aid in agricultural technologies, the multilateral environment and rules governing agriculture, and the role of competition. The second half of the paper looks at the policy responses to these factors and it maybe useful for students to discuss their application to individual country cases.

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        Agricultural Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation in Developing Countries: Policy Options for Innovation and Technology Diffusion. (English)
        Policy brief by Lybbert, Travis; Sumner, Daniel/ ICTSD, 2010, 42 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade and Environment

        Climate Change exacerbates the already daunting challenges facing the agricultural sector, and this is particularly the case in developing countries. Innovations in agriculture have always been important and will be even more vital in the context of climate change. This paper highlights technological and institutional innovations required to meet these challenges, the constraints to their development, transfer and dissemination and importantly suggests ways to overcome such constraints.

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        Applying a Gender Lens to Science, Technology and Innovation (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 73 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade and Gender

        Prepared by UNCTAD for the 55th UN Commission on the Status of Women, this Report emphasizes the need of integrating a gender perspective into science, technology and innovation (STI) policies. It illustrates the contribution of women to STI (women in science, women in innovation) -- and how STI can contribute to women’s livelihoods and development activities (science for women).  Examples of good practices, as well as key recommendations for gender-sensitive STI policymaking are provided that support women’s development in key sectors, gender equality in science and technology related education, employment and entrepreneurship.

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        Biofuel Production Technologies: Status, Prospects and Implications for Trade and Development (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD Larson, Eric D./ Princeton University, 2008, 49 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Science and Technology, Trade and Environment

        This publication provides information about biofuels for use in helping to understand technology-related implications of biofuels development. It seeks to (a)provide some context for understanding the limitations of first-generation biofuels; (b) provide meaningful descriptions accessible to non-experts of second-generation biofuel technologies; (c) present salient energy, carbon, and economic comparisons between first and second-generation biofuels; and (d) finally, to speculate on the implications for trade and development of future expansion in global production and use of biofuels.

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        Building Confidence: Electronic Commerce and Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2000, 180 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: The report draws extensively on the discussions and conclusions of a number of expert meetings and workshops on e-commerce and developing countries. It provides a working definition of electronic commerce, examines selected cross-sectoral and sectoral issues such as fiscal and legal aspects of e-commerce, and e-commerce in transport services. A special chapter is dedicated to the development of e-commerce in Africa. The report concludes by proposing an agenda for action at the national, regional and international levels to foster e-commerce and its contribution to economic development. Who: Useful for anyone teaching electronic commerce. How: Can be used as a background reading on e-commerce and international trade.

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        Can Electronic Commerce be an Engine for Global Growth? (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Secretariat, 1999, 10 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: This paper deals with the role of electronic commerce for developing countries and for countries in transition. Despite the potential of electronic commerce as a source for international growth and trade in various fields, the access to e-commerce remains uneven. On the basis of so far accomplished work in respective field, further steps are being outlined in order to be able to better seize positive impacts of electronic commerce for developing countries and countries with economies in transition. Who: Useful for students or teachers looking for a review of the most important aspects of electronic commerce and its implications and challenges for developing countries. How: Can serve as an introduction on the role of E-commerce for development. Some issues could be used as starting points for general or group discussions.

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        The Clean Development Mechanism - Guide 2009
        Report by Frondizi, Isaura/UNCTAD, 2009, 128 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade and Environment

        This revised and expanded version of the Guide to the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) was commissioned by the Ministry of Science and Technology and drawn up under the sponsorship of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The contents were revised with the direct assistance of the MCT and UNCTAD. Publication was sponsored by the Brazilian Social and Economic Development Bank (BNDES). The CDM is the sole mechanism through which industrialized countries with quantified emission reduction and limitation commitments (commonly known as “targets”), established by the Kyoto Protocol, can offset part of these targets by acquiring Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) generated by CDM projects in developing countries. Given that the first commitment period defined by the Kyoto Protocol (2008-2012) began on January 1, 2008, the window of opportunity in relation to the CDM is still open. In addition, during the ongoing negotiations, the Parties to the Protocol have manifested their interest in its continuation after 2012, more specifically in the second commitment period. This Guide has three main objectives: i) to provide information to all those interested in CDM project activities; ii) to detail the specific regulations governing the submission of CDM project activities in Brazil; and iii) to facilitate an understanding of the process and, consequently, promote the development of CDM projects in the country.

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        Competitiveness simulation: IT-related and enabled services (English)
        Simulation by Cora Mezger, Virtual Institute, 2005
        Categories: Competitiveness, Science and Technology

        What: A simulation on competitiveness in the IT-related and enabled services sector that gives students the opportunity to take the positions of different actors (government, educational sector, local business sector, TNCs, labour unions etc.), apply and deepen their knowledge on international competitiveness and development and make them critically think about the limitations of the concept of competitiveness in pure economic terms. Who: University teachers who are interested in teaching competitiveness and their graduate students enrolled in programmes such as International Trade, Economic Policy, International Economics, Development Studies or Regional Economics. How: The simulation refers to the rest of the competitiveness material, it could however also be used independently if the lecturer provides enough background information and depending on the previous knowledge of students.

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        Core ICT Indicators 2010 (English)
        Book by ITU, 2010, 94 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        This publication presents the first revision of the core list of ICT indicators, originally published by the Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development in 2005. The main purpose of the core list is to help countries produce high quality and internationally comparable data on information and communication technology. To assist in achieving this goal, the indicators have associated statistical standards and guidance.

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        Corporate strategies in R&D in financial services (English)
        Presentation by Harpreet Khurana, Columbia University, 2004, 28 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: The paper initially provides a definition in financial services and then compares the situation of the financial sector with R&D in industries such as telecommunications, computer system design etc. The presentations places emphasis on different strategies in R&D in financial services and finishes by presenting several case studies. Who: Relevant for anyone studying or teaching R&D. How: Can be used as a background reading.

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        Country reports: Science and technology promotion, advice and application for the achievement of the millennium development goals (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD Commission on science and technology for development, 2005
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology

        Country reports on the achievement of the MDGs and the progress made in Science and technology promotion in 11 developing countries (Angola, Cameroon, China, India, Iran, Italy, Jamaica, Romania, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka and Sudan),

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        Creating a Conducive Environment for Higher Competitiveness and Effective National Innovation Systems. Lessons Learned from the Experiences of UNECE Countries (English)
        Review by UNECE, 2008, 107 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Science and Technology

        This Comparative Review provides an overview of the experiences in UNECE member countries in creating a conducive environment for the generation and diffusion of innovation and for achieving higher economic growth based on enhanced, innovation-driven competitiveness. It addresses various policy issues related to this topic, drawing from national experiences, good practices and lessons learned. It also draws some conclusions on what policymakers and other stakeholders can do more or better in order to facilitate the generation and diffusion of innovation and enhance innovation-based competitiveness.

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        Data Protection Regulations and International Data Flows: Implications for Trade and Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 154 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology

        This study is a timely contribution to our understanding of how data protection regulations and international data flows affect international trade. It reviews the experience in different parts of the world and of different stakeholders. The study identifies key concerns that data protection and privacy legislation need to address. It also examines the present patchwork of global, regional and national frameworks to seek common ground and identify areas where different approaches tend to diverge. The last part of the study considers possible future policy options, taking the concerns of all stakeholders into account.

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        Data Protection Regulations and International Data Flows: Implications for Trade and Development (Executive Summary) (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2016, 17 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Science and Technology

        The study includes some detailed guidance on the growing consensus around key conditions and limitations on surveillance initiated by governments. Most regional and global initiatives are silent on the issue of surveillance. It is essential that national laws and global and regional initiatives acknowledge the existence of surveillance issues and attempt to address these issues directly. While surveillance issues often have an international or cross-border dimension, the extraterritorial nature of data flows and surveillance, as it relates to state sovereignty, must be specifically addressed. The United Nations statement on digital rights may serve as a platform for considering the connection between data protection and surveillance.

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        Development Dimensions of Intellectual Property in Uganda: Transfer of Technology, Access to Medicines and Textbooks (English)
        Report by Spennemann, Christoph; Adachi, Kiyoshi/ UNCTAD; ICTSD, 2010, 104 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Science and Technology

        This DDIP Report is organized in three chapters, featuring the interface of intellectual property with the issues of technology transfer, access to medicines and access to textbooks, respectively. Each chapter, after describing the factual background in Uganda and the pertinent institutional set-up, provides a detailed analysis of the domestic intellectual property\\nlegal framework, before making recommendations for legislative amendments. The objective of these recommendations is to provide guidance on how to use the country’s domestic intellectual property laws to promote specific development objectives.

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        The Development Impact of Information Technology in Trade Facilitation
        Working paper by Alburo, Florian A., 2010, 65 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade Facilitation

        This chapter, part of an ARTNeT Regional Study on the Impact of Information Technology Based Trade Facilitation Measures on SMEs, provides an overview and context of the country studies on Information Technology (IT) for Trade Facilitation (TF) in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs).

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        The digital divide: ICT development indices 2004 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Division on Investment, Technology and Enterprise Development, 2005, 73 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: Analysis of the diffusion of ICT in developing countries by using selected indicators. It also presents a review of policy options for developing countries. Who: For anyone interested in the subject of science and technology diffusion in developing countries How: Provides examples and data that could be used as a basis of a course, research, and student's work.

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        The Digital Divide Report: ICT Diffusion Index, 2005 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2006, 82 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        This index indicates the distribution of information and communication technology (ICT) around the world. The report finds that there is a “digital divide”, between developed and developing countries. A person in a high-income country is over 22 times more likely to be an Internet user than someone in a low-income country. Secure Internet servers, a rough indicator of electronic commerce, are over 100 times more common in high-income than in low-income countries. In high-income countries, mobile phones are 29 times more prevalent and mainline penetration is 21 times that of low-income countries. Relative to income, the cost of Internet access in a low-income country is 150 times the cost of a comparable service in a high-income country. There are similar divides within individual countries. ICT is often non-existent in poor and rural areas of developing countries.

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        Does TRIPS Art. 66.2 Encourage Technology Transfer To The LDC’s?: An Analysis Of Country Submissions To The TRIPS Council (1999-2007) (English)
        Policy brief by Suerie Moon /Harvard University, 2008, 12 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Science and Technology

        Developing countries, in general, see technology transfer as part of the bargain in which they agreed to strengthened intellectual property protection under the TRIPS Agreement. The TRIPS Agreement includes a number of specific provisions in this regard. Most notably, Article 66.2 requires developed countries to provide incentives for to enterprises and institutions in their territories for the purpose of promoting and encouraging technology transfer to LDCs in order to enable them to create a sound and viable technological. In this policy brief, Suerie Moon (Harvard University) examines, based on country self-reports to the TRIPS Council from 1999-2007, whether the Article 66.2 obligation led developed countries to increase incentives to enterprises and institutions in their territories for the purpose of promoting and encouraging technology transfer to WTO LDC Members. Her study underlines that the lack of definitional clarity regarding the terms “technology transfer” and “developed country” in these reports makes it unclear which countries are obligated to do what. Furthermore, it points to the fact that many developed countries have never submitted a report, and among countries that did, submissions have largely been irregular. In addition, a majority of the programmes and policies reported do not specifically target LDCs and a significant proportion of programmes for LDCs do not actually target technology transfer. The author highlights that country reports do not provide sufficiently detailed data to determine whether Article 66.2 led to any additional incentives beyond business-as-usual foreign aid. The policy brief includes a number of recommendations to improve the reporting system under Article 66.2. The author suggests, for example, the use of a uniform reporting format that will be comparable across countries and time periods. She also proposes developing a “toolkit” for assessing best practices in both the reporting and functioning of incentives. As the policy brief ultimately shows, significant work remains to be carried out in order to ensure an effective implementation of Article 66.2.

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        E-Commerce and Development Report 2001 - Trends and Executive Summary (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2001, 60 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: Over the past decade the emergence of electronic commerce has changed the economic environment substantially. The E-Commerce and Development Report 2001 provides a review on recent trends in the branch of ICT. It discusses what developing countries need to be aware of as they try to position their economies to take advantage of ICT and the Internet and to what extent ICT and the Internet affects the different sectors of their economies. The Report provides basic facts and figures about e-commerce. Furthermore, it makes exemplary suggestions in which way developing countries can build the infrastructure, capacities and legal framework in order to create an environment enabling beneficial use of ICT and e-commerce. Who: Excellent reading for anyone interested in the development trends of e-commerce and its implications for developing countries. How: Can be used as a background guide for classes and research on e-commerce and development. Various issues and proposals can be used to provoke discussions in class.

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        E-Commerce and Development Report 2002 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Secretariat, 2002, 282 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: This report examines in detail international trends related to e-commerce in 2002. It provides factual information and analysis in regard to a range of issues that influence the expansion of e-commerce in developing countries such as the Domain Name System or Gender Equality in regard to the use of e-commerce. Furthermore, the report includes policy and business options available to developing countries and it outlines policy recommendations in order to maximize the contribution of e-commerce to social and economic development. Who: Teachers and students in international economics or international relations that want to focus on the impact of e-commerce and ICT for development. How: Each chapter and its bibliography can be used independently to deal with selected issues of e-commerce. The whole report can serve as an excellent background reading for classes on e-commerce and development. The data in the report can also be used for further scientific analysis and investigation.

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        E-Commerce and Development Report 2002, Chapter 2 - The Domain Name System and Issues for Developing Countries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD E-Commerce Branch, 2002, 42 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: A presentation of the issues that developing countries have to take into account while designing their ICT development strategy, considering the Domain Name System as a prominent regulation framework of the digital economy. Who: Since it is not too technical, this reading is suitable for both students and teachers interested in regulation frameworks for the Internet or in the relations between the Internet and development. How: Specialised course on domain names, or research works and case studies (the document provides a bibliography that can be updated and a list of related forums on the Web). Some issues, such as the mission and functioning of the ICANN, provide helpful starting points for general or group discussions.

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        E-Commerce and Development Report 2002, Chapter 3 - Gender, E-commerce and Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD E-Commerce Branch, 2002, 28 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade and Gender

        What: Focusing on developing countries, the chapter mainly examines the accessibility of ICTs, the effect of E-commerce on the participation of women in the economy, the new employment opportunities for women. Who: Especially teachers and researchers on gender, economic, labour or development issues. How: Useful material for a course on ICTs and economic and social development, with manifold examples or extra explanations in the form of boxes, figures or tables (which may be used in presentation, exercises, discussions, etc.). Annex III gives food for thought for a possible group discussion on ICT policies.

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        E-Commerce and Development Report 2002, Chapter 8 - E-Insurance (English)
        Report by UNCTAD E-Commerce Branch, 2002, 29 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: An explanation of how E-insurance works and how it has developed, as well as an analysis of the issues raised by the application of ICTs to the distribution of insurance services. Who: Teachers or researchers on international insurance, e-finance. How: A complete introduction to E-insurance; textboxes also provide several valuable case studies that can lead to a more in-depth seminar on E-insurance.

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        E-Commerce and Development Report 2003 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD E-Commerce Branch, 2003, 228 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: The report examines 2003 trends and previsions, as well as more specific issues related to E-commerce (e-finance, online dispute resolution, etc.). Who: Teachers in international affairs or international relations, interested in the impact of the Internet and ICTs on the economy and on development. How: Each chapter and its bibliographies may be used independently to cover specific aspects of E-commerce, or the whole document can be the basis of a course on E-commerce. Data, graphs and tables can be useful to design presentations or tests (document analysis, etc.)

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        E-Commerce and Tourism: New perspectives and challenges for developing countries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Commission on Enterprise, Business Facilitation and Development, 2000, 20 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology

        What: A cross-sectoral analysis of how ICTs can foster the development of tourism in developing countries. It shows the link between the old and the new economy and the possibility that developing countries have to maximize benefits from the tourism industry. Who: Students or teachers involved in tourism or ICTs applied to development How: This document can be a good background paper for an introduction on e-tourism. The annexes give excellent examples for case studies.

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        E-commerce in Developing Countries: Opportunities and Challenges for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises
        Report by World Trade Organization, 2013, 16 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Science and Technology

        This publication focuses on how e-commerce and mobile telephony have transformed the lives of many people in developing countries. It examines different ways of using e-commerce, and looks at specific sectors where Small and Medium Entreprises tap into important market information for their business.

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        E-Commerce Strategies for Development: Selected Trade and Development Aspects of ICT (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Commission on Enterprise, Business Facilitation and Development, 2004, 12 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: A sound summary of the very recent research work carried out by UNCTAD on ICTs and their adoption by enterprises, on free and open source software and on e-commerce. Who: Anyone interested in ICTs or microeconomics (especially researchers who will find the data very useful). How: A valuable source of information or update for any course on ICTs, especially if it focuses on development and SMEs; also a possible basis for discussion (in particular the conclusion part) after an introductory course on the subject.

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        E-commerce Trends and Impacts Across Europe (English)
        Case study by Martin Falk; Eva Hagsten/UNCTAD, 2015, 31 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This study investigates the patterns and trends of e-commerce activities as well as their impact on labour productivity growth in a group of European countries. At hand for the exercise is a unique panel of micro-aggregated firm-level data for 14 European countries spanning over the years 2002 to 2010. The empirical approach is twofold: A static specification and a dynamic panel data model. The former is a difference specification estimated by OLS and the latter uses system GMM to account for endogeneity of e-commerce activities. This study adds to the literature by presenting patterns of and first insights into the productivity effects of e-commerce activities.

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        E-Commerce, WTO and developing countries (English)
        Discussion Paper by Arvind Panagariya, University of Maryland, 2000, 32 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: The paper discusses policy issues that e-commerce raises for developing countries in the WTO context. With regard to the WTO rules, benefit developing countries would benefit if e-commerce is classified as trade in services with GATS discipline applied to it and Internet transactions as cross-border trade. Developing countries that have the capacity to export skilled services through Internet would gain if they negotiate market access with developed countries in the future WTO negotiations' in terms of liberalization of sectors in which they have a comparative advantage. Who: Useful for anyone teaching electronic commerce and WTO. How: A background reading on e-commerce and negotiations with WTO.

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        E-Finance and Small and Medium-Size Enterprises (SMEs) in Developing and Transition Economies (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2001, 41 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Science and Technology

        What: A presentation of the emergence of e-finance as well as an analysis of the experience in e-finance and of specific initiatives aiming at the development of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). The final part is an overview of coming challenges in the field. Who: People who teach or research on international finance, on the new economy or on SMEs How: An introductory course to e-finance and development, or case studies based on the experiences mentioned in part 2 and on the list of Websites provided

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        Electronic Commerce and Information and Communication Technologies for Development: Selected Issues (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Secretariat, 2003, 15 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: This paper provides an insight into selected developments and issues in ICT and e-commerce. Special focus is laid on the impact of ICT on economic performance, ICT policies and strategies, the measurement of ICT and e-commerce and the application of ICT to business. Key areas for future activities in order to assist developing countries to increase their participation in e-commerce and ICT are outlined. Who: For anyone interested in an overview on the role and the implications of ICT and e-commerce for development. How: Can be used as a background reading on the effects of e-commerce and ICT for development.

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        Electronic commerce and international transport services (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2001, 21 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: This document introduces some of the crucial issues relating to the wider use of electronic means of communication in international trade and transport services. It covers the impact of e-commerce on both the organization of transport and the current paper-based legal framework of international trade transactions. It highlights how e-commerce is already transforming relationships between transport service providers and users by making access to information more readily available to all. It also deals with the legal and documentary aspects, reviews the role of transport documents, particularly that of the negotiable bill of lading, in the functioning of international trade transactions. Who: Useful for anyone teaching electronic commerce. How: Can be used as a background reading on e-commerce and international trade.

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        Electronic Commerce: Legal Considerations (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Secretariat, 1998, 59 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Science and Technology

        What: This study focuses on the discussion of legal issues that are relevant to electronic commerce on an international level. It gives an overview on international developments that aim at the facilitation of e-commerce and outlines legal issues which are considered to constitute obstacles in the cross-border use of e-commerce. Possible solutions to these obstacles from already existing legal documents are discussed. The study includes a number of recommendations for governments and commercial parties with regard to creating favourable frameworks for electronic commerce. Who: Useful for anyone who deals with the legal framework for international electronic commerce and wishes to get detailed information on existing legal provisions. How: Can serve as starting point to examine the progress made within the last years in the international legal framework on ICT.

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        Electronic Commerce Strategies for Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Commission on Enterprise, Business Facilitation and Development, 2002, 23 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology

        What: A synthetic overview of how developing countries can include the ICT dimension in their development strategies and create an enabling environment, so that the Internet and ICTs can effectively lead to economic and social development. Includes best practices and helpful instances of national e-strategies. Who: Anyone interested in the role of governments in fostering development through ICTs (especially e-commerce) How: Case studies, discussions or simulations based on the national policies outlined in the paper.

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        EU Support for Biofuels and Bioenergy, Environmental Sustainability Criteria, and Trade Policy (English)
        Report by Swinbank, Alan/UNCTAD, 2009, 54 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade and Environment

        This paper provides a description of the EU’s biofuel policies, set in the context of its overall policy framework on renewable and bioenergy, and their interface with the WTO legal system. Although undoubtedly influenced by concerns about security of energy supplies, and a wish to find alternative market outlets for European farmers, the EU’s policy for biofuels (defined in EU legislation as liquid and gaseous fuels for transport use) is associated closely with its more generic policies to promote bioenergy, which in legislative terms is embedded in its policy on renewable energy, part of its strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The EU’s strategy, and its implementation by the Member States, has been evolving for a number of years; but its current ambition is that by 2020 some 20 percent of its primary energy supplies should come from renewable resources (including bioenergy) and that, in each Member State, renewables (largely biofuels) should provide 10 percent of energy use for transport. It is up to the Member States to deliver on these obligations, in the framework of EU rules …

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        Examen De Las Políticas De Ciencia, Tecnología E Innovación : Perú
        Report by Sanz, Ángel González, Pérez Cusó, Marta, Rovira, Sebastián, López Martínez, Roberto, Rozenwurcel, Guillermo, Villarán, Fernando, Sol Golup, Romina, 2010, 188 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        El objetivo último del examen de políticas de ciencia, tecnología e innovación del Perú es ofrecer al gobierno peruano un diagnóstico actualizado sobre la efectividad de sus políticas y medidas relacionadas con la ciencia, tecnología e innovación; reforzar dichas políticas y medidas integrándolas al proceso nacional de desarrollo; y, mejorar la capacidad tecnológica, fomentar la innovación, e incorporar mayor valor agregado a la producción.

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        Fast-tracking Green Patent Applications: An Empirical Analysis
        Report by ICTSD, 2013, 42 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade and Environment

        This paper is the first study to empirically analyze green patent fast-tracking programmes and to examine whether these programmes may help the diffusion of green technologies. After pointing out the main differences among the approaches taken by different countries, the paper presents several key findings, such as there is a clear demand for fast-tracking procedures, climate change-related technologies represent the vast majority of patents in the fast-tracking programmes.

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        Financing Mechanisms for Information and Communication Technologies for Development
        Study by Townsend, David; Yan, Yin; Wu, Dong/ UNCTAD, 2010, 35 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Science and Technology

        This paper presents observations and trends that have occurred in the key areas identified by the Task Force on Financial Mechanisms (TFFM) and Tunis Agenda, in terms of development of ICT opportunities and financing, and then identifies key challenges and opportunities going forward, for addressing continuing gaps and new conditions in ICT development policy and financing.

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        Free and Open-Source Software: Policy and Development Implications (English)
        Discussion Paper by UNCTAD, 2004, 20 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: The paper gives basic definitions, discusses the "free and open source software" (FOSS) phenomenon from a policy perspective, develops a brief discussion of possible opportunities for deployment in public and commercial activities, clarifies the intellectual property context of FOSS and provides an overview of development issues where FOSS has had a conceptual impact, besides practical use and deployment. Who: Useful for anyone teaching electronic commerce. How: Can be used as a background reading on FOSS.

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        Geospatial Science and Technology for Development
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 61 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        This study explores the ways in which tools and methodologies used to collect, manage and analyse data related to the Earth, can support development. Chapter 1 defines GS&T and provides an overview of its applications. Chapter 2 describes a multi-level approach for the examination of GS&T, and related recent developments. The next three chapters considerthree specific areas where GS&T can be applied to support development. Chapter 6 sets out challenges to implementation. Chapter 7 provides policy recommendations.

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        The globalisation of R&D by TNCs and implications for developing countries (English)
        Presentation by Anne Miroux, UNCTAD, 2005, 20 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Investment, Science and Technology

        What: The presentation outlines the main actors of the process of R&D outsourcing. TNCs play a key role but public sector research institutions, universities and domestic enterprises should not be neglected. It provides the rationale for the increase in R&D-related FDI activities in developing countries. The impact as well as the benefits, costs and risks and the enabling policies are reviewed. Finally, it offers a few issues for discussion. Who: Can be used by a lecturer on a course on R&D outsourcing to developing countries. How: For a course on R&D and the role of TNCs.

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        The globalisation of R&D: Key features and the role of TNCs (English)
        Presentation by Robert Pearce, University of Reading, United Kingdom, 2005, 13 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Investment, Science and Technology

        What: The aim of this paper is to elaborate on relevant aspects of strategic restructuring in TNCs and then provide some detail on how this becomes operational in terms of the increased decentralisation of their R&D programmes. This paper could also provide a basis for discussion of the implications of these more differentiated and dynamic strategic orientations in TNCs for host countries in which they operate, with particular emphasis on countries at early stages of competitiveness development and on economies in transition. The strategic changes in TNCs now involve them with creative resources (R&D; technology stocks; market research; entrepreneurial management) in national economies in a way not envisaged 40 years ago Who: Relevant for anyone teaching or studying strategic changes in TNCs and their R&D programmes. How: Can be used for a lesson/course on the role of TNCs in the globalization of R&D.

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        The globalization of innovation: knowledge creation and why it matters for development (English)
        Presentation by Rajneesh Narula, University of Reading, 2005, 18 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: The presentation points out the links between technology, innovation and knowledge creation. It then analyses the process of internationalization of innovation and the reasons for technology transfer - both between countries and among companies. It outlines the political, economic and technological factors, which influence the globalization of innovation and knowledge. Who: A very good presentation that can be used by a lecturer on a course on globalization of innovation. How: For a course on R&D and knowledge creation.

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        Globalization of R&D and developing countries - Proceedings of the Expert Meeting (English)
        Presentation by United Nations, 2005, 242 pages
        Categories: Investment, Science and Technology

        What: This publication aims to elaborate key issues related to the trends towards globalization of research and development and their implications for developing countries: What is its development potential? How can the establishment of research and development abroad affect the transfer of technology – one of the main potential benefits from foreign direct investment? What types of research and development are the most desirable for development? What benefits and costs are involved and, how can policies in home and host countries influence the allocation of such activities and their economic impact?

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        Globalization of R&D and TNC Strategies: Siemens (English)
        Presentation by Armin Sorg, 2005, 18 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Investment, Science and Technology

        What: An interesting power point presentation by Siemens chief economist for an UNCTAD expert meeting on Globalization of R&D and TNC strategies. The presentation deals with Siemens globalization of its R&D activities. Who: Relevant for anyone teaching globalization of R&D. How: Can be used for a lesson/course on globalization of R&D and TNC strategies.

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        Global R&D activities in India (English)
        Presentation by Prasada Reddy, Research Policy Institute, Lund University, Sweden, 2005, 9 pages
        Categories: Investment, Science and Technology

        What: The presentation explains why India is an interesting location for outsourced R&D and then analyses the impact of such a process within the national economy. The question which sectors are particularly interesting for FDI in R&D is discussed in depth. The role of adequate policies forms the last part of the presentation. Who: Relevant for anyone studying or teaching R&D. How: This presentation can be used as a background reading for a course on R&D.

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        Harmonizing Cyberlaws and Regulations: The Experience of the East African Community (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 65 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Science and Technology

        The first part discusses the need for regional harmonization and the challenges faced with regard to the implementation of cyberlaws in the EAC region. The second gives a detailed account of the status of cyberlaws in each country. It is hoped that the work of the EAC Task Force on Cyberlaws and this study offer some useful lessons and tools for other countries and regions engaging in cyberlaw reforms.

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        ICT Solutions to Facilitate Trade at Border Crossings and in Ports (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2006, 17 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade Facilitation

        What: This note calls on developing countries to improve their ICT usage in transport and customs, in order to keep pace with globalization, liberalization, and the global exigencies for supply chain security. The use of ICT in customs is particularly discussed in the context of the Automated System for Customs Data (ASYCUDA). All in all, the paper advises developing countries to adopt the following measures: capacity building, IT infrastructure development, a regulatory reform, and a cooperative framework. How: An informative reading for courses on trade facilitation. Who: Anyone interested in the use of ICT for trade facilitation.

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        The impact of FDI on Development: Globalization of R&D by TNCs (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2004, 16 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Investment, Science and Technology

        What: A note prepared by UNCTAD identifying key issues related to the trends in the globalization of R&D and its implications for developing countries. Who: Relevant for anyone studying or teaching FDI and development, and its impact on processes of globalization. How: Background reading for courses on FDI, globalization. Also offers a lot of relevant reference materials.

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        Information and Communication Technology Policy and Legal Issues for Central Asia - Guide for ICT Policymakers (English)
        Manual by UNECE, 2007, 67 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Science and Technology

        This guide has been prepared at the request of the Project Working Group on ICT for Development, created in December 2005 within the framework of the United Nations Special Programme for the Economies of Central Asia (SPECA). SPECA was launched in 1998 to strengthen subregional cooperation in Central Asia and its integration into the world economy.The member countries of SPECA are Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The guide is intended for use as a reference manual by ICT policymakers in countries with economies in transition. The content is designed to respond to the needs of SPECA member countries, incorporating feedback received during the series of capacity-building events conducted in 2006 and 2007.

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        The Information Economy Report 2007-2008 Overview (Science and Technology for Development: the New Paradigm of ICT) (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2008, 37 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology

        What: The Report analyses the current and potential contribution of information technology to knowledge creation and diffusion. It explores how ICTs help generate innovations that improve the livelihoods of the poor and support enterprise competitiveness. The report examines how ICTs affect productivity and growth and reflects on the need for a development-oriented approach to intellectual property rights in order to enable effective access to technology. ICT has also given rise to new models for sharing knowledge and collective production of ideas and innovations, known as "open access" models, which often bypass the incentive system provided by intellectual property rights. How: The Report presents a current cross-section of themes and analysis that aim to inform and enable governments to understand the policy challenges and opportunities. The analysis identifies important areas of concern and best practices necessary for the formulation of targeted policy decisions to support and accelerate ICT diffusion.

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        Information Economy Report 2007-2008: Science and technology for development - the new paradigm of ITC (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2008, 386 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Science and Technology

        What: The Report analyses the current and potential contribution of information technology to knowledge creation and diffusion. It explores how ICTs help generate innovations that improve the livelihoods of the poor and support enterprise competitiveness. The report examines how ICTs affect productivity and growth and reflects on the need for a development-oriented approach to intellectual property rights in order to enable effective access to technology. ICT has also given rise to new models for sharing knowledge and collective production of ideas and innovations, known as "open access" models, which often bypass the incentive system provided by intellectual property rights. How: The Report presents a current cross-section of themes and analysis that aim to inform and enable governments to understand the policy challenges and opportunities. The analysis identifies important areas of concern and best practices necessary for the formulation of targeted policy decisions to support and accelerate ICT diffusion.

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        Information Economy Report 2009: Trends and Outlook in Turbulent Times (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2009, 153 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Science and Technology

        The Information Economy Report 2009 (IER 2009) offers a fresh assessment of the diffusion of key ICT applications between 2003 and 2008. While fixed telephone subscriptions are now in slight decline, mobile and Internet use continues to expand rapidly in most countries and regions. At the same time, there is a widening gap between high-income and low-income countries in broadband connectivity. Broadband penetration is now eight times higher in developed than in developing countries. The report explores policy options for countries seeking to improve broadband connectivity. The IER 2009 includes a chapter on the use of ICTs in the business sector. Drawing on unique data, it examines how ICT use differs both between and within countries, highlighting the rural-urban divide as well as that between large and small companies. The report recommends that governments in developing countries give more attention to ICT uptake and use by small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), as they are lagging behind larger firms. And it discusses those aspects of ICT where government intervention can make a difference. A third chapter is devoted to the impact of the financial crisis on ICT trade. While a growing share of exports of ICT goods and services is accounted for by developing economies, especially in Asia, the crisis has affected goods and services quite differently. ICT goods are among the categories of trade most negatively affected by the recession, while IT and ICT-related services appear to be among the most resilient.

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        The Information Economy Report 2010: ICTs, Enterprises and Poverty Alleviation (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 172 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade and Poverty

        The Information Economy Report 2010: ICT, Enterprises and Poverty Alleviation is the fifth in the flagship series published by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). As one of few annual reports that monitor global trends related to information and communication technologies (ICTs) from a development perspective, the Report is a valuable reference source for policymakers in developing countries. In the 2010 edition, special attention is given to the potential impact of ICTs in enterprises for reducing poverty and improving livelihoods. The evidence presented in this Report suggests that more attention should be given by policymakers and other stakeholders to opportunities in this area.

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        The Information Economy Report 2011: ICTs as an Enabler for Private Sector Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 164 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Science and Technology

        Subtitled, ICTs as an Enabler for Private Sector Development (PSD), this is the sixth in the flagship series published by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). The Report shows that the potential of leveraging information and communication technologies (ICTs) to develop the private sector is far from fully exploited. It finds that many national and donor strategies related to PSD currently fail to take adequate account of the ICT potential, which has greatly expanded thanks to changes in the global ICT landscape. The Report then makes policy recommendations on how to remedy this situation.

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        Information Economy Report 2011: ICTs as an Enabler for Private Sector Development - Overview (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 4 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Science and Technology

        Subtitled, ICTs as an Enabler for Private Sector Development (PSD), this is the sixth in the flagship series published by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). The Report shows that the potential of leveraging information and communication technologies (ICTs) to develop the private sector is far from fully exploited. It finds that many national and donor strategies related to PSD currently fail to take adequate account of the ICT potential, which has greatly expanded thanks to changes in the global ICT landscape. The Report then makes policy recommendations on how to remedy this situation.

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        Information Economy Report 2012: The Software Industry and Developing Countries
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 72 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        The Information Economy Report 2012 finds that, because software is increasingly permeating societies at all levels of development and activity, it is becoming more important for countries to develop the technological capabilities needed to adopt and adapt existing software solutions, and eventually to innovate. Software and service activities represent an opportunity for developing countries, thanks to the low capital entry requirements, the sector's high-value, high-growth nature and knowledge-rich profile. The Report introduces the concept of the national software system, and the importance of the role of governments, whose policies should nurture software capabilities and the system as a whole.

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        Information Economy Report 2012: The Software Industry and Developing Countries - Overview (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2012, 17 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        The Information Economy Report 2012 finds that, because software is increasingly permeating societies at all levels of development and activity, it is becoming more important for countries to develop the technological capabilities needed to adopt and adapt existing software solutions, and eventually to innovate. Software and service activities represent an opportunity for developing countries, thanks to the low capital entry requirements, the sector's high-value, high-growth nature and knowledge-rich profile. The Report introduces the concept of the national software system, and the importance of the role of governments, whose policies should nurture software capabilities and the system as a whole.

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        Information Economy Report 2013: The Cloud Economy and Developing Countries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 136 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        The Information Economy Report 2013 marks the first time the United Nations is examining the economic potential of cloud computing for low- and middle-income countries, where rates of adoption are currently low. With governments, businesses and other organizations in the developing world considering whether to migrate some or all of their data and activities to the cloud, this publication is especially timely.

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        Information Economy Report 2015 - Unlocking the Potential of E-commerce for Developing Countries  (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 136 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Enterprise Development, Science and Technology

        The 2015 edition of the Information Economy Report examines electronic commerce, and explores how information and communication technologies can be harnessed to support economic growth and sustainable development.The report demonstrates how some of the greatest dynamism in electronic commerce can be found in developing countries, but that potential is far from fully realized. It examines opportunities and challenges faced by enterprises in developing countries that wish to access and use e-commerce. Finally, the report highlights the latest market trends, benchmarks country performances with the UNCTAD E-commerce Index, reviews examples of e-commerce in rural areas and low-income countries, addresses relevant legal issues and provides policy recommendations.

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        Information Economy Report 2015: Unlocking the Potential of E-commerce for Developing Countries - Overview
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2015, 18 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology

        The 2015 edition of the Information Economy Report examines electronic commerce, and explores how information and communication technologies can be harnessed to support economic growth and sustainable development.The report demonstrates how some of the greatest dynamism in electronic commerce can be found in developing countries, but that potential is far from fully realized. It examines opportunities and challenges faced by enterprises in developing countries that wish to access and use e-commerce. Finally, the report highlights the latest market trends, benchmarks country performances with the UNCTAD E-commerce Index, reviews examples of e-commerce in rural areas and low-income countries, addresses relevant legal issues and provides policy recommendations.

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        Information Economy Report 2017 - Digitalization, Trade and Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 129 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology

        The analysis contained in the Information Economy Report 2017: Digitalization, Trade and Development proposes ways in which the international community can reduce inequality, enable the benefits of digitalization to reach all people and ensure that no one is left behind by the evolving digital economy.

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        Information Economy Report 2017 - Overview (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 17 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology

        The analysis contained in the Information Economy Report 2017: Digitalization, Trade and Development proposes ways in which the international community can reduce inequality, enable the benefits of digitalization to reach all people and ensure that no one is left behind by the evolving digital economy.

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        Innovation, Competitiveness and Regional Integration: Assessing Regional Integration in Africa Vii (English)
        Also available in French
        Report by UNECA/AUC/AfDb, 2016, 148 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Science and Technology

        This joint publication 'Assessing Regional Integration in Africa VII' reviews the relationship between regional integration, innovation and competitiveness. It argues that by knitting together networks of institutions, people and markets a loose connection between two or more nations is bound to facilitate innovation and related creative activities. The report presents chapters on innovation and global intellectual property regulations and science, technology and innovation policies, along with case studies from India and the Southeast Asian nations.

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        International R&D Strategies in Companies from Developing Countries – the Case of China (English)
        Case study by Maximilian von Zedtwitz, Research Center for Global R&D Management, Tsinghua University, 2005, 11 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Enterprise Development, Science and Technology

        What: Traditionally, international R&D is a phenomenon of firms originating from advanced countries such as North America, Europe, and Japan. Based on the analysis of 1269 R&D locations, a new research framework is proposed that accounts for the increasing share of R&D toward or from developing countries. Investigating technology-intensive Chinese firms, motivations, strategies, and barriers to R&D internationalization are analyzed. The paper proposes two concepts of international R&D:\\n “innovation capability enhancing” and “innovation capability exploiting”, respectively, denoting superimposed networks that allow the absorption and implementation of new technologies. Who: Can be used by a lecturer on a course on R&D outsourcing to developing countries. How: For a course on R&D and the role of TNCs.

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        International Trade in GMOs and GM Products: National and Multilateral Legal Frameworks (English)
        Report by Simonetta Zarrilli, 2005, 61 pages
        Categories: Commodities, International Economic Law, Science and Technology

        What: The debate about the application of biotechnology to agriculture is one of the most vocal and passionate in recent years. This paper analyses different legal frameworks on agro-biotechnology in selected developed and developing countries. It outlines the complexity of the issue especially for developing countries who have to reconcile trade interests with food safety, environmental protection and international obligations. Who: Students, teachers or researchers interested in the effects of biotechnology on agriculture and trade in developing countries. How: As a key reading in any course dealing with trade and the environment.

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        Internet Broadband for an Inclusive Digital Society
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 38 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        This study provides an overview of key issues relating to broadband ICTs in the context of international objectives for socioeconomic development. The discussion summarizes recent research, policy developments and practices associated with broadband ICTs around the world and offers a set of frameworks for considering and developing new public and private initiatives to promote broadband development.

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        Investment and technology policies for competitiveness: review of successful country experiences (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD Division on Investment, Technology and Enterprise Development, 2003, 79 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Investment, Science and Technology

        Paper that discusses the role of foreign direct investment in the transfer of technology and policy options for developing countries. The annex provides good examples of FDI and development policies in South East Asia. Of interest for teacher/researcher interested in the issues of investment and technology transfer Gives interesting case studies of development policies through transfer of technology.

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        Investment in Pharmaceutical Production in the Least Developed Countries - A Guide for Policy Makers and Investment Promotion Agencies (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2011, 59 pages
        Categories: Investment, Science and Technology

        An overview of important trends affecting the local pharmaceutical production in developing countries, intended as a guide for policymakers, investment promotion agencies and investment negotiators in their efforts to encourage the expansion of local pharmaceutical production capacity.

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        Key issues in biotechnology (English)
        Discussion Paper by UNCTAD, 2002, 21 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: This paper reviews several key issues surrounding modern gene technology and its application in the areas of crop agriculture and medicine, and presents the potential benefits and challenges associated with them. In particular, it addresses and provides information on biotechnology, with particular attention to genetically modified crops, health and intellectual property rights. It concludes with the major implications for policy makers. Who: Useful for teachers and students studying gene technology and its application on agriculture and medicine. How: Can be used as a background reading for courses on biotechnology.

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        Las TIC Como Instrumento Para Acceder Al Mercado Mundial (English)
        Policy brief by Osterlof Obregón, Doris, 2011, 6 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Science and Technology

        Las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (TIC) cada vez más se han convertido en un instrumento para facilitar la competitividad de las exportaciones en el comercio mundial. Asimismo, pueden servir para incrementar la productividad de las empresas. Son instrumentos habilitadores del desarrollo de un país y, por lo tanto, su utilización incide en el crecimiento de los diversos sectores productivos. A la vez, son también en sí mismas una oportunidad de negocios.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2007: Knowledge, Technological Learning and Innovation for Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2007, 221 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: The LDC report 2007 looks at the role of technology, knowledge and innovation for creating employment and stimulating economic growth in Least Developed Countries. The report begins by examining the potential of various international market linkages, e.g. trade, FDI, etc., to build technological capacities, finding that transfer of foreign technology to LDCs has been very limited, despite the generally high levels of trade and FDI integration. The report goes on to analyse How national policies could promote technological learning and innovation, and concludes that science and technology policies and targets are insufficiently integrated in national development strategies and Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs). The report recommends that economic aid should be targeted more specifically at the knowledge capacities of developing countries and emphasizes the use of more appropriate Intellectual Property regimes to stimulate innovation. Migration of persons possessing specific skills and knowledge represents another means of international knowledge and technology transfer that affects the knowledge accumulation in developing countries. The report highlights several policies that could reverse the 'brain drain' trend and allow developing countries to take advantage of a 'brain gain'. Such policy recommendations include mechanisms to facilitate temporary rather than permanent migration; the retention of skilled persons; and assistance to promote return migration. How: Useful for any course dealing with the issue of innovation and knowledge for low-income countries. Who: Researchers and lecturers dealing with LDC issues or technology, knowledge and innovation in a low-income country context.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2007: Overview (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2007, 35 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: The LDC report 2007 looks at the role of technology, knowledge and innovation for creating employment and stimulating economic growth in Least Developed Countries. The report begins by examining the potential of various international market linkages, e.g. trade, FDI, etc., to build technological capacities, finding that transfer of foreign technology to LDCs has been very limited, despite the generally high levels of trade and FDI integration. The report goes on to analyse How national policies could promote technological learning and innovation, and concludes that science and technology policies and targets are insufficiently integrated in national development strategies and Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs). The report recommends that economic aid should be targeted more specifically at the knowledge capacities of developing countries and emphasizes the use of more appropriate Intellectual Property regimes to stimulate innovation. Migration of persons possessing specific skills and knowledge represents another means of international knowledge and technology transfer that affects the knowledge accumulation in developing countries. The report highlights several policies that could reverse the 'brain drain' trend and allow developing countries to take advantage of a 'brain gain'. Such policy recommendations include mechanisms to facilitate temporary rather than permanent migration; the retention of skilled persons; and assistance to promote return migration. How: Useful for any course dealing with the issue of innovation and knowledge for low-income countries. Who: Researchers and lecturers dealing with LDC issues or technology, knowledge and innovation in a low-income country context.

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        Les Marches D'informations Et Le E-commerce Au Cameroun /informations Markets And E-commerce In Cameroon
        Case study by kenou Liwuitekong Stephan, 2011
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Science and Technology, Trade Facilitation

        The digital revolution, like all technological revolutions that already transformed several times the economic and social environment is of actuality in our societies were they either developed or under-developed. Besides it could not let us indifferent, so this study were carried, and where we collected a number of information which allowed us to define what is an information market, E-commerce, and all concepts around the question as: the E - economy, the E - management, the new economy etc. So, in the goal to discern the level of information society and ICT impact on the degree of the E – Commerce uses, at the level of Cameroon, we proceeded by the primary and secondary data analysis. This permitted us to understand that the Cameroonian internet user was not sensitized enough about the E - Commerce and that the whole logistics as well as the infrastructure that goes with, was not yet enough developed. To this effect, a certain number of measures or actions have been suggested, as: more of sensitization, reduction of the costs of Internet, development of the infrastructures of telecommunications, etc. Nevertheless, one could hope of the best following days in this domain, seen the efforts that are provided by the Cameroonian government, in the popularization of the NTICS, as well as the slogan “Internet for all”. It is whereas the Cameroonian enterprises of all sizes as well as the consumers will be able to experiment in their way to manage their resources the kindness of the E – Commerce.

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        The Little Data Book on Information and Communication Technology 2013
        Book by World Bank, 2013, 245 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        Like the rest of this series on little data books, it is organized by regional and income group data. It provides data on access to information and communication technologies (ICTs) which have seen tremendous growth. The usage of the internet, mobile phones will continue rising. The number of individuals using the Internet will reach an estimated 2.7 billion while the number of fixed (wired) broadband subscriptions will reach almost 700 million at the end of 2013. This publication is important because investment in information and communication technologies is associated with economic benefits as higher productivity, lower costs, new economic opportunities, job creation, innovation, and increased trade. This publication provides comparable statistics on the sector for 2005 and 2011 across a range of indicators, enabling readers to readily compare economies. Such indicators cover the economic and social context structure of the information and communication technology sector, sector efficiency and capacity, and sector performance related to access, usage, quality, affordability, trade, and applications.

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        Local Production of Pharmaceuticals and Related Technology Transfer in Developing Countries (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2012, 326 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        This series of case studies examine the transfer of technology and local production of pharmaceuticals in different regions, highlighting different characteristics such as firm structure, the means by which local producers obtained and developed the technological capacity to produce medicines, and the types of product handled.

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        Manual for the Production of Statistics on the Information Economy (2009 Revised Edition) (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2009, 188 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This is the second edition of the Manual for the Production of Statistics on the Information Economy. The Manual is a tool for staff of national statistical organizations responsible for measuring the information economy. It is intended to guide statisticians from developing countries in all steps involved in the production and dissemination of business ICT statistics. This second edition of the Manual is a valuable tool in our common efforts towards enhancing the availability of internationally comparable indicators of the information economy.

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        Measuring the Impacts of Information and Communication Technology for Development
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 31 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology

        This paper explores why measuring the impacts of information and communication technology (ICT) is important for development – and why it is statistically challenging. Measuring impacts in any field is difficult, but for ICT there are added complications because of its diversity and rapidly changing nature. A number of impact areas are identified in section 1, and their relationships explored, in the context of their place in the social, economic and environmental realms. The result is a complex web of relationships between individual impact areas, such as economic growth and poverty alleviation, and background factors, such as a country’s level of education and government regulation.

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        Mobile Money for Business Development in the East African Community - A Comparative Study of Existing Platforms and Regulations (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 66 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Science and Technology

        This report is a survey of mobile money services across East African Community (EAC), providing an analysis and comparison between the different platforms currently on offer. The report is organized as follows: Section A provides a background to mobile money across EAC. Section B examines the different mobile money service offerings along with their associated fees. Section C looks at some salient features of the services currently on offer across EAC and identifies some usability issues such as access channels, security, registration and transaction limits, agent networks and consumer awareness and support. Section D provides an analysis of regulatory issues structured around the different functions embedded in a mobile money service. Section E draws on lessons across EAC to make policy recommendations to help direct the development of mobile money in a way that is inclusive and that also favours mobile money use amongst small businesses. Country profiles in the Annex provide in-depth detail and comparison across mobile money platforms within each country in EAC.

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        New Innovation Approaches to Support the Implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 51 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        This study presents several new and emerging innovation approaches, highlights how they may contribute to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals and discusses some of the policy implications in harnessing such approaches. It provides an overview of particular issues and considerations that need to be taken into account in coming years to maximize the contribution of new innovation approaches to sustainable development.

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        Proactive Intellectual Property (IP) Strategies for Local Creation of IP Assets (English)
        Presentation by Olga Spasic, 2005, 19 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Science and Technology

        What: A power point presentation on what Intellectual Property (IP) assets are and why IP assets matter? It then goes to deal with the benefits of IP assets and how it can be developed. Who: Relevant for anyone teaching or learning Intellectual Property strategies. How: Can be used for a lesson on strategies for creation of IP assets.

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        Promoting Access to Medical Technologies and Innovation: Intersections Between Public Health, Intellectual Property and Trade (English)
        Study by WHO, WIPO, WTO, 2012, 253 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        This joint study by the World Health Organization, the World Intellectual Property Organization and World Trade Organization examines the interplay between public health, trade and intellectual property, and how these policy domains affect medical innovation and access to medical technologies.

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        Promoting Local IT Sector Development Through Public Procurement (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 80 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        This study seeks to address the link between public procurement and local IT sector development in developing and emerging economies, and to provide decision makers with an improved basis for understanding when and how public procurement can be leveraged for the development of a vibrant IT sector. The report proposes measures to promote ICT sector development and build local ICT capacities in developing and emerging economies.

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        Protecting Shared Traditional Knowledge (English)
        Working paper by Muller, Manuel/ICTSD, 2013, 38 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Science and Technology, Trade and Poverty

        This paper offers some initial suggestions on how to address issues concerning the traditional knowledge (TK) of indigenous peoples, which is shared and distributed widely among communities and beyond. In a scenario where there is growing international and national interest to legally protect TK related to biodiversity, the question of how to achieve this when TK is shared is particularly complicated. Who has rights, who consents to access and use of TK, how are benefits shared and between whom, are just some of the vexing questions that must be addressed to advance and inform policymaking and the development of legal standards. The study reviews some of the legal and policy options that exist for the protection of shared and widely distributed TK.

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        R&D in the Network of International Trade: Multilateral Versus Regional Trade Agreements (English)
        Working paper by Teteryatnikova, Mariya / European University Institute, 2008, 34 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Science and Technology

        This paper argues that different types of trade liberalization - multilateral versus regional - may lead to different R&D and productivity levels of firms. Trade agreements between countries are modelled with a network: nodes represent countries and a link between the nodes indicates the existence of a trade agreement. In this framework, the multilateral trade agreement is represented by the complete network while the overlap of regional trade agreements is represented by the hub-and-spoke trade system. Trade liberalization, which increases the network of trade agreements, reinforces the incentives for firms to invest in R&D through the creation of new markets (scale effect) but it may also dampen these incentives through the emergence of new competitors (competition effect). The joint action of these two effects within the multilateral and the regional trade systems gives rise to the result that, for the same number of direct trade partners, the R&D effort of a country in the multilateral agreement is lower than the R&D effort of a hub but higher than the R&D effort of a spoke. This suggests that a “core” country within the regional trade system has higher R&D and productivity level than a country with the same number of trade agreements within the multilateral system whereas the opposite is true for a “periphery” country. Additionally, the paper finds that while multilateral trade liberalization boosts productivity of all countries, regional trade liberalization increases productivity of core economies but may decrease productivity of periphery economies if the level of competition in the new trade partner countries of the periphery economy is “too high”. Furthermore, the aggregate level of R&D activities within the multilateral trade agreement exceeds that in the star - the simplest representative of the hub-and-spoke trade system.

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        R&D-related FDI in developing countries - Implications for host countries (English)
        Presentation by Prasada Reddy, 2005, 11 pages
        Categories: Investment, Science and Technology

        What: The paper categorizes R&D activities and then outlines the historical evolution of the internationalization of R&D. It describes the implications for host countries in the developing world. Finally it deals with the spill over effects of globalization of R&D. Who: Relevant for anyone studying or teaching FDI and globalization of innovation. How: Can be used as a background reading for a course on FDI and globalization of innovation. The paper also offers a lot of relevant reference materials.

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        Renewable Energy Technologies for Rural Development
        Study by Johnson, Oliver; Watson, Jim / University of Sussex; Wu, Dong /UNCTAD, 2010, 41 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology

        The paper provides an overview of some of the issues surrounding the use of renewable energy technologies (RETs) to increase access to modern energy services in rural areas. This paper reviews current international commitments to RET use and rural development and examine the literature connecting RETs with rural development; it looks at RET options and some potential benefits and challenges to deploying them; it investigates, using a number of case studies, how RETs have been used to promote rural development and how innovative project/programme design can help overcome some of the barriers inherent to RET deployment in the market. The last chapter presents conclusions and recommendations.

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        Road maps towards an information society in Latin America and the Caribbean (English)
        Case study by ECLAC, 2003, 119 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: A recent and systematic regional study of the development of ICTs and of the necessary public policies. It mixes basic concepts on the information society with a constant focus on the regional context. Who: People interested in Latin American geopolitics or economy How: A good handbook for students or complete guidelines for teachers to design a course on the information society in Latin America and the Caribbean. Helpful figures and data for presentations or exercises. The bibliography would be a good basis for a case study.

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        Robots and Industrialization in Developing Countries (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2016, 4 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology, Trade Negotiations

        This publication, Robots and Industrialization in Developing Countries, discusses the contribution of advanced technologies on the manufacturing sector. It analysis trends on commodity growth and financial inflows with industrialization, with a primary focus on Africa and Latin America. It further summarizes the move towards the use of robots on developing countries in terms of its impacts and policy implications.

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        The Role of Science, Technology and Innovation in Ensuring Food Security by 2030 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 55 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        The report provides an introduction to the challenge of ensuring food security, highlighting the geography of food insecurity, specific socioeconomic, environmental and political challenges that exacerbate food insecurity, and the role of the Sustainable Development Goals in ensuring "Zero Hunger" by 2030. It discusses how various scientific and technological applications can address the four dimensions of food security, namely availability, access, use/utilization and stability. The report also explores how countries can reimagine their food systems as innovation systems with attention to the building of local innovative capabilities, enabling infrastructure for agricultural innovation, developing coherent policies and strengthening knowledge flows to facilitate technology dissemination. Finally, it presents policy considerations and strategic recommendations for national Governments, the private sector, agricultural research institutions and other stakeholders.

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        The Role of Technology and Human Capital in the EPZ Life-cycle (UNCTAD Transnational Corporations, Vol. 17/No.1) (English)
        Article by Omar, Karima; Stoever, William A., 2008, 26 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment, Science and Technology

        This article proposes an alternative perspective for examining export processing zones (EPZs) by modifying the life-cycle approach. It highlights the two crucial aspects of a successful EPZ development, namely the nature of backward linkages and gradual integration into the rest of the host economy. It argues that successful EPZs can be a catalyst for structural transformation of the wider economy and discusses what policy measures are needed to achieve such outcome. The article concludes by identifying venues for future research.

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        Science and Technology Promotion, Advice and Application for the Achievement of the MDGs (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Secretariat, 2005, 25 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: An analysis on the use of science and technology in achieving Millennium Development Goals (MGDs) with special focus on building capacity in developing countries and strengthening partnership to make science and technology serve the needs of development. Who: For anyone interested in the subject of access to science and technology in developing countries and how to achieve the Millennium goals. How: This formal document is an essential reading on the link between science and technology and development.

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        Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Review: Ghana (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 169 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Science and Technology

        The Science, Technology and Innovation Policy (STIP) Review of Ghana was prepared at the request of the Government of Ghana. The Review is meant to offer an objective and critical look at the country’s STI capacities and assess how these capacities are being translated into innovations that help meet the country’s socioeconomic development objectives, including supporting economic growth and poverty reduction as well as structural transformation of the economy. It sets out specific recommendations for practical actions and policy reforms to build STI capacity and to create a more dynamic economy that will move more quickly towards middle-income levels. The Review argues that policy action to promote STI development is required if Ghana is to achieve faster, more sustainable growth and development.

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        Science, Technology and Innovation Policy - Review of Mauritania (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2010, 147 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Science and Technology

        This Science Technology and Innovation Policy (STIP) Review provides an outline and assessment of the country’s current science, technology and innovation (STI) capabilities, their STI policies and the effectiveness of their national systems of innovation (NSIs) and knowledge systems in improving the productivity of enterprises and national economic performance, as well as in helping the country to address various economic, social and environmental challenges. It seeks to analyse how these have evolved in recent years, to provide an independent evaluation of whether these capabilities and the NSI need to be strengthened, how they might fit into the country’s development strategy, and suggest how policymakers in Mauritania might go about doing this. It also compares the progress made in upgrading these capabilities in relation to progress made in strengthening the other main elements that contribute to promoting economic growth and development in the country. The main finding of the Review is that STI capabilities, and the ability of enterprises and the public sector to effectively harness them for innovation, are currently inadequate to address the challenges that the country faces.

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        Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Review - Peru (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 184 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Science and Technology

        The ultimate objective of the science, technology and innovation policy review of Peru is to provide the Peruvian Government with an up-to-date diagnostic analysis of the effectiveness of its science, technology and innovation-related policies and measures, and strengthen these policies and measures by integrating them in the national development process, and improve technological capacity, encourage innovation and incorporate greater added value into production

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        Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Review - The Islamic Republic of Iran (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005, 118 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Science and Technology

        A policy review which was discussed during the commission on science and technology.It gives assistance to the country in formulating policies to strengthen the role of science and technology in national capacities and in competitiveness. Can be used by teachers and researchers in science and technology promotion in developing countries. The text contains a lot of information on Iran that can be used as a case study.

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        Science, Technology & Innovation Policy Review - Dominican Republic (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 116 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Science and Technology

        This document has three fundamental goals: first, to offer the Government and Dominican society an up-dated diagnosis of the effectiveness of STI policies, programmes and instruments; second, to facilitate the strengthening of those policies and measures by integrating them into the national development process; and third, to contribute to improve technological capacity, encourage innovation and incorporate greater added value into production.

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        Science, Technology & Innovation Policy Review : El Salvador (English)
        Report by Miroux, Anne, Hamdi, Mongi, Pérez Cusó, Marta, Hernández, René, López Martínez, Roberto, Huidobro, Eduardo, 2011, 181 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Science and Technology

        This review is intended to be a tool for learning and reflection, not a rating mechanism but an analytical tool that examines a series of proposals from a neutral external viewpoint. The ultimate objective of the science, technology and innovation policy review of El Salvador is to provide the Salvadorian Government with an up-to-date diagnostic analysis of the effectiveness of its science, technology and innovation-related policies and measures, and strengthen these policies and measures by integrating them in the national development process. It also seeks to improve technological capacity, encourage innovation and incorporate greater added value into production processes.

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        Science, Technology & Innovation Policy Review: Islamic Republic of Iran (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 112 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Science and Technology

        The Science, Technology & Innovation Policy Review (STIP Review) is a neutral and unbiased assessment of the effectiveness of government policies with regard to STI development and a pointer to the way ahead. It examines Iran’s National Innovation System, along with its oil, gas and petrochemical industries and biopharmaceuticals. The review observed that the national development policy was aiming to shift the country from a natural-resource-based economy to a more knowledge-based one; a need for economic diversification away from the predominant O&G industry through a process of industrialization; and an export-oriented economic approach. The Islamic Republic of Iran’s national policy documents, also includes the following countries: Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Egypt, Georgia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Oman, Palestine, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan and Yemen.

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        STIP Review of Lesotho: An Implementation Strategy (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2009, 104 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Science and Technology

        The present STIP Review has designed a mechanism that would proactively coordinate cross-sectoral linkages, priority setting and fund allocation. It is a mechanism for action that would have a systemic impact on the development of STI in Lesotho in that it would facilitate technology flow, ensure human capital development, engage institutions’ active contribution, promote networking and collaboration and build up the knowledge base. The expected benefits of such a mechanism correspond to the six major strategic priorities identified in a recent UNCTAD study1 for LDCs at the initial and earlier stages of technological catch-up. These are: (1) increasing agricultural productivity in basic staples; (2) promoting the formation and growth of domestic business firms; (3) increasing the absorptive capacity of domestic knowledge systems; (4) leveraging more learning from international trade and foreign direct investment (FDI); (5) fostering diversification through agricultural growth linkages and natural resource-based production clusters; and (6) upgrading export activities.

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        Studies in Technology Transfer: Selected Cases from Argentina, China, South Africa and Taiwan Province of China (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 101 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        This paper builds on ongoing efforts by UNCTAD to investigate the role of the transfer of technology in economic development. The paper presents diverse cases which provide contrasting experiences of the role of technology transfer and absorption in the development of four different industries in economies from Africa (South Africa), Asia (Taiwan Province of China and China) and Latin America (Argentina). These studies illustrate the varying approaches that firms and industries in different countries have taken in using international and domestic transfer of technology and combining these transfers with knowledge accumulated through internal effort in order to build stronger capabilities and improve their innovation performance. These capabilities are critical to enable the upgrading of firms into more complex, skill and knowledge intensive activities, which typically add more value to local production, allow increased productivity and ultimately lead to higher wages, expanding domestic demand and growing economies.

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        Tariffs, Taxes and Electronic Commerce: Revenue Implications for Developing Countries (English)
        Report by Susanne Teltscher, UNCTAD, 2000, 66 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: Within the last decade, cross-border electronic commerce has increased substantially. So far, it is operating in a tax- and tariff-free environment. Especially for developing countries a major concern is the potential loss in tax and tariff revenues. This paper offers a review on the classification of e-commerce and summarizes the debate on how to tax e-commerce. Data on potential revenue losses from import duties on goods that have formerly been traded physically and increasingly are imported digitally. The paper provides a solid review on some of the complex issues related to e-commerce taxation. Who: For anyone dealing with the topic on e-commerce taxation and its implications for developing countries. How: Can be used as a background reading. The annex offers excellent data for further research.

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        Technology and Innovation Report 2010: Enhancing food security in Africa through science, technology and innovation (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 124 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Science and Technology

        UNCTAD’s Technology and Innovation Report 2010 focuses on the technological challenges that small-holder farmers in developing countries, especially sub-Saharan Africa, face in increasing agricultural productivity. It outlines the agricultural sector’s challenges and the roles of technology and innovation in raising production and the income of small-holder farmers. It also describes readily available technologies that can be applied now to improve soils, manage water shortages and resist drought.

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        Technology and Innovation Report 2011: Powering Development with Renewable Energy Technologies (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 179 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade and Environment

        The TIR11 focuses on the role of renewable energy technologies in responding to the dual challenge of reducing energy poverty while mitigating climate change. The Report identifies key capacity issues for developing countries and proposes concrete recommendations for the wider use of renewable energy technologies to promote sustainable development and poverty reduction.

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        Technology and Innovation Report 2012 - Innovation, Technology and South-South Collaboration (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 164 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Science and Technology

        UNCTAD’s Technology and Innovation Report 2012 focuses on how South-South collaboration can help address key capacity questions faced by developing countries.

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        Technology and Innovation Report 2012 - Innovation, Technology and South-south Collaboration (overview)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2012, 36 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        UNCTAD’s Technology and Innovation Report 2012 focuses on how South-South collaboration can help address key capacity questions faced by developing countries.

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        Technology and Innovation Report 2015 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 142 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Science and Technology, Trade Related Capacity Building

        In the 2015 Technology and Innovation Report subtitled ‘Fostering Innovation Policies for Industrial Development’ addresses the urgency of building productive capacities and promoting sustainable industrialization in development. It analyzes the crucial role of technological learning and innovation capacity, and helps to address some of the questions that policymakers face when seeking to forge new paths to secure a prosperous future for their people. The report argues that sustainable industrialization is not solely limited to environmental sustainability, but refers to efforts that are technology-led, productivity enhancing and poverty-reducing. It is based on the understanding that no industrial policy is complete without an accompanying innovation policy.

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        Technology and Innovation Report 2015 (Overview) (English)
        Also available in Spanish, Russian
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 30 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade Related Capacity Building

        This overview of the 2015 Technology and Innovation Report subtitled ‘Fostering Innovation Policies for Industrial Development’ summarizes the key findings presented in the Report. It addresses the urgency of building productive capacities and promoting sustainable industrialization in development. It analyzes the crucial role of technological learning and innovation capacity, and helps to address some of the questions that policymakers face when seeking to forge new paths to secure a prosperous future for their people. The report argues that sustainable industrialization is not solely limited to environmental sustainability, but refers to efforts that are technology-led, productivity enhancing and poverty-reducing. It is based on the understanding that no industrial policy is complete without an accompanying innovation policy.

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        Technology and Innovation Report 2018: Harnessing Frontier Technologies for Sustainable Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 134 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        The Technology and Innovation Report 2018: Harnessing Frontier Technologies for Sustainable Development notes that change is becoming exponential thanks to the power of digital platforms and innovative combinations of different technologies that become possible every day. This opens exciting possibilities for the democratization of frontier technologies to materialize in development solutions. The Report proposes strategies and actions, some of them based on existing experiences in STI policy for development, and some more innovative ones to make technology an effective means of implementation of our common development agenda – nationally and globally.

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        Technology and Innovation Report 2018 - Harnessing Frontier Technologies for Sustainable Development - Overview (English)
        Also available in Arabic, French, Chinese
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 19 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        The Technology and Innovation Report 2018: Harnessing Frontier Technologies for Sustainable Development notes that change is becoming exponential thanks to the power of digital platforms and innovative combinations of different technologies that become possible every day. This opens exciting possibilities for the democratization of frontier technologies to materialize in development solutions. The Report proposes strategies and actions, some of them based on existing experiences in STI policy for development, and some more innovative ones to make technology an effective means of implementation of our common development agenda – nationally and globally.

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        Technology in Action: Good Practices in Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for Women in South Asia (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 38 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade and Gender

        This report was elaborated based on a comprehensive analysis of secondary literature on programmes and policies on gender, STI and other sectors conducted in the region by local governments in collaboration with international agencies and other organizations. The experiences presented in this report show that STI policies usually contribute to improving the livelihoods of women and enhancing gender equality through the following mechanisms: introducing and diffusing technological and scientific developments that improve the life of women; creating and strengthening, both directly and indirectly, capacities related to STI; and introducing financial innovations such as microcredit and related skills for entrepreneurs.

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        Technology Transfer Issues in Environmental Goods and Services: An Illustrative Analysis of Sectors Relevant to Air-pollution and Renewable Energy (English)
        Report by Lynn Mytelka, 2007, 49 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade and Environment

        Environmental goods and services (EGS) as a subset of goods and services was singled out for attention in the negotiating mandate adopted at the Fourth Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in November 2001. This paper argues that much can be done within EGS and other areas of WTO negotiations, illustrating through various examples and case studies, the impediments countries face in obtaining meaningful access to environmentally sound technologies (ESTs). It goes on to question whether it is feasible to expect the Doha WTO negotiating process to deliver more on the technology transfer front than has so far been achieved. The paper concludes that there are still other aspects of the mandate and the process of negotiating trade that could be rethought from a broader technology transfer and sustainable development perspective. These involve recognizing the “public goods” element inherent in many ESTs and to open up opportunities for learning and capacity building and enhanced response capabilities in developing countries through flexibility, special and differential treatment and technical assistance. The paper calls for the identification of areas where such opportunities could be pursued, not only in EGS negotiations, but also in other areas of discussions such as subsidies, agriculture and Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights. The paper is part of a series of issue papers commissioned in the context of ICTSD’s Environmental Goods and Services Project.

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        Toward a Conceptual Framework and Public Policy agenda for the Information Society in Latin America (English)
        Case study by ECLAC Division of Production, Productivity and Management, 2002, 60 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: Both a conceptual analysis of what is the information society (knowledge and information, the development of ICTs, etc.) and a concrete presentation of how (through different steps) an information society could be built in Latin American countries. The latter chapter uses the concepts introduced in the former. Who: Students or teachers in ICT theory or ICT policies or in economics (especially interested in Latin America). How: A sound introduction to ICTs, following both a theoretical approach, and an applied one (a case study on policy-making on ICTs in Latin America).

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        Towards a Knowledge-based Economy - Europe and Central Asia: Internet Development and Governance (English)
        Report by Kapitsa, Larissa/ UNECE, 2008, 115 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology

        This report represents a brief review of the status and trends in the area of ICT and Internet development in the UNECE region and provides background information on the state of the art in some relevant ICT subsectors in the Member States. The report focuses on the state of the Internet critical resources and, consequently, on the ICT and Internet penetration across countries and social groups. It also looks into existing Internet governance arrangements and makes some recommendations. The report contains three parts and conclusions. The first part, Towards a Knowledge-based Economy: Progress Assessment, highlights the situation in the region with regards to the digital divide, both between and within countries, and national strategies and actions aiming at overcoming barriers to accessing the Internet. The second part, Internet Development: Current State of Critical Internet Resources in the UNECE Region, concentrates on reviewing the physical Internet backbone, interconnection and connectivity within the Internet in the UNECE member States. The third part, Governing the Evolving Internet in the UNECE Region, focuses on the issues of Internet governance in the countries of the region, challenges faced by the countries and participation of key stakeholders in ICT and Internet policy formulation and implementation. The final part contains conclusions and recommendations.

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        Transfer of Technology - A Case Study of the Brazilian Aircraft Manufacturer, Embraer (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2002, 64 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: The basic aim of this paper is to analyse the recent success of Embraer, the Brazilian aircraft manufacturer, as an example of how innovation systems have been used in a country that is still in its development stage. The paper discusses the development of the Brazilian aircraft industry and related innovation system from their origin in the mid-1940s till the early 1990s when structural changes in Brazil led to Embraer's privatization. This analysis shows that strong and continuous support by the federal Government and the state and a particular technological strategy were essential for the consolidation of the innovation system and the recent success of the company. Who: Useful for anyone teaching and/or studying transfer of technology and its effect on development. How: Can be used as a background reading of a case study on transfer of technology.

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        Transfer of Technology and Knowledge-sharing for Development: Science, Technology and Innovation Issues for Developing Countries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, Science, Technology and Information and Communications Technology (STICT) Branch, 2014, 71 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        This report reviews some basic concepts underlying technology and knowledge transfer theory and practice and presents some concerns that may inform the policy choices of developing and developed countries in this field.

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        Transfer of technology for successful integration into the global economy (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2003, 217 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: The book focuses on successful cases of technology transfer and integration into the world economy. It identifies factors that could enable firms in developing countries to upgrade technologies or develop new technologies with a view to enhancing their productivity. It aims to provide concrete examples of best practices s in the context of technological capacity building. The book deals with sectors where selected developing countries have demonstrated their ability to create new productive capacities and successfully participate in the world market. Who: Useful for teachers and students studying cases of technology transfer and integration into the world economy. How: Can be used as a background reading for courses on transfer of technology.

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        Transfer of technology for successful integration into the global economy - A case study of the pharmaceutical industry in India (English)
        Case study by Biswajit Dhar and C. Niranjan Rao, with inputs by Veena Gupta, 2002, 58 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: This study focuses on the performance of the India pharmaceutical industry, a sector that has been able to meet the challenges posed by the new policy regime with a degree of success. The Government provided a policy environment and the prime objective of the policy framework was to develop a viable domestic industry with adequate participation of Indian entrepreneurs. This paper initially presents a broad overview of the performance of the industry and then analyses the impact of the policies adopted through the three decades covering the 1970s to the 1990s. Who: Useful for teachers and students studying transfer of technology and its effect on development. How: Can be used as a background reading of a case study on transfer of technology.

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        Transfer of Technology for Successful Integration into the Global Economy - A case study of the South African automotive industry (English)
        Case study by Trudi Hartzenberg and Samson Muradzikwa, 2002, 38 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: This study discusses the factors that have shaped the formation of technological capability in the South African automotive industry. It then analyses the performance of the industry, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The quantitative assessment includes the investment behaviour of the assemblers, and the market and export performance. The qualitative assessment focuses on the inter-firms relationships, the learning processes and the levels of labour productivity. Finally it presents the stories of the successful integration into the global markets of two South African firms, Bosal Automotive and Volkswagen of South Africa. Who: Useful for teachers and students studying transfer of technology and its effect on development. How: Can be used as a background reading of a case study on transfer of technology.

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        Unctad Technology and Innovation Report 2011: Powering Development with Renewable Energy Technologies - Overview (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 37 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade and Environment

        The TIR11 focuses on the role of renewable energy technologies in responding to the dual challenge of reducing energy poverty while mitigating climate change. The Report identifies key capacity issues for developing countries and proposes concrete recommendations for the wider use of renewable energy technologies to promote sustainable development and poverty reduction.

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        Unpacking the International Technology Transfer Debate: Fifty Years and Beyond (English)
        Report by ICTSD, 2012, 58 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        On the occasion of fifty years of the international technology transfer debates and twenty years since the Rio Summit, this paper attempts to capture the political economy of technology transfer negotiations since the 1960s. It seeks to juxtapose issues of technological capacity, innovation and economic development with international technology transfer negotiations over the past decades. In doing so, the analysis places a particular emphasis on the technology transfer-intellectual property rights (IPRs) nexus which in many ways, has been at the heart of the international discourse on technology transfer. This paper aims to broaden the understanding of two key issues. First, do international negotiations on technology transfer and results achieved thereunder correspond to country level technological needs, and to the growing insights on how technological change takes place? Second, how and through what ways can international discussions on technology transfer be made to reflect both the lessons of different developing countries in building technological capabilities as well as the changing global environment for knowledge and technology globally? The authors conclude by identifying the main issues that remain outstanding in this discourse and propose some thoughts for the way forward. This work, in its current working paper format, is intended to generate constructive dialogue on technology transfer and technology accumulation for development.

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        Using Intellectual Property Rights to Stimulate Pharmaceutical Production in Developing Countries: A Reference Guide (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 204 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Science and Technology, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The objective of this guide is to provide concise and practical information on ways to promote local pharmaceutical production and improve access to medicines through a variety of policy tools, focusing on the flexibilities provided under the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), and the interfaces between IP, investment,drugs regulation and procurement strategies.

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        Utility models and innovation in developing countries (English)
        Case study by Sutherhanen, Uma, 2006, 68 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        With a view to fostering local technological capacity, this study examines one category of intellectual property, namely utility models, and their potential as a tool for spurring innovation, particularly in developing countries. It also explores considerations that policy makers could take into account when implementing or revising their national utility model system. Overall the paper concludes that for successful promotion of small-scale innovation, utility models may be an efficient tool, but alternative options exist.

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        Virtual Institute Teaching Material on Transfer of Technology (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2012, 132 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Science and Technology

        The aim of this course is to introduce and discuss key concepts related to international technology transfer, and in particular, the transfer of technology from technologically-advanced countries to those that are lagging behind. The teaching material comprises four modules. The first module presents definitions of basic terms and concepts, gives an overview of the various channels and modes of international technology transfer and the measures that can be used to facilitate it. The second module shows current trends in the international transfer of technology and discusses the technology transfer process in more detail. The third module focuses on the complex relationship between intellectual property rights and international technology transfer. Finally, the last module explains and discusses international agreements dealing with related international technology transfer issues.

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        Water for Food: Innovative Water Management Technologies for Food Security and Poverty Alleviation (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 39 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Science and Technology, Trade and Environment

        The publication addresses the water-food-poverty nexus in agricultural development. Modern irrigation systems have allowed for increased food production, but population growth and climate change are generating concerns about the food and water security. The study presents water management technologies and dicusses how developing countries can have better access to these.

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        World Investment Report 2005: Transnational Corporations and the Internationalisation of R&d - Overview
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2005, 50 pages
        Categories: Investment, Science and Technology

        What? This WIR highlights the recovery of FDI and analyses in detail the current trends and patterns in FDI and TNC activity. In particular it exmaines research and development and the role of TNCs in the increased internationalisation of R+D. Who? For anyone interested in current trends in FDI and TNCs and their impact on development How? Contains invaluable source material and data, that can provide the basis for analysis and discussion. There are also useful graphs and charts and many case studies.

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        World Investment Report 2006 - FDI from Developing and Transition Economies (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2006, 372 pages
        Categories: Investment, Science and Technology

        This World Investment Report looks specifically at the increase in FDI by developing countries' TNCs. The report examines the magnitude of this phenomenon and investigates its drivers and determinants. In particular, the report analyses its impact on global economic development and discusses policy responses for both home and host developing countries. As in previous years, the report also presents the latest data on FDI and traces its global and regional trends. The main finding is that FDI inflows increased considerably in 2005, including a surge of FDI in developing countries' commodity-producing sectors and maintained a high-level of FDI in developing countries' service sectors. While Asia remained the main magnet for FDI flows, followed by Latin America, FDI in Africa has also increased, albeit from a low level. A substantial Statistical Annex is also included, with data on FDI flows and stock for more than 200 economies. How: Standard source for data on TNC activities and FDI flows; in addition in-depth treatment of the activities of developing countries' TNCs that can be used in international investment courses. Who: Researchers and lecturers in the area of FDI or international economics more broadly.

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