A partnership with academia

Building knowledge for trade and development

    • Resources about the links between trade and gender. Includes subjects on gender inequality and allocation of resources, how trade liberalization affects women differently, channels through which gender and trade interact, and gendered economic and power relations.
      • Preview
        African Women’s Report: Measuring Gender Inequalities in Africa - Experiences and Lessons from the African Gender and Development Index (English)
        Report by UNECA, 2009, 262 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender

        The report aims to accelerate gender equality in the social, economic and political fields highlighting difficulties that African countries are facing with respect to the full realisation of women’s rights due, among other things, to the persistence of negative cultural and religious beliefs and attitudes towards women. It also demonstrates the different and changing dimensions of gender inequality being experienced in some countries. The report is based on the use of the African Gender and Development Index.

      • Preview
        Applying a Gender Lens to Science, Technology and Innovation (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 73 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade and Gender

        Prepared by UNCTAD for the 55th UN Commission on the Status of Women, this Report emphasizes the need of integrating a gender perspective into science, technology and innovation (STI) policies. It illustrates the contribution of women to STI (women in science, women in innovation) -- and how STI can contribute to women’s livelihoods and development activities (science for women).  Examples of good practices, as well as key recommendations for gender-sensitive STI policymaking are provided that support women’s development in key sectors, gender equality in science and technology related education, employment and entrepreneurship.

      • Preview
        Assessment of the Impact of Trade Policy Reform in Countries Acceding to the World Trade Organization: The Gender Dimension (English)
        Working paper by UNCTAD, 2010, 62 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The following overview sets forth a generalized background into the gendered impacts of trade liberalization. Reflecting findings reported by gender specialists examining such impacts, this paper first indicates policy areas that warrant particular scrutiny by governments concerned with gender equality and disparate impacts of economic liberalization between females and males due to social constructs. Next, a description of the WTO rules on accession highlight areas of trade policy that are the locus of attention in the proceedings leading to WTO membership. A brief depiction of the acceding governments’ extra-WTO legal obligations to pursue gender-equality follows. Finally, the paper sets forth a number of generalizable policy suggestions as to how governments in WTO accession processes could minimize negative aspects of liberalization and how they could maximize the positive potentials held by liberalization.

      • Preview
        E-Commerce and Development Report 2002, Chapter 3 - Gender, E-commerce and Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD E-Commerce Branch, 2002, 28 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade and Gender

        What: Focusing on developing countries, the chapter mainly examines the accessibility of ICTs, the effect of E-commerce on the participation of women in the economy, the new employment opportunities for women. Who: Especially teachers and researchers on gender, economic, labour or development issues. How: Useful material for a course on ICTs and economic and social development, with manifold examples or extra explanations in the form of boxes, figures or tables (which may be used in presentation, exercises, discussions, etc.). Annex III gives food for thought for a possible group discussion on ICT policies.

      • Preview
        Empowering Women-legal Rights and Economic Opportunities in Africa (English)
        Book by World Bank, 2013, 236 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender

        This book looks at the effect of legal and economic rights on women’s economic opportunities. It examines family, inheritance, and land laws, which often restrict these rights in ways that hurt women, and looks at some labor law issues. In addition, the book provides a series of indicators that show whether a country does or does not provide particular legal provisions.

      • Preview
        Engendering Trade (English)
        Working paper by Do Quy-Toan, Levchenko Andrei, Raddatz Claudio, 2012, 44 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Inspired by the third Millennium Development Goal ("Promote gender equality and empower women"), this study discusses both theoretically and empirically how female empowerment is a source of comparative advantage that shapes a country's response to trade opening. Reciprocally, it shows that as countries integrate into the world economy, the costs and benefits of gender discrimination shift. The theory goes beyond a potential aggregate wealth effect associated with trade opening, and emphasizes the heterogeneity of impacts. On the one hand, countries in which women are empowered--measured by fertility rates, female labor force participation or female schooling--experience an expansion of industries that use female labor relatively more intensively. On the other hand, the gender gap is smaller in countries that export more in relatively femalelabor intensive sectors. In conclusion, the road to gender equality is paradoxically very specific to each country's productive structure and exposure to world markets.

      • Preview
        Ensuring Gender-sensitive Implementation Of The Post-2015 Development Framework
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2015, 4 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Gender

        This policy brief offers stakeholders (government, civil society) some suggestions on elements and data that may help them to assess whether they are implementing the Post-2015 development framework in a gender-sensitive manner. The suggestions are linked to the proposed goals, targets and indicators and are meant to guide the implementation process once the post-2015 «package» is agreed upon by member States. While gender equality should be promoted throughout the goals, this brief offers suggestions on SDGs 1, 2, 5 and 17, the goals that are intimately related to the role of women as economic agents.

      • Preview
        Enterprising Women : Expanding Economic Opportunities in Africa (English)
        Book by Hallward-Driemeier, Mary, World Bank, 2013, 306 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Trade and Gender

        The book looks at the ways to expand women entrepreneurs’ economic opportunities in Sub-Saharan Africa. What explains the gender sorting in the types of enterprises that women and men run? The analysis shows that many Sub-Saharan countries present a challenging environment for women. Four key areas of the agenda for expanding women’s economic opportunities in Africa are analyzed: strengthening women’s property rights and their ability to control assets; improving women’s access to finance; building human capital in business skills and networks; and strengthening women’s voices in business environment reform.

      • Preview
        Exports, Equity, and Empowerment : The Effects Of Readymade Garments Manufacturing Employment On Gender Equality In Bangladesh (English)
        Working paper by Hossain, Naomi, 2011, 40 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Bangladesh has become known as something of a success in advancing gender equity since the 1990s. There have been rapid gains in a number of social and economic domains, yet by most objective standards the current condition and status of women and girls within Bangladeshi society remain low. Rapid progress has come about under conditions of mass poverty and interlocking forms of social disadvantage, political instability and under-development, overlain with prsistent 'classic' forms of patriarchy. This paper assesses the effects of the readymade garments (RMG) employment on women’s empowerment in Bangladesh.

      • Preview
        The Fisheries Sector in the Gambia: Trade, Value Addition and Social Inclusiveness, with a Focus on Women (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 66 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Gender

        This analytical report - part of UNCTAD’s activities on trade, gender and development - is intended to accompany the Diagnostic Trade Integration Study (DTIS) Update for The Gambia: Harnessing Trade for Growth and Employment, carried out under the Enhanced Integrated Framework (EIF) for trade-related assistance for Least Developed Countries. It sets out a detailed analysis of the fisheries sector and its prospects for value-addition and social inclusiveness, with a focus on women. The intention is to capture all the information generated through the DTIS Update process, and disseminate this knowledge to a broader audience.

      • Preview
        Gender at Work: A Companion to the World Development Report on Jobs (English)
        Report by World Bank, 2013, 91 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Gender

        A companion to the 2013 World Development Report on jobs, Gender at Work finds huge, persistent gender gaps at work around the world. This major new report advances our understanding of key trends, patterns and constraints, and offers innovative, promising approaches to policies and programs that can level the playing field.

      • Preview
        Gendered Dimensions of Development (English)
        Book by UNRISD, 2015, 463 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Gender

        This volume shed light on the multiple challenges of gender equity in an increasingly unequal world and invites reflection on the possibilities and pitfalls of integrating gender into development policy and practice. The collection is divided into two parts. The first part brings together a series of contributions that analyse development institutions, processes and policies from a gender perspective. The second part of the volume is concerned with the diverse manifestations of women’s agency, the strategies that have been deployed to produce gender-egalitarian change, and the complexities of individual and collective empowerment. It draws attention to the multiple sites of struggle as well as to the different facets of feminism as a transformative project.

      • Preview
        Gendered Impacts of Globalization. Employment and Social Protection (English)
        Report by Razavi, Shara, Azra, Camilla, Braunstein Elissa, Cook, Sarah, Goulding, Kristine, 2012, 108 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Gender

        The paper examines how globalization affects gendered access to employment and social protection, with a particular focus on informal employment, and the implications of these connections for policy and practice.

      • Preview
        Implementing Gender-Aware Ex Ante Evaluations to Maximize the Benefits of Trade Reforms for Women (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2016, 4 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender, Trade Facilitation

        This policy brief aims to provide stakeholders with an understanding of the scope of ex ante evaluations. It unpacks the complex relationship between trade policies and gender in terms of liberalization and policy reform. It states that ex ante impact assessments constitute a valuable tool for identifying the impact of trade policies on gender-related outcomes and can contribute to the formation of policies or accompanying measures that maximize benefits for women.

      • Preview
        Investment by TNCs and Gender: Preliminary Assessment and Way Forward (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 62 pages
        Categories: Investment, Trade and Gender

        This report examines the impact that investment by transnational corporations (TNCs) – that is, direct investment conducted by TNCs as well as activities by non-equity modalities (NEMs), has on gender, particularly in the context of developing host countries. The objective is to review the gender-related effects of investment by TNCs, in the context of investment and social sustainability, and provide initial evidence with regard to the positive and negative effects on women.

      • Preview
        Looking at Trade Policy Through a “Gender Lens”: Summary of Seven Country Case Studies Conducted by Unctad (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 32 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender

        This paper presents the findings of seven country case studies which examine the impact of trade liberalization and facilitation on gender equality and women's well-being. The countries reviewed are: Angola, Bhutan, Cape Verde, the Gambia, Lesotho, Rwanda and Uruguay. The case studies highlight the ways in which a gender perspective can contribute to a deeper and richer understanding of trade policy and performance by challenging the mainly aggregate focus of conventional trade policy analysis that overshadows the redistributive effects of trade at the country level. It brings to the forefront of the analysis intersecting patterns of inequality (e.g. sex, income, race, and spatial location) and integrates social and cultural factors into the economic analysis.

      • Preview
        New Century,old Disparities: Gender And Ethnic Earnings Gaps In Latin America And The Caribbean (English)
        Book by Hugo Ñopo/IDB/WB, 2012, 356 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This book adopts an econometric methodology for measuring earnings gaps and applies it consistently across and within countries to measure gender and racial or ethnic differences. It offers insights on economic and political strategies that could be adopted to reduce inequality.

      • Preview
        Technology in Action: Good Practices in Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for Women in South Asia (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 38 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade and Gender

        This report was elaborated based on a comprehensive analysis of secondary literature on programmes and policies on gender, STI and other sectors conducted in the region by local governments in collaboration with international agencies and other organizations. The experiences presented in this report show that STI policies usually contribute to improving the livelihoods of women and enhancing gender equality through the following mechanisms: introducing and diffusing technological and scientific developments that improve the life of women; creating and strengthening, both directly and indirectly, capacities related to STI; and introducing financial innovations such as microcredit and related skills for entrepreneurs.

      • Preview
        Toward Gender Equality in East Asia and the Pacific -a Companion to the World Development Report (English)
        Report by The World Bank, 2012, 272 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender

        This report examines the gender dimensions of several emerging trends in the region—increased global economic integration, the rising use of information and communication technologies, migration, urbanization, and rapid population aging.

      • Preview
        Trade, Gender and Development: Advocating Inclusive and Gender-Sensitive Economic Development on a Global Level (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2016, 12 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Gender

        This publication summarizes the role of UNCTAD in mainstreaming the relationship between gender and trade. It highlights the impact of research, workshops, conferences and other activities in promoting gender equality, and presents local perspectives from participants.

      • Preview
        Unlocking Markets for Women to Trade (English)
        Report by ITC, 2015, 80 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender

        The report shows where women-owned businesses are present, based on new ITC data from importers and exporters in 20 developing countries and case studies. It explains cultural and regulatory barriers as well as ways to facilitate access to finance, market information and networks. It outlines where the barriers to trade are, shares models of good public and private sector initiatives and provides recommendations for policymakers to engage women entrepreneurs more fully in the global economy.

      • Preview
        Virtual Institute Teaching Material on Trade and Gender: Unfolding the Links (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD Virtual Institute, 2015, 215 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This teaching material aims to help academics from developing and transition countries strengthen their teaching and research capacities on trade and gender, and to enhance the capacity of relevant stakeholders to mainstream gender into trade policy. The first volume, entitled "Unfolding the links", provides readers with the knowledge needed to analyze the two-way relationship between trade and gender. The second volume, entitled "Empirical analysis of the trade and gender links", takes the readers through the three principal methodologies used for the quantitative analysis of the link between trade and gender: the microeconomic approach, the macroeconomic approach and the sectoral approach.

      • Preview
        Who is Benefiting from Trade Liberalization in Angola? A Gender Perspective (English)
        Case study by Zarrill, Simonetta/ UNCTAD, 2013, 83 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender

        The study assesses the extent to which trade liberalization in Angola has had an impact on women and attempts to determine whether trade policies and patterns of structural transformation have reinforced gender inequality or created new opportunities for women. Based on a quantitative approach, the analysis explores first whether patterns of structural transformation have generated job opportunities; and secondly, if such opportunities have matched the skill profile of the female workforce, thereby leading to the feminization of the workforce in the country and affecting the working conditions of women workers.

      • Preview
        Who is Benefiting from Trade Liberalization in Bhutan? A Gender Perspective (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2011, 68 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The aim of this report is to determine who would benefit from further trade liberalization or facilitation in Bhutan and, in particular, to analyse whether there is a gender bias in the gains from trade. Chapters 1 to 3 provide a stocktaking and analytical background. The core of the analysis is chapter 4, which looks into the income and expenditure distribution for men and women in rural and urban areas, as well as in different economic sectors. It explores how trade expansion would affect men and women, mainly through changes in income and consumption patterns. It then critically assesses the findings from the analysis against the background of important non-trade concerns such as food-security, equitable development, biodiversity conservation and cultural heritage. Chapter 5 concludes with some policy recommendations background.

      • Preview
        Who is Benefiting from Trade Liberalization in Cape Verde? A Gender Perspective (English)
        Report by Froystad, Mona, Musselli, Irene, Zarrilli, Simonetta, 2011, 85 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The two principal aims of this report are to (a) shed light on the differentiated impacts of trade policies, especially policies geared to trade liberalization and facilitation, on men and women in Cape Verde; and (b) analyse whether there is a gender bias in the gains from trade. Specifically, the report looks at food prices, remittances and tourism as important transmission channels through which trade policies affect gender relations in Cape Verde.

      • Preview
        Who is Benefiting from Trade Liberalization in Lesotho? - A Gender Perspective (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2012, 61 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender

        This report aims to critically assess the gender implications of Lesotho’s trade-led productive transformation. The study is structured as follows: Chapter 1 provides a broad country overview. Chapter 2 assesses the gender situation in Lesotho, by considering both gender-related “outcomes” (the relative position of men and women in key aspects of social life) and relevant policies and social institutions (“input” or “means” variables). Chapter 3 reviews some changes in Lesotho’s structure of production and trade, outlines some underlying trade policy developments, and singles out some gendered implications of these developments. Chapter 4 closes with some summary observations and illustrates a spectrum of policy options for Lesotho for the implementation of a gender-sensitive trade strategy.

      • Preview
        Who is Benefiting from Trade Liberalization in Rwanda? A Gender Perspective (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 88 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report analyzes the ways in which trade policies may impact women's well-being in Rwanda and explores possible strategies to encourage the inclusion of gender considerations in trade policy formulation and implementation.

      • Preview
        Who Is Benefiting From Trade Liberalization In Uruguay? A Gender Perspective
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 94 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender

        This report aims to assess the implications of Uruguay’s productive transformation, trade liberalization, and regional trade integration on women, especially in terms of their access to employment. While women play many roles in society, this report focuses on their role as workers. It encourages the reader to take into account the complexities of the trade and gender link and its numerous, and sometimes hidden, connections with the micro and macro components of economic and development processes. The research also highlights that Uruguay’s legal framework as well as social norms and stereotypes contribute to the role that women play in the labour market and society.

      • Preview
        Work and Welfare: Revisiting the Linkages from a Gender Perspective (English)
        Working paper by Cook, Sarah and Razavi, Shahra / UNRISD, 2012, 42 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender

        This paper examines the relationship between employment and social policy specifically from a gender perspective. It lays out the conceptual ground, reviews the empirical evidence and explores relationships and interactions between work, employment and social policies.

      • Preview
        The World Development Report 2012: Gender Equality and Development (English)
        Report by World Bank, 2011, 458 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender

        The report argues that greater gender equality can enhance productivity, improve development outcomes for the next generation, and make institutions more representative. It examines the factors that have fostered change and the constraints that have slowed progress. The analysis focuses on the roles of economic growth, households, markets, and institutions in determining gender differences in education and health, agency, and access to economic opportunities. The report identifies four priority areas for domestic policy action: reducing excess female mortality and closing education gaps; improving access to economic opportunities for women; increasing women's voice and agency in the household and in society and limiting the reproduction of gender inequality across generations.

Login