A partnership with academia

Building knowledge for trade and development

    • Materials discussing why, how and whether trade might contribute to poverty alleviation. Subjects include: the theoretical and empirical analysis of the trade-growth-poverty triangle, especially in LDCs, the process of mainstreaming trade into Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs), the means of developing productive capacities such as infrastructure and institutions, the role of domestic as well as foreign demand, analysis of the trade (liberalization)-poverty link depending on the export composition of a country or region.
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        Addressing the Global Food Crisis: Key Trade, Investment and Commodity Policies in Ensuring Sustainable Food Security and Alleviating Poverty (English)
        Note by UNCTAD - CNUCED, 2008, 61 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Science and Technology, Trade and Poverty

        UNCTAD publishes this document after a period of price rises and shortages in food commodities - which has led to a "global food crisis" - and in the light of discussions held at UNCTAD XII in Accra on UNCTAD's potential role in ameliorating the crisis. The paper is therefore divided into two sections, addressing the underlying causes of the crisis and the potential policy response to it, including UNCTAD's contribution. The first half of the paper gives a useful summary of the underlying causes of food price rises and shortages: this includes the supply-demand imbalance, the role of speculation and export constraints, the rise in energy costs and the impact of biofuels, low agricultural productivity in developing countries and the lack of investment and aid in agricultural technologies, the multilateral environment and rules governing agriculture, and the role of competition. The second half of the paper looks at the policy responses to these factors and it maybe useful for students to discuss their application to individual country cases.

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        Agricultural Trade Reform and Poverty in the Asia-Pacific: A Survey and Some New Results (English)
        Working paper by Gilbert, John / UNESCAP, 2008, 46 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        We review the literature on the relationship between agricultural trade policy reform and poverty, and the results of recent detailed simulation studies applied to economies in the ESCAP region. We then use the GTAP model to evaluate the possible impacts of the most recently proposed modality for agricultural trade reform under Doha on the economies of the ESCAP region. We compare the results to a benchmark of comprehensive agricultural trade reform. We find that the current proposal does not result in significant cuts to applied tariffs, and has very modest overall effects on welfare. Poverty in the region would decrease overall, but the distribution across countries is uneven. By contrast, comprehensive agricultural trade reform, with developing economies fully engaged, tends to benefit most economies in the region in the aggregate, and to consistently lower poverty.

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        Agriculture, Trade Reform and Poverty Reduction: Implications for Sub-Saharan Africa (English)
        Case study by Kym Anderson, CEPR and School of Economics and Centre for International Economic Studies, University of Adelaide, 2004, 37 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: An interesting study that explores the poverty implications of the post-Doha multilateral trade reform agenda of the WTO for Sub-Saharan countries. It addresses the effects of trade reform on poverty at three levels: first developing countries as a group; then on different types of developing countries and finally on different types of households within developing countries. Who: Relevant for anyone studying or teaching trade in an LDC context in relation to poverty reduction. How: Can be used as a background reading on the implications of the current WTO Multilateral Trade Negotiations (MTN) on low-income countries and offers a lot of relevant reference materials.

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        Assessing Progress in Africa Toward the Millennium Development Goals: Mdg Report 2010
        Report by UNECA, 2010, 122 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        In five years’ time, world leaders will assess the progress that has been made in meeting the Millennium Summit commitment to “spare no effort to free our fellow men, women and children from the abject and dehumanizing conditions of extreme poverty”. That commitment, enunciated in the Millennium Declaration of 2000 and encapsulated in the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs),has been the main impetus to advance international development over the last decade.This year’s report shows that, prior to the onset of the food and fuel crises and the global recession,African countries were making steady progress toward attainment of the MDGs. According to this report, there has been progress achieved in reducing poverty rates and moving toward the targets of several of the MDGs, even though Africa still has the highest proportion of people living in extreme poverty within the developing world. The advances made are attributed, in part, to improvements in the political, economic,and social landscape across much of the continent.

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        Benchmarking Productive Capacities in Least Developed Countries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 56 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty, Trade Facilitation

        At the thirteenth session of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD XIII), which took place in Doha, Qatar, in April 2012, member States requested UNCTAD to develop quantifiable indicators with a view to providing “an operational methodology and policy guidelines on how to mainstream productive capacities in national development policies and strategies in LDCs” (Doha Mandate, para. 65(e)). The present report, which is part of ongoing work by the secretariat and a response to the above-mentioned request, focuses on measuring and benchmarking productive capacities in least developed countries (LDCs): their current levels; how LDCs have performed in the recent past; and how the productive capacities in LDCs compare with the internationally agreed goals and targets and with other developing countries.

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        Bringing Smes onto the E-Commerce Highway (English)
        Report by International Trade Centre, 2016, 120 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty, Trade Facilitation

        This report is a starting point for public-private dialogue to address e-commerce bottlenecks, especially for small firms in developing countries. Small firms face policy challenges in four processes typical to all e-commerce: establishing online business, international e-payment, international delivery and aftersales. To improve competitiveness, challenges must be met within the firm, in the business environment and by governments. The report provides checklists for policy guidance, as well as case studies from e-commerce entrepreneurs in developing countries.

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        Combating Poverty and Inequality: Structural Change, Social Policy and Politics (English)
        Report by UNRISD, 2010, 380 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        Combating Poverty and Inequality is published just as global leaders meet to review and recommit themselves to a set of goals for reducing poverty agreed, under vastly different circumstances, a decade ago. The optimism of the new millennium is now overshadowed by the effects of multiple, interrelated crises. Progress in many areas appears threatened and resources are more constrained. This volume provides a timely reminder of the strengths and limitations of various approaches to addressing poverty in the current context.

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        Commodities and Development Report - Perennial Problems, New Challenges and Evolving Perspectives
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 178 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Poverty, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The aim of this report is to consider the factors that have shaped the commodities sector in recent years and in particular, the implications of the commodity boom of 2003–2008 for commodity-dependent developing countries.

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        Commodity Dependency (English)
        Article by Oscar Farfan, 2005, 38 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Poverty, VI Members Research

        Prepared for the Investment Climate Unit International Finance Corporation The World Bank Group This paper uses the Global Value Chain (GVC) framework to discuss commodity dependency and options for economic upgrading in small developing countries. GVC analysis differs from comparable approaches in that it looks at the dynamics of firms/countries within global production networks and focuses on productive “systems” as opposed to sectors or industries in isolation. Examining global commodity chains through the GVC lenses leads to the conclusion that inserting small developing countries into global markets through commodity exports is not sufficient to sustain real income growth, and may even prove detrimental to their long-term development prospects. Only by virtue of upgrading export industries – which entails moving towards differentiated products with a higher content of technology, skills and innovation – will developing countries be in a position to seize the opportunities brought about by globalization.

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        Costing MDG Gaps in the Asia-Pacific (English)
        Policy brief by UNESCAP, 2010, 4 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Poverty

        Although the Asia-Pacific region has made significant progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs),most of its countries are still off-track on one or more indicators. This policy brief examines what would it take for countries in the Asia-Pacific region to meet their MDG targets by 2015. It first focuses on the income-poverty gap which continues to persist despite high rates of growth. It then goes on to provide estimates of the resources needed for closing the MDG gaps in the areas of education, health, nutrition and sanitation. It concludes with a few remarks on policy challenges in the light of the findings.

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        Development Policies and Income Inequality in Selected Developing Regions, 1980–2010 (English)
        Discussion paper by Giovanni Andrea Cornia, Bruno Martorano, 2012, 52 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Trade and Poverty

        The paper discusses the income inequality changes which have taken place in a few representative developing regions during the last 30 years. While inequality rose in the majority of the countries of these regions in the 1980s and 1990s, the last decade was characterized by a bifurcation of inequality trends. This divergence offers the possibility to contrast the experience of virtuous regions (Latin America and parts of East and South-East Asia) and non-virtuous regions (the European economies in transition and China) so as to draw useful lessons. Since the global economic conditions affecting inequality in these countries were not too dissimilar and since no major variations in endogenous factors were evident across the regions analysed, the difference in inequality trends between virtuous and non-virtuous regions was most likely due to institutional factors and public policies. An econometric test confirms that the reduction of inequality is possible even under open economy conditions if a given set of appropriate macroeconomic, labour, fiscal and social policies is adopted by governments.

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        Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific 2016: Nurturing Productivity for Inclusive Growth and Sustainable Development (English)
        Report by Akhtar, Shamshad/ ESCAP; Hahm, Hongjoo/ ESCAP; Hasan, Aynul/ ESCAP, 2016, 172 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Trade and Poverty, Trade Facilitation

        The first chapter of the Survey contains an examination of the macroeconomic performance of and outlook for the Asia-Pacific region, analyzing the implications of some of the economic challenges that the region is facing. It also contains a discussion on several policy options, with emphasis on the importance of fiscal policy. The chapter also includes an examination of the impact of the recent economic slowdown in the Asia Pacific region in terms of its effects on poverty, inequality and employment prospects, along with challenges posed by an expanding middle class and rapid urbanization. In the second chapter, the diversity of the region is considered by providing a more disaggregated analysis of economic issues and challenges that each of the five sub regions is facing. In doing so, a distinct issue is the focus for each sub region, which provides an opportunity for increased understanding of a variety of experiences and policy considerations. Finally, the third chapter contains analyses on the importance of productivity in the Asia-Pacific region and a set of policy recommendations on how to strengthen productivity growth.

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        Economic development in Africa 2002 - From Adjustment to Poverty Reduction: What is New? (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Division on Globalization and Development, 2002, 76 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        Focusing on Africa, this report from 2002 describes how the goal of development policy has shifted away from structural reform and towards poverty reduction however it argues that the emphasis is still on liberalization without a clear analysis of how pro-market policies in trade, finance and agriculture will actually benefit the poor. This could be useful for anyone debating Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers both in Africa and beyond. Raises some interesting, and controversial, discussion points about the benefits of liberalization.

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        Economic Development in Africa Report 2016 (English)
        Also available in French
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 166 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        The Economic Development in Africa Report 2016, subtitled Debt Dynamics and Development Finance in Africa, examines some of the key policy issues that underlie Africa’s domestic and external debt, and provides policy guidance on the delicate balance required between financing development alternatives and overall debt sustainability. This report analyses Africa’s international debt exposure and how domestic debt is increasingly playing a role in some African countries as a development finance option. It also examines complementary financing options and how they relate to debt. The report makes relevant and actionable policy recommendations which address the roles that African Governments, external partners and the international community can play in ensuring that Africa’s public debt remains sustainable.

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        Economic Report on Africa 2005: Meeting the Challenges of Unemployment and Poverty in Africa (English)
        Report by UNECA, 2005, 298 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        What: The Economic Report on Africa (ERA) is the flagship publication of the UN Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The 2005 edition shows that despite record economic growth in Africa, poverty is actually getting worse. The report focuses on four key challenges for Africa in the fight against unemployment and poverty: structural transformation to break away from the under-utilization of rural labour, addressing widespread youth unemployment, harnessing globalization to create decent jobs, and creating an enabling environment for the fast expansion of private sector jobs through increased investments. The report stresses that it is up to governments to transform African economies, particularly by taking advantage of opportunities presented by globalization. How: Background reading on Africa's recent performance and on unemployment and poverty in the African context. Who: Policy makers, researchers and lecturers dealing with African economic development.

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        Economic Report on Africa 2005 - Overview: Meeting the Challenges of Unemployment and Poverty in Africa (English)
        Summary by UNECA, 2005, 24 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Trade and Poverty

        What: The Economic Report on Africa (ERA) is the flagship publication of the UN Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The 2005 edition shows that despite record economic growth in Africa, poverty is actually getting worse. The report focuses on four key challenges for Africa in the fight against unemployment and poverty: structural transformation to break away from the under-utilization of rural labour, addressing widespread youth unemployment, harnessing globalization to create decent jobs, and creating an enabling environment for the fast expansion of private sector jobs through increased investments. The report stresses that it is up to governments to transform African economies, particularly by taking advantage of opportunities presented by globalization. How: Background reading on Africa's recent performance and on unemployment and poverty in the African context. Who: Policy makers, researchers and lecturers dealing with African economic development.

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        Economic Report on Africa 2015: Industrializing Through Trade (English)
        Report by UNECA, 2015, 214 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        This Report examines and provides analysis on the critical elements of effectively fostering industrialization and hence structural transformation based on an extensive review of experience with industrialised countries and Africa’s post-independence attempt at industrialization. Ten country case studies were also conducted to shed light on industrializing through trade. The findings from this exercise informed the policy recommendations contained in this Report.

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        Empowering MDG Strategies Through Inclusive Economic Development (English)
        Outline by UNCTAD, 2010, 28 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        Summing up the recent experience of Least Developed Countries (shock waves of the global financial crisis, fluctuation in commodity prices), particularly the implications of the global ‘Great Recession’, this paper seeks to sketch the general outlines of a post-crisis MDG-related development strategy for Least Developed Countries. While there is obviously great variety among LDCs, they do share some important common structural characteristics. Consequently, they are likely to share some common needs for the kinds of reforms of their development strategies.

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        Estimating the Impact of Trade Specialization and Trade Policy on Poverty in Developing Countries- Trade and Poverty Paper Series No. 6 (English)
        Discussion paper by Santos-Paulino, Amelia and Thornquist, Disa/UNCTAD, 2015, 23 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Poverty

        The paper investigates the impact of trade specialization on reducing poverty in developing countries. It evaluates the contribution of agriculture in low-income economies as a primary source of income. It also examines how developing countries can move out from commodities to agriculture. The paper argues that agriculture has more potential benefits when placed with the right policy approach in relation to improving livelihoods, jobs, productive capacity, and enabling inclusive sustainable development.

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        Euro Zone Debt Crisis: Scenario Analysis and Implications for Developing Asia-pacific (English)
        Working paper by ESCAP, 2012, 31 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Macroeconomic Policy, Trade and Poverty

        The ongoing euro zone debt crisis creates an undesirable scenario for the global economy as well as for the Asia-Pacific region given that the region has close economic linkages. The paper aims to provide quantitative estimates of the potential impact of the euro zone debt crisis on merchandise exports as well as on economic growth and poverty reduction efforts in the region. The results indicate that a one-percentage-point fall of output growth of the euro zone would result in a total export loss of $166 billion. In addition, the protectionist threats could further increase the loss in exports by $27 billion. On social development, the disorderly euro zone debt crisis scenario would prevent 8.19 million people to get out of poverty and another 1.15 million would be pushed back into poverty as per the $1.25-a-day poverty line. The paper illustrates that macroeconomic policy space appears adequate in most economies that tend to be more heavily affected by the euro zone debt crisis. But strong inflationary pressures and less favourable public debt conditions could prevent some economies from implementing swift and forceful macroeconomic policy responses.

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        Financing Organic Agriculture in Africa (English)
        Report by Kane, Malick and Pacini, Henrique/UNCTAD, 2016, 10 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty, Trade Related Capacity Building

        In recent years, there has been a steady reduction in the proportion of African government expenditure devoted to agriculture1. In view of the needs expressed by African OA stakeholders, UNCTAD sought to identify the needs, challenges and opportunities related to the funding of OA on the continent. Due to limitations in official data, a structured survey was conducted, with support from AfrONet2, among targeted OA stakeholders, including National Organic Agriculture Movements (NOAMs), farmers and exporters from 16 African countries. The results, presented in this technical paper, are in line with existing studies on both conventional and Organic Agriculture in Africa (FAO, 2012; UNCTAD, 2009). They highlight the existence of a persistent funding gap and the need to better address barriers faced by OA stakeholders in securing external capital to finance their activities.

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        Global Economic Crisis: Implications for Trade and Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD secretariat, 2009, 42 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Trade and Poverty

        The current global financial and economic crisis has the potential to seriously undermine all countries’ process of economic growth and transformation, and to jeopardize the efforts taken by developing and developed countries alike to promote the achievement of internationally agreed development goals. In addition to the ongoing global food crisis, volatile energy prices, and climate-change challenges, the current crises creates the most significant challenge facing the global community today – how to focus on buttressing development and poverty-reduction efforts globally and in developing countries, and on setting in place the conditions that will avert future crises and facilitate a sustainable process of economic transformation for all countries. This report by UNCTAD is an effort to contribute to consideration of this major challenge, with a view to identifying policies and strategies that can serve as the bulwark on which to restore confidence, build recovery, and promote inclusive development.

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        Global Inequality and the Global Inequality Extraction Ratio ; The Story of the Past Two Centuries (English)
        Working paper by Milanovic, Branko, 2009, 29 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty

        Using social tables, the author makes an estimate of global inequality (inequality among world citizens) in the early 19th century. The analysis shows that the level and composition of global inequality have changed over the past two centuries. The level has increased, reaching a high plateau around the 1950s, and the main determinants of global inequality have become differences in mean country incomes rather than inequalities within nations. The inequality extraction ratio (the percentage of total inequality that was extracted by global elites) has remained surprisingly stable, at around 70 percent of the maximum global Gini, during the past 100 years.

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        How Are the Poor Affected by International Trade in India: An Empirical Approach (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 134 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This document takes an alternative approach to the issue of impact of international trade on poverty. The framework of the study traces the role played by international trade in influencing the four facts of human development, namely empowerment, productivity, equity and sustainability.

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        Improving the Trade-Poverty Relationship through the International Trade Regime (English)
        Presentation by Michael Herrmann, UNCTAD, 2004, 20 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty

        A clear presentation that uses key data to question some of the central issues regarding the relationship between trade and poverty. Based on the UNCTAD Least Developed Countries Report, 2004 This is relevant for anyone studying or teaching trade in an LDC context concerned with poverty issues The data from the presentation be used as the basis of a lecture or seminar on trade and poverty

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        The Information Economy Report 2010: ICTs, Enterprises and Poverty Alleviation (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 172 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade and Poverty

        The Information Economy Report 2010: ICT, Enterprises and Poverty Alleviation is the fifth in the flagship series published by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). As one of few annual reports that monitor global trends related to information and communication technologies (ICTs) from a development perspective, the Report is a valuable reference source for policymakers in developing countries. In the 2010 edition, special attention is given to the potential impact of ICTs in enterprises for reducing poverty and improving livelihoods. The evidence presented in this Report suggests that more attention should be given by policymakers and other stakeholders to opportunities in this area.

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        LATN Brief April 2007: Economies of China, Colombia and Peru - Impact on Growth and Income (English)
        Policy brief by Ferrari, César, 2007, 4 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Trade and Poverty, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        China has managed to reduce poverty levels considerably over the past decades, albeit at the cost of increasing inequality. Many Latin American countries in contrast have lived through a period of stagnation and have not been able to reduce poverty and inequality levels. The last brief published by the Latin American Trade Network (LATN) summarizes the results of a study on the factors underlying the different growth, poverty reduction, trade, and investment experiences of China, Colombia and Peru. In addition, the study sets up a dynamic Computable General Equilibrium model to examine the consequences of enhanced trade and investment relationships between Colombia and China. The findings of the study suggest positive effects on the Colombian growth rate and wages, but negative impacts on the levels of employment and inequality. The brief is available in Spanish.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2004, Ch. 5: Trade liberalization and poverty reduction in the LDCs (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 40 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty

        The chapter focuses on the major trade policy — trade liberalization — that LDC Governments have adopted in recent years, and examines whether or not the implementation of this policy is likely to link international trade more effectively to poverty reduction in the LDCs.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2004, Ch. 7: Improving the Trade-Poverty Relationship through National Development Strategies (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 45 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        What: This chapter examines how trade can be integrated into national development strategies in a way that supports poverty reduction. Who: Anyone teaching or researching the links between trade and poverty as well as anyone interested in the national trade policy processes in LDCs. How: Good, detailed background reading that clearly explains a range of interconnected issues relating to trade and poverty. This report provides well-presented data in the form of tables and charts. It also provides a number of reference materials for more in-depth reading. It is highly recommend that anyone who is in interested in this chapter should also look at the chapter entitled "Improving the Trade-Poverty Relationship through the International Trade Regime".

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2004: Improving the Trade-Poverty Relationship through the International Trade Regime (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 2004, 52 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: LDC Report 2004 Part 2, Chapter 6. An argument for how international trade can be made a more effective mechanism for poverty reduction for LDCs focusing on the international trade regime in a holistic sense not limited to the WTO but demonstrating the importance of the world commodity economy and market access issues. Who: Anyone teaching or researching the links between trade and poverty as well as anyone interested in the structure of international trade. How: Good, detailed background reading that clearly explains a range of interconnected issues relating to trade and poverty. For a more detailed presentation on the issue, the bibliography offers a number of reference materials. It is highly recommend that anyone who is in interested in this chapter should also look at the chapter entitled "Improving the Trade-Poverty Relationship through National Development Strategies".

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2004 - Overview (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2004, 39 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty

        What: This Overview examines the relationship between trade and poverty in the LDCs. The central questions that the report seeks to answer are: What is the potential role of international trade in poverty reduction in the LDCs? How does the relationship between international trade and poverty work in practice in the LDCs? What are the national and international policies that can make international trade a more effective mechanism for poverty reduction in the LDCs? Who: Anyone teaching or researching trade and poverty in LDCs. How: Useful background reading on issues and relations between trade and poverty.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2004, Part 2 Chapter 2 - The Potential Role of International Trade in Poverty Reduction in the LDCs (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Special Programme for LDCs, 2004, 27 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty

        This resource examines the role that international trade could play in poverty reduction looking empirically at the relationship between growth and poverty reduction before focusing on the importance of exports, arguing that export orientated growth must be inclusive as well as sustained. This chapter provides well-presented data in the form of tables and charts on the link between trade and growth that could be used in a lecture or seminar.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2004, Part 2, Chapter 3 - How the Trade-Poverty Relationship works in practice (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Special Programme for LDCs, 2004, 39 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty

        What: Provides a realistic and empirically grounded analysis of three key areas where trade is not working to reduce poverty: trade performance; trade-growth linkages and the form of economic growth associated with export expansion. Who: Anyone teaching or researching the links between trade and poverty How: This chapter makes a strong argument about the trade-off between resource mobilization and poverty reduction. Could be used to stimulate discussion on why trade doesn't necessarily lead to poverty reduction. Useful annex providing indices of exports and private consumption per capita in LDCs on a country by country basis. The report provides a number of reference materials.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2004, Part 2, Chapter 4 - Civil Conflict and the Trade–Poverty Relationship (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 18 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty

        What: Given the high incidence of conflict in LDCs, this chapter examines the association between conflict and low levels of income before concentrating on the important issue of how conflict affects the trade-poverty relationship Who: Anyone teaching or researching the links between trade and poverty as well as students/teachers of the political economy of conflict and development How: A solid introduction to some of the complex issues related to poverty, conflict and trade. For a more detailed presentation on the issue, the bibliography offers a lot of excellent reference materials.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2004, Part Two, Chapter 1 - Trade and Poverty from a Development Perspective (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 31 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty

        An introduction as to why a development perspective is necessary for examining the links between trade and poverty. This resource offers an analytical framework that goes beyond the relationship between trade liberalization and poverty to look at the issue more widely in particular the importance of efficient development and utilization of productive capacity. Useful for anyone teaching, researching or writing on the links between trade and poverty A good general overview of the links between trade and poverty which could make an excellent introductory reading on the subject. Useful 'boxes' and tables could also be used as seminar or lecture resources.

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        Least Developed Countries Report 2008 - Growth, Poverty and the Terms of Development Partnership (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2008, 197 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        Examining the sustainability of recent economic growth of LDCs, the report finds the type of growth taking place is strongly affected by trends in international markets and, in particular, commodity prices. Coupled with heavy dependence on external sources of finance, and without a positive process of diversification and structural change, LDCs remain particularly vulnerable to trade shocks due to the volatility of commodity prices, affecting both exports and imports. The prevailing development policy paradigm expects that investment in productive sectors would come from the international private sector through access to international capital markets or inflows of foreign direct investment (FDI), but LDCs remain almost entirely marginalized from these sources of finance, and FDI inflows have concentrated on a few LDCs and have often been weakly linked with the rest of the economy. In spite of rapid economic growth, the report found a weak correlation between growth and poverty alleviation, and calls for effective national development strategies, effective development aid and development-friendly international regimes for trade, investment and technology.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2008: Growth, Poverty and the Terms of Development Partnership - Overview (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2008, 23 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        This Report considers three issues: Firstly, it assesses how sustainable economic growth is in the LDCs and examines how many LDCs are participating in the growth surge. Secondly, it considers the extent to which economic growth is leading to improvements in human well-being, and in particular to accelerated poverty reduction and improved progress towards the Millennium Development Goals. Thirdly, it assesses progress towards country-owned development strategies in LDCs and the role of recipient-led aid management policies at the country level as a practical policy mechanism to strengthen country ownership.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2010: Towards a New International Development Architecture for Ldcs (overview) (English)
        Outline by UNCTAD, 2010, 52 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Trade and Poverty

        As discussed in previous LDC Reports, the LDCs have remained marginal in the world economy owing to their structural weaknesses and the form of their integration into the global economy. Unless both these aspects are directly addressed, they will remain marginal and their vulnerability to external shocks and pressures will persist. The basic message of this Report is that for achieving accelerated development and poverty reduction in LDCs, there is need not only for improved international support mechanisms (ISMs) which are specifically targeted at the LDCs but also for a new international development architecture (NIDA) for the LDCs.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2011 - Overview (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 29 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Trade and Poverty

        The Least Developed Countries Report 2011 puts forward a policy framework for enhancing the development impact of South–South cooperation, and proposes ways to leverage South–South financial cooperation for development in the LDCs.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2016 (Overview) (English)
        Also available in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2016, 29 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        The 2016 Least Developed Countries (LDC) Report overview, subtitled 'The path to graduation and beyond: Making the most of the process' summarizes the key findings in the 2016 report. It outlines the deteriorating economic performance, the first steps to sustainable development, the priorities for graduation, and the need for international cooperation for development.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2016 - the Path to Graduation and Beyond: Making the Most of the Process (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 219 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        The 2016 Least Developed Countries (LDC) Report, subtitled 'The path to graduation and beyond: Making the most of the process' calls for more action to be taken by the international community on behalf of developing countries. The report argues the proportion of the global poor in the 48 LDCs has more than doubled since 1990, to well over 40 per cent, and the breaks down key priorities for graduation out of LDC status.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2018 - Entrepreneurship for Structural Transformation: Beyond Business as Usual (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 190 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        The Least Developed Countries Report 2018 presents a compelling case for a structural transformation-centred approach to entrepreneurship policy in the least developed countries. The report underscores entrepreneurship policy based on a fundamental recognition of disparities in the contribution of different types of entrepreneurship to structural transformation and wealth creation. It establishes a more active and proactive stance for the State in steering the emergence of dynamic and transformational local entrepreneurship. Importantly, it calls upon the least developed countries not to overlook the pivotal and complementary role played by large enterprises, alongside medium-sized and smaller enterprises, with a view to the least developed countries formulating deliberate strategies to nurture entrepreneurship that has impact. By encouraging least developed country policymakers to avoid policies that might undervalue the benefits of entrepreneurship, this report makes an invaluable contribution to least developed country efforts to add value to their implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2018 (Overview) (English)
        Also available in Chinese, Spanish, French, Russian
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 29 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        The Least Developed Countries Report 2018 presents a compelling case for a structural transformation-centred approach to entrepreneurship policy in the least developed countries. The report underscores entrepreneurship policy based on a fundamental recognition of disparities in the contribution of different types of entrepreneurship to structural transformation and wealth creation. It establishes a more active and proactive stance for the State in steering the emergence of dynamic and transformational local entrepreneurship. Importantly, it calls upon the least developed countries not to overlook the pivotal and complementary role played by large enterprises, alongside medium-sized and smaller enterprises, with a view to the least developed countries formulating deliberate strategies to nurture entrepreneurship that has impact. By encouraging least developed country policymakers to avoid policies that might undervalue the benefits of entrepreneurship, this report makes an invaluable contribution to least developed country efforts to add value to their implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

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        Linking International Trade with Poverty Reduction (English)
        Presentation by Charles Gore, UNCTAD, 2005, 8 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty

        What: The presentation is an analytical examination of the relationship between trade and poverty and the national and international policy implications to linking international trade more effectively with poverty reduction in LDCs. Who: Relevant for anyone studying or teaching international trade and poverty reduction. How: A very good presentation that can trigger discussions on international trade and its effects on poverty reduction.

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        Mainstreaming Trade in Africa: Lessons from Asia and the Way Forward (English)
        Discussion paper by Osakwe, Patrick N. / UNCTAD, 2015, 16 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        This paper examines the experiences of three Asian countries (China, the Republic of Korea and Singapore) that have successfully used trade to engender development and draws lessons from these experiences for Africa.

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        Making Trade Work for Least Developed Countries: a Handbook on Mainstreaming Trade (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 106 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        This handbook is the outcome of the workshops and research conducted under the project. It draws lessons from the experiences of the six countries that participated and provides fresh insights on how to design and implement an effective trade strategy in LDCs. It also provides clarity on the concept of mainstreaming trade and identifies criteria on how to measure success in this endeavour. The handbook should be useful to policymakers in developing countries, development analysts, academics, and students of development. In this regard, it is meant to be a guide to policy formulation and implementation in LDCs, with the understanding that its application will vary from country to country because of differences in economic structure, history, and social and political realities.

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        Market Access for Trade in Goods in Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) (English)
        Report by South Centre, 2008, 31 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade and Poverty

        This Fact Sheet Nb.7 overviews market access provisions related to the liberalisation of merchandise trade under the Interim Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) that were initialed in the end of 2007 between the EU and 35 countries in Africa, the Caribbean and Pacific (ACP). It is part of a series of Fact Sheets designed to improve stakeholders’ understanding of the legal, economic and developmental implications of specific provisions in the texts agreed to as well as to suggest options for improvement, particularly for the ACP countries and regions which are in the process of finalizing an EPA text.

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        Market Access, Trasparency and Fairness in Global Trade: Export Impact for Good 2010 (English)
        Report by ITC, 2010, 160 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Improving market access and market entry for developing countries will improve fairness in global trade because it will contribute to reducing global poverty. Developing countries need to export more in order to boost growth and reduce poverty and provide opportunities for wealth creation in their domestic markets, which are typically small.Moreover, across developing countries a large share of the growth will be needed for investments in infrastructure in order to build up competitive advantages. Hence, developing countries will typically only realize slow domestic consumption growth in the short and medium term – but export development can boost growth prospects. This report discusses trade transparency and fairness in the context of global trade;highlights key market access issues for developing countries; examines the relationship between export development and poverty reduction, and outlines implications for both developing country policies as well as international measures to improve markets.

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        MDG Report 2012: Assessing Progress in Africa Toward the Millennium Development Goals (English)
        Report by AUC, UNECA, AfDB, UNDP, 2012, 184 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        This report looks at the situation in Africa three years to the MDG 2015 deadline. It shows that progress has been made in primary school enrolment, gender parity in primary school enrolment, the proportion of seats held by women in national parliament and HIV and AIDS prevalence rates. It notes a slow decline in child mortality and highlights important gains in the areas of health and education, but these are hindered by poor quality and access. In spite of this progress, Africa still faces the challenges of addressing pervasive income inequalities, creating decent jobs, access to health and sanitation services. The report concludes by presenting the emerging perspectives on the post-2015 agenda.

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        Migration, Remittances, Poverty, and Human Capital: Conceptual and Empirical Challenges (English)
        Working paper by McKenzie, David; Sasin, Marcin / Worldbank, 2007, 16 pages
        Categories: Migration and Development, Trade and Poverty

        This paper reviews common challenges faced by researchers interested in measuring the impact of migration and remittances on income poverty, inequality and human capital (or, in general, welfare) as well as difficulties confronting development practitioners in converting this research into policy advice. On the analytical side, the paper discusses the proper formulation of a research question, the choice of the analytical tools as well as the interpretation of the results, in the presence of pervasive endogeneity in all decisions surrounding migration. Particular attention is given to the use of instrumental variables in migration research. On the policy side, the paper argues that the private nature of migration and remittances implies a need to carefully spell out the rationale for interventions. It also notices the lack of good migration data and proper evaluations of migration-related government policies. The paper focuses mainly on microeconomic evidence about international migration, but much of the discussion extends to other settings as well.

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        Negociación De Un Acuerdo Comercial Con La Ue: Impactos Estimados De Pobreza En Ecuador (English)
        Policy brief by Wong, Sara/ LATN, 2010, 4 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade and Poverty

        En este brief se analizan los posibles resultados de un acuerdo comercial entre la Unión Europea y Ecuador recurriendo a un modelo de micro-simulaciones y considerando los impactos potenciales sobre los índices de pobreza.

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        Protecting Shared Traditional Knowledge (English)
        Working paper by Muller, Manuel/ICTSD, 2013, 38 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Science and Technology, Trade and Poverty

        This paper offers some initial suggestions on how to address issues concerning the traditional knowledge (TK) of indigenous peoples, which is shared and distributed widely among communities and beyond. In a scenario where there is growing international and national interest to legally protect TK related to biodiversity, the question of how to achieve this when TK is shared is particularly complicated. Who has rights, who consents to access and use of TK, how are benefits shared and between whom, are just some of the vexing questions that must be addressed to advance and inform policymaking and the development of legal standards. The study reviews some of the legal and policy options that exist for the protection of shared and widely distributed TK.

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        The Role of Trade in Ending Poverty (English)
        Book by WTO; World Bank, 2015, 77 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty

        The publication examines trade and poverty across four dimensions: rural poverty, the informal economy, the impact of fragility and conflict and gender. It looks at how trade could make a greater contribution to ending poverty by increasing efforts to lower trade costs, improve the enabling environment, implement trade policy in conjunction with other areas of policy, better manage risks faced by the poor, and improve data used for policy-making.

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        The Statistical Tables on the Least Developed Countries 2016 (English)
        Data by UNCTAD, 2016, 33 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        The Statistical Tables on the Least Developed Countries 2016 provides a collection of statistics and indicators relevant to the analysis of development in the least developed countries (LDCs). Reliable statistical information is indispensable for formulating sound economic policies and recommendations. The tables provide policymakers, researchers, academics, officials from national governments or international organizations, journalists, executive managers and members of non-governmental organizations access to cross-comparable sets of data. The tables are available online in document and spreadsheet format.

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        Trade alone is not enough (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2004
        Categories: Trade and Poverty, Vi Meetings

        An information note from UNCTAD about the Least Developed Countries Report 2004 and its focus on poverty reduction. This note provides additional background to the presentation and paper of Charles Gore at the VI member meeting July 2004.

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        Trade and Development Report 2004: Policy coherence, development strategies and integration into the world economy (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 188 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Macroeconomic Policy, Trade and Poverty

        What: This year's Trade and Development Report is intended to contribute to the debate on policy coherence. It examines how international trading relations are affected by the international monetary and financial systems, and shows that monetary and financial instability can have serious impact on the ability of developing countries to participate successfully in the international trading system. The report stresses the importance of building a truly multilateral monetary system, in which all countries, not just a few, have a voice in the decision making. The report also discusses exchange-rate management at the national and international levels, and shows how it can contribute significantly to job creation and poverty reduction. Who: A very authoritative report for anyone teaching and researching global trade, investment and development issues. How: A lot of the chapters, data and charts from this report can be used for lectures, research work and background reading.

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        Trade and Development Report 2012 - Policies for Inclusive and Balanced Growth (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 208 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Trade and Poverty

        The world economy, which continues to suffer from the fallout of the financial crisis that began in late 2007 and the meltdown in September 2008, has not been able to revive the growth conditions of the preceding decade. Those conditions had been particularly supportive of economic and social progress in the developing world, and the resulting momentum, especially in some of the larger developing countries, helped to stoke recovery in the world economy once the worst of the crisis had been contained. However, those countries are now losing that momentum and downside risks for the world economy are growing again. The immediate problem is the inability of the developed countries to return to a normal growth pattern, but there is also an equally serious problem of contagion. Amidst their fragile recovery, an unreformed (and unrepentant) financial sector and macroeconomic policies that are timid at best, and counterproductive at worst, the developing countries will find it difficult to sustain their own growth dynamic, let alone that of the global economy. Therefore, a fundamental policy reorientation is needed, recognizing that healthy and inclusive growth will require a stable expansion of consumption and investment in productive capacity based on favourable income expectations of the working population and positive demand expectations of entrepreneurs. This requires a rethinking of the principles underlying the design of national economic policy and supportive international institutional arrangements.In detail, in its first chapter the report is dealing with current trends and challenges in the world economy. In the second chapter the report covers the main issues of income inequality and its evolution. Further on the third chapter concerns with the impacts of changes in globalization and technology for income inequality and the fourth chapter with the role of fiscal policy in income distribution. The last chapter finishes the report with a reconsideration of current economics and politics of inquality.

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        Trade and Environment Review 2013, Wake Up Before It is Too Late: Make Agriculture Truly Sustainable Now for Food Security in a Changing Climate
        Review by UNCTAD, 2013, 341 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, Trade and Poverty

        According to the report, the continuing rural poverty, persistent hunger around the world, growing populations, and mounting environmental concerns must be treated as a collective crisis. The developing and developed countries should make a shift in agricultural development from a "green revolution" to a "truly ecological intensification" approach. More than 60 international experts have contributed their views of the challenges and the most suitable strategic approaches for dealing holistically with the inter-related problems of hunger and poverty, rural livelihoods, social and gender inequity, poor health and nutrition, climate change and environmental sustainability.

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        Trade and Poverty Paper Series No.1. Transformative Regionalism, Trade and Challenge of Poverty Reduction in Africa (English)
        Report by Osakwe, Patrick/UNCTAD, 2015, 23 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade and Poverty

        The report argues that making regional integration work for Africa requires that African governments change their approach to economic integration and in particular shift emphasis from the current model of integration, which focuses mostly on trade reforms and processes and institutions of integration, to an alternative approach—Transformative Regionalism—in which regional integration promotes and also ensures progress in building productive capacities and achieving structural transformation for sustained development. This paper provides a framework for Transformative Regionalism, examines how it differs from the integration frameworks and strategies of African regional economic communities, and then discusses how to foster it in Africa. Therefore it is an interesting reading as it brings into focus new ideas in terms of development strategies and poverty reduction in Africa.

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        Trade and Poverty Paper Series: Trade and Current Account Balances in Sub-Saharan Africa: Stylized Facts and Implications for Poverty (English)
        Report by Moussa, Nicole/ UNCTAD, 2016, 28 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty

        This paper examines the main components of Sub-Saharan Africa's balance of payments with a view to understanding the role that trade has played in the evolution of current account imbalances in the region. The paper finds that increasing trade openness in SSA has been accompanied by current account deficits in majority of the countries. The paper also finds that while at the aggregate level net income payments were the main source of the current account deficits in SSA, in the majority of countries the trade deficit was the main driver. Furthermore, the paper argues that the composition of the current account matters for employment and poverty and offers suggestions on how to make trade better work for SSA.

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        Trade Facilitation and Poverty Reduction: China - ASEAN Region Case Study (English)
        Working paper by Wu, Laping /ARTNeT, 2013, 39 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Trade facilitation has been a key part in the opening up process of China. This paper aims to investigate the linkage between trade facilitation and poverty reduction in China. It discusses the impact of the trade facilitation practices in China and the China - ASEAN cooperation on trade between China and ASEAN countries. A provincial panel data set for China from 2000 to 2008 is employed to quantify the impact of agricultural imports, agricultural exports and trade facilitation on poverty. The results show that a 1 per cent increase in port efficiency results in a 1.051 per cent decrease in the poverty index.

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        Trade Facilitation and Poverty Reduction in Asia and the Pacific: A Case Study of a South Asian Economic Corridor
        Working paper by De, Prabir and Raychaudhuri, Ajitava/ARTNeT, 2013, 60 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty, Trade Facilitation

        Based on primary survey data, this study assesses the potential impact of trade facilitation on poverty reduction in the region falling under SAARC Corridor 1, which is one of the leading corridors in South Asia that handles considerably good amount of overland trade between three major South Asian countries, namely, Bangladesh, India and Pakistan and also their global trade. One of the conclusions of this study is that poverty reduction, in the perception of the individuals connected with trade, depends on reduction in trade barriers through better trade facilitation. However, in the perception of the trading firms, better infrastructure which facilitates more trade is tagged with a positive response about decline of poverty.

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        Trade, Income Distribution and Poverty in Developing Countries: A Survey (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2012, 36 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The paper surveys the theoretical and empirical research on how trade and trade liberalization affect poverty and income distribution. The impact of globalization on poverty reduction has been uneven but the findings in the literature are sensitive to modelling choices. Trade liberalization improves aggregate welfare but the gains are small and unequally distributed. The welfare effects are measured basically through price changes, focusing on the effect on the relative demand for domestic factors of production and, in particular, the demand for skilled relative to unskilled labour. The literature shows that poverty constraints originate from various sources including infrastructure, skills, incomplete markets, and policy.

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        Trade Policies, Household Welfare and Poverty Alleviation: Case Studies from the Virtual Institute Academic Network (English)
        Book by Calvo, Paula; Fu, Dahai; Idowu, Olayinka; La, Anh; Li, Shantong; Manzano, George; Matta Jara, Carmen Cecilia; Petreski, Marjan; Pham, Ngoc; Prado, Shanti Aubren; Umana, Carlos; Vera Ganoza, Ana, 2014, 347 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This book is the outcome of a three-year UNCTAD Virtual Institute (Vi) capacity building project on trade and poverty for researchers in developing and transition countries. The studies collected in this volume examine the welfare and poverty consequences of changes in global commodity prices and trade policies in the Philippines, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Argentina, China, Costa Rica, Peru, Nigeria and Viet Nam. The research uses a methodology based on household-level surveys with a focus on the short-term effect of price changes through household consumption, production and wage earnings. The data is derived from actual price changes or a price change predicted by a policy adjustment, such as a change in an import tariff or exchange rate appreciation.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 20/E: Poverty Reduction and Progress Towards Mdgs in the LDCs: Encouraging Signs but Much Remains to Be Done (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 4 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Poverty

        This policy brief evaluates the progress of LDCs in achieving the goals set by the MDGs, especially in terms of poverty alleviation.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 2/2013, Growth and Poverty Eradication: Why Addressing Inequality Matters
        Policy brief by Kozul-Wright, Richard/UNCTAD, 2013, 4 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Poverty

        The Millennium Development Goals have centred on social outcomes, primarily in the fields of poverty, health and education. The goal of halving extreme poverty globally has already been met, albeit in large part thanks to the remarkable performance over three decades of the Chinese economy. Greater ambition is expected for a post-2015 agenda, with the eradication of extreme poverty a possible new goal. However, this goal is very unlikely to be reached by 2030 if business as usual is the order of the day. Paradoxically, this partly reflects the lack of ambition in the conventional poverty line of $1.25 per day, which is by any standard extremely low; but it is also because poverty eradication, even at this level of ambition, will not happen without addressing the more challenging issue of global inequality.

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        Virtual Institute Teaching Material on Trade and Poverty (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD Virtual Institute, 2010, 144 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty

        The focus and analysis of the Trade and Poverty teaching material reflect the work of UNCTAD on the least developed countries, and in particular the UNCTAD LDC Reports. Rather than looking specifically at trade openness or liberalization and its relationship with poverty reduction, the material adopts the more general UNCTAD LDC Report view, which examines trade and its relationship with poverty. Module 1 introduces the different concepts and definitions of poverty, and outlines the mechanisms between trade, growth and poverty through three country cases. The links between trade and growth and growth and poverty are examined closer in Module 2. Module 3 provides examples of research that capture in more detail how the trade and poverty relationship works, and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of research methodologies. Module 4 deals with development strategies and presents useful tools to place concepts and empirical research results into a policy context.

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        Why Geographical Indications for Least Developed Countries? (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2015, 77 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        Geographical Indications (GIS) are a trade-related intellectual property right under the WTO TRIPS Agreement. The link between the territory and the uniqueness of the product is the distinctive developmental nature of GIs with respect to other forms of TRIPs. Evidence from the market and literature shows that the promotion and protection of products under GIs may results in higher economics gains, fostering quality production and equitable distribution of profits for LDC rural communities. GIs encourage the preservation of biodiversity, traditional know-how and natural resources. Leveraging on biological and cultural diversification, the implementation of GIs may represent a unique opportunity to bring together the various players along the value chain supply, including producers, government authorities and researchers. This study is the result of activities carried out under the UNCTAD project TAAK on market access and trade laws funded by the Italian Government and the Development Account project entitled "Strengthening the capacity of rural communities in least developed countries to utilize the market access opportunities provided by duty-free quota-free and enhancing value added of their traditional products".

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