A partnership with academia

Building knowledge for trade and development

    • Material on how trade interacts with environmental regulations and the impact of trade on the environment including: traditional knowledge, environmentally sound technologies, biotrade, environment and investment and climate change.
      • Preview
        The 2008 Food Price Crisis: Rethinking Food Security Policies (English)
        Discussion paper by Mittal, Anuradha/UNCTAD, 2009, 40 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment

        This paper examines the 2008 global food price crisis, identifying long- and short-term causes as well as the two factors which distinguish the 2008 food price increases from earlier episodes – speculation and diversion of food crops to biofuels. The paper contends that while most attention has been focused on factors including higher energy costs, decline in growth of agricultural production and increased demand from emerging economies, it is essential to examine the structural causes of growing food insecurity to understand what is really behind the food price crisis. It then explores the impact of several factors including systemic decline in investment in agricultural productivity; state’s reduced regulatory role in agricultural production and trade; indiscriminate opening of agricultural markets which has resulted in import surges, and emphasis on cash crops, on food security of developing nations. The\\n paper also examines both national and international responses to the crisis and goes on to propose several short-term and long-term measures to address the crisis. The implementation of the proposed policies, the paper argues, however depends on several prerequisites based on the principle of food sovereignty which would allow policy space for developing countries to protect their agriculture, markets, and livelihoods of farmers.

      • Preview
        4° Turn Down the Heat: Climate Extremes, Regional Impacts and the Case for Resilience
        Report by World Bank, Potsdam Institute, 2013, 254 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        The report outlines the alarming scenario for the years ahead. It focuses on the risks of climate change to development in Sub-Saharan Africa, South East Asia and South Asia and their climate change impacts on agricultural production, water resources, coastal zone fisheries, and coastal safety.

      • Preview
        Agricultural Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation in Developing Countries: Policy Options for Innovation and Technology Diffusion. (English)
        Policy brief by Lybbert, Travis; Sumner, Daniel/ ICTSD, 2010, 42 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade and Environment

        Climate Change exacerbates the already daunting challenges facing the agricultural sector, and this is particularly the case in developing countries. Innovations in agriculture have always been important and will be even more vital in the context of climate change. This paper highlights technological and institutional innovations required to meet these challenges, the constraints to their development, transfer and dissemination and importantly suggests ways to overcome such constraints.

      • Preview
        Assessment Report on Energy Efficiency Institutional Arrangements in Asia (English)
        Report by UNESCAP, 2010, 212 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        Energy security is high on the agendas of ESCAP member States. The dependence of many of these countries on imported energy resources from other regions of the world and the unequal distribution of relatively abundant energy resources in the region punctuate this concern. The volatility of the price of oil due to supply and demand economics is another related issue. Under these circumstances, the technical and economic viability of energy efficiency has come into sharper focus. Promoting energy efficiency has been identified as an effective energy, economic and climate policy aimed at managing demand for energy, increasing economic revenues by decreasing cost, and reaping the rewards for mitigating climate change, respectively. Energy efficiency is a technical term in the energy sector that means using less energy to provide the same level of energy service. The institutional dimension, which has been lagging behind in development and policy debates for many years, is the focus of this publication.

      • Preview
        Assuring Food Security In Developing Countries Under The Challenges Of Climate Change (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2011, 50 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment

        For a large number of developing countries, agriculture remains the single most important sector. Climate change has the potential to damage irreversibly the natural resource base on which agriculture depends, with grave consequences for food security. However, agriculture is the sector that has the potential to transcend from being a problem to becoming an essential part of the solution to climate change provided there is a more holistic vision of food security, agricultural mitigation, climate-change adaptation and agriculture’s pro-poor development contribution. What is required is a rapid and significant shift from conventional, industrial, monoculture-based and high-external-input dependent production towards mosaics of sustainable production systems that also considerably improve the productivity of small-scale farmers. The required transformation is much more profound than simply tweaking the existing industrial agricultural systems. However, the sheer scale at which modified production methods would have to be adopted, the significant governance and market-structure challenges at national and international level and the considerable difficulties involved in measuring, reporting and verifying reductions in GHG emissions pose considerable challenges.

      • Preview
        Biofuel Production Technologies: Status, Prospects and Implications for Trade and Development (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD Larson, Eric D./ Princeton University, 2008, 49 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Science and Technology, Trade and Environment

        This publication provides information about biofuels for use in helping to understand technology-related implications of biofuels development. It seeks to (a)provide some context for understanding the limitations of first-generation biofuels; (b) provide meaningful descriptions accessible to non-experts of second-generation biofuel technologies; (c) present salient energy, carbon, and economic comparisons between first and second-generation biofuels; and (d) finally, to speculate on the implications for trade and development of future expansion in global production and use of biofuels.

      • Preview
        Biofuel Production, Trade and Sustainable Development (English)
        Discussion paper by ICTSD, 2009, 102 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment

        Unstable oil prices, the challenge of climate-change mitigation, and growing concerns over energy security are driving a growth in global production of bioenergy, particularly liquid biofuels such as ethanol and biodiesel, with implications for agriculture, energy, environment, development and trade. Biofuels could offer countries the potential to curb carbon dioxide emissions, reduce dependence on imported fuels, and maintain production and generate new employment in the agricultural sector. For many countries, the potential of biofuels is contemplated in terms of supplying domestic energy needs and exports. Although international trade in biofuels is still limited - it is estimated that currently only one-tenth of global production worldwide is traded internationally - international trade in biofuels is expected to grow considerably given the divide between countries with comparatively lower production costs and countries with the greatest demand for biofuels. Clearly, social, economic and environmental opportunities abound…

      • Preview
        Biofuels Certification and the Law of the World Trade Organization (English)
        Report by Echols, Marsha A./ICTSD, 2009, 68 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This report places biofuels certification in an international trade context. It assesses certification through the World Trade Organization (WTO) lens and develops the requirements for trade compliance. This paper identifies a number of issues for policymakers to consider, including the following: - compliance with a variety of standards and incentives related to their encouragement of the switch to biofuels from fossil fuels - the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and other WTO agreements - the issues, steps and unsettled areas that must be faced by when planning a biofuels-certification programme

      • Preview
        The Biofuels Market: Current Situation and Alternative Scenarios (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2009, 118 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        The term biofuels is commonly used with reference to liquid transportation fuels - i.e., ethanol and biodiesel - derived from agricultural, forest or any other organic material (feedstock). Current global concerns about fossil fuel prices and availability, a renewed quest by many countries for energy independence and widespread awareness of the need to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been the main reasons for many countries – developed and developing alike – to look for alternative energy sources. Biofuels have captured considerable attention because of the relative abundance of feedstocks in all regions, their easy utilization in combustion engines for transportation and compatibility with existing fuel distribution infrastructure and because they can provide a new end market for agricultural commodities, therefore revitalizing rural areas.

      • Preview
        Biofuels Subsidies and The Law of the WTO (English)
        Report by Harmer, Toni/ICTSD, 2009, 50 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper reviews biofuel measures that are commonly used in major producing countries against WTO subsidies disciplines. These measures are found in a range of laws and policies relating to energy, the environment and agriculture. There is little evidence that domestic policymakers have taken into account WTO disciplines when crafting these measures. This paper identifies a number of issues for policymakers to consider, including the following: - WTO subsidy disciplines do not prohibit all subsidies or support to biofuels. Rather, the WTO rules concern themselves with subsidies that have a trade-distorting effect. - Although often cited in discussions about the WTO and biofuel subsidies, the green box provisions of the WTO Agreement on Agriculture (AoA) do not provide a broad category sheltering measures on the basis that they offer some environmental benefits. To qualify as green box support, specific requirements must be met. For example, payments under environmental programmes must be limited to the costs of compliance with the programme.

      • Preview
        Biotrade Potential for Growth and Sustainability (English)
        Working paper by UNCTAD, 2010, 71 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        Growth opportunities can be generated by sustainable business practices that enable rich biodiversity-based countries to achieve their development objectives. Current markets for environmentally friendly products and services showed growth rates, despite the economic slowdown. In this scenario, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) suggests that biodiversity-rich countries implement the BioTrade framework to capture this market potential, and transforms it into a sustainable development engine. BioTrade simultaneously generates business opportunities, growth and sustainable livelihoods for rural populations, while allowing the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. The value of biodiversity can be enhanced, and risks associated to business as usual, such as the stresses on biological resources, can be reduced. This paper illustrates the potential for developing Sustainable Environment Management practices in BioTrade in Latin America.

      • Preview
        The Business of Biotrade: Using Biological Resources Sustainably and Responsibly
        Paper by UNCTAD, 2014, 60 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        This paper explores how the efforts of the Biotrade Initiative provide incentives for business to conserve biodiversity through using biological resources sustainably and responsibly. Through a review and assessment of distinct case studies, it identifies the actual, practical, bottom-up incentives generated by Biotrade partners and practitioners.

      • Preview
        Can Green Growth Really Work and What Are the True (socio-) Economics of Climate Change?
        Discussion paper by Hoffmann, Ulrich /UNCTAD, 2015, 31 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        This paper argues that growth, technological, population-expansion and governance constraints as well as some key systemic issues cast a very long shadow on the "green growth" hopes. Many economists and policymakers advocate a fundamental shift towards "green growth" as the new, qualitatively-different growth paradigm, largely based on enhanced material/resource/energy efficiency, structural changes towards a service-dominated economy and a switch in the energy mix favouring renewable forms of energy. However this paper states that such an evolutionary approach will not be sufficient to cope with the complexities of climate change.

      • Preview
        Carbon Concerns: How Standards And Labelling Initiatives Must Not Limit Agricultural Trade From Developing Countries
        Policy brief by MacGregor, James/ ICTSD, 2010, 40 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        The carbon embedded in internationally traded food and agricultural goods – its measurement, as well as different ways of communicating its climate impact – is a rapidly emerging factor in agricultural production, processing and trade. The emerging, mainly non-statutory, private-sector driven carbon labelling schemes raise a number of issues. This paper examines the current status of carbon labelling initiatives in the food industry. It looks at how embedded carbon is likely to be marketed and how this phenomenon may impact agricultural trade from developing countries.

      • Preview
        Challenges and Opportunities for Developing Countries in Producing Biofuels (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2006, 26 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        What: The increase in oil prices has had the effect of improving the commercial viability of alternatives to oil. One group of energy bearers that has benefited particularly and that is of major potential importance to developing countries is biofuels. This study will present the evolution of international trade of biofuels and feedstock, and current trade regulations (tariffs and non-tariffs measures). It will also briefly detail current incentive policies in the EU and the United States for developing biofuels and look for indications of the policy they will adopt regarding consumption and import of biofuels. The study will then turn to issues relevant for biofuels production in developing countries. It will try to analyze what is at stake about food security, land uses, employment, public finance and environmental concerns. The final section of the study will identify some recent development of prices.

      • Preview
        The Clean Development Mechanism - Guide 2009
        Report by Frondizi, Isaura/UNCTAD, 2009, 128 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade and Environment

        This revised and expanded version of the Guide to the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) was commissioned by the Ministry of Science and Technology and drawn up under the sponsorship of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The contents were revised with the direct assistance of the MCT and UNCTAD. Publication was sponsored by the Brazilian Social and Economic Development Bank (BNDES). The CDM is the sole mechanism through which industrialized countries with quantified emission reduction and limitation commitments (commonly known as “targets”), established by the Kyoto Protocol, can offset part of these targets by acquiring Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) generated by CDM projects in developing countries. Given that the first commitment period defined by the Kyoto Protocol (2008-2012) began on January 1, 2008, the window of opportunity in relation to the CDM is still open. In addition, during the ongoing negotiations, the Parties to the Protocol have manifested their interest in its continuation after 2012, more specifically in the second commitment period. This Guide has three main objectives: i) to provide information to all those interested in CDM project activities; ii) to detail the specific regulations governing the submission of CDM project activities in Brazil; and iii) to facilitate an understanding of the process and, consequently, promote the development of CDM projects in the country.

      • Preview
        Climate Change and China’s Agricultural Sector: An Overview of Impacts, Adaptation and Mitigation (English)
        Policy brief by Wang, Jinxia; Huang, Jikun; Rozelle, Scott/ ICTSD, 2010, 39 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment

        Agriculture accounts for more than 15 percent of China’s total greenhouse gas emissions, nearly 90 percent of nitrous oxide emissions, and 60 percent of methane emissions. Excessive fertilizer use is not only fueling a major portion of the nitrous oxide emissions but also is raising alarm about water pollution from agriculture. At the same time, however, there is opportunity for China’s agriculture sector to play a role in mitigating against climate change through carbon sequestration and adopting production methods that reduce emissions. In addition, the potential impact of climate change on agricultural production and prices in China could have tremendous implications for both domestic and international markets, due to the sheer size of China’s domestic demand for agricultural products.

      • Preview
        Climate Change and Developing Country Agriculture: An Overview of Expected Impacts, Adaptation and Mitigation Challenges, and Funding Requirements (English)
        Article by Keane, Jodie; Page, Sheila; Kergna, Alpha and Kennan, Jane/UNCTAD, 2009, 61 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Finance for Development, Trade and Environment

        Agricultural trade flows depend on the interaction between trade policy and inherent comparative advantage. Not only is the agricultural sector highly vulnerable to climate change, it is also one of the sectors most distorted and heavily influenced by a wide range of local, regional, national and international trade policies. The increased stress to the system brought about by climate change makes reform in global agricultural policies arguably even more important. Even if the most ambitious climate change mitigation measures are adopted, global temperatures are likely to increase by at least 2 degree C since pre-industrial levels by the end of this century, if not sooner; the intensity and frequency of extreme climatic conditions are expected to increase and the predictability of normal rainy seasons, decrease.6 Poor countries with a large rural economy depend on agricultural exports for their fiscal and socio-political stability; climate change could potentially jeopardise agricultural export earnings unless alternatives can be sought or climate proof investments are made. But what are the alternative sources of export earnings? Given the potential impact of climate change on agricultural production, this document sets out to assess how producers might adapt, particularly in relation to new markets for agricultural products and services related to climate change mitigation efforts.

      • Preview
        Climate Change, Biodiversity and Livelihoods: Lessons Learned from UNCTAD Project Impletmentation (English)
        Report by Castro, Lorena/UNCTAD, 2015, 45 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Environment

        This publication highlights the contribution of biodiversity investment in fostering sustainable development through business opportunities in sectors such as agriculture, pharmaceuticals and housing. The report outlines the implementation of UNCTAD BioTrade and REDD+ projects, its outcomes, lessons and the way forward.

      • Preview
        Climate Change, Disaster Risk, And The Urban Poor- Cities Building Resilience for a Changing World
        Study by The World Bank, 2012, 322 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Trade and Environment

        This study analyzes the key challenges facing the urban poor, given the risks associated with climate change and disasters, particularly with regard to the delivery of basic services, and identifies strategies and financing opportunities for addressing these risks.

      • Preview
        Climate Change: Turning Costs into Income Opportunities (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2009, 2 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Environment

        Concerns about the high costs of climate change mitigation dominate the global debate to be resumed at Copenhagen. The question of who is to pay for the investments that will undoubtedly be needed receives far greater attention than the corollary question of who is to gain from them. From a macroeconomic perspective, one economic agent’s cost is always another agent’s income. But as this policy brief argues, the concept of cost is misleading in the context of climate change mitigation. Once the process of structural change necessitated by climate change mitigation is in full swing, there will be huge new market opportunities. The policy issue is: how will costs and incomes be distributed in this process? UNCTAD believes that developing countries, although they face considerable costs, can also generate new income if they adapt their development strategies to the requirements of climate change mitigation. This policy brief also stresses the role of government in facilitating the process of structural change, not only by fostering “green” consumer preferences, but also by implementing pro-active industrial policies that support the production of climate-friendly equipment and appliances. In short: The world can move to a low-carbon economy without feeling paralysed by the costs – and can do so without sacrificing growth in the developing world.

      • Preview
        Climate Policies, Economic Diversification and Trade (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 19 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        This paper explores two broad areas of policy that may hold some promise in terms of economic diversification. Section 2 asks whether the rise of global value chains as a mode of production offers any opportunities to foster economic diversity that leads to reduced response measure vulnerability. Section 3 then asks whether green industrial policy might similarly bring new light to the discussion.

      • Preview
        Commerce, Environnement et Developpement (English)
        Note by CNUCED, Conseil du Commerce et du Developpement, 2003, 24 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        Quoi: Note d'information pour la Commission du commerce et des biens et services, et des produits de base, Geneve, 2004. La note donne un resume du programme de travail de Doha concernant les negociations sur les questions d'environnement et le Sommet mondial pour le developpement durable. Elle montre brievement les sujets importants sur le plan de commerce et environnement, entre eux par exemple biosecurite, savoirs traditionnels ou biens et services environnementaux. La note d'information est aussi disponible en anglais et espagnol. Qui: tous ceux qui veulent avoir un apercu general des developpements intergouvernementaux concernant le sujet de commerce et l'environnement, principaux points concernant les questions de commerce et de l'environnement et le role a jouer par la CNUCED. Comment: La note d'information sert seulement comme point de depart de l'analyse et comme resume bref. On aura besoin de lectures supplementaires.

      • Preview
        A Composite Index of Market Access for the Export of Rice from Thailand
        Report by Dechachete, Thawatchai/ICTSD, 2009, 19 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy, Trade and Environment

        This study of the Composite Index of Market Access (CIMA) of the rice industry of Thailand is part of the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD) pilot project on market access for three selected countries (Uruguay, the United States and Thailand). The objective of this project is to build an indicator of market access of main rice importing countries that would include not only tariffs but also other barriers affecting market access for agricultural product such as sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures, technical barriers to trade (TBT), private standards, excise taxes in importing countries and other non-tariff barriers. This tool should be of assistance in trade negotiation and giving a clear indication of whether any particular negotiated outcome result in a real liberalization. In Thailand’s case the three import markets which are the US, the Philippines and South Africa have been selected. These countries are major markets for three major types of rice that Thailand exports to the International market.

      • Preview
        Connecting Sustainable Development Goals 15 and 16: Biotrade Experiences in Colombia and Indonesia (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 50 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        This document aims to demonstrate how BioTrade is supporting countries to build sustainable and peaceful societies, thus illustrating the connection between the Sustainable Development Goals 15 (Life on land) and SDG16 (Peace, justice and strong institutions). It starts by providing an overview of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, and the linkages between trade, biodiversity and peaceful, inclusive societies. Secondly, BioTrade is analysed, particularly its principles, approaches and methodologies and how these can support peacebuilding and postconflict processes. Afterwards, case studies from Colombia and Indonesia are presented. Finally, the document provides general and specific conclusions and recommendations for developing post-conflict BioTrade initiatives and programmes.

      • Preview
        Developing Country Interests in Climate Change Action and the Implications for a Post-2012 Climate Change Regime (English)
        Discussion paper by Cosbey, Aaron/IISD, 2009, 52 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        The paper focuses on the cross-cutting objective of advancing development goals in a sustainable way, making the case that there are strategic interests for developing countries in addressing climate change while simultaneously addressing nationally defined development priorities. The paper argues for international support for such efforts, and suggests elements that might feature in an international approach. The paper finishes by speculating on what those sorts of elements might mean for the shape of a post-2012 climate regime and the carbon market that might accompany it.

      • Preview
        Domestic Climate Change Policies and the WTO (English)
        Discussion Paper by Lucas Assuncao and ZhongXiang Zhang, UNCTAD, 2002, 32 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This discussion paper describes how governments that signed the Kyoto Protocol may pursue domestic climate policies that conflict with WTO obligations and development and growth strategies and recommends potential solutions. Useful reading for students and lecturers interested in the relationship betweem environment and trade/trading system. The paper gives plenty of useful examples and is clear and comprehensible.

      • Preview
        Effects of Environmental Regulations on South Asian Food and Agricultural Exports: A Gravity Analysis (English)
        Working paper by Wijesinghe, W.P.A.S., 2014, 27 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper investigates the effects of environmental regulation on the food and agricultural trade of four South Asian nations, i.e., Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. For this study, the Gravity Model for international trade analysis was used with country- and time-specific fixed effects followed by Heckman sample selection model to avoid possible biases that are widely cited in the gravity literature. The Environmental Performance Index was utilized as a proxy measure for the environmental regulation of the four SAARC nations and their trade partners to denote environmental regulation of reporting and partner countries. The results of the coefficient estimates revealed that even though there appears to be a relationship between stringent regulations and foreign trade without these specific effects, its significance fades as soon as both the importing and exporting country-specific effects are taken into consideration.

      • Preview
        Environmental Goods and Services: Defining Negotiations or Negotiating Definitions? (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 29 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: This article from the Trade and Environment Review 2003 emphasizes the lack of agreed definitions and classifications concerning environmental goods and services and questions the goal of a win-win scenario in WTO negotiations (positive outcomes for both trade and environmental aspects), e.g. will environmental benefits go to one set of countries and trade gains to another? How to balance market access with public services? How:The article presents a good overview of negotiations in environmental goods and services, can be used as key reading for course related to trade and environment.

      • Preview
        Environmental/Health requirements, Market Access and Export Competitiveness: Trends, Problems and Approaches (English)
        Presentation by Ulrich Hoffmann, UNCTAD, 2004, 5 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Trade and Environment

        What: Presentation defines environmental/health requirements by outlining their nature, range and some important trends. Main part of the presentation analyses then both policy and capacity issues concerning health/environmental requirements at WTO level, international level and national level (with special focus on developing countries). Good summary of key problems, e.g. lack of international standards Who: Anyone who wants a very quick overview about key issues in health/environmental requirements/use it as summary. How: Only bullet points, previous knowledge needed or has to be complemented with additional readings, e.g. corresponding paper "Environmental/Health Requirements, Market Access and Export Competitiveness - What is the Problem for Developing Countries and what can be the Answers?"

      • Preview
        EU Support for Biofuels and Bioenergy, Environmental Sustainability Criteria, and Trade Policy (English)
        Report by Swinbank, Alan/UNCTAD, 2009, 54 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade and Environment

        This paper provides a description of the EU’s biofuel policies, set in the context of its overall policy framework on renewable and bioenergy, and their interface with the WTO legal system. Although undoubtedly influenced by concerns about security of energy supplies, and a wish to find alternative market outlets for European farmers, the EU’s policy for biofuels (defined in EU legislation as liquid and gaseous fuels for transport use) is associated closely with its more generic policies to promote bioenergy, which in legislative terms is embedded in its policy on renewable energy, part of its strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The EU’s strategy, and its implementation by the Member States, has been evolving for a number of years; but its current ambition is that by 2020 some 20 percent of its primary energy supplies should come from renewable resources (including bioenergy) and that, in each Member State, renewables (largely biofuels) should provide 10 percent of energy use for transport. It is up to the Member States to deliver on these obligations, in the framework of EU rules …

      • Preview
        Fast-tracking Green Patent Applications: An Empirical Analysis
        Report by ICTSD, 2013, 42 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade and Environment

        This paper is the first study to empirically analyze green patent fast-tracking programmes and to examine whether these programmes may help the diffusion of green technologies. After pointing out the main differences among the approaches taken by different countries, the paper presents several key findings, such as there is a clear demand for fast-tracking procedures, climate change-related technologies represent the vast majority of patents in the fast-tracking programmes.

      • Preview
        Financing Global Climate Change Mitigation (English)
        Report by UNECE, 2010, 193 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        This report is one of the first outputs of the Global Energy Efficiency 21(GEE21) project, launched by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) in December 2008 at COP-14 in Poznan(Poland). The GEE21 project is designed to develop a more systematic exchange of experience on capacity building, policy reforms and investment project finance among countries of the other regionsof the world through their UN Regional Commissions in order to promote self-financing energy efficiency improvements that raise economic productivity, diminish fuel poverty and reduce environmental air pollution such as greenhouse gas emissions.

      • Preview
        Financing the Climate Mitigation and Adaptation Measures in Developing Countries (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2009, 26 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Investment, Trade and Environment

        Climate funding currently available under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol is less than $10 billion per year, most of it through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). Additional funding is provided by the World Bank and by bilateral aid programmes, but the annual total of all existing multilateral and bilateral climate funding is less than $15 billion. This is too small, by an order of magnitude, to meet the needs for climate investments in developing countries. Streamlined and improved institutional arrangements, such as a much-simplified replacement for CDM, will be needed.

      • Preview
        Food Safety and Environmental Requirements in Export Markets - Friend or Foe for Producers of Fruit and Vegetables in Asian Developing Countries? (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2007, 134 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment

        This book draws on recent UNCTAD research to analyse the new breed of food safety and environmental requirements for horticultural exports in key markets. It assesses their impact on producers in six developing countries in Asia (Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam) and outlines some pro-active adjustment strategies that could help maximize the benefits resulting from the new requirements while also minimizing the adjustment costs. The country-case studies in the book explore questions, such as: To what extent can small farmers profit from enhanced export opportunities, and how can their exports contribute to pro-poor development strategies? What should developing-country Governments do to support smallholder participation in global horticultural trade, and how can the donor community play a supportive role? The book also addresses the relationship between regulatory and voluntary requirements in key horticultural markets, including the "transnationalization" of voluntary standards.

      • Preview
        Greenhouse Gas Reduction Policies and Agriculture: Implications for Production Incentives and International Trade Disciplines (English)
        Report by Blandford, David; Josling, Tim/ICTSD, 2009, 32 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Climate change and the instruments of policy that are emerging as a response to that phenomenon pose a multitude of challenges to the multilateral trade system. Both are likely to have an impact on agricultural production. There is also a potential for conflict with World Trade Organization (WTO) trade rules, both through the choice of policy instruments to address climate change and through the way in which governments react to pressures to avoid or deflect the costs of climate change mitigation and adaptation. We assess the implications of domestic policies designed to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture and to enhance the role of agriculture in GHG mitigation in the context of existing and future WTO disciplines. The following types of policies are examined: (1) performance standards, (2) best-practice requirements, (3) subsidies, (4) carbon taxes, (5) cap and trade (CT) schemes and (6) public expenditure for research and extension.

      • Preview
        Growing Green : The Economic Benefits of Climate Action (English)
        Report by Uwe Deichmann and Fan Zhang, 2013, 423 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Trade and Environment

        With prospects of a global climate agreement uncertain, this report identifies the actions that governments in Eastern Europe and Central Asia can take to reduce the carbon footprints of their economies. It identifies actions in three priority areas: using energy more efficiently, moving to cleaner energy sources, and increasing carbon capture in soils and forests.

      • Preview
        Guidelines for the Sustainable Management of Biotrade Products: Resource Assesment
        Manual by Francisco Cuesta, María Teresa, 2013, 42 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        Guidelines for the design and implementation of resource assesment for biotrade wil-collected species. It includes their appraisal for BioTrade management, biological and socio-economic information on the managed species. The documents shows how to conduct field inventories to collect data on key population and demographic calculations. It gives guidelides on management, gives examples of good practices and ideas on how to improve monitoring.

      • Preview
        Harnessing Trade for Sustainable Development and a Green Economy
        Manual by WTO, 2011, 24 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        In 1992 the United Nations convened a landmark conference in Rio de Janeiro which set the tone and ambition for global policy on development and environment for the years to come. The results of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, popularly known as the Earth Summit, were reaffirmed in Johannesburg in 2002 at the World Summit on Sustainable Development. Global leaders will reconvene in Rio in 2012 at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20). They will consider progress made since the two earlier meetings, assess remaining challenges, and reset the world on a path towards sustainable development. Part II of this brochure offers a set of messages on sustainable development and trade that may be pronounced at the Rio+20 Conference. Part III looks at the workings of the WTO and how the multilateral trading system supports countries’ efforts to realize sustainable development and a green economy. Part IV examines the contribution of trade to sustainable development. Part V refers to green economy measures and discusses how WTO rules and monitoring mechanisms help ensure such measures are not disguised protectionism. Part VI looks at WTO efforts to help developing countries maximize the benefits of participation in international trade. And Part VII discusses the contribution to sustainable development that can be made through a successful completion of the Doha Round.

      • Preview
        ICTSD-IPC Platform on Climate Change, Agriculture and Trade: Considerations for Policymakers (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2009, 14 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment

        Climate Change is expected to increase the likelihood of extreme weather events and contribute to longer-term changes in temperature and precipitation. Given agriculture’s reliance on the weather, the agricultural sector will be seriously impacted by climate change. The sector is also a significant contributor of greenhouse gasses and will need to play a role in mitigating climate change. At the same time, however, increased demands on the sector will require that agricultural production more than double by 2050. Given these challenges, global food security requires substantial adaptation efforts directed towards the agricultural sector. Emphasis must be placed on strengthening adaptive capacities in developing countries, with an eye toward also promoting socio-economic development and food security

      • Preview
        The Impact of Bioethics and Consumer Demand on Process and Production Methods (ppms) in the Wto: Considerations for Colombian Biotrade (English)
        Working paper by Calle-Saldarriaga, María Alejandra / Universidad EAFIT, 2011, 50 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, VI Members Research

        This paper aims to contribute to the existing legal studies on Process and Production Methods and their connection to consumer preferences for bioethical and environmentally friendly systems of production, in particular by identifying the case of Colombian biotrade.

      • Preview
        The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on Developing Economies and the Environment (English)
        Article by Luis Carlos Arango Vieira, 2009, 18 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, VI Members Research

        This article is about the impact of foreign direct investment on developing economies and the environment. All of us that are concerned about the environment should ask ourselves if the increase in capital mobility associated with the world-wide process of liberalization, deregulation and privatization, known as the Neo-liberal global regime, has contributed to the problems of higher emissions, ozone layer destruction, and pollution of water sources, as well as to create false economic bubbles that lead to increased consumption in these regions whilst forcing the destruction of the environment by the poor in order to survive and cope with the roles their society demands. Neo-liberal practices such as those enforced in developing countries like Colombia, while seeking to attract foreign investment to push their economies, tend to generate a false aggregated demand growth that in most cases is not sustainable in the long term, increases global unemployment, unleash destructive competitive processes and weaken government’s ability to regulate business in the citizens` best interests.

      • Preview
        Interaction Between Trade and Environment Policies with Special Interest Politics (English)
        Working paper by Keswani Mehra, Mehra/JNU, 2007, 31 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, VI Members Research

        It is a theoretical paper on the politics of environment and trade policy, useful for analytical research or teaching in an optional course in a graduate program in economics.

      • Preview
        The Interface Between The Trade And Climate Change Regimes : Scoping The Issues
        Working paper by Low, Patrick, Marceau, Gabrielle, Reinaud, Julia, 2011, 45 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        As governments increasingly adopt policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, concern has grown on two fronts. First, carbon leakage can occur when mitigation policies are not the same across countries and producers seek to locate in jurisdictions where production costs are least affected by emission constraints. The risk of carbon leakage raises questions about the efficacy of climate change policies in a global sense. Secondly, it is precisely the cost-related consequences of differential mitigation policies that feed industry concerns about competitiveness. We thus have a link between environmental and competitiveness perspectives that fuses climate change and trade regimes in potentially problematic ways as governments contemplate trade actions to manage the environmental and/or competitiveness consequences of differential climate change policies. On the trade side of this relationship, we have the reality that the GATT/WTO rules were not originally drafted to accommodate climate change policies and concerns. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relevance of certain WTO rules to the interface between climate change and trade, focusing in particular on border measures, technical regulations on trade, standards and labelling, and subsidies and countervailing duties. It concludes that in the absence of clear international understandings on how to manage the climate change and trade interface, we run the risk of a clash that compromises the effectiveness of climate change policies as well as the potential gains from specialization through trade.

      • Preview
        International Climate Change Negotiations and Agriculture (English)
        Policy brief by ICTSD, 2009, 14 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Environment

        The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the existing international climate change agreements and the international negotiations underway and to point out the ways in which the agricultural sector - is - or may be - addressed in the international climate regulatory framework. In 2008 the International Food & Agricultural Trade Policy Council (IPC) and the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD) launched The ICTSD-IPC Platform on Climate Change, Agriculture and Trade: Promoting Policy Coherence. This paper is part of this initiative. This interdisciplinary platform of climate change, agricultural and trade experts seeks to promote increased policy coherence to ensure effective climate change mitigation and adaptation, food security and a more open and equitable global food system.

      • Preview
        The international climate regime: towards consolidation or collapse? (English)
        Article by Pierre Berthaud, Denise Cavard and Patrick Criqui, 2003, 20 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        This article (in French) addresses the problem of collective action, drawing on the issues related to international climate negotiations. It focuses on the concept of "hegemony" from the perspective of the International Political Economy (IPE) and International Regime (IR) Theory.

      • Preview
        International Trade and Carbon Leakage: An Analytical Framework for India and Russia (English)
        Study by Mehra Keswani, Meeta; Sawhney, Aparna; Rastogi, Rashmi; Piskulova, Natalia; Abramova, Anna, 2011
        Categories: Trade and Environment, VI Members Research

        The paper, the result of a Japan-funded Vi joint research project, explores the linkages between international trade and carbon leakage, and formulates recommendations for national and international policies to reduce future emissions and facilitate the negotiating process for signing a new international climate agreement.

      • Preview
        LDC Export Diversification, Employment Generation and the “green Economy”: What Roles for Tourism Linkages? (English)
        Working paper by Honeck, Dale / WTO, 2012, 117 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        Taking export diversification, employment generation and the "green economy" in turn, the working paper analyzes feasible LDC alternatives, reaching the conclusion that -- in contrast with the current overemphasis on agriculture and manufacturing -- green tourism is demonstrably one of the areas of greatest current comparative advantage and development potential for the majority of LDCs.

      • Preview
        Legitimidad Empresarial, Conflicto De Tierras Y Producción Palmera En Colombia* (English)
        Article by Pereira-Villa, Catherine, 2011, 20 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment, VI Members Research

        This article analyzes the land conflict that took place in 2009 in the south of Bolivar (Colombia), between the Daabon Group – world leader in the production of organic palm oil – and 123 peasant families who were evicted. Specifically, this paper analyzes the ways in which the Group responded to the incident, to vindicate its legitimacy, internationally challenged as a result of the conflict. Once the profile of Daabon Group and the local context in which it operates are described, some thoughts are formulated on that business group’s handling of issues associated with forced displacement, legal uncertainty and biodiversity. This study argues that in a Colombian context, a company under international scrutiny should manage its legitimacy not only on legal considerations but also on social and political aspects.

      • Preview
        Liability and Compensation for Ship-source Oil Pollution: An Overview of the International Legal Framework for Oil Pollution Damage from Tankers (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 76 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Trade and Environment

        While large oil pollution incidents have reduced both in number and in size over recent decades, the potential threat of environmental damage and economic loss associated with the carriage of oil remains disconcerting. In particular, for coastal developing countries and small island developing States with economies heavily dependent on income from fisheries and tourism, exposure to damage arising from ship-source oil pollution incidents poses a potentially significant economic threat. This report has been prepared to assist policymakers, in particular in developing countries, in their understanding of the existing legal framework and in assessing the merits of accession to the relevant international legal instruments.

      • Preview
        The Little Green Data Book 2013
        Book by World Bank, 2013, 250 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        This book contains data related to development and environment. Its main goal is to provide information to countries on the state of their environment and natural resources It contains more than 50 indicators for more than 200 countries critical to the post-2015 development dialogue. The chosen indicators are based on the Millennium Development Goals. Issues currently being discussed for SDGs and cover the three pillars of sustainability (economic, social, and environmental).

      • Preview
        Local Content Requirements and The Green Economy (English)
        Report by Trade Environment, Climate Change and Sustainable Development Branch, DITC, UNCTAD, 2014, 46 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        The study was prepared at a time when the “green economy” concept moved from theory to practice, with a range of developed and developing countries placing local content at the heart of their green economy strategies, and their green economy plans at the heart of their industrial policies. It reflects developing countries’ increasing emphasis on the “sustainable” element of traditional development objectives, such as rural development, urban planning and industrialization.

      • Preview
        Making Climate Change and Trade Mutually Supportive
        Policy brief by Messerlin, Patrick/ ARTNeT, 2010, 4 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        A few years ago, the relations between the climate and trade communities were marked by mutual ignorance at best, and more often by deep hostility. Now things are changing. The trade community is realizing that climate change concerns will be high on the political agenda for a long time to come. The climate community is realizing that climate policies will face fierce opposition from four-fifths of human kind if it costs too much in terms of growth and of trade, its main channel. However, many fears and doubts still abound. This policy brief reviews what the trade community and the climate community have in common, and what the possibilities offered to them are, but also the challenges they will have to face.

      • Preview
        National Green Export Review of Angola: Baseline Report (English)
        Also available in Spanish
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 39 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        This baseline report evaluates green sectors already in place in the Republic of Angola and works as a background document and a step-by-step guideline to support discussions at national level with local stakeholders. Evaluation and identification of sectors will take place initially using a Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) analysis of green sectors with expansion potential in Angola. In short, the baseline report aims to present a panorama of key issues related to local green sectors, with attention given to enhancing their regulatory, institutional and trade related performance. As such, the baseline report operates as a supporting document for discussion among local stakeholders on strategic approaches to further the development of Angola’s green products and services and their related sectors based on a collaborative, inter-sectoral, and strategic approach. It is important to mention that selected sectors covered in this baseline report include those sectors in which Angola has already achieved considerable experience, but further growth can be achieved. The intention is to use them as stepping-stones to prepare national consultant(s) and to promote local stakeholder workshops, which will serve as training activities and canvass a wide spectrum of viewpoints by collaboratively identifying and selecting new options of green products and services for Angola and develop sectoral action plans. In addition, they guarantee that this inter-sectoral forum will undertake follow-up measures for further implementation of the NGER process with UNCTAD’s support.

      • Preview
        Natural Resources and Non-cooperative Trade Policy (English)
        Working paper by Latina, Joelle, Piermartini, Roberta, Ruta, Michele / WTO, 2011, 29 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        When looking at the conditions of trade in natural resources the world appears upside down: tariff protection in natural resources sectors is generally lower than for overall merchandise trade, while export restrictions are twice as likely as in other sectors. On the other hand, tariff escalation is significant in natural resources sectors, where materials in their raw state face, on average, lower duties than in their processed form. In this paper, we discuss how export taxes and tariff escalation may be the result of an uncooperative trade policy. Specifically, tariff escalation and export taxes can be "beggar-thy-neighbor" policies because governments may be tempted to use them to alter the relative price of exports to their advantage (terms-of-trade effect) or to expand the domestic processing industry at the expenses of foreign production (production relocation effect). In equilibrium, these policies offset each other in a Prisoners' Dilemma situation, where trade is inefficiently low.

      • Preview
        The Oceans Economy: Opportunities and Challenges for Small Island Developing States (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 38 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        This report is the consequence of a joint effort from a team of experts from UNCTAD and the Commonwealth Secretariat to better understand the implications of the nascent and evolving concept of the oceans economy. This report underlines the importance of sustainable oceanic activities for the development of SIDS and other coastal states.Both opportunities and challenges for SIDS are identified in existing and emerging trade-related sectors such as sustainable fisheries and aquaculture, renewable marine energy, marine bio-prospecting, maritime transport and marine and coastal tourism.It also points at the need to consider the formation of regional economic groupings that combine their "economic exclusive zones" under a common oceans economic space in order to be able to seize, manage and sustainably use joint resources and build common infrastructures.

      • Preview
        Organic Agriculture and Food Security in Africa (English)
        Report by UNCTAD/UNEP, 2008, 61 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment

        Food security is an issue of great concern in many developing countries. Despite pledges, the number of people suffering from hunger has increased every year. This report is the result of joint efforts between UNCTAD and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) through their joint capacity building task force on trade, environment and development (CBTF). This study examines the relationship between organic agriculture and food security in Africa, particularly East Africa, which is where the CBTF has been implementing a project on organic agriculture since 2004. Organic agriculture is a holistic production system based on active agro-ecosystem management rather than on external inputs, and it utilizes both traditional and scientific knowledge. The evidence presented in this study supports the argument that organic agriculture can be more conducive to food security in Africa than most conventional production systems, and that it is more likely to be sustainable in the long term. Organic agriculture is ideally suited for poor marginalised smallholder farmers in Africa, as they require minimal external input, use locally and natural available materials and encourages farming that is more diverse and resistant to stress. In particular, the recent food price hike and rising fuel prices stress the importance of making agriculture less energy and external input dependant. Case studies have shown that organic agriculture increases agriculture productivity. Transition to integrated organic agriculture has been shown to increase access to food by increasing yields and increasing total on-farm productivity and hence reduce poverty and improve rural livelihoods.

      • Preview
        Patents and Clean Energy: Bridging the Gap Between Evidence and Policy (English)
        Report by UNEP/EPO/ICTSD, 2010, 50 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Trade and Environment

        Technology development and its rapid diffusion are considered crucial for tackling the climate change challenge. In particular, enhancing technology transfer towards developing countries has been an integral part of the global climate change regime since the inception of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The role of intellectual property rights (IPRs) in the transfer of climate change technologies has emerged as a particularly contentious issue in the past two years. Against this background, the United Nations Environment Programme(UNEP), the European Patent Office (EPO) and the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development(ICTSD) joined forces to undertake an empirical study on the role of patents in the transfer of clean energy technologies(CETs).

      • Preview
        Policy Space in Agricultural Markets: Policy Issues in International Trade and Commodities Research Study Series No. 73 (English)
        Report by Alain McLaren, 2016, 26 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Macroeconomic Policy, Trade and Environment

        As an outcome of the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture, all agricultural products now have a bound tariff rate on their imports. This system of bound tariffs combines the rigidity of an upper limit that is independent of future economic conditions but discretion as governments have a whole array of choices in terms of applied tariffs as long as they are set below the bound rate. One recurring argument is that bound rates may limit countries’ policy flexibility, or policy space, in response to particular economic circumstances. This paper looks at the use and availability of this policy space in agricultural markets. This is first done in a descriptive setting, then by assessing what plays a role in determining this space using an empirical analysis.

      • Preview
        The Political Economy of Green Growth in India (English)
        Report by Banerjee, Payal, Sood, Atul, 2012, 20 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        This paper analyses how emerging economies like India have responded to the opposing demands of inclusive growth and more equitable development aimed at closing social divides, and explores the politics of green growth with a case study of two seemingly contradictory development trajectories: the Green Mission and the hydroelectric power (HEP) projects and dams on the river Teesta in India’s northeastern Himalayan region.

      • Preview
        Port Industry Survey on Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 66 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        The report is comprised of a survey sample which collectively handle more than 16 % of global seaborne trade and can be considered as representative. Although the majority of respondents had been impacted by weather/climate related events, including by extremes, the study revealed important gaps in terms of relevant information available to seaports of all sizes and across regions, with implications for effective climate risk assessment and adaptation planning.

      • Preview
        The Poverty and Welfare Impacts of Climate Change Quantifying the Effects, Identifying the Adaptation Strategies (English)
        Report by The World Bank, 2012, 146 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        This report examines the effects of climate change on welfare and poverty. Chapter one describes the general implications of climate change for poverty reduction. Chapter 2 provides a forecast for poverty, by introducing heterogeneity, a microeconomic approach. Chapter 3 deals with the welfare impacts of rainfall shocks in rural Indonesia. Chapter 4 looks at the effects of wheater shocks on houshold welfare in rural Mexico, while chapter 5 deals with the climate variability and its relation to children's height in the same region.

      • Preview
        Private-Sector Standards and National Schemes for Good Agricultural Practices: Implications for Exports of Fresh Fruit and Vegetables from Sub-Saharan Africa Experiences of Ghana, Kenya, and Uganda (English)
        Working paper by UNCTAD, 2008, 127 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment

        This study synthesizes the main findings of many country-case studies analyzing the challenges and opportunities of the new breed of private-sector standards on environmental, food-safety, health and social standards for producers and exporters of fresh fruit and vegetables of developing countries. In particular, it summarizes the situation in Africa, dwelling on country studies for Ghana, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and Zambia.

      • Preview
        Production Methods in the WTO: Considerations for Colombian Biotrade (English)
        Working paper by Calle-Saldarriaga, Maria Alejandra, 2011, 50 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper aims to identify the role of consumers as catalysts of trade policy actions and regulations when implementing bioethical concerns embedded in process and production methods (PPMs), traditionally considered as Non Tariff Barriers and incompatible with the purpose of WTO member states obligations, especially taking the Colombian biotrade initiatives as an example.

      • Preview
        Promoting Green Foreign Direct Investment: Practices and Lessons from the Field (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2016, 8 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        Green technologies are becoming increasingly viable in commercial terms, making them bigger and better targets for investment promotion. UNCTAD describes green investment can be comprise of: investment in production processes with a reduced GHG impact; investment in clean energy generation; and investment in research and production facilities to manufacture GHG reducing products and provide related services. These are technology-intensive and often capital-intensive industries with technologies that are quickly evolving. In those developing countries, where green industries and practices are still nascent or non-existent, foreign companies are vital to jump-starting the low-carbon economy and should be more aggressively pursued. This note uses three case studies to extract lessons on how this can be done. It examines IPAs, including investment promotion and business development agencies from developed and emerging economies, in diverse locations and circumstances.

      • Preview
        Promoting Low-carbon Investment (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 75 pages
        Categories: Investment, Trade and Environment

        The Investment Advisory Series provides practical advice and case studies of best policy practice for attracting and benefiting from foreign direct investment (FDI), in line with national development strategies. The Series draws on the experiences gained in, and lessons learned through, UNCTAD’s capacity and institution building work in developing countries and countries with economies in transition. This Series deals with issues related to investment promotion and facilitation and to the work of investment promotion agencies (IPAs) and other institutions that promote FDI and provide information and services to investors. The publication is intended to be pragmatic, with a how-to focus, and includes toolkits and handbooks. The prime target audience for it is practitioners in the field of investment promotion and facilitation, mainly in IPAs.

      • Preview
        Promoting the Development of the South in the Trade and Climate Regimes (English)
        Note by South Centre, 2008, 13 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Trade and Environment

        This South Centre Analytical Note stresses that addressing the challenges of development and climate change requires an integrated approach. Both the trade and climate regimes have a role to play. In each case, a development perspective must guide discussions to ensure an outcome that advances the needs and aspirations of developing countries and their peoples. The shift to a low-carbon economy requires a range of measures to support developing countries, and sufficient development policy space to allow those countries to tailor approaches to their national contexts. In particular, developed countries must fulfil their existing international obligations in both the trade and climate regimes, and ensure that their development-related rhetoric is matched by the reality of their actions. This paper identifies a number of areas where developed countries are falling short in promoting development-oriented outcomes on trade and climate issues, and where further efforts should be made.

      • Preview
        Report of the Expert Meeting on Definitions and Dimensions of Environmental Goods and Services in Trade and Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, Trade and Development Board, 2003, 20 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        What: This meeting report outlines experts' view on benefits and risks of liberalization of environmental goods and services (EGS) but gives also a good overview of the environmental industry. Discusses advantages and disadvantages of public/private providers, e.g. in water and waste management. Who: Background reading for students and lecturers interested in a summary of experts' opinions on the liberalization process of environmental goods and services as well as background information such as EGS and technology, specific constraints in developing countries, weaknesses of the GATS agreement with regard to EGS etc. The paper offers recommendations for actions at national/international level and UNCTAD's role can be used as starting point for further discussion.

      • Preview
        Review of Analytical Tools for Assessing Trade and Climate Change Linkages
        Working paper by Truong, Truong P./ ARTNeT, 2010, 35 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        This paper briefly refers to the essential elements underlying the theoretical linkages between trade, economic development, and climate change, and reviews the analytical tools which are used to describe these linkages. The author looks specifically at a particular type of analytical tool called computable general equilibrium (CGE) models, and considers their strengths and limitations when used as a tool for the analysis of these trade and climate change linkages. The paper finds that the tool have been more useful than ‘misused’, and this explains for the popularity of its use in the past.

      • Preview
        Revisiting Sustainable Development (English)
        Book by UNRISD, 2015, 412 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        This volume is divided into two sections. The first contains texts related to the integrative nature of development, that is, the connections between economic, social and environmental dimensions. The second deals more specifically with particular sectoral or thematic issues and case studies from developing countries. These address issues related to agricultural modernization, rural development, food policy, forest destruction and protection, biodiversity conservation, urban sustainability and corporate environmental responsibility.

      • Preview
        The Road from Rio+20: Towards Sustainable Development Goals
        Paper by UNCTAD, 2014, 60 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        This fourth issue of the Rio+20 Journal, articulates some perspectives on post-2015 sustainable development goals and the contribution of international trade. The Journal includes views from several leading personalities on aspects of the development framework in the post-2015 period. In addition, this journal is aimed to help Governments and other stakeholders navigate the multitude of global issues facing the international community today and define a sustainable development framework that can have a major impact on poverty eradication across the globe in the years ahead.

      • Preview
        The Road to Rio+20 - For a Development-led Green Economy: Volume 1 (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2011, 108 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        This volume of essays provides a series of real world references for governments, businesses and civil society on approaches to the Green Economy. This issue also addresses gaps in implementation with one essay providing a 'historical perspective' tracing four decades of high and low points in the environment and development debate.

      • Preview
        The Road to Rio+20 - For a Development-led Green Economy: Volume 2 (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2011, 100 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        The green economy, within the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication, is one of the two themes of the 2012 Conference on Sustainable Development, to be held in Rio de Janeiro. It encompasses some of the most important challenges we face today: eradicating poverty, improving our relationship with the environment, addressing the potential negative impacts of global climate change, and creating a new path for sustainable development.

      • Preview
        The Role of International Trade in Climate Change Adaptation (English)
        Note by Nelson, Gerald; Palazzo, Amanda; Ringler, Claudia; Sulser, Timothy; Batka, Miroslav/UNCTAD, 2009, 24 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Environment

        Early studies on the potential impacts of climate change indicated that agriculture was not likely to be severely affected, as carbon fertilization and trade flows were thought to be able to compensate for any productivity declines related to climate change. Recent work, however, has raised doubts about whether carbon fertilization laboratory test results can be replicated in the field. With the effects of carbon fertilization in question, the role of trade in the context of climate change becomes even more important. Climate change is anticipated to increase the incidence of food insecurity around the world, but trade has the potential to help counteract this effect by delivering agricultural goods to areas experiencing productivity declines. This ICTSD-IPC Platform on Climate Change, Agriculture and Trade paper by Gerald Nelson and his colleagues at the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) builds on IFPRI’s important work on estimating the costs of adaptation, and projects a significant increase in agricultural trade flows, in particular from developed to developing countries. In its\\n recommendations to policymakers released in October, the ICTSD-IPC Platform on Climate Change, Agriculture and Trade emphasized that an open and equitable agricultural trade system is necessary to address both climate change and food security concerns. Yet, as this paper also argues, it would be unwise to rely solely on trade to help us adjust to climate change. Alongside ongoing efforts to maintain an open and equitable global food system, the international community must also importantly commit to sustained investment in agricultural productivity. We are pleased to release this paper, trusting that it will enhance the Platform’s efforts to increase understanding of the linkages between climate change, agricultural production, trade and food security, which in turn will yield greater policy coherence among these issues.

      • Preview
        Shared Harvests: Agriculture, Trade and Employment (English)
        Report by ILO and UNCTAD, 2013, 400 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The International Labour Office and UNCTAD have collaborated on this edited volume concerning how the agricultural sector affects the world of work and broad development processes. The emphasis is on the need to make agriculture a high policy priority, particularly in the domains of trade and employment. Policy makers can maximize the development benefits from agriculture by carefully considering agricultural trade policy.

      • Preview
        Some Reflections on Climate Change, Green Growth Illusions and Development Space (English)
        Discussion paper by Hoffmann, Ulrich, 2011, 34 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        Many economists and policy makers advocate a fundamental shift towards “green growth” as the new, qualitatively-different growth paradigm, based on enhanced material/resource/energy efficiency and drastic changes in the energy mix. “Green growth” may work well in creating new growth impulses with reduced environmental load and facilitating related technological and structural change. But can it also mitigate climate change at the required scale (i.e. significant, absolute and permanent decline of GHG emissions at global level) and pace? This paper argues that growth, technological, population-expansion and governance constraints as well as some key systemic issues cast a very long shadow on the “green growth” hopes. One should not deceive oneself into believing that such evolutionary (and often reductionist) approach will be sufficient to cope with the complexities of climate change. It may rather give much false hope and excuses to do nothing really fundamental that can bring about a U-turn of global GHG emissions. The proponents of a resource efficiency revolution and a drastic change in the energy mix need to scrutinize the historical evidence, in particular the arithmetic of economic and population growth. Furthermore, they need to realize that the required transformation goes beyond innovation and structural changes to include democratization of the economy and cultural change. Climate change calls into question the global equality of opportunity for prosperity (i.e. ecological justice and development space) and is thus a huge developmental challenge for the South and a question of life and death for some developing countries (who increasingly resist the framing of climate protection versus equity).

      • Preview
        Specific Trade Obligations in Multilateral Environmental Agreements (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 33 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: the article (Trade and Environment Review 2003, Article 1) gives background information for a discussion on the relationship between specific trade obligations (STOs) in multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) and WTO rules. What objectives do developing countries pursue in negotiations? What happens if STOs are not compatible with WTO rules? Who: anyone involved in research or policy-making related to environmental goods and trade. How: previous knowledge on WTO negotiations is needed, if the article is used as background reading for a course on trade and environment.

      • Preview
        STRATEGY ON SOLUTIONS FOR HARMONIZING INTERNATIONAL REGULATION OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE (Volume 2 (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2006, 95 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This volume represents a further step in the development of proposals on harmonization of the regulation of production and trade in products from organic agriculture. It was commissioned by the International Task Force on Harmonization and Equivalence in Organic Agriculture (ITF), which was established by IFOAM, FAO and UNCTAD in February 2003. The main paper in this volume aims to summarise: • the current situation • the problems experienced, and • the harmonization tools available and then • establish criteria for assessing potential harmonizing models • perform an initial analysis of likely models • recommend best options where possible • develop an initial work programme to lead towards a final workable harmonized model The volume also contains the reports of the third and fourth meetings of the ITF in November 2004 and February 2005, respectively.

      • Preview
        Sustainable Bioenergy Development in Uemoa Member Countries
        Report by ICTSD; the UN Foundation and the Energy and Security Group, 2008, 152 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        This report, led by the UN Foundation, in partnership with the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development and the Energy and Security Group, identifies opportunities, assesses constraints, identifies trade-offs, and outlines key policy issues for promoting sustainable production and use of bioenergy in the eight member countries of UEMOA. It also provides appropriate data to guide governments and international organizations as they consider smallholder production schemes to broaden the use of bioenergy as part of a comprehensive agriculture sector strategy, while reducing poverty and arresting environmental degradation.

      • Preview
        Sustainable Development Through Policy Integration in Latin America. A Comparative Approach
        Report by Rival, Laura, 2012, 24 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Environment

        This paper examines how social and political actors in Brazil and in Ecuador propose to govern natural resource use sustainably, and how they work at building an alternative political economy based on ecosystem protection, biodiversity, renewable energy use and poverty reduction.

      • Preview
        Sustainable Fisheries: International Trade, Trade Policy and Regulatory Issues (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2016, 42 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This note proposes an agenda for sustainable fisheries that promotes the conservation and sustainable use of, and sustained trade in, fish by all and ensures that development benefits accrue to fishing nations and their populations, in developing countries in particular. It provides a stock-taking of the present situation regarding fish, and a forward-looking view on future actions that need to be supported by renewed mandates for action by governments, the private sector and other fisheries stakeholders.

      • Preview
        Sustaining Peacebuilding and Post-Conflict Recovery Through Biotrade: Lessons from Indonesia and Colombia (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 35 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Trade and Environment

        This study discusses the different approaches being used by the BioTrade Initiative and its partners in the sustainable management of biodiversity, trading its derived products and services, and promoting peaceful and inclusive societies in Africa, Asia and Latin America. The first chapter highlights the linkages between trade, biodiversity and peaceful, inclusive societies which are important goals in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (Secretariat of the CBD, 2015c). It is followed by an analysis of the different methodologies used to promote BioTrade in support of peacebuilding efforts. The two following chapters analyse case studies and lessons learned from leveraging BioTrade in peacebuilding in Indonesia and Colombia, respectively. The final chapter concludes with some recommendations on strengthening the contribution BioTrade can make to peacebuilding efforts in post-conflict settings.

      • Preview
        Synthèse De La CNUCED, No.6, Soutenir L'agriculture Biologique En Afrique (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2009, 2 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Environment

        Agriculture has returned to the centre of international policy debates. Years of declining investment, inadequate extension services and the availability of subsidized food exports from the developed world have undermined agricultural production in many developing countries, particularly in Africa. This Policy Brief examines the potential contribution of organic agriculture.

      • Preview
        Technology and Innovation Report 2011: Powering Development with Renewable Energy Technologies (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 179 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade and Environment

        The TIR11 focuses on the role of renewable energy technologies in responding to the dual challenge of reducing energy poverty while mitigating climate change. The Report identifies key capacity issues for developing countries and proposes concrete recommendations for the wider use of renewable energy technologies to promote sustainable development and poverty reduction.

      • Preview
        Technology Transfer Issues in Environmental Goods and Services: An Illustrative Analysis of Sectors Relevant to Air-pollution and Renewable Energy (English)
        Report by Lynn Mytelka, 2007, 49 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade and Environment

        Environmental goods and services (EGS) as a subset of goods and services was singled out for attention in the negotiating mandate adopted at the Fourth Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in November 2001. This paper argues that much can be done within EGS and other areas of WTO negotiations, illustrating through various examples and case studies, the impediments countries face in obtaining meaningful access to environmentally sound technologies (ESTs). It goes on to question whether it is feasible to expect the Doha WTO negotiating process to deliver more on the technology transfer front than has so far been achieved. The paper concludes that there are still other aspects of the mandate and the process of negotiating trade that could be rethought from a broader technology transfer and sustainable development perspective. These involve recognizing the “public goods” element inherent in many ESTs and to open up opportunities for learning and capacity building and enhanced response capabilities in developing countries through flexibility, special and differential treatment and technical assistance. The paper calls for the identification of areas where such opportunities could be pursued, not only in EGS negotiations, but also in other areas of discussions such as subsidies, agriculture and Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights. The paper is part of a series of issue papers commissioned in the context of ICTSD’s Environmental Goods and Services Project.

      • Preview
        Trade and Biodiversity: The Biotrade Experiences in Latin America
        Paper by UNCTAD, 2012, 64 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        This paper illustrates the potential for developing Sustainable Environment Management practices such as BioTrade in Latin America. In 2008, these practices had already generated over $230 million in exports of sustainably-produced products and services derived for Latin American’s biodiversity. These results are presented through case studies built on the experiences of BioTrade practitioners and programmes at the national, regional and international levels

      • Preview
        Trade and Climate Change (English)
        Report by WTO / UNEP, 2009, 194 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        Mitigating global warming and adapting to its consequences will require major economic investment and, above all, unequivocal determination on the part of policy-makers. This joint report of the WTO Secretariat and the UNEP reviews how trade and climate change policies interact and how they can be mutually supportive. It examines the intersections between trade and climate change from four different but correlated perspectives: - the science of climate change, - trade theory, - multilateral efforts to tackle climate change, and - national climate change policies and their effect on trade. The report also reviews extensively two particular types of pricing mechanisms that have been used to reduce greenhouse gas emissions: taxes and emissions trading systems. Furthermore, it emphasises the need for a scientifically-credible and equitable deal at the UN Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen at the end of this year.

      • Preview
        Trade and Development Report 2009 - Responding to the Global Crisis. Climate Change Mitigation and Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2009, 218 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, International Financial System, Trade and Environment

        The Trade and Development Report series explores current economic trends and major policy issues of international concern, and makes suggestions for addressing these issues at various levels. This year's report analyses the ongoing global financial and economic crisis. It looks at the channels through which the crisis is spreading from developed countries to developing and transition economies. It examines the short-term policy responses of governments and discusses their respective advantages and disadvantages. By conducting an in-depth analysis of the causes and contributing factors of the current crises it emphasizes the need for a reform of the monetary and financial system both on the national and the international level. Given the pressing preoccupation with global warming, the report also addresses the question of how forward-looking development strategies and rapid growth in developing countries can be reconciled with climate change mitigation.

      • Preview
        Trade and Development Report 2009 - Responding to the Global Crisis. Climate Change Mitigation and Development - Overview English (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2009, 22 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, International Financial System, Trade and Environment

        The Trade and Development Report series explores current economic trends and major policy issues of international concern, and makes suggestions for addressing these issues at various levels. This year's report analyses the ongoing global financial and economic crisis. It looks at the channels through which the crisis is spreading from developed countries to developing and transition economies. It examines the short-term policy responses of governments and discusses their respective advantages and disadvantages. By conducting an in-depth analysis of the causes and contributing factors of the current crises it emphasizes the need for a reform of the monetary and financial system both on the national and the international level. Given the pressing preoccupation with global warming, the report also addresses the question of how forward-looking development strategies and rapid growth in developing countries can be reconciled with climate change mitigation.

      • Preview
        Trade and Environment Review 2003, Article 3 - Environmental Goods and Services: Challenges/Opportunities for Central American and Caribbean Countries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2003, 33 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: UNCTAD has been providing assistance to five Central American and two Caribbean countries with a view to enhancing their ability to participate effectively in WTO negotiations on trade and environment and address key trade and sustainable development linkages. These countries have identified the examination of implications of trade liberalization and strengthening of domestic capacities in environmental goods and services (EGS) as a priority issue to be addressed under the project "Building Capacity for Improved Policy Making and Negotiation on Key Trade and Environment Issues". The activities carried out thus far have provided valuable lessons learned that are reflected in this article. Who: Useful for teachers and students studying WTO negotiations on environmental goods and services. How: Can be used as a background reading for courses on negotiations on environmental goods and services.

      • Preview
        Trade and Environment Review 2006
        Report by UNCTAD, 2006, 296 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The TER 2006 focuses on environmental and related health requirements and their impact on developing countries´ market access. It examines both the opportunities and challenges presented by these requirements, which are increasingly stringent, complex and multi-dimensional. The Review includes both general and sectoral analyses of the issue, and looks at two sectors where environmental requirements are critical to market access: electrical and electronic equipment and organic agricultural products. The evidence presented in the Review supports recommendations for developing countries to adopt a more strategic and proactive approach to coping with environmental and related health requirements in export markets. This requires being involved from the initial stages of standards-setting, both in the context of government regulations and the increasing number of private-sector standards that apply across supply chains. A proactive approach is also needed in order to take full advantage of the trade and development opportunities generated by increased environmental and health requirements, such as expanding markets for organic products and catalytic effects on resource efficiency and occupational safety.

      • Preview
        Trade and Environment Review 2009/2010
        Review by UNCTAD, 2010, 230 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        While several rapidly industrializing developing countries have not seen a major slump in their growth by the recent economic and financial crises, UNCTAD´s Trade and Environment Review 2009/2010 (TER 09/10) focuses on the 140 plus low-income and least developed countries, which have not caused the economic, financial, climate and food crises (they account, for instance, for less than 10% of energy-related GHG emissions of all developing countries), but have to bear the full brunt of these crises. How can they effectively mitigate these inter-related crises while transiting to a qualitatively and structurally different growth and development model? The TER 09/10 singles out three areas of sustainable, "green" growth that are of particular and strategic importance for the low-income and least developed countries: 1) Enhancing energy efficiency, often implemented in combination with material and resource efficiency; 2) Mainstreaming sustainable agriculture, including organic agriculture; and 3) Harnessing the use of off-grid renewable energy technologies for sustainable rural development.

      • Preview
        Trade and Environment Review 2013, Wake Up Before It is Too Late: Make Agriculture Truly Sustainable Now for Food Security in a Changing Climate
        Review by UNCTAD, 2013, 341 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, Trade and Poverty

        According to the report, the continuing rural poverty, persistent hunger around the world, growing populations, and mounting environmental concerns must be treated as a collective crisis. The developing and developed countries should make a shift in agricultural development from a "green revolution" to a "truly ecological intensification" approach. More than 60 international experts have contributed their views of the challenges and the most suitable strategic approaches for dealing holistically with the inter-related problems of hunger and poverty, rural livelihoods, social and gender inequity, poor health and nutrition, climate change and environmental sustainability.

      • Preview
        Trade, Environment and Development (English)
        Background note by UNCTAD, Trade and Development Board, 2003, 17 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        What: Background note for the Commission on Trade and Goods in Services, and Commodities, Geneva 2004. The note gives a brief summary of the Doha work programme on negotiations on environmental issues and the World Summit on Sustainable Development. It outlines very briefly all relevant issues in the field of trade and environment, such as biosafety, traditional knowledge, environmental goods and services. The background note is also available in Spanish and French. Who: anyone who wants to get a quick overview about: intergovernmental developments related to the issue of trade and environment, key trade and environment issues as well as UNCTAD's related work. How: The background note serves only as a starting point/summary and needs additional readings.

      • Preview
        Trade, Environment and Development:The Brazilian Experience (English)
        Discussion Paper by Luciana Togeiro de Almeida, Mario Ferreira Presser and Stela Luiza de Mattos Ansa, 2004, 38 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, VI Members Research

        This paper argues that there is a need for reconsideration of the conventional methodologies applied to the study of the relationships of mutual causality involving trade, environment and development, giving priority to historical-inductive approaches

      • Preview
        The Trade in Wildlife - A Framework to Improve Biodiversity and Livelihood Outcomes (English)
        Report by ITC, 2015, 46 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        Amid global concern about biodiversity loss and the surge in illegal trade of threatened species, international policy has turned its attention to trade restrictions, enforcement measures and demand-reduction strategies. This analytical framework recommends that policy decisions should balance factors related to the species and its habitat; governance and institutional settings; supply-chain structure; and markets. These factors include species resilience, distribution and accessibility; property rights and policies such as CITES listings, quotas and bans; production costs, intermediaries, monopolies and stockpiling; and market demand elasticity and size.

      • Preview
        Trade Remedies: Targeting the Renewable Energy Sector (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 50 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The report disputes the adverse effects of trade remedies on the renewable energy sector. It explains how anti-dumping and countervailing duties implemented by both developed and developing countries contradict the pre-existing climate and environmental policies put into place to advance the renewable energy sector. This report is useful for courses in environmental trade and policy as it will generate in-depth debate on the positive and negative aspects of trade protection policy. It provides a survey of cases studies from the Great Recession in 2008 until 2014, recent trade disputes presented to the World Trade Organization, and a literature overview on the topic in order to better analyses the results of these policy measures and further determine how to advance the green economy.

      • Preview
        Training Module on the WTO Agreement on Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (trips) (English)
        Manual by Correa, Carlos/ UNCTAD, 2010, 60 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This module commences by providing background – including a historical perspective – on IPRs and the TRIPS Agreement. Then, chapter II offers a brief overview of different IPRs followed by chapter III, which discusses the interlinkages between IPRs and development. In so doing, chapter III looks at key aspects, including sector-specific impacts of IPRs, the impact of IPRs on gross domestic product (GDP) and the impact of IPRs on the private sector and on key public policy issues. Chapter IV provides a short description of the TRIPS Agreements and its main cross-cutting and IPR-specific provisions. Finally, chapter VI sketches out how the TRIPS Agreement evolves, most importantly through dispute settlement and the built-in agenda.

      • Preview
        UNCTAD BioTrade Initiative: BioTrade Principles and Criteria (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2007, 20 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        The BioTrade Principles and Criteria have been defined by the UNCTAD BioTrade Initiative and the BioTrade national programmes, and provide the core of the conceptual framework underlying the BioTrade Initiative´s activities. They are in line with the objectives and principles of the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Commission on Sustainable Development and the Millennium Development Goals; they take into account the relevance of trade for specific species and ecosystems, supporting the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification and the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. The Principles and Criteria can be applied in different contexts, driving BioTrade processes to promote the conservation of biodiversity through sustainable commercial use. This publication sets out the criteria that BioTrade actors, wanting to use practices that are economically, socially and environmentally sustainable, should aspire

      • Preview
        UNCTAD Policy Brief: Building a Development-led Green Economy (no. 23 - June 2011) (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 2 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Environment

        This policy brief describes the challenges faced by governments in transiting to a green economy.It emphasises that a viable transition must take into consideration constraints on growth, competitive disadvantages and unequal benefits, especially for developing countries,and that specific support must be given to green industries to promote this environmentally and socially sustainable economy strategy.

      • Preview
        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 18 - Agriculture at the crossroads (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2010, 2 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Environment

        For a large number of developing countries, agriculture remains the single most important sector. Climate change has the potential to damage irreversibly the natural resource base on which agriculture depends, with grave consequences for food security in developing countries. However,agriculture is the sector that has the potential to transcend from being a problem to becoming an essential part of the solution to climate change provided there is a more holistic vision of food security, climate-change adaptation and mitigation as well as agriculture’s pro-poor development contribution. What is required is a rapid and significant shift from conventional, industrial,monoculture-based and high-external-input dependent production towards mosaics of sustainable production systems that also considerably improve the productivity of small-scale farmers. The required transformation is however much more fundamental than simply tweaking the existing industrial agricultural systems.

      • Preview
        UNCTAD Policy Briefs, No.6, Sustaining African Agriculture - Organic Production (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2009, 2 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Environment

        Agriculture has returned to the centre of international policy debates. Years of declining investment, inadequate extension services and the availability of subsidized food exports from the developed world have undermined agricultural production in many developing countries, particularly in Africa. This Policy Brief examines the potential contribution of organic agriculture.

      • Preview
        Unctad Technology and Innovation Report 2011: Powering Development with Renewable Energy Technologies - Overview (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 37 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade and Environment

        The TIR11 focuses on the role of renewable energy technologies in responding to the dual challenge of reducing energy poverty while mitigating climate change. The Report identifies key capacity issues for developing countries and proposes concrete recommendations for the wider use of renewable energy technologies to promote sustainable development and poverty reduction.

      • Preview
        US Trade Policies on Biofuels and Sustainable Development (English)
        Report by Earley, Jane /Earley & White Consulting Group LLC, 2009, 54 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        Biofuel in the United States of America (USA) is primarily ethanol produced from corn. Although new legislation in the form of a recent Farm Bill and an ambitious biofuels mandate looks toward increased production of other forms of bioenergy, such as cellulosic biofuels, there is little commercial production at this time. Without significant policy shifts, production of cellulosic biofuels on a commercial scale is unlikely to occur as rapidly as envisioned by the Renewable Fuels mandate in the face of current incentives to produce ethanol from corn. Without such shifts, increasing corn ethanol production will continue to contribute to increased stress on land and water resources, loss of wildlife habitat and conservation-dedicated land, and increased levels of hypoxia in water bodies from nitrate run-off. It will also continue to contribute to increased food and animal feed prices, low carry-over stocks and food price volatility.

      • Preview
        The Value of Forests: Payments for Ecosystem Services in a Green Economy
        Paper by UNEP, UNECE and FAO, 2013, 92 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        This publication is a joint effort of UNEP, UNECE and FAO and discusses the concept of Payment for ecosystem services(PES) which is a tool to enable a forest owner or owners to capture the financial benefits from the positive externalities derived from forest ecosystem services and encourage them to continue to provide these services to another party or society at large. This paper also discusses the various approaches, applications and resulting benefits of the PES in the UNECE region. It also covers some negatives that could occur without good policy in place. It uses lessons learned to provide guidance on what is needed for the success of PES schemes and their possible future.

      • Preview
        Water for Food: Innovative Water Management Technologies for Food Security and Poverty Alleviation (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 39 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Science and Technology, Trade and Environment

        The publication addresses the water-food-poverty nexus in agricultural development. Modern irrigation systems have allowed for increased food production, but population growth and climate change are generating concerns about the food and water security. The study presents water management technologies and dicusses how developing countries can have better access to these.

      • Preview
        World Development Report 2010: Development and Climate Change
        Report by World Bank, 2010, 444 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        Today's enormous development challenges are complicated by the reality of climate change—the two are inextricably linked and together demand immediate attention. Climate change threatens all countries, but particularly developing ones. Understanding what climate change means for development policy is the central aim of the World Development Report 2010. It explores how public policy can change to better help people cope with new or worsened risks, how land and water management must adapt to better protect a threatened natural environment while feeding an expanding and more prosperous population, and how energy systems will need to be transformed. The report is an urgent call for action, both for developing countries who are striving to ensure policies are adapted to the realities and dangers of a hotter planet, and for high-income countries who need to undertake ambitious mitigation while supporting developing countries efforts. A climate-smart world is within reach if we act now to tackle the substantial inertia in the climate, in infrastructure, and in behaviors and institutions; if we act together to reconcile needed growth with prudent and affordable development choices; and if we act differently by investing in the needed energy revolution and taking the steps required to adapt to a rapidly changing planet. In the crowded field of climate change reports, WDR 2010 uniquely: emphasizes development, takes an integrated look at adaptation and mitigation, highlights opportunities in the changing competitive landscape and how to seize them, proposes policy solutions grounded in analytic work and in the context of the political economy of reform.

      • Preview
        World Investment Report 2010: Investing in a Low-carbon Economy
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 221 pages
        Categories: Investment, Trade and Environment

        The World Investment Report 2010 highlights a promising outlook: after a significant global FDI downturn in 2009, flows worldwide are expected to recover slightly this year, with a stronger recovery in 2011 and 2012. The Report focuses on climate change, and in particular the role of transnational corporations. As enterprises with formidable knowledge, cutting-edge technology, and global reach, TNCs are necessarily among the primary actors in the global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and shift towards a low-carbon economy. The Report stresses that with the right policy initiatives, incentives and regulatory framework, TNCs can and must contribute significantly to both mitigation and adaptation. It also proposes a global partnership to galvanize low-carbon investment and advocates concrete initiatives such as a new technical assistance centre to support policy formulation and implementation in developing countries.

      • Preview
        World Investment Report 2010: Investing in a Low-carbon Economy - Overview
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2010, 54 pages
        Categories: Investment, Trade and Environment

        The World Investment Report 2010 highlights a promising outlook: after a significant global FDI downturn in 2009, flows worldwide are expected to recover slightly this year, with a stronger recovery in 2011 and 2012. The Report focuses on climate change, and in particular the role of transnational corporations. As enterprises with formidable knowledge, cutting-edge technology, and global reach, TNCs are necessarily among the primary actors in the global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and shift towards a low-carbon economy. The Report stresses that with the right policy initiatives, incentives and regulatory framework, TNCs can and must contribute significantly to both mitigation and adaptation. It also proposes a global partnership to galvanize low-carbon investment and advocates concrete initiatives such as a new technical assistance centre to support policy formulation and implementation in developing countries.

      • Preview
        World Investment Report 2010: Investing in a Low-carbon Economy - Overview (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 54 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment

        A key question is to what extent countries gain from open trade in natural resources. Some of the issues examined in the Report include the role of trade in providing access to natural resources, the effects of international trade on the sustainability of natural resources, the environmental impact of resources trade, the so-called natural resources curse, and resource price volatility. The Report examines a range of key measures employed in natural resource sectors, such as export taxes, tariffs and subsidies, and provides information on their current use. It analyzes in detail the effects of these policy tools on an economy and on its trading partners. Finally, the Report provides an overview of how natural resources fit within the legal framework of the WTO and discusses other international agreements that regulate trade in natural resources. A number of challenges are addressed, including the regulation of export policy, the treatment of subsidies, trade facilitation, and the relationship between WTO rules and other international agreements.

      • Preview
        World Trade Report 2010: Trade in Natural Resources (English)
        Report by WTO, 2010, 256 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        A key question is to what extent countries gain from open trade in natural resources. Some of the issues examined in the Report include the role of trade in providing access to natural resources, the effects of international trade on the sustainability of natural resources, the environmental impact of resources trade, the so-called natural resources curse, and resource price volatility. The Report examines a range of key measures employed in natural resource sectors, such as export taxes, tariffs and subsidies, and provides information on their current use. It analyzes in detail the effects of these policy tools on an economy and on its trading partners. Finally, the Report provides an overview of how natural resources fit within the legal framework of the WTO and discusses other international agreements that regulate trade in natural resources. A number of challenges are addressed, including the regulation of export policy, the treatment of subsidies, trade facilitation, and the relationship between WTO rules and other international agreements.

      • Preview
        WTO Negotiations on Environmental Goods: Selected Technical Issues (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2011, 28 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper highlights some technical issues on the Doha Round of WTO negotiations, focusing on environmental goods, regulations covering environmental markets, the definition and scope of environmental products, and how to negotiate non-tariff concessions.

Login