A partnership with academia

Building knowledge for trade and development

    • Resources exploring trends in and features of the international commodity economy, including commodity dependence, trends and policies related to key commodity sectors such as agriculture and extractive industries, and possible strategies for increasing commodity competitiveness in developing countries.
      • Preview
        2004 Development and Globalization: Facts and Figures (English)
        Report by UNCTAD/GDS Division, 2004, 119 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Finance for Development, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This publication provides data on major economic trends in developing countries: finance and debt, international trade in commodities and manufactures, investment, information and communication technology.

      • Preview
        The 2008 Food Price Crisis: Rethinking Food Security Policies (English)
        Discussion paper by Mittal, Anuradha/UNCTAD, 2009, 40 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment

        This paper examines the 2008 global food price crisis, identifying long- and short-term causes as well as the two factors which distinguish the 2008 food price increases from earlier episodes – speculation and diversion of food crops to biofuels. The paper contends that while most attention has been focused on factors including higher energy costs, decline in growth of agricultural production and increased demand from emerging economies, it is essential to examine the structural causes of growing food insecurity to understand what is really behind the food price crisis. It then explores the impact of several factors including systemic decline in investment in agricultural productivity; state’s reduced regulatory role in agricultural production and trade; indiscriminate opening of agricultural markets which has resulted in import surges, and emphasis on cash crops, on food security of developing nations. The\\n paper also examines both national and international responses to the crisis and goes on to propose several short-term and long-term measures to address the crisis. The implementation of the proposed policies, the paper argues, however depends on several prerequisites based on the principle of food sovereignty which would allow policy space for developing countries to protect their agriculture, markets, and livelihoods of farmers.

      • Preview
        Addressing the Global Food Crisis: Key Trade, Investment and Commodity Policies in Ensuring Sustainable Food Security and Alleviating Poverty (English)
        Note by UNCTAD - CNUCED, 2008, 61 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Science and Technology, Trade and Poverty

        UNCTAD publishes this document after a period of price rises and shortages in food commodities - which has led to a "global food crisis" - and in the light of discussions held at UNCTAD XII in Accra on UNCTAD's potential role in ameliorating the crisis. The paper is therefore divided into two sections, addressing the underlying causes of the crisis and the potential policy response to it, including UNCTAD's contribution. The first half of the paper gives a useful summary of the underlying causes of food price rises and shortages: this includes the supply-demand imbalance, the role of speculation and export constraints, the rise in energy costs and the impact of biofuels, low agricultural productivity in developing countries and the lack of investment and aid in agricultural technologies, the multilateral environment and rules governing agriculture, and the role of competition. The second half of the paper looks at the policy responses to these factors and it maybe useful for students to discuss their application to individual country cases.

      • Preview
        Advanced Training Tools for Multilateral Trade Negotiations on Agriculture (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2003, 69 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This training module serves to inform trade experts and negotiators of developing countries of the major economic trends in agricultural trade and of the multilateral rules, which govern the trade in agricultural products. In so doing, it also serves to put the current WTO trade negotiations in agriculture in context.

      • Preview
        Agricultural Subsidies in the WTO Green Box: Ensuring Coherence with Sustainable Development Goals (English)
        Report by Meléndez-Ortiz, Ricardo; Bellmann, Christophe; Hepburn, Jonathan/ICTSD, 2009, 16 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Current WTO requirements set no ceiling on the amount of green box subsidies that governments can provide, on the basis that these payments cause only minimal trade distortion. Governments are thus increasingly shifting their subsidy spending into this category, as they come under pressure to reduce subsidies that are more directly linked to production. However, growing evidence suggests that green box payments can affect production and trade, harm farmers in developing countries and cause environmental damage. This information note summarises some of the findings.

      • Preview
        An Analysis of the Agricultural Domestic Support under the Uruguay Round Agreement: the Blue Box (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2003, 69 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: Domestic agricultural support is a sensitive issue for all countries producing agricultural commodities. Some countries grant large subsidies to producers, while others cannot afford such expensive policies. The Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture was a first step towards improving competition in the field of international agricultural trade. The new agenda of negotiations, agreed at the Doha Ministerial Conference, set new challenges for negotiators in terms of market access, export subsidies and domestic support. Although those three areas are linked to each other and are of importance, this short paper is not intended to address the whole problem but to focus on "Blue Box" measures in the context of domestic support. This paper will define the Blue Box, describe the type of subsidies used under it and briefly analyse its potential for trade distortion. Who: For teachers, students and researchers on agricultural subsidies and its effects on international trade. How: This study can be used as a background reading for issues on the effects of agricultural subsidies in international trade.

      • Preview
        Assuring Food Security In Developing Countries Under The Challenges Of Climate Change (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2011, 50 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment

        For a large number of developing countries, agriculture remains the single most important sector. Climate change has the potential to damage irreversibly the natural resource base on which agriculture depends, with grave consequences for food security. However, agriculture is the sector that has the potential to transcend from being a problem to becoming an essential part of the solution to climate change provided there is a more holistic vision of food security, agricultural mitigation, climate-change adaptation and agriculture’s pro-poor development contribution. What is required is a rapid and significant shift from conventional, industrial, monoculture-based and high-external-input dependent production towards mosaics of sustainable production systems that also considerably improve the productivity of small-scale farmers. The required transformation is much more profound than simply tweaking the existing industrial agricultural systems. However, the sheer scale at which modified production methods would have to be adopted, the significant governance and market-structure challenges at national and international level and the considerable difficulties involved in measuring, reporting and verifying reductions in GHG emissions pose considerable challenges.

      • Preview
        Back to Basics: Market access issues in the Doha Agenda (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Division on International Trade in Goods and Services and Commodities , 2003, 73 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: This report reviews the problem of market access for developing countries. It provides an analysis of the impacts of tariff barriers by focusing on the potential gains of trade liberalization and the challenges for developing countries of the WTO negotiations on market access. Who: This paper is an excellent reading for anyone interested in market access for developing countries and particularly in commodities trade. Gives interesting up-to-date tables and charts. The bibliography provides references for further readings.

      • Preview
        Basel 2: The new basel capital accord and its impact on commodity financing in developing countries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2006, 39 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        This report explores the link between the new Basel Capital Accord and commodity finance for developing countries. It explains the basic principles of Basel 2, and how various mechanisms have been built into the Accord which can, in principle, help developing countries to mitigate or overcome any a priori negative effects. It then explores mechanisms such as structured finance and collateral management which can isolate certain transactions from high provisioning requirements, highlights the critical steps that developing countries and their banks can take, and discusses what international banks and the international community can do to protect commodity finance flows to developing countries.

      • Preview
        Biodiversity and Trade: Promoting Sustainable Use Through Business Engagement (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 32 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade Facilitation, Trade Related Capacity Building

        This paper reports on the key discussion points and presentations at the III Biotrade Congress held by the International Trade in Goods and Services, and Commodities Division in the Republic of Korea in 2014. The Congress aimed to foster discussions and stimulate debate on new approaches and schemes to promote the sustainable use and trade of biodiversity, legal access and benefit sharing when engaging in BioTrade activities. It provided an important and useful platform for business engagement and multi-stakeholder dialogue on issues related to sustainability and biological diversity. Different views and perspectives on the new challenges and opportunities ahead in the BioTrade area were shared, such as the Nagoya Protocol’s entry into force. For the effective implementation of the Nagoya Protocol, there is a need for tailor-made technical assistance to governments, businesses and other relevant stakeholders. Different practices and tools applicable to sustainable sourcing and corporate social (and environmental) responsibility in the cosmetic, traditional medicine, fashion design and tourism sectors exist. The importance and value of openness and transparency along the value chains and the need for inclusive processes were stressed. Some reflections were shared on the importance given by consumers to sustainability and its impact to business branding strategies. Many tools were identified such as assessments, guidelines, codes of conduct, standards, traceability systems, certification, public-private partnerships (PPPs) and accountability practices. The Congress recognized the value of partnerships and cooperation by all participants and organizations involved, as well as with relevant stakeholders in the field.

      • Preview
        Biofuel Production Technologies: Status, Prospects and Implications for Trade and Development (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD Larson, Eric D./ Princeton University, 2008, 49 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Science and Technology, Trade and Environment

        This publication provides information about biofuels for use in helping to understand technology-related implications of biofuels development. It seeks to (a)provide some context for understanding the limitations of first-generation biofuels; (b) provide meaningful descriptions accessible to non-experts of second-generation biofuel technologies; (c) present salient energy, carbon, and economic comparisons between first and second-generation biofuels; and (d) finally, to speculate on the implications for trade and development of future expansion in global production and use of biofuels.

      • Preview
        Biofuel Production, Trade and Sustainable Development (English)
        Discussion paper by ICTSD, 2009, 102 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment

        Unstable oil prices, the challenge of climate-change mitigation, and growing concerns over energy security are driving a growth in global production of bioenergy, particularly liquid biofuels such as ethanol and biodiesel, with implications for agriculture, energy, environment, development and trade. Biofuels could offer countries the potential to curb carbon dioxide emissions, reduce dependence on imported fuels, and maintain production and generate new employment in the agricultural sector. For many countries, the potential of biofuels is contemplated in terms of supplying domestic energy needs and exports. Although international trade in biofuels is still limited - it is estimated that currently only one-tenth of global production worldwide is traded internationally - international trade in biofuels is expected to grow considerably given the divide between countries with comparatively lower production costs and countries with the greatest demand for biofuels. Clearly, social, economic and environmental opportunities abound…

      • Preview
        Challenges and Opportunities for Developing Countries in Producing Biofuels (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2006, 26 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        What: The increase in oil prices has had the effect of improving the commercial viability of alternatives to oil. One group of energy bearers that has benefited particularly and that is of major potential importance to developing countries is biofuels. This study will present the evolution of international trade of biofuels and feedstock, and current trade regulations (tariffs and non-tariffs measures). It will also briefly detail current incentive policies in the EU and the United States for developing biofuels and look for indications of the policy they will adopt regarding consumption and import of biofuels. The study will then turn to issues relevant for biofuels production in developing countries. It will try to analyze what is at stake about food security, land uses, employment, public finance and environmental concerns. The final section of the study will identify some recent development of prices.

      • Preview
        Climate Change and China’s Agricultural Sector: An Overview of Impacts, Adaptation and Mitigation (English)
        Policy brief by Wang, Jinxia; Huang, Jikun; Rozelle, Scott/ ICTSD, 2010, 39 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment

        Agriculture accounts for more than 15 percent of China’s total greenhouse gas emissions, nearly 90 percent of nitrous oxide emissions, and 60 percent of methane emissions. Excessive fertilizer use is not only fueling a major portion of the nitrous oxide emissions but also is raising alarm about water pollution from agriculture. At the same time, however, there is opportunity for China’s agriculture sector to play a role in mitigating against climate change through carbon sequestration and adopting production methods that reduce emissions. In addition, the potential impact of climate change on agricultural production and prices in China could have tremendous implications for both domestic and international markets, due to the sheer size of China’s domestic demand for agricultural products.

      • Preview
        Climate Change and Developing Country Agriculture: An Overview of Expected Impacts, Adaptation and Mitigation Challenges, and Funding Requirements (English)
        Article by Keane, Jodie; Page, Sheila; Kergna, Alpha and Kennan, Jane/UNCTAD, 2009, 61 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Finance for Development, Trade and Environment

        Agricultural trade flows depend on the interaction between trade policy and inherent comparative advantage. Not only is the agricultural sector highly vulnerable to climate change, it is also one of the sectors most distorted and heavily influenced by a wide range of local, regional, national and international trade policies. The increased stress to the system brought about by climate change makes reform in global agricultural policies arguably even more important. Even if the most ambitious climate change mitigation measures are adopted, global temperatures are likely to increase by at least 2 degree C since pre-industrial levels by the end of this century, if not sooner; the intensity and frequency of extreme climatic conditions are expected to increase and the predictability of normal rainy seasons, decrease.6 Poor countries with a large rural economy depend on agricultural exports for their fiscal and socio-political stability; climate change could potentially jeopardise agricultural export earnings unless alternatives can be sought or climate proof investments are made. But what are the alternative sources of export earnings? Given the potential impact of climate change on agricultural production, this document sets out to assess how producers might adapt, particularly in relation to new markets for agricultural products and services related to climate change mitigation efforts.

      • Preview
        Coffee, Cooperation and Competition: A Comparative Study of Colombia and Vietnam (English)
        Study by Adriana Roldán-Pérez, Maria-Alejandra Gonzalez-Perez, Pham Thu Huong, Dao Ngoc Tien, 2009
        Categories: Commodities, Competitiveness, VI Members Research

        This Virtual Institute Joint Project between Vi members EAFIT University and Foreign Trade University identifies links and dynamics in the value chain in both Colombia and Vietnam that have been developed in their respective coffee industries in order to improve competitiveness, increase sustainability and respond to market demands.

      • Preview
        The Coffee Exporter's Guide
        Book by ITC, 2012, 267 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        The coffee guide provides a detailed overview of the world trade practices relating to exporting coffee. The guide covers international coffee contracts, logistics, insurance, dispute resolution, futures markets, risk management and hedging, trade financing and collateral management issues. Quality control issues and new trends in the coffee trade, such as electronic commerce and sustainability schemes, are also outlined.

      • Preview
        The Coffee Sector in China: an Overview of Production, Trade and Consumption (English)
        Report by ITC, 2010, 31 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        The report comprises information on coffee production, export, import, processing and consumption in China. It covers the mainland of the People’s Republic of China, hereinafter referred to as China, but does not include Hong Kong SAR (Special Administrative Region) and Macao SAR. As the Chinese consumer market for coffee is still in the early stages of maturation, traditional institutions for record keeping and tracking industry trends do not yet exist as they do in more developed coffee markets. This report is based on a combination of primary and secondary data, collected from telephone interviews, news articles, press releases, published market research reports, and government statistical reporting.

      • Preview
        Commodities and Development Report - Perennial Problems, New Challenges and Evolving Perspectives
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 178 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Poverty, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The aim of this report is to consider the factors that have shaped the commodities sector in recent years and in particular, the implications of the commodity boom of 2003–2008 for commodity-dependent developing countries.

      • Preview
        Commodities at a Glance. Special Issue on Energy
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 67 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies

        This quarter’s edition of UNCTAD’s Commodities at a Glance describes world energy trade, price, production and consumption trends, with a particular focus on Africa. Over the last three decades, world consumption of primary energy nearly doubled from 280 quadrillion British thermal unit (BTU) in 1980 to 490 quadrillion Btu in 2008 (see Figure 4). A number of factors have been attributed to this dramatic increase in consumption including global economic growth, rapidly industrializing developing countries, increasing world population and urbanization. Over the next two decades, the world population is forecast to grow from approximately 7 billion to 8.32 billion, with the likelihood of rising demand for primary energy resources. International Energy Agency (IEA) projections suggest that between 2008 and 2035 global demand for such resources will increase by 36 per cent or 1.2 per cent per year on average. Most of this projected increase is expected to come from non-OECD countries, particularly India and China, accounting for 18 per cent and 36 per cent respectively of this increase. The Middle East is expected to experience the most rapid demand growth at 2 per cent per year largely due to fast growing energy demand sectors, such as petrochemical industries and power generation. Demand in Africa, particularly sub-Saharan Africa, is also expected to grow as electricity supply needs to increase in response to population growth. However, a lack of infrastructure in the region is expected to limit access to primary energies, and demand growth is projected to match the world average at 1.2 per cent per year. Together, non-OECD countries will account for about 93 per cent of global primary energy demand growth by 2035.

      • Preview
        Commodities under Neoliberalism: The Case of Cocoa (English)
        Discussion Paper by Irfan ul Haque, 2004, 35 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        What: This strongly argued paper examines the impacts of market liberalization on cocoa producers countries and argues that low prices and volatility, as a consequence of market liberalization, explain the declining share of developing countries in cocoa exports. Who: For anyone interested in commodities issues and who wants a controversial point of view on the subject. How: Could be used as a background reading for any course which looks at the political economy of commodity markets.

      • Preview
        Commodity Dependence and Development: Suggestions to Tackle the Commodities Problem (English)
        Report by South Centre; ActionAid, 2008, 33 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Competition Policy, Finance for Development

        This report has the objective to provide solutions for the commodities problem in developing countries. Causes and implications for the commodity problem are analysed such as price volatility and market concentration, followed by a case study on market concentration in the coffee sector and policy recommendations.

      • Preview
        Commodity Dependency (English)
        Article by Oscar Farfan, 2005, 38 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Poverty, VI Members Research

        Prepared for the Investment Climate Unit International Finance Corporation The World Bank Group This paper uses the Global Value Chain (GVC) framework to discuss commodity dependency and options for economic upgrading in small developing countries. GVC analysis differs from comparable approaches in that it looks at the dynamics of firms/countries within global production networks and focuses on productive “systems” as opposed to sectors or industries in isolation. Examining global commodity chains through the GVC lenses leads to the conclusion that inserting small developing countries into global markets through commodity exports is not sufficient to sustain real income growth, and may even prove detrimental to their long-term development prospects. Only by virtue of upgrading export industries – which entails moving towards differentiated products with a higher content of technology, skills and innovation – will developing countries be in a position to seize the opportunities brought about by globalization.

      • Preview
        Composite Index of Market Access for the Export of Rice from Uruguay
        Discussion paper by Alfaro, Daniela; Pérez del Castillo, Carlos/ ICTSD, 2010, 37 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade Facilitation

        This study explores the sorts of market access barriers that rice exports from Uruguay face and generates a Composite Index of Market Access for the most significant markets. What stops Uruguayan farmers from selling more rice to other countries? Ambassador Perez del Castillo and Professor Alfaro investigate this question and work out a figure that captures taxes imposed by other countries at the border, payments that overseas governments make to their own growers, the cost of meeting health standards, and other issues. They find that these barriers limit the flow of rice from Uruguay - even when other countries' border taxes are low.

      • Preview
        Cooperation in Coffee Markets: The Case of Vietnam and Colombia
        Article by Gonzalez-Perez, Maria-Alejandra, and Gutierrez-Viana, Santiago, 2012, 18 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Competitiveness, VI Members Research

        Based on a 2008-2009 joint research project between Universidad EAFIT, Colombia, and Vietnam's Foreign Trade University, this article uses value chain analysis to find that although Colombia and Vietnam produce different types of coffee, and have implemented diverse strategies in order to be more competitive in domestic and foreign markets via product differentiation, there is room for cooperation between these two countries in an international environment where fierce competition persists.

      • Preview
        Development Impacts of Commodity Exchanges in Emerging Markets (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2009, 232 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        The study suggests that a commodity exchange – and specific commodity contracts – can be successfully established under a broad range of market conditions. Exchanges have functioned in economies that are open, but also in economies that are restricted. They have been established in the context of economic reform, political transition, and as a function of ongoing market development. Exchanges have developed in countries where smallholder production is the predominant mode, and in others where there is a duality between smallholder and commercial production. Contracts have been developed for commodities that are grown mainly for consumption in the domestic market, and also for commodities that are mainly exported to international markets. While many exchanges operate in countries where market infrastructure, institutions and procedures are highly developed and national markets are integrated, the study shows that they have also been successfully established in countries where markets are in need of substantial further development and integration.

      • Preview
        Dinámica Del Comercio Ilícito De Personas: El Caso De Colombia-oriente Asiático1 (English)
        Article by Hurtado, Monica and Pereira, Catherine Universidad de La Sabana, 2012, 28 pages
        Categories: Commodities, VI Members Research

        Este estudio caracteriza la dinámica de la trata transnacional de personas con fines de explotación sexual desde su dimensión como negocio. Con base en la revisión de expedientes judiciales colombianos (2005-2011), se analizó la interacción entre víctimas, tratantes e intermediarios involucrados en casos de trata entre Colombia y el Oriente Asiático. Esta investigación sostiene que en ocasiones las víctimas de trata tienen una doble condición: por un lado, son sujetos, en la medida que toman decisiones, y por otro, son objetos en situaciones en las que no pueden ejercer su voluntad. El hecho de que las víctimas tomen decisiones con base en información asimétrica facilita su explotación, y explica en parte por qué la trata de personas es un negocio ilícito rentable y creciente. Entre los hallazgos del presente estudio, se estimó la rentabilidad que produce una víctima colombiana a una red en Hong Kong o Singapur, y se identificaron criterios para establecer su situación de explotación.

      • Preview
        The Doha Round and Food Security in the Dairy Sector in Cameroon: A Global Simulation Model (gsim) Approach (English)
        Discussion paper by Roland R. Leudjou, 2012, 20 pages
        Categories: Commodities, VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        In the framework of the new round of trade liberalization launched in Doha, paragraph 13 of the Development Declaration states that members will support special and differential treatment to accommodate development, including food security. This article simulates scenarios of multilateral tariff reduction from the WTO December 2008 draft modalities on agriculture for the Cameroon dairy sector. Using the Global Simulation Model, the analysis shows a substantial increase in world and domestic consumer prices, as the reduction of bound tariffs does not affect the applied tariffs given the high “binding overhang”. As a consequence, consumers’ welfare decreases.

      • Preview
        Don’t Blame the Physical Markets: Financialization is the Root Cause of Oil and Commodity Price Volatility (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2012, 4 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The sharp price movements of many primary commodities, including oil, have fuelled intense debate about the causes of the price hikes and possible remedies. Growing demand from large developing economies and frequent supply shocks, such as adverse weather and export bans, are generally accepted as more tangible factors that explain volatility, rather than the hundreds of billions of dollars of bets placed on expectations of temporarily rising prices. Despite a growing body of evidence on the destabilizing influences emanating from financial markets, the “real economy” explanations still dominate the debate. It is not commonly recognized that demand from financial investors in the commodity markets has become overwhelming during the last decade. Of course, supply and demand shocks can still move commodity prices time and again. But with the volumes of exchange traded derivatives on commodity markets now being 20 to 30 times larger than physical production, the influence of financial markets has systematically transformed these real markets into financial markets. This calls for strong and prompt policy and regulatory responses in the financial markets, rather than in the physical markets.

      • Preview
        Economic development in Africa: Trade performance and commodity dependence (English)
        Report by UNCTAD/GDS Division, 2003, 84 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        A detailed analysis that presents major trends and issues in commodity trade in Africa such as market structure, market access and prices volatility, using examples and statistics. Useful for anyone interested in commodity trade particularly in Africa. Chapter 1 provides a good overview of issues in Africa's trade performance and the annex examines the issue of cotton subsidies from the point of view of Sub Saharan Africa.

      • Preview
        Economic diversification and primary commodity processing in the second-tier South-East Asian newly (English)
        Discussion Paper by Jomo K.S. and Michael Rock, 1998, 50 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        What: This discussion paper examines successful agricultural diversification in South East Asia and how government initiatives to diversify national economies have been efficient. Who: For students and teachers interested in the link between agricultural diversification and growth, and implementation of national development strategies. How: Interesting papers that raises controversial points on government interventions in national economies. Good examples from Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia that can be used in activities or exercises.

      • Preview
        Economic Partnership Agreements: Comparative Analysis of the Agricultural Provisions (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2010, 99 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        This study analyses the development implications of the agricultural provisions of the Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) between the European Union (EU) and 36 African,Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries. It is argued that, for most countries, the loss of EU preferences was the decisive factor in signing the EPA, while the additional gains of improved market access have been limited. With respect to ACP countries’ import liberalization commitments, the analysis shows that ACP agricultural markets are not exposed per se to EU products but are affected very differently.

      • Preview
        Economic Report on Africa 2013-Making the Most of Africa’s Commodities: Industrializing for Growth, Jobs and Economic Transformation (English)
        Report by United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, 2013, 260 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies

        The report examines the need for Africa to industrialize, accelerate and sustain growth, as well as create jobs for its youth, and achieve economic transformation. This report also underscores the need for African countries to develop appropriate local policies, boost infrastructure, develop human skills and technological capabilities, and foster regional integration and intra-African trade. This report is based on the studies of nine African countries, which have helped generate evidence-based policy recommendations.

      • Preview
        Effects of the EBA initiative on the sugar industries of the Least Developed Countries (English)
        Report by DITC, UNCTAD, 2005, 72 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        What: An analysis of the effects of the EBA initiative on fourteen developing countries. This paper raises some key issues: Do LDCs benefit from this initiative? Which countries benefit from the EBA initiative? What can be done to improve it? Who: For teachers, researchers in regional/preferential trade. How: A well structured analysis with recent information on LDCs

      • Preview
        Enabling the Graduation of LDCs: Enhancing the Role of Commodities and Improving Agricultural Productivity (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 84 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies

        The Fourth United Nations Conference on Least Developed Countries (LDC-IV) took place in Istanbul (Turkey) in May 2011 and adopted the Istanbul Programme of Action (IPoA) for LDCs for the Decade 2011–2020. The overall question is how can as many LDCs as possible graduate from the LDC category, given the immense socioeconomic challenges facing them, especially in the face of excessive fragility and vulnerability to shocks of their growth performance? The present publication, argues that the boom-bust cycle of the 2000s showed in stark terms that natural resources play a crucial role in LDCs’ economic growth, poverty reduction and food security. In this regard, the publication articulates the dangers of excessive dependence of LDCs’ exports on a few commodities where some five product groups dominate the export earnings of these countries during the 1995–2010 period. The publication consists of four broad chapters. The first chapter sets an analytical construct (framework) for meeting the graduation objective, with a succinct analysis of the challenges, opportunities and prospects vis-à-vis the established criteria for graduation. The second chapter provides evidence-based analysis on the impact of the recent multiple global crises on commodity-dependent LDCs, including at household level, together with policy responses. Chapter three examines the food security situation in LDCs in the light of the precipitous decline in agricultural productivity and the immense shock which people in LDCs experienced as a result of the recent global surge in food prices. Finally, chapter four provides policy conclusions and recommendations on how LDCs can realize the potential of their commodities sector to become a lever for the development and structural transformation of their economies.

      • Preview
        Energy Services in International Trade: Development Implications (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2001, 25 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: Developing countries are faced with the challenge of, on the one hand, achieving more reliable and efficient access to energy, and on the other hand, of obtaining a greater share of the energy “business”. The pursuit of these goals requires access to knowledge, expertise, technology and managerial know-how. This discussion paper addresses the elements of an energy services sector strategy for developing countries. Who: For teachers and students specialising on energy services and their implications on development. How: Can be used as a background reading for courses on energy 'business' and the implications on development.

      • Preview
        Ensuring Trade Policy Supports Food Security Goals (English)
        Policy brief by ICTSD, 2009, 13 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Policy Reviews and Briefs, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        While analysts, negotiators and policy-makers have long been aware of the trade barriers and distortions facing developing country agriculture, the renewed attention to food insecurity has yet to spark concrete action on trade policy reform. Indeed, if progress is to be achieved towards achieving food security goals, action to tackle the trade-related causes of hunger has to be an integral part of a broader set of development-oriented reforms in both the developed and developing world. This short analytical note attempts to summarise some of the relationships between trade policy and food security, and pinpoint some of the changes that might be required if governments are to achieve their goals in this area.

      • Preview
        Entrée sur les marches des produits de base : le rôle du financement des échanges et investissements (French)
        Background note by UNCTAD, 2004, 27 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        Quoi : Une analyse des problèmes que rencontrent les producteurs des PED à pénétrer les marches des produits de base. Ce papier étudie les obstacles au financement et l'impact sur les PED. Il donne également des recommandations en matière d'action publique. Qui : Pour quiconque intéresse par les questions des produits de base, et particulièrement en Afrique. Comment : Donne des exemples de financement réussi (Philippines, Inde et Zambie).

      • Preview
        Extractive Industries : Optimizing Value Retention in Host Countries (English)
        Report by Sigam, Claudine, Garcia, Leonardo/ UNCTAD, 2012, 54 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies

        This paper examines ways in which local content in the extractive industries can be addressed.. In this respect, the paper is divided in five parts. Part 1 describes the structure of the oil and gas and mining industries, including a discussion of the margins in the oil value chain as well as the stakeholders. Part 2 explains the positive and negative impacts of natural resources exploitation in host countries. Part 3 identifies the main challenges that developing countries face in optimizing value retention and examines ways in which they can be addressed. Part 4 presents three different country experiences of local industry development strategies in the extractive industries. The paper concludes with some policy implications and conclusions with regards to local content development strategies.

      • Preview
        The Fisheries Sector in the Gambia: Trade, Value Addition and Social Inclusiveness, with a Focus on Women (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 66 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Gender

        This analytical report - part of UNCTAD’s activities on trade, gender and development - is intended to accompany the Diagnostic Trade Integration Study (DTIS) Update for The Gambia: Harnessing Trade for Growth and Employment, carried out under the Enhanced Integrated Framework (EIF) for trade-related assistance for Least Developed Countries. It sets out a detailed analysis of the fisheries sector and its prospects for value-addition and social inclusiveness, with a focus on women. The intention is to capture all the information generated through the DTIS Update process, and disseminate this knowledge to a broader audience.

      • Preview
        Food Reserves in Developing Countries: Trade Policy Options for Improved Food Security (English)
        Report by ITCSD, 2011, 41 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        The last few years (from 2006 to 2011) has seen the rise and volatility in prices of primary commodities, including agricultural products.Whereas the rise in food prices is fairly general, the increase in volatility is confined to grains and some vegetable oils.These developments impact particularly acutely on poor and other vulnerable non-farm households who devote a high proportion of their incomes to the purchase of food. The report encourages countries need to achieve a balanced food security policy, through the establishment of complementary strategies to address trade and stocks.It also discusses international and national policies to address high and volatile food prices. Finally, it considers the role of humanitarian stocks in the light of the P.R.E.P.A.R.E proposal by the FAO.

      • Preview
        Food Safety and Environmental Requirements in Export Markets - Friend or Foe for Producers of Fruit and Vegetables in Asian Developing Countries? (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2007, 134 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment

        This book draws on recent UNCTAD research to analyse the new breed of food safety and environmental requirements for horticultural exports in key markets. It assesses their impact on producers in six developing countries in Asia (Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam) and outlines some pro-active adjustment strategies that could help maximize the benefits resulting from the new requirements while also minimizing the adjustment costs. The country-case studies in the book explore questions, such as: To what extent can small farmers profit from enhanced export opportunities, and how can their exports contribute to pro-poor development strategies? What should developing-country Governments do to support smallholder participation in global horticultural trade, and how can the donor community play a supportive role? The book also addresses the relationship between regulatory and voluntary requirements in key horticultural markets, including the "transnationalization" of voluntary standards.

      • Preview
        Food Security and Agricultural Development in Times of High Commodity Prices
        Report by Herrmann, Michael/UNCTAD, 2009, 40 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies

        The paper provides a new perspective on rising food prices by out mapping the many complex ways in which higher food prices are affecting developing countries, in particular the poorest. The analysis presented herein develops important and differentiated policy implications by distinguishing not only between implications in the shot run and medium run, and challenges on the supply side and demand side, but also between countries with agricultural potential and countries without such potential. Although globally food security is a challenge on both the demand side and the supply side, the paper argues that not all countries can effectively address this challenge from both angles. Furthermore, while higher food prices can provide important stimulus for agricultural development, it should not be expected that agricultural output will automatically rise in response to price changes, as higher prices in international markets are frequently not passed through to producers, and as many producers lack the capacity to respond to positive price signals where they are passed on. Both failures bear important implications for policies to address the dual challenge of food security and agricultural development.

      • Preview
        From Declarations to Actions on Commodities: Marking the Turning Point at UNCTAD XII (English)
        Policy brief by South Centre, 2008, 8 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This Policy Brief appeals to UNCTAD’s historical role to address the global development problems, including the commodities problem, and to start taking concrete actions within the framework of UNCTAD XII. After a short overview of the commodities problem and its implications, failures and lessons from previous conferences are pointed out, followed by corresponding policy recommendations how to tackle this problem within the international community.

      • Preview
        Global Economic Prospects 2009: Commodities at the Crossroads - Full Report (English)
        Book by World Bank, 2009, 196 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The release of this year's Global Economic Prospects finds the world economy at a crossroads. Markets all over the world are engulfed in a global economic crisis, with stock markets sharply down and volatile, almost all currencies having depreciated substantially against the dollar, and risk premiums on a wide range of debt having increased by 600 or more basis points. Commodity markets too have turned a corner. Following several years of increase, prices have plummeted, and although well above their 1990s levels, they have given up most of the increases of the past 24 months. This year's Global Economic Prospects analyzes the implications of the crisis for low- and middle-income countries, including an in-depth look at long-term prospects for global commodity markets and the policies of both commodity producing and consuming nations. The government responses to the recent price boom are also analyzed in this year's edition. Producing-country governments have been more prudent than during earlier booms, and because they have saved more of their windfall revenues, they are less likely to be forced to cut into spending now that prices have declined. The spike in food prices tipped more people into poverty, which led governments to expand social assistance programs. Ensuring such programs are better targeted toward the needs of the very poor in the future will help improve the capacity of governments to respond effectively the next time there is a crisis.

      • Preview
        Global Economic Prospects 2009: Commodities at the Crossroads - Overview (English)
        Report by World Bank, 2009, 13 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The release of this year's Global Economic Prospects finds the world economy at a crossroads. Markets all over the world are engulfed in a global economic crisis, with stock markets sharply down and volatile, almost all currencies having depreciated substantially against the dollar, and risk premiums on a wide range of debt having increased by 600 or more basis points. Commodity markets too have turned a corner. Following several years of increase, prices have plummeted, and although well above their 1990s levels, they have given up most of the increases of the past 24 months. This year's Global Economic Prospects analyzes the implications of the crisis for low- and middle-income countries, including an in-depth look at long-term prospects for global commodity markets and the policies of both commodity producing and consuming nations. The government responses to the recent price boom are also analyzed in this year's edition. Producing-country governments have been more prudent than during earlier booms, and because they have saved more of their windfall revenues, they are less likely to be forced to cut into spending now that prices have declined. The spike in food prices tipped more people into poverty, which led governments to expand social assistance programs. Ensuring such programs are better targeted toward the needs of the very poor in the future will help improve the capacity of governments to respond effectively the next time there is a crisis.

      • Preview
        Global Economic Prospects 2016 (English)
        Report by World Bank Group, 2016, 193 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        The 2016 Global Economic Prospects Report subtitled 'Divergences and Risks' argues growth prospects have weakened throughout the world economy. The report discusses the upcoming challenges to be faced by emerging market and developing economies, which include weaker growth among advanced economies and low commodity prices. It focuses on each region and highlight two main issues: the recent credit surge in historical context, and the quantifying uncertainties in global growth forecasts.

      • Preview
        The Growing Interdependence Between Financial and Commodity Markets (English)
        Discussion paper by Mayer, Jörg/UNCTAD, 2009, 34 pages
        Categories: Commodities, International Financial System

        Financial investment has become increasingly important on commodity exchanges. This paper distinguishes two types of financial investors and emphasizes differences in their position taking motivation and price impacts. Index traders follow a passive strategy holding virtually only long positions. Money managers trade on both sides of the market and attempt to maximize short-term returns. Regression analysis indicates that: (i) index trader positions are particularly influenced by roll returns, while money managers emphasize spot returns; and that: (ii) money managers moved from emphasizing diversification to a more speculative strategy by taking commodity positions that are positively, rather than negatively, related to developments in equity markets. Granger-causality tests indicate that these differences translate into different price impacts: (i) index trader positions have a causal price impact particularly for agricultural commodities; and (ii) money managers had a causal impact during the sharp increases in the prices for some non-agricultural commodities.

      • Preview
        How Do Food Prices Affect Producers and Consumers in Developing Countries? (English)
        Study by ICTSD, 2009, 12 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        High food prices in 2008 brought global attention to the difficulties that producers and consumers in developing countries have faced for many years. This note examines trends in global agricultural production and surveys some of the newest information that has come to light to probe how food prices have affected agriculture.

      • Preview
        How Would a Trade Deal on Cotton Affect Exporting and Importing Countries? (English)
        Working paper by ICTSD, 2010, 59 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper aims to provide policy-makers, negotiators and other stakeholders with a clear and accurate assessment of the likely implications of a trade deal on cotton along the lines of that being discussed in the WTO’s Doha Round. The study also examines the implications of various alternative trade policy scenarios, taking into consideration recent historical trends in cotton prices, production and trade in different countries and geographical regions, and analyses the relevance of internal policy reforms in the EU and the US in particular.

      • Preview
        How Would a Trade Deal on Sugar Affect Exporting and Importing Countries? (English)
        Report by Elobeid, Amani/ICTSD, 2009, 62 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This study examines how exporting and importing countries could be affected by a trade deal on sugar along the lines of that under discussion in the WTO’s Doha Round, as well as in bilateral and regional negotiations. The study takes into consideration the preferential access arrangements that currently exist, recent historical trends in sugar trade in different countries and geographical regions, and the internal market reforms in importing regions such as the EU.How would a trade deal on sugar affect exporting and importing countries?How would a trade deal on sugar affect exporting and importing countries?

      • Preview
        How Would a WTO Agreement on Bananas Affect Exporting and Importing Countries? (English)
        Report by Anania, Giovanni/ICTSD, 2009, 49 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Bananas, an essential source of export revenue for many developing countries, have been an important source of disagreement in the Doha Round of trade talks. This study employs economic modeling to assess the implications of a deal on trade in bananas. The scenarios it uses focus on the role of Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) and a conclusion to the WTO Doha Round.

      • Preview
        ICTSD-IPC Platform on Climate Change, Agriculture and Trade: Considerations for Policymakers (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2009, 14 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment

        Climate Change is expected to increase the likelihood of extreme weather events and contribute to longer-term changes in temperature and precipitation. Given agriculture’s reliance on the weather, the agricultural sector will be seriously impacted by climate change. The sector is also a significant contributor of greenhouse gasses and will need to play a role in mitigating climate change. At the same time, however, increased demands on the sector will require that agricultural production more than double by 2050. Given these challenges, global food security requires substantial adaptation efforts directed towards the agricultural sector. Emphasis must be placed on strengthening adaptive capacities in developing countries, with an eye toward also promoting socio-economic development and food security

      • Preview
        Implications for China of the December 2008 Draft Agricultural Modalities (English)
        Report by Zhihong, Tian/ICTSD, 2009, 50 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        With nearly 900 million people dependent on agriculture for income, China produces more wheat and paddy than any other country, yet it is a country dependent upon trade to both employ and feed its people. Moreover, China has some of the lowest agricultural tariffs of any WTO Member and yet subsidies that rival the EU’s in total. The ongoing Doha Round of trade negotiations at the WTO may significantly alter the relationship of Chinese agriculture with the world. This study explores the latest draft WTO agreement on agriculture and what it means for China.

      • Preview
        International Climate Change Negotiations and Agriculture (English)
        Policy brief by ICTSD, 2009, 14 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Environment

        The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the existing international climate change agreements and the international negotiations underway and to point out the ways in which the agricultural sector - is - or may be - addressed in the international climate regulatory framework. In 2008 the International Food & Agricultural Trade Policy Council (IPC) and the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD) launched The ICTSD-IPC Platform on Climate Change, Agriculture and Trade: Promoting Policy Coherence. This paper is part of this initiative. This interdisciplinary platform of climate change, agricultural and trade experts seeks to promote increased policy coherence to ensure effective climate change mitigation and adaptation, food security and a more open and equitable global food system.

      • Preview
        International Trade in GMOs and GM Products: National and Multilateral Legal Frameworks (English)
        Report by Simonetta Zarrilli, 2005, 61 pages
        Categories: Commodities, International Economic Law, Science and Technology

        What: The debate about the application of biotechnology to agriculture is one of the most vocal and passionate in recent years. This paper analyses different legal frameworks on agro-biotechnology in selected developed and developing countries. It outlines the complexity of the issue especially for developing countries who have to reconcile trade interests with food safety, environmental protection and international obligations. Who: Students, teachers or researchers interested in the effects of biotechnology on agriculture and trade in developing countries. How: As a key reading in any course dealing with trade and the environment.

      • Preview
        Las Cascaras Del Banano (English)
        Article by Gustavo Guzman, 2007
        Categories: Commodities, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research

        Análisis de la controversia por el tratamiento a las importaciones de banano en la Union Europea y su impacto social.

      • Preview
        Las Políticas Para La Seguridad Alimentaria Ante Un Escenario Global Más Complejo (English)
        Working paper by Pomareda, Carlos, 2011, 18 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        La inseguridad alimentaria tiene múltiples dimensiones, y tanto los gobiernos como las agencias de cooperación (ONGs y organismos internacionales) la abordan en diferente forma. El resultado de tal abordaje es un gran desorden en los esfuerzos de los gobiernos y de las agencias, poniendo en tela de juicio la efectividad de las medidas que se toman. La situación tiende a complicarse a medida que pasa el tiempo y no se resuelven problemas estructurales y a raíz de nuevos elementos que hacen más difícil que la seguridad alimentaria, como objetivo de desarrollo, sea alcanzada. De no tenerse en cuenta el agravante contexto, continuará el desperdicio de recursos y la profundización de los problemas. Estas notas tienen el propósito de contribuir a identificar vacíos en los que se requiere profundizar el conocimiento y por lo tanto reconsiderar los factores que influencian las condiciones de inseguridad alimentaria y las alternativas para superar la situación, a raíz de un escenario cambiante que tiene influencia en la inseguridad alimentaria global, aunque con implicaciones particulares para los diferentes países. El documento toma en cuenta los diferentes niveles en los que se manifiesta la inseguridad alimentaria y sus vínculos con otros temas como la pobreza, el hambre y la desnutrición. Plantea la necesidad de revisar los enfoques a la luz de las complicaciones en el escenario global de inestabilidad; y los compromisos y oportunidades en el comercio internacional. El documento ofrece una revisión de estos aspectos para motivar el diálogo en un tema amplio y complejo.

      • Preview
        Legitimidad Empresarial, Conflicto De Tierras Y Producción Palmera En Colombia* (English)
        Article by Pereira-Villa, Catherine, 2011, 20 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment, VI Members Research

        This article analyzes the land conflict that took place in 2009 in the south of Bolivar (Colombia), between the Daabon Group – world leader in the production of organic palm oil – and 123 peasant families who were evicted. Specifically, this paper analyzes the ways in which the Group responded to the incident, to vindicate its legitimacy, internationally challenged as a result of the conflict. Once the profile of Daabon Group and the local context in which it operates are described, some thoughts are formulated on that business group’s handling of issues associated with forced displacement, legal uncertainty and biodiversity. This study argues that in a Colombian context, a company under international scrutiny should manage its legitimacy not only on legal considerations but also on social and political aspects.

      • Preview
        Market Entry for Commodities: The Role of Trade and Investment Finance (English)
        Working paper by UNCTAD secretariat, 2004, 22 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Finance for Development

        An analysis on the difficulty of developing countries' producers entering international commodity markets and on the role of finance as a requisite to establish and maintain competitiveness. This paper studies the impacts of obstacles to obtaining commodity finance on developing countries and gives a few recommendations on the role of governments, international organizations and civil society. Of interest to anyone interested in commodity issues and particularly in Africa. The paper gives examples of successful countries in agricultural finance (The Philippines, India, and Zambia)

      • Preview
        Meeting Trade and Development Challenges in an Era of High and Volatile Energy Prices: Oil and Gas in LDCs and African Countries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2006, 40 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy

        This report is divided into four chapters. Chapter I describes trends in global consumption of oil and Africa’s production and consumption levels. Chapter II discusses the macro- and microeconomic impacts of oil price volatility. It reviews some of the strategies used in dealing with impacts and recommends policy measures to mitigate risks related to the sector. Chapter III examines the challenges facing importers in their procurement of crude oil and its derivatives and also looks at possible import financing methods. The paper concludes with a discussion on possible cooperation strategies aimed at improving access to oil and gas for African countries and ways to ensure that revenue from oil and gas exports meet the development needs of current and future generations.

      • Preview
        Mexico’s Agriculture Development: Perspectives and Outlook (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 209 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies

        This work addresses key issues affecting agricultural production and trade of those commodities identified by the Mexican authorities as being of strategic importance for the country. It encompasses both macro- and micro-economic issues with links to commodities, trade policy and trade agreements, competition and competitiveness, and food and energy security. It also identifies complementary measures and enabling policies, such as infrastructural investment, research and development, and trade facilitation. Furthermore, the study demonstrates a close integration with the national development outlook of Mexico, which ensures an ongoing consistency with overall national development priorities, including enhancing food security, and reducing poverty, consistent with the UN Millennium Development Goal 1.

      • Preview
        Mining and Resource Mobilization for Social Development: The Case of Nicaragua (English)
        Working paper by Hilda María Gutiérrez Elizondo, 2015, 32 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        This paper seeks to contribute to the global debate on the political and institutional contexts that enable impoverished countries to mobilize domestic resources for social development. It analyses the impact of mining on resource mobilization for social development in Nicaragua. The mining industry in Nicaragua provides some economic benefits. However, these benefits have been overshadowed by setbacks related to social and environmental impacts. The paper also points out that current political and institutional aspects weaken the state’s ability to mobilize resources for social development from the mining industry.

      • Preview
        Natural Resource Abundance, Growth, and Diversification in the Middle East and North Africa
        Book by The World Bank, 2012, 228 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies

        Investigates the effect of natural resources dependence and the role of policies in achieving sustained growth and diversification away from oil.

      • Preview
        Natural Resources and Non-cooperative Trade Policy (English)
        Working paper by Latina, Joelle, Piermartini, Roberta, Ruta, Michele / WTO, 2011, 29 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        When looking at the conditions of trade in natural resources the world appears upside down: tariff protection in natural resources sectors is generally lower than for overall merchandise trade, while export restrictions are twice as likely as in other sectors. On the other hand, tariff escalation is significant in natural resources sectors, where materials in their raw state face, on average, lower duties than in their processed form. In this paper, we discuss how export taxes and tariff escalation may be the result of an uncooperative trade policy. Specifically, tariff escalation and export taxes can be "beggar-thy-neighbor" policies because governments may be tempted to use them to alter the relative price of exports to their advantage (terms-of-trade effect) or to expand the domestic processing industry at the expenses of foreign production (production relocation effect). In equilibrium, these policies offset each other in a Prisoners' Dilemma situation, where trade is inefficiently low.

      • Preview
        Net Food-importing Developing Countries - Who They Are, and Policy Options for Global Price Volatility
        Study by ICTSD, 2012, 29 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        This paper discusses net food-importing developing countries – the most vulnerable – in the light of the recent commodity price spikes: who they are, and policy options for dealing with global price volatility. From the 2007-2008 episode of rapid commodity price increases, there are three considerations to highlight for future policies. The first is that price spikes harm in proportion to the level of net food imports, a concern for the majority of developing countries. The second policy consideration is the heterogeneity within farming. The poor are the smallest farmers, and most often are net food buyers. The third consideration is that price spikes hit major commodities more than food generally. The paper also presents a brief review of the national policy responses to the price spike during 2007- 08.

      • Preview
        The Oceans Economy: Opportunities and Challenges for Small Island Developing States (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 38 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        This report is the consequence of a joint effort from a team of experts from UNCTAD and the Commonwealth Secretariat to better understand the implications of the nascent and evolving concept of the oceans economy. This report underlines the importance of sustainable oceanic activities for the development of SIDS and other coastal states.Both opportunities and challenges for SIDS are identified in existing and emerging trade-related sectors such as sustainable fisheries and aquaculture, renewable marine energy, marine bio-prospecting, maritime transport and marine and coastal tourism.It also points at the need to consider the formation of regional economic groupings that combine their "economic exclusive zones" under a common oceans economic space in order to be able to seize, manage and sustainably use joint resources and build common infrastructures.

      • Preview
        O contencioso brasil-estados unidos sobre o algodão: um caso bem-sucedido de desenvolvimento de capacidades (English)
        Case study by Mário Ferreira Presser e Luciana Togeiro de Almeida, 2015, 6 pages
        Categories: Commodities, International Economic Law, VI Members Research

        Capacity Building Case Study - Brazil-US: Cotton

      • Preview
        Oil Prices and Maritime Freight Rates: An Empirical Investigation (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 40 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade Facilitation

        The study assesses the effect of oil prices on maritime freight rates for containerized goods and two particular commodities, iron ore and crude oil. Results also indicate that, since 2004, the elasticity of container freight rates to oil prices is larger; this suggests that the effect of oil prices\\non container freight rates increases in periods of sharply rising and more volatile oil prices. The results are of particular interest in view of increasing oil supply constraints expected over the coming decades which may lead to significant increases in oil prices, possibly to levels which have not yet been reached.

      • Preview
        Opportunities in the Southern Pattern of Trade Specialization: Identifying Potentialities in Natural Resource Activities (English)
        Case study by Bianchi, Eduardo; Uzquiza, Laura; Fairlie, Alan, 2010
        Categories: Commodities, VI Members Research

        This Vi joint research project between Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales (FLACSO) and Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú (PUCP) analyzes the evolution of natural resource activities in Latin America and the impact of trade liberalization and the Southern pattern on growth, labour, poverty and income distribution. The analysis looks at two case studies in Peru (mining) and Argentina (natural resources) and describes several challenges for public institutions in ensuring export development along the lines of the Southern pattern.

      • Preview
        Organic Agriculture and Food Security in Africa (English)
        Report by UNCTAD/UNEP, 2008, 61 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment

        Food security is an issue of great concern in many developing countries. Despite pledges, the number of people suffering from hunger has increased every year. This report is the result of joint efforts between UNCTAD and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) through their joint capacity building task force on trade, environment and development (CBTF). This study examines the relationship between organic agriculture and food security in Africa, particularly East Africa, which is where the CBTF has been implementing a project on organic agriculture since 2004. Organic agriculture is a holistic production system based on active agro-ecosystem management rather than on external inputs, and it utilizes both traditional and scientific knowledge. The evidence presented in this study supports the argument that organic agriculture can be more conducive to food security in Africa than most conventional production systems, and that it is more likely to be sustainable in the long term. Organic agriculture is ideally suited for poor marginalised smallholder farmers in Africa, as they require minimal external input, use locally and natural available materials and encourages farming that is more diverse and resistant to stress. In particular, the recent food price hike and rising fuel prices stress the importance of making agriculture less energy and external input dependant. Case studies have shown that organic agriculture increases agriculture productivity. Transition to integrated organic agriculture has been shown to increase access to food by increasing yields and increasing total on-farm productivity and hence reduce poverty and improve rural livelihoods.

      • Preview
        Organic fruit and vegetables from the tropics: Market, certification and production information for producers and international trading companies (English)
        Discussion paper by Montek S. Ahluwalia, 2000, 26 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        What: The purpose of this discussion paper is to evaluate the impact of developments on the relative roles of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank in the future. Initially the paper provides a brief overview of the changing roles of the Fund and the Bank and it then summarizes why the crises of the 1990s are fundamentally different from earlier episodes of balance-of-payments difficulties and therefore calls for very different responses. It also discusses some of the main elements which have been proposed as part of the new financial architecture and examines their implications for the roles of the Fund and the Bank. Finally the paper presents a summary assessment of various proposals for improving coordination between the Fund and the Bank. Who: For a lecturer or research work on the roles of the international financial institutions. How: Can be used as a background reading material on the relative roles and overlaps of IMF and the World Bank.

      • Preview
        An Overview Assessment of the Revised WTO Draft Modalities for Agriculture (English)
        Study by Gifford, Mike and Montemayor, Raul/ICTSD, IFPRI, 2008, 22 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The revised draft modalities text issued by the Chair of the WTO agricultural negotiating group on February 8, 2008, reflects the considerable incremental progress which has been made in elaborating, clarifying and putting into legal language the first draft of July 2007. However, there are still a large number of issues which remain open and which will need to be narrowed down further by senior officials before ministers can be asked to resolve the most politically sensitive. The Chair has suggested half a dozen to a dozen issues are about the maximum ministers could be realistically asked to settle. This paper provides an overview assessment of the implications of the revised modalities text in terms of its ambition and balance as viewed from the perspective of both developed and developing countries, and identifies the key issues that will likely require ministerial decisions. It goes on to examine what additional issues could be added as part of a final deal once there is agreement on modalities and there is an assessment of the ensuing draft schedules. It concludes by venturing some views on the likely trade-offs between agriculture and other parts of the Doha negotiations, particularly the non-agricultural market access (NAMA) negotiations. This assessment draws from and builds on the complementary detailed analysis which has been undertaken on the implications of the new draft modalities text for four major Doha participants - the US, EU, Brazil and India.

      • Preview
        An Overview of Major Sources of Data and Analyses Relating to Physical Fundamentals in International Commodity Markets
        Working paper by Fajarnes, Pilar / UNCTAD, 2011, 32 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper, written by Pilar Fajarnes, of UNCTAD's Division on Globalization and Development Strategies, assesses the current situation with regard to the availability of information on physical commodity markets, pointing to some of the existing information gaps and areas for improvement. It also provides a comprehensive overview of the various information sources covering agricultural commodity markets (food, tropical beverages, agricultural raw materials), energy commodities, and metals and minerals markets. A wealth of website links contained in the paper facilitates the access to relevant information.

      • Preview
        Overview of the World's Commodity Exchanges 2006 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD and Swiss Futures and Options Association (SFOA), 2006, 38 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        What: This extract from the publication "The World's Commodity Exchanges: Past - Present - Future" was prepared by UNCTAD and the Swiss Futures and Options Association (SFOA) for the International Bürgenstock Conference 2006. At first, the paper analyses the current global commodity futures and options markets relying on a wide set of data and charts. Then, all the major commodity exchanges in the world are presented and their recent development is discussed. An annex comprises data sources on the biggest commodities exchanges and the global trade in futures and options. The paper ends with a list of relevant UNCTAD publications on commodities. How: Particularly useful for an international finance course with an emphasis on commodity trade. Who: Mainly for investors interested in commodities.

      • Preview
        Pan-african Cotton Road Map: A Continental Strategy to Strengthen Regional Cotton Value Chains for Poverty Reduction and Food Security (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 30 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Competitiveness

        The subject of this report, the Pan-African Road Map, was sketched out at the June, 2011 Pan-African meeting in Cotonou that gave participants the opportunity to outline details and expectations with regards to the cotton sector. The report aims to provide a common framework at the Pan-African level that addresses the three existing strategies (in the areas of productivity, marketing and value-addition) and national and regional policies from a Pan-African perspective.

      • Preview
        The Petroleum Industry in Zambia. A Study on Market Structure and Competition (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2011, 119 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Competition Policy

        The objective of this study is to evaluate the context, the structure and the functioning of the sector from the competition point of view. The energy sector is one of the key sectors of the Zambian economy, in particular the petroleum industry. Petroleum is the only energy source that is 100 per cent imported in Zambia. Hence, in agreement with the Competition and Consumer Protection Commission, the petroleum sector has been identified as a special sector which requires analysis.

      • Preview
        Policy Alternatives in Reforming Power Utilities in Developing Countries: A Critical Survey (English)
        Discussion paper by Alberto Gabriele / UNCTAD, 2004, 25 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Competition Policy

        What: Given the importance of energy to all aspects of development, this paper examines the liberalization and privatization of energy utilities before going on to suggest some alternative policies based on the experiences of a number of countries. The paper provides short case studies of energy reforms including Chile, Brazil, Argentina, China and India. The paper also provides a number of reference materials for more in-depth reading. Who: Anyone interested in the impact of liberalization on development in particular key public utilities. How: Could be used as a key reading or the basis of a presentation on reform of the energy sector and the impact of liberalization.

      • Preview
        Potential Impact of Proposed 2012 Farm Bill Commodity Programs on Developing Countries (English)
        Discussion paper by Babcock, Bruce / Iowa State University, Paulson, Nick / University of Illinois, 2012, 37 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        In this paper, Bruce Babcock and Nick Paulson offer an analysis of how production of key farm goods will change due to proposals on the Farm Bill. They offer insights on the development of US agricultural policy and the particularities of the current House and Senate proposals, including the proposed resolution of the Upland Cotton dispute between the US and Brazil through the Stacked Income Protection Plan.

      • Preview
        Price Formation in Financialized Commodity Markets - The Role of Information (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 80 pages
        Categories: Commodities, International Financial System

        This study asserts that the role of information is crucial for price developments in commodity derivative markets. It demonstrates that the traditional approach of efficient market hypothesis (EMH)does not apply for present commodity futures markets. Trading decisions are taken in an environment of considerable uncertainty, where traders engage in "intentional herding" and do not base their transactions on information about fundamentals. This analysis also advocates several policy responses to improve market functioning such as increased transparency with respect to fundamentals, increased transparency in the exchanges and OTC markets, tighter regulation of financial players and the introduction of a transaction tax system.

      • Preview
        Price Volatility in Food and Agricultural Markets: Policy Responses (English)
        Report by FAO, IFAD, IMF,OECD, UNCTAD, WFP, World Bank, the WTO, IFPRI, UN HLTF, 2011, 66 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        This joint report, prepared as a result of the November 2010 G20 summit in , aims at providing options for G20 consideration on how to better mitigate and manage the risks associated with the price volatility of food and other agriculture commodities, without distorting market behaviour, ultimately to protect the most vulnerable.

      • Preview
        Private-Sector Standards and National Schemes for Good Agricultural Practices: Implications for Exports of Fresh Fruit and Vegetables from Sub-Saharan Africa Experiences of Ghana, Kenya, and Uganda (English)
        Working paper by UNCTAD, 2008, 127 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment

        This study synthesizes the main findings of many country-case studies analyzing the challenges and opportunities of the new breed of private-sector standards on environmental, food-safety, health and social standards for producers and exporters of fresh fruit and vegetables of developing countries. In particular, it summarizes the situation in Africa, dwelling on country studies for Ghana, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and Zambia.

      • Preview
        Proposal Required for Obtaining Capital Resources Focused on Small and Medium Enterprises Located in the Province of Guayas by Issuing Equity Tools Throughout the Ecuadorian Stock Market. (Spanish)
        Article by Renato Garzon, Mauricio Garzon, Mao Garzon, 2016
        Categories: Commodities, Finance for Development, Investment

        The following article looks forward to develop a new proposal focused in incrementing production and export oriented activities focused on Small and Medium Enterprises (SMES) located in the province of Guayas, coastal region of the Republic of Ecuador. The proposal involves raising new capital throughout the issue of equity documents negotiated in stock markets based in Guayaquil and Quito. In order to accomplish the proposal, a group of fellow researchers obtained a sample and gathered primary market data threw individual surveys. The information obtained, helped to construct variables such as how SME finance the acquisition of fixed/productive assets, amount of earnings generated in a year basis, products and services exported to countries where the Ecuadorian Government do have a Trade Office among other variables.

      • Preview
        Quantification of the High Level of Endogeneity and of Structural Regime Shifts in Commodity Markets (English)
        Discussion paper by Filimonov,Vladimir; Bicchetti, David; Maystre, Nicolas; Sornette ,Didier, 2013, 46 pages
        Categories: Commodities, International Financial System

        This paper proposes a “reflexivity” index that quantifies the relative importance of short-term endogeneity/reflexivity for several commodity futures markets (corn, oil, soybeans, sugar, and wheat) and a benchmark equity futures market. The authors use a reflexivity index that is defined as the average ratio of the number of price moves that are due to endogenous interactions to the total number of all price changes, which also include exogenous events. Estimated reflexivity levels are obtained by calibrating the Hawkes self-excited conditional Poisson model on time series of price changes. The Hawkes model accounts simultaneously for the co-existence and interplay between the exogenous impact of news and the endogenous mechanism by which past price changes may influence future price changes. Robustness tests show that the index provides a ‘pure’ measure of endogeneity that is independent of the rate of activity, order size, volume or volatility. The authors find an overall increase of the reflexivity index since the middle of the first decade of the 21st century to October 2012, which implies that, on a monthly basis, at least 60–70 per cent of commodity price changes are now due to self-generated activities rather than novel information, compared to 20–30 per cent earlier. While their reflexivity index is defined on short-time windows (10 minutes) and thus does not capture long-term memory, they discover striking coincidence between its dynamics and that of the price hikes and abrupt falls that developed since 2006 and culminated in early 2009.

      • Preview
        Rebalancing the Supply Chain (English)
        Study by South Centre; Traidcraft, 2008, 17 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Competition Policy

        This paper is an attempt to explore the extent to which competition policy can be used to address problems caused by corporate concentration and the exercise of 'buyer power' in agricultural commodity markets. It assesses the conceptual and practical opportunities of current competition policy to tackle this phenomenon and also highlights its limitations.

      • Preview
        Risk Assessment in the International Food Safety Policy Arena - Can the Multilateral Institutions Encourage Unbiased Outcomes? (English)
        Working paper by Jackson, Lee Ann; Jansen, Marion / WTO, 2009, 25 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        In this paper we provide a description of how food safety related scientific evidence is generated and how it is used in the context of risk assessment for international standard-setting at CODEX and in WTO trade disputes. In particular, we discuss the processes leading to policy conclusions on the basis of scientific evidence, with a focus on the interactions involved between private and public sector actors and those between “scientific experts” and others. We identify weaknesses in the current institutional set-up and provide suggestions on how to improve the interaction between different players at the national and international level so as to strengthen the existing system and increase its cost efficiency.

      • Preview
        The Role of Agriculture in the Development of LDCs and their Integration into the World Economy: Thematic Session on Enhancing Productive Capacity: The Agriculture Sector and Food Security (English)
        Discussion Paper by UNCTAD, 2001, 64 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        What: This paper examines the link between poverty reduction, economic growth and agriculture in developing countries. It also reviews the opportunities and challenges for LDCs of trade liberalization in terms of diversification, food security… Who: Excellent background reading to understand the relationship between poverty alleviation and agriculture diversification. How: The appendices contain data on LDCS that need however to be updated

      • Preview
        The Role of Primary Commodities in Economic Development: Sub-Saharan Africa Versus the Rest of the World (English)
        Discussion paper by Carmignani, Fabrizio and Chowdhury, Abdur/ UNECE, 2007, 20 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies

        This paper analyses the impact of the dependence on primary commodities for economic development within the framework of growth regressions. While there is no evidence of a generalized primary commodity curse, reliance on primary commodities does retard growth in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Which factor account for this SSA specificity? Some suggest that SSA specializes in commodities that are not conducive to economic growth and that SSA depends on primaty commodities more deeply than the rest of the world. These explanations are not strongly supported by the data. The key to the SSA specific curse appears to lie in the interaction between institutions and primary commodities.

      • Preview
        Shared Harvests: Agriculture, Trade and Employment (English)
        Report by ILO and UNCTAD, 2013, 400 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The International Labour Office and UNCTAD have collaborated on this edited volume concerning how the agricultural sector affects the world of work and broad development processes. The emphasis is on the need to make agriculture a high policy priority, particularly in the domains of trade and employment. Policy makers can maximize the development benefits from agriculture by carefully considering agricultural trade policy.

      • Preview
        SIDS and multilateral trade liberalisation in agriculture: Barbados (English)
        Case study by Gregg Rawlins / UNCTAD, 2003, 62 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        What: This resource examines how agricultural production and competitiveness affect SIDSs (Small Island Developing States) and in particular Barbados; it analyses domestic production and trade, and perspectives of the WTO negotiations on agriculture for Barbados. Who: Case study extracted from the report "Turning losses into gains: SIDSs and multilateral trade liberalization in agriculture" that could be used in teaching and in activities. How: Detailed analysis with data and a summary table of modalities for SIDSs in the WTO. The appendix contains useful tables on Barbados' agricultural production.

      • Preview
        SIDS and multilateral trade liberalisation in agriculture: the Indian Ocean Islands (English)
        Case study by Jean Michel Salomon / UNCTAD, 2003, 44 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        What: An analysis of the Indian Ocean Islands agriculture (Mauritius, Seychelles and the Comoros) Who: Case study extracted from the report "Turning losses into gains: SIDS and multilateral trade liberalization in agriculture" that could be used in teaching and in activities. How: Detailed analysis with data on the Indian Ocean Islands. The appendices contain useful tables on agricultural production.

      • Preview
        SIDS and multilateral trade liberalisation in agriculture: the Pacific Islands (English)
        Case study by Margaret B. Malua / UNCTAD, 2003, 34 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        What: Taken from a report "Turning losses into gains: SIDSs and multilateral trade liberalization in agriculture", this is an examination of the Pacific Islands economies and their agricultural sectors. Who: For anyone interested in SIDS issues. How: The paper provides data, key references in the fields of competitiveness and market access.

      • Preview
        SIDS and multilateral trade liberalisation in agriculture: The Windward Islands (English)
        Case study by Gary Melville / UNCTAD, 2003, 30 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        What: An analysis of the Windward Islands: agricultural sector, competitiveness and policy options in multilateral negotiations. Presentation of the agricultural sector in the Windward Islands and the impacts of trade policies on agriculture Who: For anyone interested in having information on SIDS and agriculture. How: Detailed analysis with data on the Windward Islands. The appendices contain useful tables on agricultural production.

      • Preview
        Speculative Influences on Commodity Futures Prices 2006-2008 (English)
        Discussion paper by Gilbert, Christopher L. / UNCTAD, 2010, 40 pages
        Categories: Commodities, International Financial System

        This paper examines the possible price impact of speculative bubbles and index-based investment activity on commodity futures prices over 2006–2008. Emphasis is put on crude oil, three nonferrous metals (aluminium, copper and nickel) and three agricultural commodities (wheat, corn and soybeans). There is significant evidence for periods of explosive bubble behaviour in the copper market where three separate bubbles are identified (plus a bubble in the soybeans market), whereas the evidence for bubble behaviour is weaker for crude oil and nickel. Aluminium, corn and wheat appear to have been bubble-free. The author also examines the effects of index-based investment on the same markets, and finds strong evidence that index-based investment did contribute to the rises in oil and metals prices over 2006–2008 but weaker evidence for similar effects on grains prices.

      • Preview
        The State of Commodity Dependence 2014
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 202 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        The aim of The State of Commodity Dependence is to present an up-to-date overview of the commodity dependence in developing countries in a friendly and easy-to-understand manner. In fact, commodities represent an essential source of export revenues for developing countries, but they also contribute for the main part of households' and governments' income in exporting countries. Moreover, commodities are also an important problematic in terms of social and political stability as well as of development in developing countries. While the global notion of dependency is often well-known, its exact magnitude in developing countries and in the most vulnerable ones in particular, is not often well estimated. This is the purpose of the State of Commodity Dependence than to fill this information gap.

      • Preview
        The State of Commodity Dependence in 2012 (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2012, 126 pages
        Categories: Commodities, International Financial System, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This document aims to provide an individual country overview of the commodity-related situation of 154 developing countries. This publication also contains graphs which present a regional and global perspective of commodity dependence in the developing world over the period 2009–2010.

      • Preview
        Supply Chains in Export Agriculture, Competition, and Poverty in Sub-saharan Africa (English)
        Book by Porto, Guido, Depetris Chauvin, Nicolas, Olarreaga, Marcelo / World Bank, 2011, 290 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Competitiveness, Globalization and Development Strategies

        In this book, we study how the internal structure of export markets and the level of competition affect poverty and welfare in remote rural areas in Africa. In sub-Saharan Africa, rural poverty is a widespread phenomenon. While most farmers produce for home consumption, some are engaged in high-value export agriculture. Here, we focus on export crops such as coffee, cotton, cocoa, and tobacco. For many African countries, these crops, which are typically produced by smallholders, are a major source of export revenue. In consequence, changes in export prices and in the conditions faced in export markets (both internally and externally) can play a big role in shaping poverty in the region. Traditionally, the literature has focused on how external conditions affect poverty, for example by addressing whether agricultural subsidies in the developed world affect world prices and how this in turn affects farm-gate prices. Our objective in this book is to explore domestic factors. In particular, we investigate the role played by the structure of competition in export agriculture supply chains.

      • Preview
        The Synchronized and Long-lasting Structural Change on Commodity Markets: Evidence from High Frequency Data (English)
        Working paper by Bicchetti, David and Maystre, Nicolas / UNCTAD, 2012, 35 pages
        Categories: Commodities, International Financial System

        This paper analyses the intraday co-movements between returns on several commodity markets and on the stock market in the United States over the 1997- 2011 period. By exploiting a new high frequency database, we compute various rolling correlations. Using this database, we document a synchronized structural break, characterized by a departure from zero, which starts in the course of 2008 and continues thereafter. This is consistent with the idea that recent financial innovations on commodity futures exchanges, in particular the high frequency trading activities and algorithm strategies have an impact on these correlations.

      • Preview
        Synthèse De La CNUCED, No. 2, Comment S'attaquer à La Crise Alimentaire Mondiale (English)
        Policy brief by CNUCED, 2008, 2 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The UNCTAD policy briefs are intended to share the results of UNCTAD research and analysis on new and emerging trade and development issues with policy makers and researchers, especially in developing countries. This policy brief addresses the systemic causes of the crisis and identifies strategic policy measures - such as boosting investment, innovation and productivity growth - for creating a more robust and sustainable framework for global agricultural production and trade.

      • Preview
        Synthèse De La CNUCED, No.6, Soutenir L'agriculture Biologique En Afrique (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2009, 2 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Environment

        Agriculture has returned to the centre of international policy debates. Years of declining investment, inadequate extension services and the availability of subsidized food exports from the developed world have undermined agricultural production in many developing countries, particularly in Africa. This Policy Brief examines the potential contribution of organic agriculture.

      • Preview
        Technology and Innovation Report 2010: Enhancing food security in Africa through science, technology and innovation (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 124 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Science and Technology

        UNCTAD’s Technology and Innovation Report 2010 focuses on the technological challenges that small-holder farmers in developing countries, especially sub-Saharan Africa, face in increasing agricultural productivity. It outlines the agricultural sector’s challenges and the roles of technology and innovation in raising production and the income of small-holder farmers. It also describes readily available technologies that can be applied now to improve soils, manage water shortages and resist drought.

      • Preview
        Three Essays in Development Economics (English)
        Article by Ersado, Lire, 2001, 118 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Competitiveness, VI Members Research

        Dissertation exploring household risk and savings behavior in Zimbabwe, and agricultural technology adoption, and the impact of public investments on the economy and community health in Ethiopia.

      • Preview
        Trade and Development Report 2008 - Commodity Prices, Capital Flows and the Financing of Investment (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2008, 234 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Finance for Development

        The Trade and Development Report series analyses current economic trends and major policy issues of international concern, and makes suggestions for addressing these issues at various levels. The 2008 issue, subtitled "Commodity Prices, Capital Flows and the Financing of Investment” highlights the paradox that the “capital poor” developing world is exporting capital to the “capital rich” developed countries. This "puzzle", which defies mainstream economic theory, is all the more intriguing as many capital-exporting developing countries have been achieving higher rates of investment and growth than those that continue to rely on net capital imports. Against this background the Report suggests to shift the focus in financial policies from households "putting more money aside" and imports of "foreign savings", to the reinvestment of profits and credit creation through the domestic banking system. As shown by an increasing number of countries in recent years, dependence on foreign capital inflows can often be avoided by policies aiming at a "competitive" exchange rate. In other cases, however, large increases in official development assistance are indispensable not only to foster the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals by 2015, but also to improve infrastructure and increase productive capacities, a condition for sustained growth, employment generation and poverty reduction beyond that date.

      • Preview
        Trade and Development Report 2008 - Commodity Prices, Capital Flows and the Financing of Investment - Overview (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2008, 18 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Finance for Development

        The Trade and Development Report series analyses current economic trends and major policy issues of international concern, and makes suggestions for addressing these issues at various levels. The 2008 issue, subtitled "Commodity Prices, Capital Flows and the Financing of Investment” highlights the paradox that the “capital poor” developing world is exporting capital to the “capital rich” developed countries. This "puzzle", which defies mainstream economic theory, is all the more intriguing as many capital-exporting developing countries have been achieving higher rates of investment and growth than those that continue to rely on net capital imports. Against this background the Report suggests to shift the focus in financial policies from households "putting more money aside" and imports of "foreign savings", to the reinvestment of profits and credit creation through the domestic banking system. As shown by an increasing number of countries in recent years, dependence on foreign capital inflows can often be avoided by policies aiming at a "competitive" exchange rate. In other cases, however, large increases in official development assistance are indispensable not only to foster the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals by 2015, but also to improve infrastructure and increase productive capacities, a condition for sustained growth, employment generation and poverty reduction beyond that date.

      • Preview
        Trade and Development Report 2011: Post-crisis policy challenges in the world economy (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 224 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy

        The Trade and Development Report 2011 focuses on the post-crisis policy challenges in the world economy. It concludes that the recovery is slowing down and that the "two-speed recovery" in developed and developing countries is mainly the result of wide differences in domestic demand. It shows that post-crisis reforms are progressing slowly, and addresses the main regulatory reforms that should take place in relation to financial markets. To diminish the effect of fnancialization of commodity markets based on herd behaviour, the TDR proposes measures to increase transparency in physical and derivatives markets. Finally, to decrease the disparity between macroeconomic fundamentals and foreign exchange markets, the report recommends a system of rules based management floating at a multilateral level - this would greatly improve international financial stability.

      • Preview
        Trade Barriers Faced by Developing Countries’ Exporters of Tropical and Diversification Products (English)
        Note by ICTSD; FAO, 2008, 16 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This debate outlines how best to treat agricultural products of export interest to developing countries that remains protracted in the multilateral trade system. Tropical and diversification products have been at the heart of this discussion given the extent of long-standing tariffs and non-tariff barriers affecting them, as well as due to their importance as a source of income, employment and rural development. The prospects for liberalisation of trade in these products, particularly opposed in some key markets, remain uncertain in the WTO’s Doha Round of negotiations. While some developing countries, most visibly a group of Latin American economies, have persistently requested trade openness, others such as the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) states have expressed their concerns that a multilateral elimination of tariffs might result in loss of the preferential access to developed country markets they currently enjoy. Asian producers have so far mainly sought resolution through the Round’s core talks on access for agricultural goods. As a\\n contribution to this discussion, the present Information Note provides facts and figures on the reality of trade in tropical and diversification products. It also explores the extent to which there is differential access to key import markets and the implications of this for different groups of countries.

      • Preview
        Trade Effects of SPS and TBT Measures on Tropical and Diversification Products (English)
        Report by Disdier, Anne-Célia, Fekadu, Belay; Murillo, Carlos; Wong, Sara A./ICTSD, 2008, 140 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The 2004 Framework Agreement reached during the Doha Round notes that the full implementation of the liberalization of trade in tropical agricultural products is “overdue and will be addressed effectively in the market access negotiations.” However, the way in which the commitment is to be implemented, and even the identification of such products, remains far from clear. \\n Multilateral discussions on the full liberalization of trade in tropical and diversification products have focused almost exclusively on the reduction of tariffs, and tariff escalation for those products and the overlap with the mandate on preference erosion. There has been no debate and analysis on NTBs and more specifically on SPS measures and technical barriers to trade (TBTs). This is surprising, since as the following paper reveals, imports of tropical and diversification products from African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries and some Latin American countries are particularly affected by SPS and TBT measures.

      • Preview
        Trade Misinvoicing in Primary Commodities in Developing Countries: the Cases of Chile, Cote D’ivoire, Nigeria, South Africa and Zambia (English)
        Policy brief by Ndikumana, Léonce/UNCTAD, 2016, 38 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Investment, Trade Related Capacity Building

        This policy brief discusses features of the regulatory environment, notably tariffs, customs, export subsidies, exchange controls, coupled with imperfect monitoring and poor enforcement of regulations which may create incentives for trade misinvoicing by agents seeking to maximize profits and other gains such as access to foreign exchange out of control of the regulating authority. It argues these factors contribute to the undermining developing countries’ gains from commodity trade. This study specifically aims to contribute to research and policy debates by providing empirical evidence on the magnitude of trade misinvoicing in the particular case of primary commodity exports from a sample comprising four resource-dependent developing countries (Chile, Côte d’Ivoire, Nigeria and Zambia) and a more diversified resource-rich middle-income country (South Africa). This study describes in detail the process of using UN Comtrade data to identify major products and leading partners that will be the focus of the analysis based on the established statistical methodology for estimation of export misinvoicing at the product and partner levels.

      • Preview
        Trade Policy and Food Security: The Implications of the WTO’s Agreement on Agriculture for Caribbean Small Vulnerable Economies (English)
        Working paper by Pennycooke, Camiel / University of the West Indies, 2011, 46 pages
        Categories: Commodities, VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The paper focuses on the impact of the Agreement on Agriculture on food security in Caribbean SVEs and was approached by examining its three pillars. In terms of the objectives and commitments made under the Uruguay Round an assessment was made on the implementation of such commitments and the outcomes for the SVEs. The research showed that to date, the objectives of the Agreement have not been fully realized and protectionism has actually increased in developed countries. The multilateral agricultural trade negotiations under the auspices of the World Trade Organization had projected the reduction in trade distortions and protectionism in international trade, thereby creating a fair trading environment for WTO members. This has resulted in the SVEs bringing to attention, in the current round of negotiations (Doha), trade-related problems experienced by the group, among which are the implications of the WTO agreements on their open economies, agriculture and sustained development.

      • Preview
        Trading with Conditions: The Effect of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures on Lower Income Countries’ Agricultural Exports (English)
        Report by Murina, Marina; Nicita, Alessandro / UNCTAD, 2014, 22 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Using the UNCTAD's TRAINS database on non-tariff measures, this paper utilizes an econometric model to investigate the effect of the European Union’s sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures across 21 broad categories of agricultural goods. The findings indicate that SPS measures result in relatively higher burdens for lower income countries but that membership in deep trade agreements seems to reduce the difficulties related to compliance with SPS measures. Overall, the additional trade distortionary effect of the European Union SPS measures is quantified in a reduction of lower income countries’ agricultural exports of about 3 billion $US (equivalent to about 14 percent of the agricultural trade from lower income countries to the European Union). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that while many middle and high income countries have the internal capacity to comply with SPS measures, lower income countries do not. In broader terms, these results may be interpreted as an indication that technical assistance is helpful for lower income countries to meet compliance costs related to SPS measures. Further progress with well-targeted technical assistance projects, both at the bilateral and multilateral levels, could generate considerable gains for lower income countries.

      • Preview
        Training Module for Multilateral Trade Negotiations on Agriculture (English)
        Manual by Peters, Ralf/ UNCTAD, 2007, 116 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This module provides an overview of the current Agreement on Agriculture that was the outcome of the Uruguay Round negotiations, implementation of commitments and ongoing negotiations. All three so-called pillars of agriculture, namely market access, domestic support and export competition, are discussed with an emphasis on the importance and impact of potential policy changes on development. Also covered are cross-cutting issues, such as special and differential treatment for developing and least developed countries and the cotton initiative.

      • Preview
        Training module on the WTO agreement on sanitary and phytosanitary measures (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2004
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This training module aims to provide materials and inputs for developing countries’ trainers, lecturers and government officials involved in training and research tasks on the multilateral rules governing the application of sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures in international trade.

      • Preview
        Tropical and Diversification Products: Strategic Options for Developing Countries (English)
        Report by Perry, Santiago/ICTSD, 2008, 81 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This study by Santiago Perry, from the Foundation for Participatory and Sustainable Development of Small Farmers, intends to provide strategic options for developing countries seeking “fullest liberalisation of trade in tropical and diversification products” under the WTO while taking into account the ACP countries that have expressed concerns that a multilateral elimination of tariffs might result in the loss of their preferential access to the markets of developed countries. This paper was produced under an ICTSD dialogue and research project that seeks to address the opportunities and challenges of the full liberalisation of trade in tropical and diversification products, and to explore possible areas of convergence between different groupings and interests in WTO negotiations. The project aims to generate solutions-oriented analyses and possible policy responses from a sustainable development perspective. This paper is reflective of this objective.

      • Preview
        Turning Losses into Gains: SIDS and Multilateral Trade Liberalization in Agriculture - The Indian Ocean Islands Case Study (English)
        Case study by Jean-Michel Salmon, 2002, 44 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: An analysis of the Indian Ocean Islands agriculture (Mauritius, Seychelles and the Comoros) Who: Case study extracted from the report "Turning losses into gains: SIDS and multilateral trade liberalization in agriculture" that could be used in teaching and in activities. How: Detailed analysis with data on the Indian Ocean Islands. The appendices contain useful tables on agricultural production.

      • Preview
        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 18 - Agriculture at the crossroads (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2010, 2 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Environment

        For a large number of developing countries, agriculture remains the single most important sector. Climate change has the potential to damage irreversibly the natural resource base on which agriculture depends, with grave consequences for food security in developing countries. However,agriculture is the sector that has the potential to transcend from being a problem to becoming an essential part of the solution to climate change provided there is a more holistic vision of food security, climate-change adaptation and mitigation as well as agriculture’s pro-poor development contribution. What is required is a rapid and significant shift from conventional, industrial,monoculture-based and high-external-input dependent production towards mosaics of sustainable production systems that also considerably improve the productivity of small-scale farmers. The required transformation is however much more fundamental than simply tweaking the existing industrial agricultural systems.

      • Preview
        UNCTAD Policy Brief No.20 - Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security in LDCs (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 2 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This policy brief outlines the major challenges facing LDCs in implementing a sustainable agricultural sector as a means to achieve food security, and provides recommendations to governments and LDC donors to support the development of this important sector.

      • Preview
        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 2, June 2008 - Tackling the Global Food Crisis (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2008, 2 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The UNCTAD policy briefs are intended to share the results of UNCTAD research and analysis on new and emerging trade and development issues with policy makers and researchers, especially in developing countries. This policy brief addresses the systemic causes of the crisis and identifies strategic policy measures - such as boosting investment, innovation and productivity growth - for creating a more robust and sustainable framework for global agricultural production and trade.

      • Preview
        UNCTAD Policy Briefs, No.6, Sustaining African Agriculture - Organic Production (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2009, 2 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Environment

        Agriculture has returned to the centre of international policy debates. Years of declining investment, inadequate extension services and the availability of subsidized food exports from the developed world have undermined agricultural production in many developing countries, particularly in Africa. This Policy Brief examines the potential contribution of organic agriculture.

      • Preview
        UNCTAD Trade and Developoment Report 2005 - Overview (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2005, 28 pages
        Categories: Commodities, International Financial System, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        What: This resource provides a brief summary of the UNCTAD flagship report. This important annual resource analyses current economic trends and major policy issues of international concern, and makes suggestions for addressing these issues at various levels. This year the report looks at, among other things, the effect of rising oil prices on global growth, domestic resources and balance of payments constraints in Asia, trends in the terms of trade and new forms of global interdependence, including the growing importance of developing countries in global markets. Who: Essential background reading for anyone looking at the impact of trade on development.

      • Preview
        UNCTAD X High-level Round Table on Trade and Development: Directions for the Twenty-first Century: Economic Dependence on Commodities (English)
        Discussion paper by Alfred Maizels, Oxford University, United Kingdom/ UNCTAD, 2000, 20 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: Most of the population in developing countries depends on the production and export of primary commodities. Commodity prices fell sharply in the early 1980s, and have remained at depressed levels since then, leading to a huge trade loss. This has been a major factor in the large rise in the foreign debt of commodity-exporting countries. The paper argues that these problems of developing countries have received little, if any, attention in international forums for the past two decades. It aims to reverse this trend by examining various measures for each type of price problem. Who: For teachers, students and researchers studying developing countries economic dependence on primary commodities exports and price changes. How: Can be used as a background reading on international primary commodity price fluctuations and the effects on developing economies.

      • Preview
        The United States 2014 Farm Bill and Its Implications for Cotton Producers in Low-income Developing Countries (English)
        Report by Townsend, Terry /y UNCTAD's Special Unit on Commodities, 2014, 29 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The report seeks to examine whether the subsidies paid to United States cotton growers are likely to lead to increased or decreased United States cotton production by 2018 based on findings from the 2014 Farm Bill and the Stacked Income Protection Plan (STAX).

      • Preview
        Unraveling the Underlying Causes of Price Volatility in World Coffee and Cocoa Commodity Markets (English)
        Discussion paper by Maurice, Noemie Eliana, Davis, Junior / UNCTAD, 2011, 43 pages
        Categories: Commodities, International Financial System, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        In recent years, Commodity Dependent Developing Countries (CDDCs) have faced multiple global food, energy and climate crises, compounded by the recent financial and economic crises, which have increased their vulnerability to excessive price volatility in commodity markets. Moreover, structural vulnerabilities in most CDDCs render their economies more vulnerable to increased commodity market turbulence than developed countries, given their comparatively lower income and high dependence on commodity exports. Therefore, this paper empirically examines the patterns and underlying causes of excessive price volatility for two major soft commodities of critical importance to many of the poorest CDDCs: coffee and cocoa. It aims to identify interactions, similarities and causalities between coffee and cocoa prices on the one hand and, oil and futures prices on the other hand. Our analysis of coffee and cocoa historical prices shows that, coffee price volatility has uneven or differing reactions depending on the nature of the market shock. Oil price spillover effects on coffee and cocoa markets are also assessed using cointegration and causality models. Long-run causality is found between oil prices, and coffee and cocoa prices but, only cocoa has an equilibrium relationship with oil in the longterm. Given the results, this study proposes some policy recommendations for managing price risk and addressing regulation in cocoa and coffee exporting countries

      • Preview
        Using Commoditized Revenue Flows to Leverage Access to International Finance; with a Special Focus on Migrant Remittances and Payment Flows (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2006, 25 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Finance for Development, Migration and Development

        The field of finance for developing countries has changed in a revolutionary manner since the international debt crisis of the 1980s. The losses that international banks incurred discouraged them from continuing to lend on an unsecured basis to developing countries governments and private entities. But as demand for credit remained strong and profit margins were high, some of them rapidly developed new techniques for dealing with the risks. Many of these risk mitigation techniques relate to the field of structured finance - discussed extensively in earlier UNCTAD papers. One particular form of structured finance is future flow finance, in which the financier takes some form of control over the future export earnings of the borrower (thus, the financier no longer relies on the borrower´s willingness to reimburse, but rather, on its continuation in business). Most of the future flow finance for developing countries has been for commodity exports: the resulting products are easy to sell, minimum export flows are easily predictable, buyers are often large western companies and export prices are quite transparent. As this remains a rather specialized area in the banking industry (and those involved understandably first go for the easiest transactions), it is perhaps not surprising that many opportunities remain open. This paper focuses on the most recent forms of future flow finance, which are structured on the back of two commoditized revenue streams that have only been identified over the past ten years as providing the potential for underpinning hard currency credits: migrant remittances and trade payment flows. Deals structured around these flows have only been struck in a handful of countries, even though in principle, possibilities exist in most developing countries. It is hoped that this brief paper will help draw the attention of decision makers in governments and the financial sector to the opportunities that exist in this area, and that it provides a good insight in how to structure the related transactions.

      • Preview
        Value Chains and Tropical Products in a Changing Global Trade Regime (English)
        Report by Mather, Charles/ICTSD, 2008, 85 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Competitiveness

        In the last decade, the commodity issues have re-emerged as central to development initiatives and poverty alleviation strategies. The objective of this Issue Paper by Charles Mather is to contribute to this debate by providing an analysis of the value chains of four tropical commodities (bananas, sugar, cut flowers and palm oil) in a rapidly changing global trade environment. The author seeks to provide insights on the different ways the significant changes occurring in the structure and governance of commodity chains ultimately affect producers’ income and production sustainability. He also suggests recommendations to improve these two variables. The value chain approach has become an increasingly important framework for examining changes in the global trade of commodities and their implications for primary producers. Rather than describing the broad patterns of global exchange and assessing their consequences for producers and consumers exclusively through market mechanisms and equilibrium price changes, the global value chain (GVC) framework encompasses the production, processing, distribution and marketing of specific globally-traded commodities, and identifies the main stakeholders involved at each stage. It also highlights governance patterns (how these different stages are coordinated) and specifies the role of lead firms in determining market access, defining products and value across the chain (Schmitz, 2005). The commodity studies in this paper focus on four themes: changes in the geography of production, changes in chain governance, new developments in trade agreements and their impacts on primary producers in different developing countries, and initiatives towards sustainable production, ethical trade and worker welfare. With regard to changes in production, the paper provides insights into new developments in the production of bananas, sugar, palm oil and cut flowers, which have been driven by changes in trade agreements and new investment patterns. In several of the commodities concerned, an important development has been the rise of new low cost producers who will play a role in shaping the global market for these commodities. This paper was produced under an ICTSD dialogue and research project which seeks to address the opportunities and challenges of the full liberalisation of trade in tropical and diversification products, and explores possible areas of convergence between different groupings and interests in WTO negotiations. The project seeks to generate solutions-oriented analyses and possible policy responses from a sustainable development perspective.

      • Preview
        Water for Food: Innovative Water Management Technologies for Food Security and Poverty Alleviation (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 39 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Science and Technology, Trade and Environment

        The publication addresses the water-food-poverty nexus in agricultural development. Modern irrigation systems have allowed for increased food production, but population growth and climate change are generating concerns about the food and water security. The study presents water management technologies and dicusses how developing countries can have better access to these.

      • Preview
        World commodity trends and prospects (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2002, 13 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        What: Developing countries' share of world commodity exports increased slightly, although the share of African countries has continued to decrease. This report looks at how dependence on exports of a few commodities remains high and prices have continued their downward trend. The fall in prices of some commodities, including coffee, cotton and sugar, has been dramatic, causing large economic losses and increased poverty in several developing countries. Who: For anyone focusing on the international commodity market and its effects on developing and Least Developed Countries. How: Can be used for background reading in courses on commodities.

      • Preview
        World Investment Report 2007: Transnational Corporations, Extractive Industries and Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2007, 323 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Investment

        This year's World Investment Report (WIR) from UNCTAD focuses on the role of transnational corporations (TNCs) in the extraction of oil, gas and minerals. It emphasises the need for coherent and well-designed host country policies that involve all stakeholders in order to maximize development gains from such industries. As in previous years, the WIR07 presents the latest data on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), and traces global and regional trends in FDI and in international production by TNCs. The main finding is that the growth of FDI has been the largest in 2006 since 2000, and occurred in all three groups of economies: developed countries, developing countries, and the transition economies. Despite the general positive prospects for global FDI, it is predicted that the world economy will face several challenges and risks, which may have implications for FDI flows in 2007 and 2008. These include global current account imbalances causing exchange rate shifts, volatile oil prices, and a potential tightening of financial market conditions.

      • Preview
        World Investment Report 2007: Transnational Corporations, Extractive Industries and Development - Overview
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2007, 49 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Investment

        This year's World Investment Report (WIR) from UNCTAD focuses on the role of transnational corporations (TNCs) in the extraction of oil, gas and minerals. It emphasises the need for coherent and well-designed host country policies that involve all stakeholders in order to maximize development gains from such industries. As in previous years, the WIR07 presents the latest data on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), and traces global and regional trends in FDI and in international production by TNCs. The main finding is that the growth of FDI has been the largest in 2006 since 2000, and occurred in all three groups of economies: developed countries, developing countries, and the transition economies. Despite the general positive prospects for global FDI, it is predicted that the world economy will face several challenges and risks, which may have implications for FDI flows in 2007 and 2008. These include global current account imbalances causing exchange rate shifts, volatile oil prices, and a potential tightening of financial market conditions.

      • Preview
        World Investment Report 2009: Transnational Corporations, Agricultural Production and Development
        Report by UNCTAD, 2008, 314 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Investment

        This year's World Investment Report (WIR) concentrates on the changes in the FDI landscape induced by the current economic and financial crisis. Global FDI flows have been severely affected, and investments to developing and transition economies, which surged in recent years, are expected to suffer from a decline in 2009. This poses challenges for many developing countries, as FDI has become their largest source of external financing. The impact is analysed in detail, and regional trends for developing and developed countries are identified in the first part of the WIR. The second part of the report looks at transnational corporations (TNCs), Agricultural Production and Development. Foreign participation can play a significant role in agricultural production in developing countries. Therefore, the report proposes that governments should formulate an integrated strategic policy and regulatory framework for TNC activities in agricultural production, considering business as well as social and environmental interests.

      • Preview
        World Investment Report 2009: Transnational Corporations, Agricultural Production and Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2009, 313 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Investment

        This year's World Investment Report (WIR) concentrates on the changes in the FDI landscape induced by the current economic and financial crisis. Global FDI flows have been severely affected, and investments to developing and transition economies, which surged in recent years, are expected to suffer from a decline in 2009. This poses challenges for many developing countries, as FDI has become their largest source of external financing. The impact is analysed in detail, and regional trends for developing and developed countries are identified in the first part of the WIR. The second part of the report looks at transnational corporations (TNCs), Agricultural Production and Development. Foreign participation can play a significant role in agricultural production in developing countries. Therefore, the report proposes that governments should formulate an integrated strategic policy and regulatory framework for TNC activities in agricultural production, considering business as well as social and environmental interests.

      • Preview
        World Investment Report 2009: Transnational Corporations, Agricultural Production and Development - Overview English (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2009, 55 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Investment

        This year's World Investment Report (WIR) concentrates on the changes in the FDI landscape induced by the current economic and financial crisis. Global FDI flows have been severely affected, and investments to developing and transition economies, which surged in recent years, are expected to suffer from a decline in 2009. This poses challenges for many developing countries, as FDI has become their largest source of external financing. The impact is analysed in detail, and regional trends for developing and developed countries are identified in the first part of the WIR. The second part of the report looks at transnational corporations (TNCs), Agricultural Production and Development. Foreign participation can play a significant role in agricultural production in developing countries. Therefore, the report proposes that governments should formulate an integrated strategic policy and regulatory framework for TNC activities in agricultural production, considering business as well as social and environmental interests.

      • Preview
        World Investment Report 2010: Investing in a Low-carbon Economy - Overview (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 54 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment

        A key question is to what extent countries gain from open trade in natural resources. Some of the issues examined in the Report include the role of trade in providing access to natural resources, the effects of international trade on the sustainability of natural resources, the environmental impact of resources trade, the so-called natural resources curse, and resource price volatility. The Report examines a range of key measures employed in natural resource sectors, such as export taxes, tariffs and subsidies, and provides information on their current use. It analyzes in detail the effects of these policy tools on an economy and on its trading partners. Finally, the Report provides an overview of how natural resources fit within the legal framework of the WTO and discusses other international agreements that regulate trade in natural resources. A number of challenges are addressed, including the regulation of export policy, the treatment of subsidies, trade facilitation, and the relationship between WTO rules and other international agreements.

      • Preview
        World Trade Report 2010: Trade in Natural Resources (English)
        Report by WTO, 2010, 256 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        A key question is to what extent countries gain from open trade in natural resources. Some of the issues examined in the Report include the role of trade in providing access to natural resources, the effects of international trade on the sustainability of natural resources, the environmental impact of resources trade, the so-called natural resources curse, and resource price volatility. The Report examines a range of key measures employed in natural resource sectors, such as export taxes, tariffs and subsidies, and provides information on their current use. It analyzes in detail the effects of these policy tools on an economy and on its trading partners. Finally, the Report provides an overview of how natural resources fit within the legal framework of the WTO and discusses other international agreements that regulate trade in natural resources. A number of challenges are addressed, including the regulation of export policy, the treatment of subsidies, trade facilitation, and the relationship between WTO rules and other international agreements.

Login