A partnership with academia

Building knowledge for trade and development

    • Contains documents and studies which use modelling methods and analytical tools to simulate or evaluate trade policy options. Furthermore, background readings on trade data models and modelling methodologies, as well as sources containing trade data are provided.
      • Preview
        2004 Development and Globalization: Facts and Figures (English)
        Report by UNCTAD/GDS Division, 2004, 119 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Finance for Development, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This publication provides data on major economic trends in developing countries: finance and debt, international trade in commodities and manufactures, investment, information and communication technology.

      • Preview
        The African Growth and Opportunity Act: An Empirical Analysis of the Possibilities Post-2015
        Report by UNECA, 2013, 68 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report provides an analysis of outcomes of U.S.-Africa trade under five categories of post-2015 scenarios. These scenarios look at the trade and income implications of not extending AGOA beyond 2015; expanded product eligibility for AGOA; revisions to the currently eligible countries; a restructuring of AGOA to resemble the economic partnership agreements (EPAs) of the European Union; and the effects that a possible EU-U.S. free trade agreement (FTA) could have on AGOA or an EPA-like situation, with an additional scenario examining how a continental free trade area (CFTA) would play into such an integrated trade environment. The results indicate, first of all, that should AGOA not be extended and current AGOA-eligible countries revert back to the U.S. Generalized System of Preferences (GSP), then trade losses would be distributed in a very unequal fashion across the continent due to the variation in AGOA-eligible products that are exported by different countries. The results also show that expanding product eligibility for AGOA would only have small effects on the exports coming from AGOA-eligible countries— unless complete duty-free and quota-free (DFQF) market access was granted because the most import-sensitive sectors for the U.S. (e.g., sugar, cotton and clothing) are still where Africa would gain the most.

      • Preview
        African Statistical Yearbook 2012 (English)
        Book by AFDB, AU, UNECA, 2012, 353 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This 2012 Yearbook presents a time series showing the performance of African countries for various economic and social indicators over the period 2003–2011. The book consists of two parts: a set of summary tables followed by country profiles (information is provided both in English and French). Topics that are covered include Social demographic indicators, Monetary and Financial Statistics, Economic Statistics, Economic Infrastructure and Investment Climate as well as Millennium Development Goals.

      • Preview
        Africa’s Development And The Global Trading System: Challenges And Options (English)
        Working paper by OSABUOHIEN, Evans S. / Covenant University, Nigeria and EGWAKHE, Johnson A. /Adventist University of Central Africa, Rwanda, 2011, 27 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper empirically explores development in Africa in relation to the global trading system using panel data techniques. It examines the economic development of African economies in relation to the countries’ regional grouping and also assesses Random Effects (RE) and Generalised Method of Moments (GMM) estimates. The results establish, among other things, that sub-regions with higher level of domestic investment had higher values in economic development indicators.

      • Preview
        Agriculture, Trade Reform and Poverty Reduction: Implications for Sub-Saharan Africa (English)
        Case study by Kym Anderson, CEPR and School of Economics and Centre for International Economic Studies, University of Adelaide, 2004, 37 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: An interesting study that explores the poverty implications of the post-Doha multilateral trade reform agenda of the WTO for Sub-Saharan countries. It addresses the effects of trade reform on poverty at three levels: first developing countries as a group; then on different types of developing countries and finally on different types of households within developing countries. Who: Relevant for anyone studying or teaching trade in an LDC context in relation to poverty reduction. How: Can be used as a background reading on the implications of the current WTO Multilateral Trade Negotiations (MTN) on low-income countries and offers a lot of relevant reference materials.

      • Preview
        Aid for Trade, Infrastructure, and the Growth Effects of Trade Reform: Issues and Implications for Caribbean Countries (English)
        Working paper by Moreira, Emmanuel Pinto/World Bank, 2010, 45 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper examines how aid-for-trade programs can help to magnify the growth benefits that developing countries can reap from trade reform and global integration, with a special emphasis on the Caribbean region. The first part discusses various rationales for trade-related aid, viewed both as a compensatory scheme (aimed at cushioning the impact of revenue cuts and adjustment costs) and a promotion scheme (aimed at alleviating supply-side constraints). In the latter case, particular attention is paid to the role of infrastructure as a constraining factor on trade expansion. The second part discusses the relevance of aid-for-trade arguments for Caribbean countries and identifies a number of specific issues for the region. The third part illustrates the potential growth effects of aid-for-trade programs with simulation results for the Dominican Republic -- a country where infrastructure indicators remain relatively weak. The results illustrate the potentially large growth benefits that a temporary and well-targeted aid-for-trade program can provide to countries of the region.

      • Preview
        Are You Experienced? Survival And Recovery Of Trade Relations After Banking Crises (English)
        Working paper by Beverelli, Cosimo, Kukenova, Madina, Rocha, Nadia, 2011, 28 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        We examine the impact of banking crises on the duration of trade relations. We also investigate the effect of product-level characteristics, such as the size of exports and exporting experience, and of sector-level financial dependence variables, on the time to recover after a banking crisis. Using highly disaggregated US import data from 157 countries between 1996 and 2009, we first provide evidence that banking crises negatively affect the survival of trade relations. On average, the occurrence of a banking crisis decreases the rate of survival of trade relations by 13 percent. Moreover, we find that both the size of exports and exporting experience matter for recovery of trade relations after banking crises. Sectoral financial dependence has an experience-specific effect. Relations with more experience recover faster in financially dependent sectors. There is instead no clear evidence indicating effects of size heterogeneity, neither in financially dependent sectors nor in non-financially dependent ones. The results are robust and consistent across alternative econometric models.

      • Preview
        Asia-pacific Trade and Investment Report 2014 (English)
        Report by UNESCAP, 2014, 124 pages
        Categories: Investment, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The Asia-Pacific Trade and Investment Report 2014 provides analysis of trends and developments in regional trade and investment, as well as insights into their impact on countries’ abilities to achieve inclusive and sustainable development. It shows that while the Asia-Pacific region remained the most dynamic pole of the global economy, growth in trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) flows in 2013 did not yet return to the pre-crisis levels. Growth in services exports from the Asia-Pacific region lagged behind the world total in 2013, with 65 per cent of all services exports originating from just six countries: China, India, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Singapore and Hong Kong, China, which suggests large gaps between the countries in the region in terms of their trade competitiveness. In 2013, Asia-Pacific attracted almost 38 per cent of global FDI inflows. The increase in investment inflows was lower than at the global level and in other fast-growing regions such as Latin America, but was accompanied by a noticeable diversification of FDI destinations within the region. With regard to trade policies, the report points to a trend of increasingly restrictive measures across the region, dominated by behind-the-border non-tariff measures, many of which have had a negative impact on the region’s least developed countries and small and medium sized exporters. The proliferation of preferential trade agreements continued, although there is evidence of a plateau being reached, especially with regard to the involvement of Asia-Pacific countries. Much attention is now focused on the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), which involves 16 Asia-Pacific economies, and the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) between 12 countries from Asia and the Pacific Rim.

      • Preview
        Assessing Regional Integration in Africa IV: Enhancing Intra-African Trade (English)
        Book by UNECA, 2010, 527 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        ARIA IV, which is a joint-publication of the ECA, the AUC and the AfDB, finds on average that over the past decades, only about 10 to 12 per cent of African trade is within the continent which is one of the lowest intra-regional trade levels worldwide. Low intra-African trade implies that many opportunities are lost for benefiting from the gains of trade, promoting growth and accelerating development. Indeed, the empirical research reviewed in ARIA IV suggests that there is a positive correlation between trade openness and economic growth, in particular through the transmission of technological innovation and the creation of enhanced capacity to compete with more advanced economies on the international market.

      • Preview
        Assessing South-South regional integration: Same issues, many metrics (English)
        Discussion Paper by Lucian Cernat, UNCTAD, 2003, 33 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        What: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the impact of several Regional Trading Arrangements (RTAs) on the trade flows among participants and with third countries. It examines the possible trade effects of several South-South RTAs by using two different methodologies (the gravity model and CGE analysis). Owing to the differences in assumptions and methods, the results of each methodology do not easily lend themselves to comparison. The findings suggest that regional integration among developing countries can act as a practical instrument for their gradual integration into the global economy. In addition RTAs are very much part of a larger framework for regional cooperation aimed at promoting regional stability, sound and coordinated economic policies and a better regional economic infrastructure. Who: For teachers, students and researchers studying regional economic integration. How: Can be used as a background reading on a course on regional integration and globalization issues.

      • Preview
        Big Dragon, Little Dragons: China's Challenge to the Machinery Exports of Southeast Asia (English)
        Working paper by Rahardja, Sjamsu /World Bank, 2007, 42 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper investigates the extent of China's export boom in machinery and analyzes trade in components and finished machinery between China and Southeast Asia. China has increased its world market share in machinery exports. The median relative unit value of its finished machinery exports has also risen. Yet the author finds no evidence that China's expansion in the world machinery market has squeezed the market shares of Southeast Asian machinery exports. Instead, components made by Southeast Asian countries are increasing in unit value and gaining market share in China.

      • Preview
        Building a Dataset for Bilateral Maritime Connectivity
        Study by Fugazza, Marco; Hoffmann, Jan and Razafinombana, Rado, 2013, 31 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper presents a unique database reporting the shortest liner shipping routes between any pair of countries for a reference sample of 178 countries over the 2006–2012 period. Computed maritime distances are retrieved using an original database containing all existing direct liner shipping connections between pairs of countries and the corresponding sea distance. The number of transhipments necessary to connect any country pair to allow for containerizable trade is also retrieved. The contribution of this database is threefold. First, it is expected to be a useful tool for a better appreciation of transport costs and access to regular container shipping services and their impact on trade. Secondly, as presented in this paper, it helps to describe and analyse the structure of the existing global network of liner shipping services for containerizable trade, i.e. most international trade in manufactured goods. Finally, this database is expected to facilitate the construction of a bilateral liner shipping connectivity index building on UNCTAD’s original work.

      • Preview
        Burkina Faso : Perspectives Des Entreprises - Série De L’itc Sur Les Mesures Non Tarifaires
        Report by ITC, 2012, 93 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Rapport faisant partie d'une série de publications qui identifient les principaux obstacles relatifs aux mesures non tarifaires (MNT), auxquels le secteur privé est confronté - analyse l'expérience des entreprises exportatrices et importatrices au Burkina Faso, à travers une enquête directe de grande échelle; identifie les principaux obstacles MNT d'ordre réglementaire et procédurale, imposés par les pays partenaires ainsi que parle Burkina Faso; fournit une analyse sectorielle des problèmes relatifs aux MNT dans le secteur agricole et manufacturier; les appendices incluent la Classification internationale des mesures non tarifaires, et les références bibliographiques.

      • Preview
        Can Mirror Data Help To Capture Informal International Trade? (English)
        Report by Carrère, Céline; Grigoriou, Christopher /UNCTAD, 2014, 44 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report uses mirror trade statistics, or data reported by trading partners, to see if and how the gap between the declared and mirrored disaggregated bilateral data could be used to capture informal cross border trade. The paper proposes a review of the reasons for the gap between matched partner data, before investigating stylized facts from UN-COMTRADE data. Empirical analysis relying on econometrical panel data over a worldwide set of data at the 6 digits level evidences that discrepancies from the mirror data are not erratically driven. A statistically significant relationship between the gap and macroeconomic variables such bilateral distance, gdp per capita, average tariffs, foreign direct investments (FDI), implementation of regional trade agreements (RTA) have been evidenced. Based on these preliminary correlations, a probit has been run on orphan imports (imports reported by importing country without equivalent by exporting country) and predicts accurately up to 68 per cent of these misclassification cases. Thus, part of the gap can be predicted by macroeconomic variables, some of them suggesting a relationship between cross-border trade flows misreporting and fraud opportunities to evade tariffs and taxes.

      • Preview
        Chinese Trade Reforms, Market Access and Foreign Competition - The Patterns of French Exporters (English)
        Working paper by Maria Bas, Pamela Bombarda, 2013, 39 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Using detailed trade and firm-level data from France, the authors investigate how French firms' product scope and export sales changed after Chinese liberalization vis-a-vis Asian liberalization. The findings suggest that lower Chinese import tariffs account on average for 7 percent of the new products exported by French firms, and for 18 percent of additional French export sales.

      • Preview
        Classification of Non-tariff Measures (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2013, 52 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Non-tariff measures are generally defined as policy measures other than ordinary customs tariffs that can potentially have an economic effect on international trade in goods, changing quantities traded, or prices or both. Since this definition is broad, a detailed classification is of critical importance so as to better identify and distinguish among the various forms of non-tariff measures.

      • Preview
        Clothing and Export Diversification: Still a Route to Growth for Low-Income Countries? (English)
        Working paper by Brenton, Paul; Hoppe, Mombert /World Bank, 2007, 35 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Can the clothing sector be a driver of export diversification and growth for today's low-income countries as it was in the past for countries that have graduated into middle income? This paper assesses this issue taking into account key changes to the market for clothing: the emergence of India and especially China as exporting countries; the rise of global production chains; the removal of quotas from the global trading regime but the continued presence of high tariffs and substantial trade preferences; the increasing importance of large buyers in developed countries and their concerns regarding risk and reputation; and the increasing importance of time in defining sourcing decisions. To assess the importance of the factors shaping the global clothing market, the authors estimate a gravity model to explain jointly the propensity to export clothing and the magnitude of exports from developing countries to the E U and US markets. This analysis identifies the quality of governance as an important determinant of sourcing decisions and that there appears to be a general bias against sourcing apparel from African countries, which is only partially overcome by trade preferences.

      • Preview
        Coaliciones Entre Los Países De América Latina Y Caribe En Las Relaciones Multilaterales Del Comercio Agrícola
        Study by Alfaro, Daniela/Universidad de la República, 2007, 38 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System, VI Members Research

        El estudio analiza la consistencia de los rasgos estructurales e influencia de los procesos de integración regional de los países de América Latina y el Caribe (AL y C) y de la modalidad de acceso comercial en Estados Unidos en la posición adoptada en las negociaciones agrícolas multilaterales. Se utiliza la técnica multivariada de cluster para medir las “distancias” entre los países a través de indicadores económicos, de desarrollo, agrícolas, comerciales, política agrícola comercial y de intensidad comercial con EUA. Tres hallazgos merecen resaltarse. El primero refiere a la posibilidad de esperar una convergencia entre los países latinoamericanos hacia una posición agrícola común en las negociaciones agrícolas de la OMC, al utilizar la correspondencia entre los tres clusters hallados y las coaliciones de negociaciones existentes. Una segunda constatación refiere a la influencia de los procesos de integración regional en la formación de las coaliciones para las negociaciones multilaterales. Y por último, se constató que la posición que adopten los países en las negociaciones agrícolas internacionales está “ligada” a la relación comercial con EUA.

      • Preview
        The Collapse of International Trade During the 2008-2009 Crisis: In Search of the Smoking Gun (English)
        Working paper by Levchenko Logan Andrei A.; Lewis, T.; Tesar, Linda L., 2010, 56 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper uses disaggregated data on U.S. imports and exports to shed light on the anatomy of this collapse. It finds that the recent reduction in trade relative to overall economic activity is far larger than in previous downturns. In a sample of imports and exports disaggregated at the 6-digit NAICS level, findings indicate that sectors used as intermediate inputs experienced significantly higher percentage reductions in both imports and exports. It also finds support for compositional effects: sectors with larger reductions in domestic output had larger drops in trade. By contrast, it does not support the hypothesis that trade credit played a role in the recent trade collapse.

      • Preview
        The Colombia-Canada Free Trade Area: A Partial Equilibrium Simulation* (English)
        Article by Pereira-Villa Catherine; Gómez, D. and Herrera, O., 2012, 28 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research

        This paper uses disaggregated trade data for 2010 and applies ex-ante partial equilibrium modeling to calculate the impact of the preferential trade agreement between Canada and Colombia. The simulations carried out show aggregate trade creation could be one and a half times larger than trade diversion; trade between the two countries in the first year of the agreement could grow by approximately ten percent and will be focussed on a small number of goods; trade diversion is stronger with the largest trading partner of each signatory, namely the United States; and trade diversion is not strong in the case of Colombia’s neighbors with which there was significant trade prior to the agreement.

      • Preview
        Commercial policies - Course syllabus (English)
        Outline by Amir Bakir, University of Jordan, Department of Economics, 2004
        Categories: Competition Policy, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The course analyzes trade policy tools in both perfect and imperfect competition. Trade restrictions are common in the world, so micro and macro-economics' trade tools are used to study the effects of these restrictions on the different countries of the world. Economic integrations (regionalism), world trade organization, and trade strategies for developing countries are among the topics of interest in this course.

      • Preview
        Commodities and Development Report - Perennial Problems, New Challenges and Evolving Perspectives
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 178 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Poverty, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The aim of this report is to consider the factors that have shaped the commodities sector in recent years and in particular, the implications of the commodity boom of 2003–2008 for commodity-dependent developing countries.

      • Preview
        Comparing the Performance of Uganda’s Intra-east African Community Trade and Other Trading Blocs: A Gravity Model Analysis (English)
        Working paper by Shinyekwa, Isaac and Othieno, Lawrence, 2013, 52 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research

        This paper examines factors that determine Uganda’s trade flows and specifically compares the impact and performance of the different trade blocs on Uganda’s trade patterns and flows. The empirical question is whether Uganda’s trade is getting more integrated in the East African Community(EAC) region or is still dominated by other trading blocs, namely European Union (EU), Asia and Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). Two analytical approaches are used, namely: trade indicators and estimation of the gravity models using data extracted from COMTRADE for the period 2001–2009 (panel). The results suggest a strong relationship between belonging to a trading bloc and trade flows.

      • Preview
        Coping with Trade Reforms: Implications of the WTO Industrial Tariff Negotiations (English)
        Presentation by Santiago Fernandez de Cordoba, UNCTAD, 2005, 20 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        A presentation for an UNCTAD expert group meeting providing an overview of the methodologies and results of UNCTAD studies on the impact of trade reforms as well as introduction to the NAMA negotiations and an overview of the methodologies and results of UNCTAD studies on the impact of trade reforms.

      • Preview
        The Costs of Rules of Origin in Apparel: African Preferential Exports to the United States and the European Union (English)
        Report by Portugal-Perez, Alberto/UNCTAD, 2008, 39 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The European Union and the United States offer, simultaneously, preferential market access to exports of a group of African countries. Although similar regarding the extent of preferences for apparel, a key sector for least developed countries, these agreements differ as regards rules of origin (RoO). While the Everything But Arms initiative and the Cotonou Agreement require yarn to be woven into fabric and then made up into apparel in the same country or in a country qualifying for cumulation, the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) grants a special regime to “lesser developed countries”, which allows them to use fabric of any origin and still meet the criteria for preferences, thus making a case for a natural experiment. This paper aims to assess econometrically the impact of different RoO on those African countries' exports. The main finding is that relaxing RoO by allowing the use of fabric of any origin increased exports of apparel by about 300 per cent for the top seven beneficiaries of AGOA’s special regime, and broadened the range of apparel exported by those countries.

      • Preview
        Cotton: What Could a Doha Deal Mean for Trade? (English)
        Note by ICTSD, 2010, 16 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Cuts to developed country cotton subsidies could increase world prices, boosting production and exports in a number of developing countries including some of the poorest producers in Africa. This information note examines how different countries could be affected by greater or smaller reductions in subsidies as part of the WTO’s Doha Round, in addition to looking at what would happen if countries cut subsidies that were deemed unlawful by the WTO’s dispute settlement panel.

      • Preview
        Creative Economy Outlook: Trends in International Trade in Creative Industries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2019, 445 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report outlines trends in the world trade of creative goods and, for the first time, services by country for the period 2005 to 2014, and provides an outlook on the global creative economy for the period 2002 to 2015. It includes country profiles for 130 economies and highlights potential opportunities for developing countries to increase their production, exports and share in creative industries markets. The report makes the point for increased public and private sector investment in creative industries.

      • Preview
        Creative Economy Report 2008: The Challenge of Assessing the Creative Economy Towards Informed Policy-making (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2008, 357 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        What: This report analyses the so called "creative economy" as a way to generate socio-economic growth, job creation and development. It is the first study to present the United Nations' perspective on this new concept related to art, culture, media, business and technology industries that use intellectual capital as a primary input. With the contribution from five UN organizations, the document provides information about the emerging creative economy to enhance policy makers' understanding and action in this field, especially in developing countries. There is also a chapter dedicated to the role of intellectual property and technology. How: The report discusses concepts and the structure of the creative economy, analyses its impact on international trade and gives policies suggestions. A statistical annex provides trade data of creative goods and services. Who: Policy makers as well as lecturers and researches interested in creative economy.

      • Preview
        Creative Economy Report 2010 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 423 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report presents an updated perspective of the United Nations as a whole on creativity, knowledge and access to information as powerful engines driving economic growth and promoting development in a globalizing world. It provides empirical evidence that the creative industries are among the most dynamic emerging sectors in world trade. It also shows that the interface among creativity, culture, economics and technology, as expressed in the ability to create and circulate intellectual capital, has the potential to generate income, jobs and export earnings while at the same time contributing to social inclusion, cultural diversity and human development. This report addresses the challenge of assessing the creative economy with a view to informed policy-making by outlining the conceptual, institutional and policy frameworks in which this economy can flourish.

      • Preview
        Côte D’ivoire: Company Perspectives – An Itc Series on Non-tariff Measures (English)
        Report by ITC, 2014, 124 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report is part of a series of publications that identify the main obstacles related to non-tariff measures (NTMs) that the private sector faces. It analyzes the experience of exporting and importing companies in Côte d'Ivoire through a large scale survey as well as identifies the main obstacles in NTM regulatory and procedural order imposed by partner countries as well as Côte d'Ivoire.

      • Preview
        Data Protection Regulations and International Data Flows: Implications for Trade and Development (Executive Summary) (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2016, 17 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The study identifies key concerns that data protection and privacy legislation need to address. It goes on to examine the present patchwork of global, regional and national frameworks to seek common ground and areas where different approaches tend to diverge. The last part of the study considers possible future policy options, taking the concerns of all stakeholders into account while distorting international trade as little as possible.

      • Preview
        Deep Integration and Production Networks: an Empirical Analysis (English)
        Working paper by WTO, 2011, 35 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This working paper describes the two-way relationship between deep integration and production networks trade.The results show that on average, signing deeper agreements increases production networks trade between member countries by almost 35%, integration being more prominent in trade in automobile parts and information technology products.The study also shows that a 10% increase in the share of production network trade increases the depth of an agreement by approximately 6%.In addition, the probability of signing deeper agreements is higher for country pairs involved in North-South production sharing and for countries belonging to the Asia region.

      • Preview
        Deep Regional Integration and Non-tariff Measures: A Methodology for Data Analysis (English)
        Discussion paper by Cadot, Olivier; Asprilla, Alan; Gourdon, Julien; Knebel, Christian; Peters, Ralf /UNCTAD, 2015, 37 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper develops tools for policymakers to advance deep regional integration with respect to non-tariff measures (NTMs). First, it develops a regulatory distance indicator to measure the similarity of NTM policies across countries and sectors. Secondly, it employs a price-gap based technique to estimate the price increasing effect of NTMs. The report also looks at the estimation residuals to trace back from AVEs to more concrete and specific cases. Lastly, the paper links AVEs to Kenyan household survey data on consumption patterns in order to evaluate welfare impacts.

      • Preview
        The Design of Preferential Trade Agreements: A New Dataset in the Making (English)
        Working paper by WTO, 2011, 47 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Since 1990 the number of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) has increased very rapidly. This paper aims to contribute to this literature by presenting a new database on PTAs called Design of Trade Agreements (DESTA). Starting from 690 negotiated trade agreements between 1945 and 2009, 404 agreements were coded. The aim is to have a database for about 550 agreements by 2012. The agreements cover a number of sectors, namely market access, services, investments, intellectual property rights, competition, public procurement, standards, trade remedies, non-trade issues, and dispute settlement. This working paper describes the DESTA data set and provides selected descriptive statistics.

      • Preview
        Developing Countries in International Trade 2005 - Trade and Development Index (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005, 121 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        What: The report looks at the interelationship between trade performance and development and, in the first chapter, presents the "trade and development index" - an attempt to measure this relationship. Subsequent chapters deal with determinants of export performance and the experience of adjustment, post liberalisation. Who: Interesting for anyone researching the impact of liberalisation on development and the links between trade performance and human welfare. How: The data could be used as the basis for a class activity and discussion, while the case studies provide useful empirical examples.

      • Preview
        Developing Countries in International Trade 2007: Trade and Development Index (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2007, 200 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The Trade and Development Index (TDI), the second in a series after its inaugural presentation in 2005, is an innovative analytical tool that allows policy makers and practitioners to identify possible constraints to using trade as a vehicle for social and economic development. The Index identifies strengths and weaknesses of a country's institutional and policy environment, including all key indicators that affect the trade and development performance. This year's edition is enlarged by a series of country profiles for each of the 123 countries represented in the analysis, which offers the reader a tool for comparative studies among countries and regions of their trade and development performance.

      • Preview
        Development and Globalization: Facts and Figures 2008 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2008, 87 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        What: The second issue of UNCTAD's Development and Globalization: Facts and Figures - the first one was published in 2004 - provides an overview of developing countries' role in the global economy. The report covers 27 topics on global growth and composition of demand, payments balances and determinants, external resources, international trade in merchandise and services and population. How: The document provides data and analysis on major economic trends in developing countries. Who: Policy makers, lecturers and researchers interested in the increasing importance of developing countries in the global economy, trends and prospects.

      • Preview
        Development, Trade and the WTO : A Handbook (English)
        Manual by Hoekman, Bernard; Mattoo, Aaditya; English, Philip/World Bank., 2004, 672 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Developing countries are increasingly confronted with the need to address trade policy related issues in international agreements, most prominently the World Trade Organization (WTO). New WTO negotiations on a broad range of subjects were launched in November 2001. Determining whether and how international trade agreements can support economic development is a major challenge. Stakeholders in developing countries must be informed on the issues and understand how their interests can be pursued through international cooperation. This handbook offers guidance on the design of trade policy reform, surveys key disciplines and the functioning of the World Trade Organization (WTO), and discusses numerous issues and options that confront developing countries in using international cooperation to improve domestic policy and obtain access to export markets. Many of the issues discussed are also relevant in the context of regional integration agreements. Separate sections of the handbook summarize what constitutes sound trade policy; the major aspects of the WTO from a development perspective; policy issues in the area of merchandise trade and the liberalization of international transactions in services; protection of intellectual property rights and economic development; new regulatory subjects that are emerging in the agenda of trade talks; and enhancing participation of developing countries in the global trading system.

      • Preview
        Does Openness Promote Competition—A Case Study of Indian Manufacturing (English)
        Discussion paper by Manoj Pant and Manoranjan Pattanayak, 2005
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research

        Technical paper on a test of the hypothesis that openness by itself promotes competition.

      • Preview
        Does Regionalism Affect Trade Liberalization Toward Non-Members? (English)
        Working paper by Estevadeordal, Antoni; Freund, Caroline; Ornelas, Emanuel / World Bank, 2008, 61 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper examines the effect of regionalism on unilateral trade liberalization using industry-level data on applied most-favored nation tariffs and bilateral preferences for ten Latin American countries from 1990 to 2001. The findings show that preferential tariff reduction in a given sector leads to a reduction in the external (most-favored nation) tariff in that sector. External liberalization is greater if preferences are granted to important suppliers. However, these "complementarity effects" of preferential liberalization on external liberalization do not arise in customs unions. Overall, the results suggest that concerns about a negative effect of preferential liberalization on external trade liberalization are unfounded.

      • Preview
        Do Sensitive Products Undermine Ambition? (English)
        Report by Vanzetti, David, Peters, Ralf, 2011, 22 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The long-running WTO negotiations remain unresolved. Agriculture is a main stumbling block. Members have agreed to linear tariff reductions within bands, but proposed exemptions for sensitive products, while providing for much needed flexibility, threaten to undermine the ambition. A detailed partial equilibrium global agricultural trade model is used to analyse the likely impact of exemptions from the formula tariff reductions. Applying one third of the formula cuts to the 5 per cent of lines with the highest tariffs increases the final developed country average agricultural tariff from 16 to 24 per cent but the negative impacts on trade and welfare are less dramatic.

      • Preview
        Do Trade And Investment Agreements Lead To More Fdi? Accounting For Key Provisions Inside The Black Box (English)
        Working paper by Berger, Axel, Busse, Matthias, Nunnenkamp, Peter, Roy, Martin, 2009, 29 pages
        Categories: Investment, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The previous literature provides a highly ambiguous picture on the impact of trade and investment agreements on FDI. Most empirical studies ignore the actual content of BITs and RTAs, treating them as "black boxes", despite the diversity of investment provisions constituting the essence of these agreements. We overcome this serious limitation by analyzing the impact of modalities on the admission of FDI and dispute settlement mechanisms in both RTAs and BITs on bilateral FDI flows between 1978 and 2004. We find that FDI reacts positively to RTAs only if they offer liberal admission rules. Dispute settlement provisions play a minor role. While RTAs without strong investment provisions may even discourage FDI, the reactions to BITs are less discriminate with foreign investors responding favourably to the mere existence of BITs.

      • Preview
        E-commerce Trends and Impacts Across Europe (English)
        Case study by Martin Falk; Eva Hagsten/UNCTAD, 2015, 31 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This study investigates the patterns and trends of e-commerce activities as well as their impact on labour productivity growth in a group of European countries. At hand for the exercise is a unique panel of micro-aggregated firm-level data for 14 European countries spanning over the years 2002 to 2010. The empirical approach is twofold: A static specification and a dynamic panel data model. The former is a difference specification estimated by OLS and the latter uses system GMM to account for endogeneity of e-commerce activities. This study adds to the literature by presenting patterns of and first insights into the productivity effects of e-commerce activities.

      • Preview
        The Economic Community of West African States: Fiscal Revenue Implications of the Prospective Economic Partnership Agreement with the European Union (English)
        Working paper by Zouhon-Bi, Simplice G.; Nielsen, Lynge /World Bank, 2007, 30 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper applies a partial equilibrium model to analyze the fiscal revenue implications of the prospective economic partnership agreement between the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the European Union. The authors find that, under standard import price and substitution elasticity assumptions, eliminating tariffs on all imports from the European Union would increase ECOWAS' imports from the European Union by 10.5-11.5 percent for selected ECOWAS countries, namely Cape Verde, Ghana, Nigeria, and Senegal. This increase in imports would be accompanied by a 2.4-5.6 percent decrease in total government revenues, owing mainly to lower fiscal revenues. Tariff revenue losses should represent 1 percent of GDP in Nigeria, 1.7 percent in Ghana, 2 percent in Senegal, and 3.6 percent in Cape Verde. However, the revenue losses may be manageable because of several mitigating factors, in particular the likelihood of product exclusions, the length of the agreement's implementation period, and the scope for reform of exemption regimes. The large country-by-country differences in fiscal revenue loss suggest that domestic tax reforms and fiscal transfers within ECOWAS could be important complements to the agreement's implementation.

      • Preview
        Economic Development in Africa 2008 Export Performance Following Trade Liberalization: Some Patterns and Policy Perspectives (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2008, 113 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This year's Economic development in Africa report examines Africa's export performance following trade liberalization, with a view to proposing policies to improve export performance. The report shows that the extensive trade liberalization undertaken by African countries has not been followed by a substantial improvement in their export performance. This suggests that there are serious obstacles hampering a supply response to the new incentive structure created by the removal of barriers to trade. The obstacles mainly consist of structural problems related to weak capacity in the production and marketing of exports in both the agricultural and manufacturing sectors. Strong State capacity is required to increase access to factors of production and improve the business environment. In the manufacturing sector, efforts to improve all aspects of productivity and to create efficient export promotion agencies that help firms to identify and seize opportunities in export markets should be at the heart of industrial policy. The agricultural sector would benefit from better research and development, irrigation facilities and extension services. Greater liberalization of agricultural trade in the markets of developed countries is also key to improving Africa's agricultural export performance.

      • Preview
        Economic development in Africa: Trade performance and commodity dependence (English)
        Report by UNCTAD/GDS Division, 2003, 84 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        A detailed analysis that presents major trends and issues in commodity trade in Africa such as market structure, market access and prices volatility, using examples and statistics. Useful for anyone interested in commodity trade particularly in Africa. Chapter 1 provides a good overview of issues in Africa's trade performance and the annex examines the issue of cotton subsidies from the point of view of Sub Saharan Africa.

      • Preview
        Economic Diplomacy Course: University of Campinas (English)
        Outline by Mário Ferreira Presser, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), 2003
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, Trade Related Capacity Building, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This document provides an overview of the course outline for a Master's degree including the rational for the programme, a description of target students and compulsory modules as well as information about elective options.

      • Preview
        The Economics Behind Non-tariff Measures: Theoretical Insights and Empirical Evidence (English)
        Discussion paper by Marco Fugazza, 2013, 33 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        this paper from UNCTAD's study series reviews technical barriers to trade (TBTs) and sanitary measures (SPS) measures to generate different trade effects for different exporters and different industries. It adressess regulations and restrictions to protect human, animal or plant life or health and other technical regulations. It does so by showing variations in estimated trade effects through different forms of technical measures proxies, model specifications, and other methodology variations.

      • Preview
        The Economics Of Trade Agreements In The Linear Cournot Delocation Model (English)
        Working paper by Bagwell, Kyle, Staiger, Robert W., 2009, 36 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Existing theories of trade agreements suggest that GATT/WTO efforts to reign in export subsidies represent an inefficient victory for exporting governments that comes at the expense of importing governments. Building from the Cournot delocation model …first introduced by Venables (1985), we demonstrate that it is possible to develop a formal treatment of export subsidies in trade agreements in which a more benign interpretation of efforts to restrain export subsidies emerges. And we suggest that the gradual tightening of restraints on export subsidies that has occurred in the GATT/WTO may be interpreted as deriving naturally from the gradual reduction in import barriers that member countries have negotiated. Together with existing theories, the Cournot delocation model may help to provide a more nuanced and complete understanding of the treatment of export subsidies in trade agreements.

      • Preview
        Effects of Environmental Regulations on South Asian Food and Agricultural Exports: A Gravity Analysis (English)
        Working paper by Wijesinghe, W.P.A.S., 2014, 27 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper investigates the effects of environmental regulation on the food and agricultural trade of four South Asian nations, i.e., Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. For this study, the Gravity Model for international trade analysis was used with country- and time-specific fixed effects followed by Heckman sample selection model to avoid possible biases that are widely cited in the gravity literature. The Environmental Performance Index was utilized as a proxy measure for the environmental regulation of the four SAARC nations and their trade partners to denote environmental regulation of reporting and partner countries. The results of the coefficient estimates revealed that even though there appears to be a relationship between stringent regulations and foreign trade without these specific effects, its significance fades as soon as both the importing and exporting country-specific effects are taken into consideration.

      • Preview
        Empirical Insights on Market Access and Foreign Direct Investment (English)
        Working paper by Fugazza, Marco and Trentini, Claudia, 2014, 35 pages
        Categories: Investment, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper conducts a general examination of the influence of market access conditions on FDI decisions using a unique data set on bilateral FDI outward stocks and novel measures of market access. Authors find that over the period 1990–2010, export platform and complex-vertical investment strategies have been driving FDI decisions around the world.

      • Preview
        Employment Dimension Of Trade Liberalization With China: Analysis Of The Case Of Indonesia With Dynamic Social Accounting Matrix (English)
        Case study by Ernst, Christoph, Peters, Ralf, 2011, 42 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The ASEAN – China FTA raises concerns regarding its employment impact in Indonesia. The loss of millions of jobs has been predicted as a consequence of the final liberalization round, though few studies on ACFTA consider employment explicitly. This paper has two objectives. First, the employment effects of ACFTA in Indonesia on different groups of the labour market such as rural and youth employment are assessed. Second, a relatively simple methodology is developed that can be used by government officials, employers, trade unions and civil society organizations to assess and quantify the impact of trade policy changes on employment and to deepen their understanding of the complex relationship between trade and employment. The methodology combines two analytical models. Trade shocks are assessed using SMART that calculates import changes resulting from tariff reductions. The resulting effects on employment are evaluated using a multiplier analysis based on the 2008 Social Accounting Matrix component of a Dynamic Social Accounting Matrix. The impact of the final step of ACFTA is likely to be limited for Indonesia in terms of employment. Our analysis shows a small net loss of employment in Indonesia in the short run with some losses for certain groups, including female and young workers, and gains for other groups, for example agriculture employment.

      • Preview
        The 'emulator Effect' of the Uruguay Round on United States Regionalism (English)
        Case study by Fugazza, Marco, Robert-Nicoud, Frédéric, 2011, 46 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Using a detailed data set at the tariff line level, we find an emulator effect of multilateralism on subsequent regional trade agreements (RTAs) involving the United States. We exploit the variation in the frequency with which the United States grants immediate duty free access (IDA) to its RTA partners across tariff lines. A key finding is that the United States grants IDA status especially on goods for which it has cut the multilateral most favoured nation (MFN) tariff during the Uruguay Round the most. Thus, the Uruguay Round (multilateral) “concessions” have emulated subsequent (preferential) trade liberalization. We conclude from this that past liberalization may sow the seeds of future liberalization.

      • Preview
        Engendering Trade (English)
        Working paper by Do Quy-Toan, Levchenko Andrei, Raddatz Claudio, 2012, 44 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Inspired by the third Millennium Development Goal ("Promote gender equality and empower women"), this study discusses both theoretically and empirically how female empowerment is a source of comparative advantage that shapes a country's response to trade opening. Reciprocally, it shows that as countries integrate into the world economy, the costs and benefits of gender discrimination shift. The theory goes beyond a potential aggregate wealth effect associated with trade opening, and emphasizes the heterogeneity of impacts. On the one hand, countries in which women are empowered--measured by fertility rates, female labor force participation or female schooling--experience an expansion of industries that use female labor relatively more intensively. On the other hand, the gender gap is smaller in countries that export more in relatively femalelabor intensive sectors. In conclusion, the road to gender equality is paradoxically very specific to each country's productive structure and exposure to world markets.

      • Preview
        Erosion of preferences for the least developed countries: Assessment of effects and mitigating optionsErosion of preferences for the least developed countries: Assessment of effects and mitigating options (English)
        Note by UNCTAD Secretariat, 2005, 21 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        A background note by the UNCTAD secretariat for the Trade and Development Board, currently meeting in Geneva for its 52nd session, on the erosion of preferences for the Least Developed Countries. The paper highlights the countries and products benefiting from preferential market access initiatives and the scope of those initiatives. It considers the effects of preference erosion and cautions that the global welfare gains from trade liberalisation may be limited for those communities suffering the effects of preference erosion. The paper also briefly examines possible measures that could be taken to mitigate its effects.

      • Preview
        Estimating the Benefits of Cross-border Paperless Trade (English)
        Report by UNESCAP, 2014, 36 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report focuses on determining the precise measures covered by cross-border paperless trade initiatives. It aims to estimate the possible economic benefits—export gains, and cost savings—from partial or full implementation of the determined set of measures. The approach of this report is to conduct counter factual simulations: “what if” exercises based on the current reality of cross-border paperless trade implementation, and two ambitious but realistic reform scenarios.

      • Preview
        EU-ACP Economic Partnership Agreements: Empirical Evidence for Sub-saharan Africa (English)
        Case study by Vollmer S.; Martinez-Zarzoso I.;Nowak-Lehmann D.; Klann N., 2009, 29 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The study estimates the welfare effects of the interim agreements for nine African countries: Botswana, Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, Tanzania, and Uganda. The analysis is based on highly disaggregated data for trade and tariffs (HS six digit level) and follows a simple analytical model by to quantify the welfare effects of trade liberalization.

      • Preview
        Examen De Las Políticas De Ciencia, Tecnología E Innovación : Perú
        Report by Sanz, Ángel González, Pérez Cusó, Marta, Rovira, Sebastián, López Martínez, Roberto, Rozenwurcel, Guillermo, Villarán, Fernando, Sol Golup, Romina, 2010, 188 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        El objetivo último del examen de políticas de ciencia, tecnología e innovación del Perú es ofrecer al gobierno peruano un diagnóstico actualizado sobre la efectividad de sus políticas y medidas relacionadas con la ciencia, tecnología e innovación; reforzar dichas políticas y medidas integrándolas al proceso nacional de desarrollo; y, mejorar la capacidad tecnológica, fomentar la innovación, e incorporar mayor valor agregado a la producción.

      • Preview
        Exchange Rates, International Trade and Trade Policies (English)
        Article by Alessandro Nicita, 2013, 30 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper analyses the impact that exchange rate volatility and misalignment have on trade and whether exchange rate misalignments affect governments’ decisions on trade policies. It also shows that trade policy is used to compensate for some of the consequences of an overvalued currency, especially anti-dumping.

      • Preview
        Expanding Trade Within Africa: the Impact of Trade Facilitation (English)
        Working paper by Njinkeu, Dominique; Wilson, John S.; Fosso, Bruno Powo / World Bank, 2008, 31 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper examines the impact of trade facilitation on intra-African trade. The authors examine the role of trade facilitation reforms, such as increased port efficiency, improved customs, and regulatory environments, and upgrading services infrastructure on trade between African countries. They also consider how regional trade agreements relate to intra-African trade flows. Using trade data from 2003 to 2004, they find that improvement in ports and services infrastructure promise relatively more expansion in intra-African trade than other measures. They also show that, almost all regional trade agreements have a positive effect on trade flows.

      • Preview
        Exports, Equity, and Empowerment : The Effects Of Readymade Garments Manufacturing Employment On Gender Equality In Bangladesh (English)
        Working paper by Hossain, Naomi, 2011, 40 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Bangladesh has become known as something of a success in advancing gender equity since the 1990s. There have been rapid gains in a number of social and economic domains, yet by most objective standards the current condition and status of women and girls within Bangladeshi society remain low. Rapid progress has come about under conditions of mass poverty and interlocking forms of social disadvantage, political instability and under-development, overlain with prsistent 'classic' forms of patriarchy. This paper assesses the effects of the readymade garments (RMG) employment on women’s empowerment in Bangladesh.

      • Preview
        Exports of services and economic growth in developing countries (English)
        Report by Alberto Gabriele, UNCTAD, 2004, 45 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        What: This paper illustrates the main trends in international trade in services during the last two decades of the last century, and explores quantitatively the nexus between GDP growth and exports of services, focusing particularly on developing and transition countries. Who: Relevant for anyone studying or teaching exports in services in developing countries and in economies in transition. How: Can be used as a background reading on international trade on services in developing countries. The paper uses several data and provides a number of reference materials.

      • Preview
        Export Structure and Economic Performance in Developing Countries: Evidence from Nonparametric Methodology
        Discussion paper by Sudip Ranjan Basu, Monica Das, 2011, 59 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper offers a closer look of the impact on institutional quality, human capital on GDP per capita for various country-groups in the core model. It provides evidence that a flow of credit and well function financial markets are essential to support higher level of economic performance.The results of the shown nonparametric model support the higher level of skill and technology intensive manufactures and the positive impact they have on GDP per capita in developing countries.

      • Preview
        Exposure to External Country Specific Shocks and Income Volatility (English)
        Working paper by Jansen, Marion, Lennon, Carolina, Piermartini, Roberta, 2009, 23 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Using a dataset of 138 countries over a period from 1966 to 2004, this paper analyses the relevance of country specific shocks for income volatility in open economies. We show that exposure to country specific shocks has a positive and significant impact on GDP volatility. In particular, we find that the degree to which the cycles of different trading partners are correlated is more important in explaining exporters’ GDP volatility than the volatility of demand in individual export market. We also show that geographical diversification is a significant determinant of countries' exposure to country specific shocks.

      • Preview
        from Regional Economic Communities to a Continental Free Trade Area - Strategic Tools to Assist Negotiators and Agricultural Policy Design in Africa (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 81 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This handbook provides a general explanation of the preferential tariffs of India for the least developed countries, to allow officials and users responsible or involved in duty-free quota-free issues to gain a better understanding of the Duty Free Tariff Preference Scheme of India. It is meant to serve as a general guide and is not intended to provide legal advice

      • Preview
        Generalized System of Preferences. Handbook on the Scheme of Switzerland (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2011, 124 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This handbook provides a general explanation of the Swiss Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) to allow officials and users responsible or involved in GSP issues to gain a better understanding of the scheme. It is meant to serve as general guide to the Swiss GSP and not intended to provide legal advice.

      • Preview
        Global Economic Prospects 2009: Commodities at the Crossroads - Full Report (English)
        Book by World Bank, 2009, 196 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The release of this year's Global Economic Prospects finds the world economy at a crossroads. Markets all over the world are engulfed in a global economic crisis, with stock markets sharply down and volatile, almost all currencies having depreciated substantially against the dollar, and risk premiums on a wide range of debt having increased by 600 or more basis points. Commodity markets too have turned a corner. Following several years of increase, prices have plummeted, and although well above their 1990s levels, they have given up most of the increases of the past 24 months. This year's Global Economic Prospects analyzes the implications of the crisis for low- and middle-income countries, including an in-depth look at long-term prospects for global commodity markets and the policies of both commodity producing and consuming nations. The government responses to the recent price boom are also analyzed in this year's edition. Producing-country governments have been more prudent than during earlier booms, and because they have saved more of their windfall revenues, they are less likely to be forced to cut into spending now that prices have declined. The spike in food prices tipped more people into poverty, which led governments to expand social assistance programs. Ensuring such programs are better targeted toward the needs of the very poor in the future will help improve the capacity of governments to respond effectively the next time there is a crisis.

      • Preview
        Global Economic Prospects 2009: Commodities at the Crossroads - Overview (English)
        Report by World Bank, 2009, 13 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The release of this year's Global Economic Prospects finds the world economy at a crossroads. Markets all over the world are engulfed in a global economic crisis, with stock markets sharply down and volatile, almost all currencies having depreciated substantially against the dollar, and risk premiums on a wide range of debt having increased by 600 or more basis points. Commodity markets too have turned a corner. Following several years of increase, prices have plummeted, and although well above their 1990s levels, they have given up most of the increases of the past 24 months. This year's Global Economic Prospects analyzes the implications of the crisis for low- and middle-income countries, including an in-depth look at long-term prospects for global commodity markets and the policies of both commodity producing and consuming nations. The government responses to the recent price boom are also analyzed in this year's edition. Producing-country governments have been more prudent than during earlier booms, and because they have saved more of their windfall revenues, they are less likely to be forced to cut into spending now that prices have declined. The spike in food prices tipped more people into poverty, which led governments to expand social assistance programs. Ensuring such programs are better targeted toward the needs of the very poor in the future will help improve the capacity of governments to respond effectively the next time there is a crisis.

      • Preview
        Global Economic Prospects 2013: Assuring Growth Over the Medium Term (English)
        Report by The World Bank, 2013, 169 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report examines growth trends for the global economy and how they affect developing countries. It includes three-year forecasts and long-term global economic prospects and long-term global scenarios which look ten years into the future. Topical analyses cover financial markets, industrial production, global trade, inflation, exchange rates and commodities.

      • Preview
        Global Economic Prospects: Less volatile, but slower growth (English)
        Book by World Bank, 2013, 206 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The book is organized by topics such as industrial production, inflation, financial markets, trade, and others that give an overview of the world's economy and its main conclusion is that global economy appears to be transitioning toward a period of more stable, but slower growth. It also contains detailed information and figures by region where the figures show that growth is firming in developing countries, but conditions vary widely across economies.

      • Preview
        Globalization and Trade Flows: What You See is Not What You Get!
        Working paper by Maurer, Andreas, Degain, Christophe, 2010, 29 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The trade collapse that followed the recent financial crisis has led to a renewed interest on the measurement issues affecting international merchandise trade statistics in the new globalized economy. The international fragmentation of industrial production blurs the concept of country of origin and calls for the production of new statistics on the domestic content of exports, with a view of estimating trade in value added. Alongside, the international statistical community has revised in 2010 the concepts and definitions on both, international merchandise trade and trade in services statistics. This paper discusses the various issues related to the concepts of "goods for processing" and "intra-firm trade" in trade statistics, and provides an overview of the method of analysing the impact of the fragmentation of production in international value chains.

      • Preview
        Global Rebalancing: Effects on Trade Flows and Employment
        Study by UNCTAD, 2010, 48 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The persistently large imbalances in the world economy contributed to the outbreak of the current economic and financial crisis and facilitated its global spread. While global imbalances declined in the immediate aftermath of the crisis, they have been widening again with the ongoing recovery of the world economy. Global current-account imbalances are not necessarily undesirable. However, there is widespread agreement that the current imbalances are unsustainable. This paper examines the effects on trade flows and employment that global rebalancing might entail.

      • Preview
        Global Value Chains and Development: Investment and Value Added Trade in the Global Economy (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 40 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Investment, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This study presents the value-added patterns in the global economy and in the developing world. It looks at the global value chains (GVCs) and their increasing complexity, which often results in distorted statistics on global trade due to double counting. The report estimates that the value chains administered in various ways by transnational corporations (TNCs) now account for 80 percent of global trade. Moreover, the data shows that developing countries are participating more and more in GVCs and this can play an important role in economic growth in the future. In addition, the report states that the balance of opportunities and risks associated with GVCs makes it important for governments to carry out well-informed policy debates on GVCs’ development impacts.

      • Preview
        Governance, Corruption, and Trade in the Asia Pacific Region (English)
        Working paper by Abe, Kazutomo; Wilson, John S. / World Bank, 2008, 42 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper examines the impact of reducing corruption and improving transparency to lower trade costs in the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation region. The authors find, based on a computable general equilibrium model, significant potential trade and welfare gains for Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation members, with increased transparency and lower levels of corruption. Results suggest that trade in the region would increase by 11 percent and global welfare would expand by $406 billion by raising transparency to the average in the region. Most of the increase in welfare would take place in member economies undertaking reform. Among the reformers, the gross domestic product of Vietnam, Thailand, Russia, and the Philippines would increase approximately 20 percent. The benefits to Malaysia and China would also be substantial with increased transparency and lower levels of corruption.

      • Preview
        The Gravity Model of International Trade: A User Guide
        Manual by UNESCAP, 2012, 76 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The purpose of the Guide is to provide a “hands-on” introduction to gravity modeling for applied policy researchers. It is designed to be used in conjunction with a dataset of bilateral trade in services available for free download at http://www.unescap.org/tid/artnet/artnet_app/rgs_artnetgm.aspx. Readers are encouraged to replicate the results presented here using the Stata code provided in the text. Although some basic knowledge of Stata is required, more advanced commands and techniques are introduced in the text as necessary.

      • Preview
        GSP - Handbook on the Scheme of Japan 2006 (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2006, 109 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This handbook has been prepared by the UNCTAD secretariat based on the information provided by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. It provides a general explanation of Japan´s scheme to allow officials and users responsible or involved in GSP issues to gain a better understanding of the scheme. The handbook is based on: • the Temporary Tariff Measures Law, • the Cabinet Order for Enforcement of the Temporary Tariff Measures Law; and • the Administrative Rule for Enforcement of the Temporary Tariff Measures Law. The original Japanese language versions of these texts are the sole authoritative versions in the event of a dispute. The tariff item numbers used in this publication are in accordance with the nomenclature of the International Convention on the Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System (HS number). The product descriptions found in the lists have been reformulated to help understanding. Readers may wish refer to the Customs Tariff Schedules of Japan, published by the Japan Tariff Association, for further information on tariff item numbers and descriptions of Japanese GSP-eligible products and other products. Further information on the Japanese GSP scheme is available on the following Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan website: http://www.mofa.go.jp.

      • Preview
        Handbook of Statistics 2006-07 (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2007, 514 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        What: The Handbook of Statistics 2006-07 provides a comprehensive collection of statistical data relevant to the analysis of international trade, investment and development, for individual countries and for economic and trade groupings. The publication presents consolidated reference statistics considered of particular importance for describing how developing countries and economies in transition have evolved in the context of globalization. Data are presented in an analytical way in order to facilitate their interpretation. How: The printed edition of the Handbook is a valuable tool for research, policy making and education, which can also be used in conjunction with the DVD or the Internet version of the publication. The latter two contain the full time series of data. Who: Researchers and faculty in the areas of international trade, investment and development.

      • Preview
        Handbook of Statistics 2018 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 104 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics 2018 provides a wide range of statistics and indicators relevant to the analysis of international trade, investment, maritime transport and development. This year’s edition includes, for the first time in the history of the Handbook, short-term forecasts for a selection of key variables: the value of world merchandise exports (chapter 1), the value of world services exports (chapter 2), and world real gross domestic product (chapter 3). This innovation responds to an increased demand for up-to-date information to monitor global international trade, study the impact of economic or political developments, and guide policy responses. The presented forecasts are not derived from global macroeconomic models or exogenous scenarios on the future state of the global economy. They are applications of what is commonly referred to in the literature as a nowcast or contemporaneous forecast: a real-time evaluation of a variable based on a series of relevant and timely indicators. They are based on the latest data available in October 2018. A summary of the methodological approach applied is included in annex 6.3 Calculation methods.

      • Preview
        Handbook on Duty-Free and Quota-Free Market Access and Rules of Origin for Least Developed Countries – Part Ii : Other Developed Countries and Developing Countries (English)
        Manual by Inama, Stefano / UNCTAD, 2012, 206 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This handbook reviews the progress made to implement the Hong Kong (China) Ministerial Decision on the Duty-Free Quota-Free (DFQF) by other Developed countries and Developing countries in the light of past initiatives and ongoing negotiations in the context of the Doha round of trade negotiations.

      • Preview
        The Harmonized System - Amendments and Their Impact on WTO Members' Schedules (English)
        Manual by Yu, Dayong /WTO, 2008, 25 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        As an internationally standardized product nomenclature, the Harmonized System (HS) is used by WTO Members in their schedules of concessions and in the definitions of product coverage for a number of WTO agreements. This paper starts by providing an overview of the HS amendments and proposing a categorization of those HS changes in the context of transposition. It then looks back at the history of the introduction of the HS and its subsequent amendments into the WTO schedules and assesses the difficulties and problems which have been faced by WTO Members. On the basis of such analysis, it introduces the successful procedures and methodologies used by WTO Members and the WTO Secretariat to deal with the recent HS2002 transposition. The paper also discusses the implications of the HS amendments to three WTO agreements and the possible approaches to transpose their product lists into a new HS nomenclature.

      • Preview
        Harnessing the Potential for Trade and Sustainable Growth in Zambia (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 73 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper sets out Zambia’s existing trade policy framework and identifies areas of possible reform and options for maximizing the contribution of trade to inclusive growth and sustainable development. It contains a review of the macroeconomic and trade performance of the economy between 1995 and 2013. It discusses the current trade policies and institutions so as to identify the major opportunities and challenges inherent in the Zambian economy and outlines the options for enhancing Zambia’s trade and sustainable real growth in the economy. Following a review of Zambia’s trade performance and the current tariff structure, the framework recommends a strategic trade policy calibrated to support industrial sector interests. Tariff-setting is an essential component of improving Zambia’s trade performance but is not the sole determinant. Other factors play a critical role in preventing the country from increasing its exports and ultimately the creation of employment, increased incomes and reduction of poverty, such as the cost of doing business and high trade costs.

      • Preview
        How Are the Poor Affected by International Trade in India: An Empirical Approach (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 134 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This document takes an alternative approach to the issue of impact of international trade on poverty. The framework of the study traces the role played by international trade in influencing the four facts of human development, namely empowerment, productivity, equity and sustainability.

      • Preview
        Identifying New Product And Service Export Opportunities For South Africa Using A Decision Support Model
        Working paper by North-West University, 2013
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research

        This paper examines the role of the Decision Support Model (DSM) for products and services. The Decision Support Model (DSM) is an export market selection tool that makes use of a sophisticated filtering process to sift through an extensive range of product-/service- and country-related data to reveal the export opportunities that are the most realistic and sustainable. The paper illustrates how the use of these models can herald the start of a new era in export market selection and promotion in South Africa.

      • Preview
        Impact of the Global Slowdown on India’s Exports and Employment (English)
        Working paper by UNCTAD, 2013, 46 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The paper forecasts the impact of the slowdown in global GDP on India’s total exports and exports of 10 major sectors. It also estimates economy-wide and sectoral employment impacts in October 2009 and November 2010. Further, the study identifies vulnerable sectors with high potential for employment generation for immediate policy interventions.

      • Preview
        Implications of the Asian Miracle on Africa: A Comparative Analysis of the Textile/Garment Sector in Senegal and China (English)
        Case study by Mbaye, Ahmadou Aly and Yang Weiyong, 2008, 43 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research

        In this paper, a case study approach is used to further the understanding of trade patterns between Asia and Africa, focusing on textiles in Senegal and China. It presents an analysis of compared trajectories of textile/clothing in Senegal and China which reveals huge differences between both countries. While this sector is booming in China, it is experiencing tremendous difficulties in Senegal, due mainly to decreasing productivity, high unit labor costs and prices of non-tradable inputs. Hence bilateral trade of textile and clothing is almost one way, flowing from China to Senegal, and supported by a growing community of Chinese traders based in Dakar. The paper argues to support Chinese/Senegalese joint ventures in order to further intensify trade flows between both countries and to reap additional benefits for both countries. The paper is interesting to researchers with an interest either in the international textile sector or in Senegalese economic structures. The interviews with Chinese traders in Dakar make it a piece of primary research that did some data collection, besides the analytical part.

      • Preview
        In Search of Cross-Border E-Commerce Trade Data: UNCTAD Technical Notes on Ict for Development N°6 (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2016, 31 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report explores possible sources of data for gauging cross-border e-commerce. Business-to-Business (B2B) e-commerce accounts for the dominant share of global e-commerce and is therefore also likely to be the most important component of cross-border sales online (UNCTAD 2015a). However, as data on B2B e-commerce are generally scarce, attention is also given to consumer-oriented shopping (i.e. Business to Consumer (B2C) and Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C)).

      • Preview
        Integración Y Convergencia En Unasur
        Working paper by Reinoso, Alan Fairlie, 2013, 17 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research

        En UNASUR coexisten países con diferentes estrategias de desarrollo e inserción internacional, que han llevado a tensiones y/o conflictos complicados. Por un lado tenemos países que han impulsado un proceso de liberación y apertura combinado con la suscripción de acuerdos comerciales regionales, principalmente Norte-Sur (TLCs). Por otro lado hay países que no solo cuestionan estas estrategias y han planteado una nueva intervención del Estado para manejar la renta de los recursos naturales, sino que también cuestionan los TLC porque entienden que no contribuyen al desarrollo de sus países. Este documento se concentra en discutir sobre las posibilidades de convergencia que habría en el plano económico – comercial, estratégico, en el espacio de UNASUR.

      • Preview
        Integration of Markets vs. Integration by Agreements (English)
        Working paper by Aminian, Nathalie; Fung, K.C.; Ng, Francis / World Bank, 2008, 38 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper provides an analysis of the two channels of regional integration: integration via markets and integration via agreements. Given that East Asia and Latin America are two fertile regions where both forms of integrations have taken place, the authors examine the experiences of these two areas. There are four related results. First, East Asia had been integrating via markets long before formal agreements were in vogue in the region. Latin America, by contrast, has primarily used formal regional trade treaties as the main channel of integration. Second, despite the relative lack of formal regional trade treaties until recently, East Asia is more integrated among itself than Latin America. Third, from a purely economic and trade standpoint, the proper sequence of integrations seems to be first integrating via markets and subsequently via formal regional trade agreements. Fourth, regional trade agreements often serve multiple constituents. The reason why integrating via markets first can be helpful is because this can give stronger political bargaining power to the outward-looking economic-oriented forces within the country.

      • Preview
        The Interface Between Access and Benefit-Sharing Rules and Biotrade in Vietnam (English)
        Report by Dr. Trang Thi Huong Tran/UNCTAD, 2016, 49 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report identifies and explores main regulatory challenges in Vie Nam; addresses issues of concern and policy options to develop in response to the challenges; assesses the country's national competent authorities ABS frameworks supportive of BioTrade, and considers the outlook for businesses and other relevant stakeholders in line with the new obligations under the Nagoya Protocol in Viet Nam.

      • Preview
        The International Mobility of Highly Educated Workers Among OECD Countries (English)
        Article by Globerman, Steven; Shapiro, Daniel, 2008, 36 pages
        Categories: Migration and Development, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The study, published in the "Transnational Corporations" journal's edition of April 2008, analyzes the determinants of bilateral migration flows of highly educated workers (HEWs) within OECD countries using an augmented gravity model. The results for all migrants irrespective of their level of education confirm the importance of bilateral FDI and trade as stimuli for bilateral migration flows. The level of migration at all levels of education is higher between countries with large populations and lower when geographic, linguistic and religious “distances” are relatively large. All migrants also tend to leave countries where economic conditions are relatively poor (high unemployment; low GDP per capita) and move to areas where conditions are better. With regard to the migration of HEWs in particular, bilateral trade and FDI have an even greater impact. In addition, HEWs are more influenced by the “pull” of economic conditions in host countries, while those with less education are more heavily influenced by the “push” of economic factors in their home countries. The study provides an interesting analytical framework for the modeling of migration and also adds to current literature by using recent OECD data on migrants by level of education (such data, although not used in this study, is also available for migrants from non-OECD countries) and includes measures of bilateral trade and FDI as determinants of bilateral migration.

      • Preview
        International Supply Chains and Trade Elasticity in Times of Global Crisis (English)
        Working paper by Escaith, Hubert, Lindenberg, Nannette, Miroudot, Sébastien, 2010, 42 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The paper investigates the role of global supply chains in explaining the trade collapse of 2008-2009 and the long-term variations observed in trade elasticity. Building on the empirical results obtained from a subset of input-output matrices and the exploratory analysis of a large and diversified sample of countries, a formal model is specified to measure the respective short-term and long-term dynamics of trade elasticity. The model is then used to formally probe the role of vertical integration in explaining changes in trade elasticity. Aggregated results on long-term trade elasticity tend to support the hypothesis that world economy has undertaken in the late 1980s a "traverse" between two underlying economic models. During this transition, the expansion of international supply chains determined an apparent increase in trade elasticity. Two supply chains related effects (the composition and the bullwhip effects) explain also the overshooting of trade elasticity that occurred during the 2008-2009 trade collapse. But vertical specialization is unable to explain the heterogeneity observed on a country and sectoral level, indicating that other contributive factors may also have been at work to explain the diversity of the observed results.

      • Preview
        International Trade After the Economic Crisis: Challenges and New Opportunities
        Study by UNCTAD, 2010, 158 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The purpose of this year’s UNCTAD-JETRO joint research is to investigate the new economic realities in international trade that are evident particularly after the 2008 financial crisis, and to highlight the issues that are key to the future of pro-trade as well as pro-development international trading system.

      • Preview
        International Trade and Inter-industry Wage Inequality in Developing Countries (English)
        Discussion paper by KOUTY Manfred, 2012, 18 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research

        The last two decades are characterized by the expansion of world trade and inequalities in developing countries (DCs). In contrast to most existing studies that focus on income inequality in particular country or region, this paper focuses on the inter-industry wage inequality. Using the dynamic panel data of 96 developing countries over the 1985- 2003, the study finds that trade flows (import and export) are not significantly related to interindustry wage inequality in DCs. The increase of number of tariff line s increases the interindustrial wage inequality.

      • Preview
        International Trade and Real Transmission Channels of Financial Shocks in Globalized Production Networks (English)
        Working paper by Escaith, Hubert, Gonguet, Fabien, 2009, 33 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The article analyses the role of international supply chains as transmission channels of a financial shock. Because individual firms are interdependent and rely on each other, either as supplier of intermediate goods or client for their own production, an exogenous financial shock affecting a single firm, such as the termination of a line of credit, reverberates through the productive chain. The transmission of the initial financial shock through real channels is tracked by modelling input-output interactions. The paper indicates that when banks operate at the limit of their institutional capacity, defined by the capital adequacy ratio, and if assets are priced to market, then a resonance effect amplifies the back and forth transmission between real and monetary circuits. The paper illustrates the proposed methodology by computing a supply-driven indicator (IRSIC) and indirect demand-driven impacts on five interconnected economies of different characteristics: China, Japan, Malaysia, Thailand and the United States.

      • Preview
        International Trade Statistics 2008 (English)
        Report by WTO, 2008, 255 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        International Trade Statistics is the WTO’s annual compilation of global trade statistics. This Report provides comprehensive statistics on trade in merchandise and commercial services, with an assessment of world trade flows by country, region and main product groups or service categories. Some 250 tables and charts depict trade developments from various perspectives and provide a number of long-term time series. Major trade developments are summarized and discussed in the first part of the report under Overview. Detailed trade statistics are provided in Appendix tables.

      • Preview
        International Trade Statistics 2009
        Data by WTO, 2009, 262 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        International Trade Statistics 2009 offers a comprehensive overview of the latest developments in world trade, covering the details of merchandise trade by product and trade in commercial services by category. Each chapter is introduced by a highlights section that identifies the most salient trends in the data and illustrates them with numerous charts and maps. There is also a methodological chapter that explains essential concepts and definitions used in compiling the statistics, and an appendix with detailed data on trade by region up to 2008. International Trade Statistics 2009 continues to serve as an invaluable reference for researchers, policy makers, and anyone interested in international trade.

      • Preview
        International Trade Statistics 2012
        Book by WTO, 2012, 274 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The 2012 edition provides comprehensive and detailed data required to describe major trends and developments in international trade and market access.

      • Preview
        International Trade Statistics 2013
        Report by WTO, 2013, 208 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        International trade statistics provides the facts that firms and policy makers need to take decisions. Equally, it provides the information that analysts and academics need to provide advice to decision makers. This year's edition includes a new chapter on trade in global value chains, offering new perspectives on world trade and economic growth. The new data highlight, for example, that trade in intermediate goods is just as concentrated among large players as overall trade. The new data in this publication reveal the leading exporters and importers of intermediate goods, an important indicator of increased fragmentation in production chains. The new chapter also highlights the sectoral contributions of the value added to exports, demonstrating the interdependency of domestic and foreign sectors. Finally, the new chapter provides information outlining the level of exchanges within their multinational parent company carried out by US-owned affiliates.

      • Preview
        Kenya: Company Perspectives – An Itc Series on Non-tariff Measures (English)
        Report by ITC, 2014, 124 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report is part of a series of publications assessing the impact of Non-Tariff Measures (NTMs) on the business sector, based on a large-scale survey conducted in Kenya with companies directly reporting burdensome NTMs and the reasons why they consider them to be trade obstacles. It analyses survey findings and compares them to other sources on NTMs to identify regulatory, procedural and infrastructural obstacles in Kenya and its partner countries. It also gives trade and trade policy overview of Kenya and covers food and agro-based products including tea and horticultural products, manufacturing sectors such as chemicals, metal and non-electric machinery, plastics and rubber products, and textiles and clothing.

      • Preview
        Key Statistics and Trends in Economic Integration: ACP Region (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 59 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report is structured into two parts. The first part briefly summarizes the history of the ACP group and presents an overview of ACP economies in the world economy and some challenges that member States face. The second part provides illustrative statistics on ACP countries' trade in goods and services during the last decade. The section includes various indicators of trade structure, services trade and investment flows, trade facilitation, tariffs and non-tariff measures as well as international competitiveness. While the section presents some of the most commonly used trade indicators for the ACP group as a whole, some other figures compare the structure and performance of three geographical regions of the ACP: Africa, Caribbean and Pacific.

      • Preview
        Key Statistics and Trends in Trade Policy 2014 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 34 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The purpose of this study is to provide a snapshot on policies affecting international trade over the recent and medium-term period. It is intended as a regular monitoring exercise so as to provide interested readers with informative data and analysis on a regular basis. The study is organized in several sections. The first part presents statistics related to tariffs. The second part focuses on preferential margins. The third section presents data related to tariff policy space. The fourth section illustrates selected statistics related to preferential trade agreements. The fifth part presents new data on non-tariff measures, and it is followed by a section on trade defence measures. The final section presents statistics on the exchange rate.

      • Preview
        Key Trends in International Merchandise Trade (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 45 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The purpose of this report is to provide some key trends in world trade in goods over the recent medium-term period. This report is intended as a monitoring exercise so as to provide interested readers with informative data and analysis on a regular basis. The report is organized in four parts. The first part presents broad statistics on international trade. The second section presents statistics on international trade disaggregated by broad product groups and economic sectors. The third section presents statistics related to bilateral trade flows and regional trade flows. The fourth part presents some of the commonly used indices related to international trade including diversification, intra industry trade, and sophistication of exports.

      • Preview
        LATN Brief April 2007: Economies of China, Colombia and Peru - Impact on Growth and Income (English)
        Policy brief by Ferrari, César, 2007, 4 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Trade and Poverty, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        China has managed to reduce poverty levels considerably over the past decades, albeit at the cost of increasing inequality. Many Latin American countries in contrast have lived through a period of stagnation and have not been able to reduce poverty and inequality levels. The last brief published by the Latin American Trade Network (LATN) summarizes the results of a study on the factors underlying the different growth, poverty reduction, trade, and investment experiences of China, Colombia and Peru. In addition, the study sets up a dynamic Computable General Equilibrium model to examine the consequences of enhanced trade and investment relationships between Colombia and China. The findings of the study suggest positive effects on the Colombian growth rate and wages, but negative impacts on the levels of employment and inequality. The brief is available in Spanish.

      • Preview
        LDC Services Exports: Trends and Success Stories (English)
        Working paper by ITC, 2013, 39 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Paper focuses on recent trends in the Least Developed Countries ( LDCs) exports of commercial services targeted at trade support institutions and the Aid for Trade community. It describes the LDCs current services export performance based on the UNCTAD-WTO Trade in Services Statistics for 2011 and provides a collection of services exporter case stories featuring case studies from Bangladesh, Cambodia, Rwanda, Senegal, Uganda, Vanuatu. The paper discusses lessons learned on the drivers of competitiveness in services and offers initial suggestions for what needs to be done to enhance LDC services enterprises' competitiveness.

      • Preview
        The Least Developed Countries Report 2004 - Statistical Annex (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 49 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Basic data on the Least Developed Countries for 2004

      • Preview
        Liberalizing Agriculture by OECD Countries : Welfare, Growth and Distributional Impact in Developing Countries (English)
        Report by Hossain, Sharif M., 2011, 10 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research

        Although it is often argued that liberalization provides opportunities for growth and development in all over the world, there are divergent views about the effects of agricultural trade liberalization on growth and income distribution in developing countries. The developing countries’ main complaint in this regard is that trade distorting activities in agriculture by developed countries adversely affecting their exports and consequently growth, and income and employment of the people therein. There is a general perception among the policymakers and academia that the developing countries would gain much from the removal of existing distortion in the agricultural market because of the tremendous importance of the agricultural sector in their economies. The current paper has analyzed the effect of trade liberalization in agriculture on welfare, growth and income distribution in developing countries, using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model and indicates that the effect is not similar for all the developing countries.

      • Preview
        Making Data Meaningful Part 1: A Guide to Writing Stories About Numbers (English)
        Manual by UNECE, 2009, 28 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The first in a series from the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, the guide is intended as a practical tool to help use text, tables, graphics and other information to bring statistics to life using effective writing techniques.

      • Preview
        Making Data Meaningful Part 2: A Guide to Presenting Statistics (English)
        Manual by UNECE, 2009, 58 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The second in a series from the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, this guide aims to help readers find the best way to get their\\nmessage across to non-specialists, using the most suitable set of tools and skills now available from an array of communication methods.

      • Preview
        Making Regional Integration Work : Company Perspectives on Non-tariff Measures in Arab States
        Report by ITC, 2015, 74 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report is part of the ITC series of developing-country surveys on non-tariff measures (NTMs). It analyses four business surveys conducted by ITC in Egypt, Morocco, the State of Palestine and Tunisia. The surveys focus on NTMs imposed by governments; procedures that make compliance difficult; and inefficiencies in the trade-related business environment.The publication offers insights into what businesses perceive as their main challenges to trade, within and beyond the region, and suggests how to address these bottlenecks which hamper international and regional trade of the countries covered by the surveys.

      • Preview
        Malawi: Company Perspectives - An ITC Series on Non-Tariff Measures (English)
        Report by ITC, 2013, 107 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This survey of exporters and importers in Malawi reveals that their main challenges to access markets abroad are twofold in relation to non-tariff measures. First, product certification is problematic: companies have difficulties to meet international standards. In addition, Malawi lacks an internationally accredited facility to certify products. Second, export licensing is a real challenge due to the many institutions involved, which contributes to inefficiency in issuing licenses. This report presents and analyses the survey results, including trade policy implications for Malawi. It also outlines the recommendations established in a public-private dialogue on the survey results.

      • Preview
        Manual for the Production of Statistics on the Information Economy (2009 Revised Edition) (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2009, 188 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This is the second edition of the Manual for the Production of Statistics on the Information Economy. The Manual is a tool for staff of national statistical organizations responsible for measuring the information economy. It is intended to guide statisticians from developing countries in all steps involved in the production and dissemination of business ICT statistics. This second edition of the Manual is a valuable tool in our common efforts towards enhancing the availability of internationally comparable indicators of the information economy.

      • Preview
        Mapping the Tariff Waters (English)
        Working paper by Diakantoni, Antonia, Escaith, Hubert, 2009, 31 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Tariff water –the difference between bound and applied duties– provides relevant information on domestic trade policy and WTO trade negotiations. This paper examines the general and sectoral tariff structure of 120 economies, using exploratory data analysis.

      • Preview
        Market Access, Export Performance and Survival Evidence from Peruvian Firms (English)
        Working paper by Marco Fugazza, Alain McLaren, 2013, 39 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The paper provides an empirical assessment of the impact of changes in tariff-wise market access conditions for Peru using firm-level customs data over the period 2002–2008.It uses two indicators of tariff-wise market access. One is the average tariff level corrected for the responsiveness of foreign demand and the other one reflects relative market access conditions.

      • Preview
        Market access proposals for non-agricultural products (English)
        Presentation by Sam Laird, Santiago Fernandez de Cordoba and David Vanzetti, 2002, 39 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: This paper explains and analyses various proposals in the WTO non-agricultural market access negotiations using a global general equilibrium model. The results show that proposals involving deeper tariff cuts imply greater increases in imports and exports, but greater losses in tariff revenues that will need to be made up in some other way. They also show greater welfare gains in the longer term, resulting from the improved allocation of resources and changes in the terms of trade. Who: Useful for anyone focusing on WTO negotiations on non-agricultural products. How: Can be used as a background reading for courses on WTO negotiations.

      • Preview
        Market Access, Trasparency and Fairness in Global Trade: Export Impact for Good 2010 (English)
        Report by ITC, 2010, 160 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Improving market access and market entry for developing countries will improve fairness in global trade because it will contribute to reducing global poverty. Developing countries need to export more in order to boost growth and reduce poverty and provide opportunities for wealth creation in their domestic markets, which are typically small.Moreover, across developing countries a large share of the growth will be needed for investments in infrastructure in order to build up competitive advantages. Hence, developing countries will typically only realize slow domestic consumption growth in the short and medium term – but export development can boost growth prospects. This report discusses trade transparency and fairness in the context of global trade;highlights key market access issues for developing countries; examines the relationship between export development and poverty reduction, and outlines implications for both developing country policies as well as international measures to improve markets.

      • Preview
        Maroc: Perspectives Des Entreprises - Série de l'ITC sur les Mesures Non Tarifaires (English)
        Report by ICT, 2012, 107 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Rapport faisant partie d'une série de publications qui identifient les principaux obstacles relatifs aux mesures non tarifaires (MNT), auxquels le secteur privé est confronté – analyse l'expérience des entreprises exportatrices et importatrices au Maroc, à travers une enquête directe de grande échelle; identifie les principaux obstacles MNT d'ordre réglementaire et procédurale, imposés par les pays partenaires ainsi que par le Maroc; fournit une analyse sectorielle des problèmes relatifs aux MNT dans le secteur agricole et manufacturier; les appendices incluent : la méthodologie globale des enquêtes sur les MNT, les principaux résultats des entretiens face à face par secteur, une liste des obstacles procéduraux, et les références bibliographiques.

      • Preview
        Mauritius: Company Perspectives – An ITC Series on Non-tariff Measures (English)
        Report by ITC, 2014, 132 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This country report analyses survey findings from the ITC business surveys on non-tariff measures (NTM) and compares them to other sources on NTMs to identify regulatory, procedural and infrastructural obstacles in Mauritius and its partner countries covering food and agro-based products, textiles and clothing, manufacturing sectors and intellectual property issues before outlining policy options.

      • Preview
        Measuring the Relative Strenght of Preferential Market Access (English)
        Discussion paper by Alessandro Nicita, 2011, 29 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper provides two new indices aimed to assessing the value of preferential margin to calculate the strength of existing or future trade agreements and the preference erosion that third parties trade agreements may cause. The first index is the Relative Preferential Margin (RPM) and measures the relative value of preferential regimes on actual exports flows. The second index is the Potential Preferential Margin (PPM) and measures the potential value of the preferential regime. Finally, it also provides changes in these indices both for members and non-members consequent to the implementation of an FTA among East Asian countries. The results point to a large variance of benefit and losses.

      • Preview
        Measuring the Relative Strength of Preferential Market Access (English)
        Report by Nicita, Alessandro / UNCTAD, 2011, 29 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        In the past 20 years, tariffs imposed on international trade have been decreasing both in virtue of multilateral agreements under the auspices of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and of the proliferation of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) at the regional and bilateral level. The consequence of the large number of PTAs is that an increasing share of international trade is not subject to the most favoured nation tariffs, but enters markets through preferential access. Preferential access can be thought of as a policy given comparative advantage where countries discriminate across trading partners by providing some countries with a relative advantage. As the number of PTAs increases, it becomes more difficult to assess the tariff advantage originating from an existing or future trade agreement. This paper proposes two new indices aimed at assessing the value of the preferential margin. The first index measures the relative value of preferential regimes on actual exports flows. It provides the tariff advan age to the exports originating from a given country relative to similar exports originating elsewhere. The second index measures the potential value of the preferential regime and it is calculated not on observed but on “potential” export flows. These indices are useful for calculating both the strength of existing or future trade agreements as well as the preference erosion that a third-parties trade agreement may cause.

      • Preview
        Methodologies, Classifications, Quantification and Development Impacts of Non-Tariff Barriers (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, Trade Analysis Branch, 2005, 22 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        What: Background note on non-tariff barriers (NTBs) as instruments of protection and regulation of trade that gain in importance with the overall decline of tariffs. Reviews recent trends in NTB utilization (shift from core to non-core technical measures), in particular with regard to developing countries' concerns, discusses classification of NTBs and looks into different methods of quantifying the use and impact of NTBs. Who: Relevant for teachers and students of international trade/trade policy courses, both from the policy view and trade data analysis. Also for anyone interested in both analytical and policy aspects of recent trends in the use of trade policy instruments, in particular NTBs. How: Overview of the issue, classification of NTBs, data about trends in the use of NTBs (globally and by regions), brief explanation of approaches (including econometric modelling) towards measuring NTBs and their impact.

      • Preview
        Misreported Trade (English)
        Working paper by Mohammad Farhad, Michael Jetter, Abu Siddique, Andrew Williams, 2018, 45 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper introduces a methodology to measure misreported trade in a consistent way across countries and over time. Our methodology does not require any assumptions about which countries may be more or less likely to misreport – rather, all indices are derived endogenously with available trade data. We derive seven specific indices related to overall misreporting, as well as over- and under-reporting of exports and imports. Applying this method to existing bilateral trade data on the HS 4-digit level from 1996-2015, we present several rankings and describe a few prominent cases, such as China. Overall, our indices can explain intuitive developments well and should help researchers to study countries’ trade misreporting in a global dimension that is comparable across countries and over time. We conclude the paper with an application, focusing on the role of tariff and VAT rates as predictors of import under-reporting. As predicted by economic theory, case studies, and economic intuition, we find positive correlations for both tariff and VAT rates with import under-reporting. These results are robust to the inclusion of potentially confounding factors, as well as country- and time-fixed effects.

      • Preview
        Negotiating for food security - What makes a successful negotiator: Skills for negotiators (English)
        Note by Virtual Institute, UNCTAD, 2005, 2 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, Trade Related Capacity Building, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        A brief overview of some of the skills and behaviours that a successful negotiator requires. A useful background document for any simulation exercise or wider discussion of the function and role of negotiations.

      • Preview
        New and Traditional Trade Flows and the Economic Crisis (English)
        Report by Nicita, Alessandro, Tumurchudur-Klok, Bolormaa, 2011, 24 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        In terms of economic development, it makes a difference whether export increases at the extensive (new trade flows) or intensive margin (traditional, well-established trade flows). Similarly, a decline in international trade may affect new flows relatively more than traditional ones. A more severe impact on new trade flows could impose additional obstacles to recovery for those countries relying on export diversification for their economic development. This paper seeks to determine whether the recent decline in international trade has affected relatively more trade at the extensive margin or at the intensive margin. The overall results indicate that the economic crisis of 2008 and 2009 has had more severe implications for those bilateral trade flows that did not exist before 2006. New bilateral flows have a lower probability of surviving the fall in demand and relatively higher negative effects on their volumes of trade. Consequently, the economic crisis may also affect the global economy by producing delays in the international product cycle, with traditional and larger exporters holding ground in a relatively better way than new entrants.

      • Preview
        New Century,old Disparities: Gender And Ethnic Earnings Gaps In Latin America And The Caribbean (English)
        Book by Hugo Ñopo/IDB/WB, 2012, 356 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This book adopts an econometric methodology for measuring earnings gaps and applies it consistently across and within countries to measure gender and racial or ethnic differences. It offers insights on economic and political strategies that could be adopted to reduce inequality.

      • Preview
        A "new" Trade Theory of GATT/WTO Negotiations (English)
        Working paper by Ossa, Ralph, 2009, 51 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        A novel theory of GATT/WTO negotiations that provides new answers to two prominent questions in the trade policy literature: First, what is the purpose of trade negotiations? And second, what is the role played by the fundamental GATT/WTO principles of reciprocity and nondiscrimination? Relative to the standard terms-of-trade theory of GATT/WTO negotiations, my theory makes two main contributions: First, it builds on a "new trade" model rather than the neoclassical trade model and therefore sheds new light on GATT/WTO negotiations between similar countries. Second, it relies on a production relocation externality rather than the terms-of-trade externality and therefore demonstrates that the terms-of-trade externality is not the only trade policy externality, which can be internalized in GATT/WTO negotiations.

      • Preview
        Non-Tariff Barriers in Computable General Equilibrium Modelling (English)
        Report by Fugazza, Marco/UNCTAD, 2008, 25 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        With diminishing tariffs, the focus of trade policy makers and analysts is logically turning towards non-tariff barriers (NTBs), but there much remains to be done. It is well-know that tackling NTBs poses many challenges for the analyst because of their diverse and complex nature, and the lack of available evidence. NTBs pose also particular difficulties to computable/applied general equilibrium (CGE) modelling, traditionally more comfortable with policies whose impact can be interpreted into direct effects on prices. This research provides a quantification of the impact of NTBs at the global level. The model we use is significantly larger than in previous studies, and to our knowledge, the first truly global one. The main focus of this research, however, is to discuss and question the various treatments of NTBs in CGE models with a specific application of the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) standard model, the workhorse of trade policy CGE analysis. We find that serious estimation and modelling efforts remain to be undertaken in order to make CGE modelling a useful policy tool to analyze NTBs. Casual policy inferences from loose specifications may indeed lead to serious analytical mistakes. We show that while using the same robust estimates.

      • Preview
        Non-tariff Measures and Regional Integration in the Southern African Development Community (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 36 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This note provides an overview of the state of play of the political process on NTM policies in the SADC region and presents a non-technical summary of methodologies to assess the regulatory distance between members of a free trade agreement and the potential greater economic benefits from reducing NTMs. The note also contains a discussion of the potential way forward in the SADC region on NTMs.

      • Preview
        Non-tariff Measures and the Fight Against Malaria - Obstacles to Trade in Anti-malarial Commodities (English)
        Review by ITC, 2011, 34 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper focuses on specific non-tariff measures (NTMs) that could negatively affect the affordability and accessibility of anti-malarial commodities - it introduces non-tariff measures and other obstacles to trade. It presents the results of a business-perception survey, conducted by ITC, on NTMs faced by importers and exporters of anti-malarial commodities (medicines for treating/preventing of malaria, diagnostic tests, mosquito nets, insecticides for indoor residual spraying, and pumps for spraying indoor insecticides). The paper is structured as follows: Section 1 introduces non-tariff measures and other obstacles to trade. In addition it presents the NTM classification and methodology underlying this paper. Furthermore section 2 and 3 provide the survey results and section 4 presents the conclusions.

      • Preview
        Non-tariff Measures and the WTO (English)
        Working paper by Staiger, Robert W., 2012, 47 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        In this paper I sketch out the rough contours of the challenge faced by the WTO in dealing with non-tariff measures (NTMs) as seen from the economic theories of trade agreements. The key questions for the WTO - the answers to which largely dictate the choice between shallow and deep approaches to integration - appear to be two: (1) Is it the terms-of-trade problem or the commitment problem that WTO member governments seek to solve with their WTO membership?; and (2) Is it market clearing or offshoring/bilateral bargaining that is now the most prominent mechanism for the determination of international prices? I suggest that evidence on the …rst question points to the terms-of-trade theory and hence toward shallow integration, but that answering the second question may be the key to identifying the best way forward on NTMs for the WTO.

      • Preview
        Non-tariff Measures: Evidence from Selected Developing Countries and Future Research Agenda
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 166 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The severe contraction of world trade volume during the current global economic and financial crisis – the steepest since the Great Depression – put pressure on the trade policies of many importing and exporting countries around the world. One result of the crisis in developed and developing countries has been the contemplation or use of trade policy instruments, mainly taking the form of non-tariff measures (NTMs), to protect domestic producers.The present publication brings to a culmination a four-year multi-agency effort to better understand NTMs. It will provide practical help to UNCTAD member States, particularly developing countries. Such help can strengthen their capacity to understand non-tariff measures and the potentially negative spill-over eff ects of NTMs in trade, as well as support countries in formulating and implementing sound trade and development policies and strategies.

      • Preview
        Non-tariff Measures To Trade: Economic and Policy Issues for Developing Countries
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 124 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This study provides an analysis of the utilization, methods of quantification and impacts of Non-Tariff Measures (NTMs), and illustrates some aspects of NTMs and the policy responses Governments and the international community might deploy to address some of the complexities arising from their use.

      • Preview
        Not Totally Naked: Textiles and Clothing Trade in a Quota Free Environment (English)
        Discussion paper by Jörg Mayer, 2004, 55 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: A very good discussion paper that deals with quota regulations and tariff protection in textiles and clothing trade focusing mainly on China. It discusses at length the effects of the implementation of the Termination of the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC). The paper uses several data and provides selected number of reference materials. Who: Relevant for anyone studying or teaching trade - quota regulations and tariff protection on textiles and clothing. How: The discussion paper can be used for a lecture or a seminar to teach the trade effects on the termination of ATC on both developed and developing countries.

      • Preview
        On the Complementarity of Regional and Global Trade (English)
        Working paper by Souleymane,Coulibalya/WB, 2008, 16 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper proposes a closer look at the issue using COMTRADE aggregate exports of capital goods, intermediate goods, consumer goods and raw materials for 2002-06 to evaluate the impact of a country import of intermediate goods from its neighbors on its global export performance using a granger-causality test based on an extended-gravity model. For Sub-Saharan African countries particularly, there is a strong positive correlation between countries previous regional import of intermediate goods and their current exports, indicating that developing neighborhoods are also experiencing such complementarity between regional and global trade, the relation being stronger beyond a threshold of global competitiveness.

      • Preview
        On the Determinants of Exports Survival (English)
        Discussion paper by Marco Fugazza, Cristina Molina, 2011, 43 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This study series paper examines the exporter's survival in foreign markets through an empirical investigation of possible determinants of exports survival rates such as fixed and sunk cost to export. It contains descriptive statistics of stylized facts that qualifies trade duration across groups of countries. The results are shown by region. The final part contains the results showing that the overall trade relationships with either higher average or initial trade values face lower hazard rate which have important policy implications.

      • Preview
        O Papel Dos Sistemas Gerais De Preferências (English)
        Policy brief by Barral, Welber, Pancotto Bohrer, Carolina, 2011, 12 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        O trabalho abordará o papel dos SGPs no comércio exterior brasileiro, specialmente no que tange às exportações para EUA e UE. O Brasil é usuário de ambos os sistemas, que passam por momento de transformação. Nos últimos anos, o país tem empreendido considerável esforço para manter as vantagens tarifárias no âmbito do SGP norte-americano, o que constitui elemento importante nas relações comerciais entre Brasil e EUA. No entanto, existem questionamentos tanto internos quanto externos relativos à participação do Brasil no SGP daquele país. No caso do SGP europeu, existe também bastante preocupação, especialmente em função do recente anúncio de que o bloco vai rever seu SGP, o que provavelmente terá como resultado a exclusão de países médios como o Brasil. Esta pode ser, inclusive, uma estratégia européia para forçar um acordo com o MERCOSUL e os impactos para o comércio exterior brasileiro podem ser relevantes.

      • Preview
        Opening a Pandora’s Box: Modeling World Trade Patterns at the 2035 Horizon (English)
        Working paper by Lionel Fontagné, Jean Fouré, 2013, 48 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Economic projections for the world economy in relation to the construction of Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) baselines. The document shows projection of world trade trajectories up to 2035. It includes world trade patterns in comparative advantages, demand, and capabilities of different regions. Mentions models such as the production factors model and the factor-specific productivities. It shows trade elasticity regarding trade and income. It also shows demographics, gross domestic product, saving rates, factors and current account trajectories on the CGE baseline. Lastly it suggests trade policy scenarios as demand and trade patterns.

      • Preview
        An Overview of Major Sources of Data and Analyses Relating to Physical Fundamentals in International Commodity Markets
        Working paper by Fajarnes, Pilar / UNCTAD, 2011, 32 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper, written by Pilar Fajarnes, of UNCTAD's Division on Globalization and Development Strategies, assesses the current situation with regard to the availability of information on physical commodity markets, pointing to some of the existing information gaps and areas for improvement. It also provides a comprehensive overview of the various information sources covering agricultural commodity markets (food, tropical beverages, agricultural raw materials), energy commodities, and metals and minerals markets. A wealth of website links contained in the paper facilitates the access to relevant information.

      • Preview
        Paraguay: Company Perspectives – An Itc Series on Non-tariff Measures (English)
        Report by ITC, 2013, 135 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        According to an ITC survey, non-tariff measures (NTMs) affect Paraguayan companies more than those in other Latin American countries. This report outlines policy recommendations to overcome the negative impacts of identified burdensome NTMs, particularly testing and product certification requirements, taxes and charges, quantity control measures and procedural obstacles which make export and import processes more complex.

      • Preview
        Peru: Company Perspectives – An ITC Series on Non-tariff Measures (English)
        Report by ITC, 2012, 134 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        A recent ITC survey of 960 Peruvian companies shows that 40% face challenges related to non-tariff measures, mostly in their major export markets in the USA, the EU and some countries in Latin America. This report outlines survey results and policy options discussed at a national roundtable in Peru in February 2012. While Peru’s exports doubled in five years, resources of specialized technical agencies have not increased accordingly. Certification and inspection have thus become a bottleneck. Information systems about NTMs need strengthening, as many issues faced particularly by small and medium-sized firms emerged from their lack of knowledge about regulations.

      • Preview
        The Political Economy of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (English)
        Discussion paper by VanGrasstek, Graig/UNCTAD, 2016, 40 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The TransPacific Partnership (TPP) is one of two current mega-regional initiatives that could jointly be the most consequential development in the trading system since the end of the Uruguay Round in 1994. Together with the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) negotiations that are still underway between the United States and the European Union, this agreement could redefine the landscape of the international trading system. The focus of this analysis is primarily upon the TPP, but where appropriate reference is made as well to the TTIP. The principal objective of the present study is to place the TPP in its larger political and economic context, and to define — but not definitively answer the questions that arise concerning its impact on the trading system. The main focus here is on one overarching question and two subsidiary questions. The overall question addressed here is, “What implications does the TPP hold for the evolution of the international trading system?” That system incorporates not just the multilateral agreements of the WTO, but also the larger body of trade law that includes inter alia bilateral and regional RTAs, plurilateral agreements, and other treaties and institutions. The evolution of that system is of interest to all countries no matter what their levels of economic development, trade strategies, or relationship to the TPP. Both of the subsidiary questions speak to important aspects of that overarching question. The paper does not attempt to provide definitive answers to any of these questions, but will instead seek to stimulate discussion. It does so by specifying each of these questions in greater detail, discussing their significance, and providing evidence and arguments on each side of the issue.

      • Preview
        A Practical Guide to Trade Policy Analysis
        Book by UNCTAD/WTO, 2012, 236 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The book starts with the quantification of trade flows and trade policies (Chapters 1 and 2), which allows to describe, compare or follow the evolution of policies between sectors or countries or over time, and provides indispensable input into the modelling exercises presented in the following chapters. Chapter 3 presents the gravity models, which are useful for understanding the determinants and patterns of trade and for assessing the trade effects of certain trade policies, such as WTO accessions or the signing of preferential trade agreements. Chapters 4-6 cover a number of simulation methodologies (partial equilibrium, general equilibrium) which can be used to "predict" the effects of trade and trade-related policies on trade flows, welfare, and the distribution of income. The accompanying DVD contains datasets and command files allowing for hands-on practice. The book and the empirical material can also be downloaded from http://vi.unctad.org/tpa.

      • Preview
        A Preliminary Analysis on Newly Collected Data on Non-tariff Measures (English)
        Working paper by Nicita, Alessandro / UNCTAD and Gourdon, Julien / World Bank, 2013, 32 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper makes use of data newly collected by UNCTAD and the World Bank to investigate the use of non-tariff measures (NTMs) in about 26 countries. The analysis is based on simple inventory methods: frequency indices and coverage ratios. The results indicate that the use of NTMs is extensive and increasing, especially with regard to technical measures.

      • Preview
        Quantification of non-tariff measures (English)
        Discussion paper by Bijit Bora, Aki Kuwahara, Sam Laird - UNCTAD, 2002, 47 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        What: An UNCTAD discussion paper providing an extensive review of literature regarding the classification of non-tariff measures and quantification of their effects. Contains also an example of calculating NTM incidence using the UNCTAD Trade Analysis and Information System (TRAINS) database. Who: Teachers and students of international trade/trade policy, trade data analysis and anyone interested in learning more about NTBs. How: Can be used as a kind of a manual on the issue. Provides a well-structured and comprehensive overview of NTMs (classification in section II and an explanation in the Annex), and a detailed review of various approaches towards measuring their effects (inventory approach, modelling approaches, tariff and subsidy equivalents, trade restrictiveness index, effective protection). Particularly useful is an extensive list of references featuring main papers dealing with the issue.

      • Preview
        Regional Integration and Non-Tariff Measures in the Economic Community of West African States (Ecowas) (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 49 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This study provides an institutional overview of NTMs and an assessment of its impacts on regional integration in West Africa. It is part of a global initiative titled the “Global Transparency in Trade Initiative” jointly implemented by the Bank, UNCTAD, ITC and the World Bank to improve transparency in and access to trade data. ECOWAS was the first region in Africa in which the partners systematically mapped, collected, organized and analyzed all NTM data, including non-tariff barriers and behind-the-border regulations such as SPS measures and TBTs. The report utilizes innovative methods to assess regulatory convergence and evaluate the impact of NTMs from an economic, legal and institutional perspective. From the analysis, clear policy recommendations are identified for policy makers in ECOWAS and their development partners.

      • Preview
        Regional Integration, Growth and Concentration (English)
        Working paper by Dirk Willem Te Velde/ODI, 2007, 61 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This study aims to examine the circumstances under which different types of regional integration leads to convergence and growth, and how such integration could best be fostered. It will cover regions across the world, but the empirics will focus on developing country regions and Africa in particular.

      • Preview
        Rethinking Development Strategies After the Financial Crisis, Volume Ii: Countries Studies and International Comparisons (English)
        Report by Alfredo Calcagno, Sebastian Dullien, Alejandro Márquez-Velázquez, Nicolas Maystre, Jan Priewe (ed), 2016, 105 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Theoretical thinking on economic development largely relies on comparative analysis. In particular, it explores the reasons why some countries or regions have performed better than others in the long run. Essays in Volume II of this publication contribute to this approach, as well as examining why the performance in a given country or group of countries has improved or deteriorated in the long-term depending on changing development strategies.

      • Preview
        Revealed Factor Intensity Indices at the Product Level
        Study by UNCTAD, 2010, 59 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The process of export diversification has long been a major research issue in international economics. In recent years, there has been renewed interest in the nature and the process of export diversification. This study aims to provide a tool to fill the gap between traditional, theory-based approaches and newer eclectic ones by developing a time-series database of the indices of revealed factor intensity (RFI) of export products, using a wealth of raw data accumulated in the last two decades.

      • Preview
        Review of Maritime Transport 2017 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 130 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The Review of Maritime Transport 2017 presents key developments in the world economy and international trade and related impacts on shipping demand and supply, and freight and charter markets in 2016 and early 2017, as well as seaports and the regulatory and legal framework. In addition, this year’s Review features a special chapter on maritime transport connectivity, reflecting the prominence of physical and electronic connectivity as a priority area in the trade and development policy agenda.

      • Preview
        The Role of International Trade, Technology and Structural Change in Shifting Labour Demands in South Africa (English)
        Working paper by Haroon Bhorat, et al./ UNCTAD, 2010, 71 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        South Africa’s relatively peaceful transition from minority rule to majority rule in 1994 masked the challenges that lay ahead in terms of dealing with the economic vestiges of the system of racial exclusivity. The post-apartheid labour market challenge is twofold: firstly, South Africa has one of the highest unemployment rates in the world – officially at 26.7 percent and 38.8 percent when discouraged workers are included. Secondly, alongside this excess supply of labour, the economy for a variety of historical reasons has experienced a rapid increase in the demand for educated workers – the upshot of which has been an ongoing and severe skills shortage. The core of the paper is a detailed attempt at outlining the key factors that have shaped the economy’s chronic labour market crisis. In particular, it focuses on the different forces that have shaped labour demand trends in the apartheid and post-1994 period. It seeks to explain the relative contributions of structural shifts in the economy, technology and international trade,respectively, in determining the labour demand trajectory of the economy over the last three and a half decades. Moreover, the paper provides a descriptive analysis of the impact of the global economic and financial crisis on South Africa’s employment performance.

      • Preview
        Rules of Origin and the Web of East Asian Free Trade Agreements (English)
        Working paper by Manchin, Miriam; Pelkmans-Balaoing, Annette O. /World Bank, 2007, 29 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The authors provide an overview of the preferential rules of origin in East Asia, highlighting the aspects that might possibly generate some trade-chilling effects. They review characteristics of existing preferential trade agreements with special emphasis on lessons from the European experience, and analyze some important features of the existing rules of origin in East and South-East Asian regional integration agreements. The empirical analysis of the effectiveness of preferentialism on intra-regional trade flows focuses on the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA), with the aim of providing a rough estimate of the costs of requesting preferences. The results suggest that preferential tariffs favorably affect intra-regional imports only at very high margins (around 25 percentage points). This points to the likelihood of high administrative costs attached to the exploitation of preferences, particularly with regard to the compliance with AFTA's rules of origin.

      • Preview
        Rwanda: Company Perspectives – An ITC Series on Non-tariff Measures (English)
        Report by ITC, 2014, 110 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report is part of a series of publications assessing the impact of non-tariff measures (NTMs) on the business sector, based on a large-scale survey conducted in Rwanda with companies directly reporting burdensome NTMs and the reasons why they consider them to be trade barriers. It analyses survey findings and compares them to other sources on NTMs to identify regulatory, procedural and infrastructural obstacles in Rwanda, its partner countries and transit countries and covers food and agro based products including coffee, tea, pyrethrum, other agricultural and agro-based products and chemicals, rubber-based products and other manufactures.

      • Preview
        Senegal: Company Perspectives – An ITC Series on Non-tariffs Measures (English)
        Report by ITC, 2014, 115 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report is part of a series of publications that identify the main obstacles related to non-tariff measures (NTMs) that the private sector faces. It analyzes the experience of exporting and importing companies in Senegal through a large scale survey as well as identifies the main obstacles in NTM regulatory and procedural order imposed by partner countries as well as Senegal.

      • Preview
        Shared Harvests: Agriculture, Trade and Employment (English)
        Report by ILO and UNCTAD, 2013, 400 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The International Labour Office and UNCTAD have collaborated on this edited volume concerning how the agricultural sector affects the world of work and broad development processes. The emphasis is on the need to make agriculture a high policy priority, particularly in the domains of trade and employment. Policy makers can maximize the development benefits from agriculture by carefully considering agricultural trade policy.

      • Preview
        Simulations on the Special Safeguard Mechanism. A Look at the December 2008 Draft Agriculture Modalities. (English)
        Working paper by Montemayor, Raul/ICTSD, 2010, 58 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper aims to provide policy-makers, negotiators and other stakeholders with a clear technical assessment of how the December 2008 draft modalities (TN/AG/W/4/Rev.4) and the accompanying working document (TN/AG/W/7) could affect the functioning of the proposed special safeguard mechanism, and, in particular, accessibility of the mechanism and its effectiveness.

      • Preview
        Social Interactions of Migrants and Trade Outcomes (English)
        Working paper by Tai, Silvio H. T., 2009, 23 pages
        Categories: Migration and Development, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper investigates the social interactions performed by immigrants in France. A framework for immigrant’s choice of location is based on recent studies on non-market interactions which explains how migrants concentrate. Applying data on the distribution of immigrants in 95 French provinces, the social interactions are subsequently estimated. This “social component” of migration is then tested on international trade, providing a direct measure of the impact of social networks on the economy.

      • Preview
        South-South Trade in Asia: The Role of Regional Trade Agreements (English)
        Report by UNCTAD and JETRO (Japan External Trade Organization), 2008, 195 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        What: The report analyses Asia's dominance in south-south trade and the impact of Regional Trade Agreements on developing countries' exchanges. Through an overview about the scope of signed RTAs in the region, statistical tables on south-south exports and RTAs, a case study on India and 15 selected FTAs, the document also indicates these agreements' gaps and presents simulations of trade barriers' impact on export performance. The report finishes with business strategies and utilization of RTAs by the private sector, especially in Japan. How: Background document on trends of south-south trade in Asia and on the role of RTAs as a trade expansion tool. Who: Policy makers, researchers and lecturers dealing with international trade and Regional Trade Agreements.

      • Preview
        Sri Lanka: Company Perspectives - An ITC Series on Non-tariff Measures (English)
        Report by ITC, 2011, 112 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report assesses the impact of Non-Tariff Measures (NTMs) on the business sector. It is based on a large-scale survey conducted in Sri Lanka. The survey covers companies directly reporting burdensome NTMs and the reasons why they consider them to be trade barriers. The paper analyzes the survey findings and compares them to other sources on NTMs to identify regulatory, procedural and infrastructural obstacles in Sri Lanka and in its partner countries. Furthermore it outlines policy options for each sector including clothing, textiles, chemicals, plastics and rubber-based products; tea and other agro-based products. The report also includes NTM classification and bibliographical references.

      • Preview
        The State of Commodity Dependence in 2012 (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2012, 126 pages
        Categories: Commodities, International Financial System, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This document aims to provide an individual country overview of the commodity-related situation of 154 developing countries. This publication also contains graphs which present a regional and global perspective of commodity dependence in the developing world over the period 2009–2010.

      • Preview
        Statistical Tables on the Least Developed Countries - 2018 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 36 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The Statistical Tables on the Least Developed Countries – 2018 provides a collection of statistics and indicators relevant to the analysis of development in the least developed countries (LDCs). Reliable statistical information is indispensable for formulating sound economic policies and recommendations. The tables provide policymakers, researchers, academics, officials from national governments or international organizations, journalists, executive managers and members of non-governmental organizations access to cross-comparable sets of data.

      • Preview
        Statistics for International Trade in Banking Services: Requirements, Availability and Prospects (English)
        Discussion paper by Cornford, Andrew/UNCTAD, 2009, 34 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper addresses the availability of statistical data for international trade in banking services. Such data are required for WTO negotiations and work on other aspects of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). Assessment exercises for trade in banking services, valuation of offers and commitments in negotiations, the proposed extension of GATS rules to cover emergency safeguard measures and subsidies, and decisions on compensation in dispute settlement for services under the WTO agreement are all currently handicapped by the lack of pertinent data. However, international initiatives directed at the development of statistics for international trade in services have so far failed to fill this gap. Following a discussion of areas of work for which data on international trade in banking services are required and of the outcome so far of international initiatives directed at the development of statistics for international trade in services, the availability of statistics relevant to the different GATS Modes of Supply is reviewed. These statistics include cross-border trade in financial services as classified in IMF balance-of-payments statistics, supply through the temporary presence of natural persons, local lending by international banks; FDI and cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&A) in financial services, financial output and other indicators of aggregate financial activity in national accounts and FATS statistics, and numbers and assets of foreign banks in selected countries. None of the currently available statistics under these headings provides a satisfactory measure of trade in banking services under Mode of Delivery 1 of the GATS nor one corresponding to such trade under Mode of Supply 3. The remainder of the paper focuses on two other more promising categories of information, namely the income statements of banks, which depend on data already generated by private-sector entities and data on trading in financial markets. The paper shows how information in banks’ income statements can be approximately matched to the activities specified in the definition of financial services in the Annex on Financial Services of the GATS, and exemplifies the potential of this information with recent income statements of Jordanian banks. An advantage of these income statements (as well as of the trading data) is that the measurement would depend on pre-existing work by banks and other financial systems themselves.

      • Preview
        Statistics for International Trade in Banking Services: Requirements, Availability and Prospects (English)
        Report by Cornford, Andrew/UNCTAD, 2009, 34 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper addresses the availability of statistical data for international trade in banking services. Such data are required for WTO negotiations and the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). Following a discussion of areas of work for which data on international trade in banking services are required and of the outcome so far of international initiatives directed at the development of statistics for international trade in services, the availability of statistics relevant to the different GATS Modes of Supply of banking services of the GATS is reviewed. None of the currently available statistics under these headings provides a satisfactory measure of trade in banking services under Modes of Delivery 1 and 3 of the GATS. Thus the paper focuses on two other more promising categories of information, namely the income statements of banks, which depend on data already generated by private-sector entities, and data on trading in financial markets. In particular, the paper shows how information in the income statements can be approximately matched to the activities specified in the definition of financial services in the Annex on Financial Services of the GATS, exemplifying the argument with recent income statements of Jordanian banks.

      • Preview
        Strengthening Participation of Developing Countries in Dynamic and New Sectors of World Trade: Trends, Issues and Policies in the Electronics Sector (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD secretariat, 2005, 19 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        What: The electronic sector has developed to be on of the most dynamic sectors in world trade. Developing countries as a whole appear to have become a major player in the expanding global production networks in electronics. This paper gives an overview on trends in world trade in electronics. Furthermore, it assesses recent performances of developing countries in the international trade with electronics. Policy challenges for developing countries are outlined. Who: Teachers and students in development studies that want to focus on dynamic growth sectors for developing countries How: Can be used as a background reading. Various issues can serve as starting points for case studies. Gives interesting up-to-date tables and charts.

      • Preview
        Structural Change and Economic Development: is Brazil Catching Up or Falling Behind? (English)
        Discussion paper by Nassif, André; Feijó, Carmem; Araújo, Eliane, 2013, 36 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper presents a Kaldor-Thirlwall theoretical and empirical framework on the basic driving forces of the behaviour of productivity and economic development in the long-run. By calculating the so- called Thirlwall equation, the main contribution of this research is to examine whether Brazil has been catching up or falling behind. The authors show some empirical evidence based on both descriptive statistics and econometric regressions for Brazil between 1970 and 2010. Some important indicators of descriptive statistics reveal that Brazil has entered into a process of early de-industrialization. In addition, since the econometric estimates also show that there was a dramatic increase in the income elasticity of demand for imports between 1980–1998 and 1999–2010 (from 1.97 to 3.36) and a small decrease in the income elasticity for exports during the same periods (from 1.36 to 1.33), the authors conclude that Brazil not only has already embarked on a trajectory of falling-behind relative to the world economy and the international economic frontier, but also that it might show, in the absence of appropriate policies, lower growth rates in the long run. However, if the opposite occurs, it would face major long-term external constraints to growth.

      • Preview
        Structural Changes in Exports of an Emerging Economy : Case of Turkey
        Working paper by Saygılı, Hülya, Saygılı, Mesut, 2011, 32 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This study examines structural changes in Turkish export supply and demand functions, which can be used as a good reference in understanding the determinants of trade performance of an emerging market economy. Results show that as the export shares of new non-traditional commodities that have not only higher import and income sensitivity, but also lower real exchange rate elasticity than the traditional commodities increases, coefficients of the total export functions changes accordingly. Process of transformation accelerates during the major reform periods and economic crisis.

      • Preview
        Study of Average Effects of Non-tariff Measures on Trade Imports (English)
        Report by Penello Rial, Denise / UNCTAD, 2014, 28 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Newly collected data in UNCTAD’s Trade Analysis and In formation System (TRAINS)database on non-tariff measures (NTMs) offers the possibility to assess its impact on trade. The approach chosen is using a frequency count, which is the number of NTM on a single product. This novel method can be relevant if one can assume that NTM do have a cost for exporters, even if that cost is unknown. The key concept is the average cost of any NTM. This analysis checks whether more measures imposed on a single product, will increase difficulty for exporters to comply with all requisites and still being able to export competitively. European imports of agri-food products (at 4 digit level) is analysed, and data suggests that higher frequency of SPS measures may be significant to influence European imports from all countries, and it impacts LDC in special, particularly those in Africa. Exports could be reduced by around 3 per cent for all countries, and almost 5 per cent for LDC countries for each additional SPS requirement in the importing country. Countries in Asia do not seem to be affected, but this is probably because of trade patterns, since European Union is not a major market for agri-food exports coming from those countries. Other middle income countries are affected in a lesser way. This fact gives strength to the idea that the higher income in a country, the more resources are available to the companies operating in their territory to overcome obstacles posed by NTM in partner markets and continue exporting. Even in the evidence that NT M may negatively affect trade, negotiation for reduction, harmonization or elimination is not automatic or even desirable. Some policy implications are discussed based on the conclusions.

      • Preview
        Survival Analysis of the Exports of Least Developed Countries: The Role of Comparative Advantage (English)
        Working paper by Alessandro Nicita, Miho Shirotori, Bolormaa Tumurchudur Klok, 2013, 26 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper investigates whether comparative advantage affects the duration of exports from least developed countries. The research finds that exports of products that are close to the country’s comparative advantage are likely to be more durable.

      • Preview
        Sustainable Fisheries: International Trade, Trade Policy and Regulatory Issues (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2016, 42 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This note proposes an agenda for sustainable fisheries that promotes the conservation and sustainable use of, and sustained trade in, fish by all and ensures that development benefits accrue to fishing nations and their populations, in developing countries in particular. It provides a stock-taking of the present situation regarding fish, and a forward-looking view on future actions that need to be supported by renewed mandates for action by governments, the private sector and other fisheries stakeholders.

      • Preview
        Sustaining Peacebuilding and Post-Conflict Recovery Through Biotrade: Lessons from Indonesia and Colombia (English)
        Report by Castro, Lorena/UNCTAD, 2016, 35 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Biodiversity is life's foundation as it provides resources for basic human needs, environmental services such as protecting water sources, and natural raw materials that enable the development of products and services. Around 1.6 billion people depend on forests and non-timber forest products (NTFPs) for their livelihoods. The importance of biodiversity is also increasingly recognized in business. It is not only seen as a source of natural inputs for development but also a business opportunity for capturing consumer preferences for socially, environmentally and health-friendly products. This study discusses the different approaches being used by the BioTrade Initiative and its partners in the sustainable management of biodiversity, trading its derived products and services, and promoting peaceful and inclusive societies in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The first chapter highlights the linkages between trade, biodiversity and peaceful, inclusive societies which are important goals in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. It is followed by an analysis of the different methodologies used to promote BioTrade in support of peacebuilding efforts. The next two chapters analyse case studies and lessons learned from leveraging BioTrade in peacebuilding in Indonesia and Colombia, respectively. The final chapter concludes with some recommendations on strengthening the contribution BioTrade can make to peacebuilding efforts in post-conflict settings.

      • Preview
        Tariff Preferences As a Determinant for Exports from Sub-saharan Africa (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2013, 30 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper examines the impact of market access conditions as a determinant of exports from sub-Saharan Africa. The analysis focuses on tariffs and considers both direct market access (the tariffs faced by exports from sub-Saharan Africa) and relative market access conditions (the preferential margin of African exports relative to that of other competitors). The results find that both direct market access conditions and relative market access conditions matter, although relative market access conditions matter in a larger number of cases. This suggests that the exports from the countries of sub-Saharan Africa often face more competition from foreign competitors than from domestic industries in their destination markets. It also finds that, given the relatively large tariffs currently applied to intraregional trade, complete tariff liberalization within the countries of sub-Saharan Africa represents a significant incentive for intraregional trade.

      • Preview
        Testing the Convergence of Theory and Empirical Evidence on the Determinants of Export Performance: Lessons from Tanzania (English)
        Study by george gandye, 2008
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research

        What determines export performance in Tanzania is the main thrust of this study. This paper briefly surveys literature on the determinants of export performance in general and within the framework of supply capacity and foreign market access various variables are established and tested. Using gravity model a regression analysis is run for the period of thirty years and the result is as anticipated to depict a positive relationship between dependent and the explanatory variable with exception of macro - economic condition and trade fairs. The former reflects the fact that International trade performance demand economic efficiency to ensure long term gains which can partly be derived from better macro economic management and not necessarily the devaluation of currency and the latter depict minimal strategic implementation of trade fairs to promote export oriented products leading to a “fun fairs” kind of trade fair. However, while the relation for other variables remained positive the level of significance has largely been low an indication that the explanatory variable have not sufficiently influenced the dependent variable. Thus, it is notably to recognize that these pillars essential to address the supply side constraints are so embedded and got to be improved in an integrated manner if at all Tanzania is to perform in the external sector given the potential market access.

      • Preview
        Timeliness and Contract Enforceability in Intermediate Goods Trade (English)
        Working paper by Gamberoni, Elisa, Lanz, Rainer, Piermartini, Roberta,, 2010, 26 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper shows that the institutional environment and the ability to export on time are sources of comparative advantage as important as factors of production. In particular, the ability to export on time is crucial to explain comparative advantage in intermediate goods. These findings underscore the importance of investing in infrastructure and fostering trade facilitation to boost a country's participation in production networks. Furthermore, we contribute to the so-called "distance puzzle" by showing that the increasing importance of distance over time is in part driven by trade in intermediate goods.

      • Preview
        Towards Coherent Policy Frameworks: Understanding Trade and Investment Linkages (English)
        Book by UNESCAP, 2007, 231 pages
        Categories: Investment, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The publication brings together a number of papers that highlight the increasing significance of trade and investment linkages and their effect on the development of domestic industries and services. The first two chapters focus on investment provisions and regulation through trade agreements, while the third chapter concentrates on the issue of rules of origin in those agreements and the need for more coherent and harmonized approaches to the design of those rules. The fourth chapter explores in some detail the interactions between foreign direct investment flows and import and export flows using a gravity model approach. Chapters V and VI are country case studies that examine the linkages between trade and investment liberalization and the development of small- and medium-sized enterprises in Indonesia, and education services in Malaysia, respectively. The last Chapter examines the drivers of outward foreign direct investment from the developing economies in the region.

      • Preview
        Trade and Development Report 2004, Chapter 1 - The World Economy: Performance and prospects (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 44 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        What: This chapter of UNCTAD's flagship annual Report on Trade and Development 2004 analyses the performance of the world economy in 2003 and its prospects for the future. According to the report, industrial production growth has been especially important in emerging-market economies in Asia but it has been weak in the euro area, the United States and Latin America. The Chinese economy is surging, and India is on a high and stable growth path while most of the other emerging-market economies are following close behind. This region is not entirely dependent on the performance of the developed world; rather, it has generated a dynamic that would allow it to push ahead even while the rest of the world still struggles with cyclical and structural problems. Who: A very authoritative report for anyone teaching and researching world-wide trade, investment and development performances and prospects. How: A chapter that can be used to teach and/or undertake research work on economic trends and issues.

      • Preview
        Trade and Development Report 2005, Chapter III - Evolution in the terms of trade and its impact on developing countries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005, 52 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        What: This chapter illustrates how recent developments in the world economy, and in particular changes in the direction and product composition of world trade resulting from rapid growth in the large Asian economies, have affected the terms of trade of different groups of developing countries, and the growth of their national income. The chapter revisits the terms-of-trade concept in the context of the declining importance of primary commodities in the total exports of an increasing number of developing countries. Who: Very useful for anyone teaching and researching the evolution in the terms of trade and its impact in the developing countries. How: Can be used to teach and/or research on the evolution in the terms of trade and its impact in the developing countries.

      • Preview
        Trade and Development Report 2007 - Regional Cooperation for Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2007, 240 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        What: The first part of the report provides a discussion of global economic trends, which indicate developing countries are likely to continue to benefit from strong demand for primary commodities. In the second part it discusses how regional integration can be useful in reducing the effects of volatile capital flows and under- and over-evaluations on growth and investment. The report analyzes regional cooperation in three dimensions, i.e. trade flows, financial flows and monetary integration, and other aspects (energy, trade logistics, and industrial policy). The report concludes that regional integration can help to strengthen national policies. How: The report provides up-to-date information on trends in the world economy as well as in-depth analysis on the above mentioned dimensions of regional integration. It might thus be used to validate teaching resources in trade-related courses and spark ideas about relevant research. Who: Lecturers and researchers as well as policy-makers interested in trade issues. Overviews available in other UN official languages.

      • Preview
        Trade and Employment. From Myths to Facts (English)
        Book by Jansen, Marion, Peters, Ralf, Salazar-Xirinachs, José Manuel, 2011, 318 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This edited volume tries to address this disconnect between the trade and employment linkages in public debates and the relative absence of factual assessments of the employment and distributional implications of trade. The publication is an outcome of a joint project of the European Commission and the International Labour Office on “Assessing and addressing the employment effects of trade”. This publication has three objectives: First, to fill knowledge gaps by taking stock of the existing evidence on trade and employment with a focus on work using recent methodologies and datasets and on work that pays special attention to the functioning of labour markets. Second, to contribute to the design of tools that governments, social partners and experts can use to evaluate the employment effects of trade. And third, to contribute to the design of policy mixes that promote open markets whilst at the same time promoting quality jobs with adequate levels of protection.

      • Preview
        Trade and Market Access Data for Policy Makers
        Summary by WTO, 2010, 40 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This brochure has been prepared from a compilation of documents received from agencies and panellists who participated at the "Data Day at the WTO" on 18-19 May. It focuses on databases maintained by international agencies. For the most part, databases maintained by regional and national entities are not included. The brochure is divided into six main sections: services, tariffs and trade, non-tariff measures, agriculture-specific issues, trade facilitation, and indicators and modelling. Each section contains an introduction to the subject as well as a list of the main datasets and tools prepared by international organizations in order to support trade policy analysis and decision making.

      • Preview
        Trade Barriers Faced by Developing Countries’ Exporters of Tropical and Diversification Products (English)
        Note by ICTSD; FAO, 2008, 16 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This debate outlines how best to treat agricultural products of export interest to developing countries that remains protracted in the multilateral trade system. Tropical and diversification products have been at the heart of this discussion given the extent of long-standing tariffs and non-tariff barriers affecting them, as well as due to their importance as a source of income, employment and rural development. The prospects for liberalisation of trade in these products, particularly opposed in some key markets, remain uncertain in the WTO’s Doha Round of negotiations. While some developing countries, most visibly a group of Latin American economies, have persistently requested trade openness, others such as the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) states have expressed their concerns that a multilateral elimination of tariffs might result in loss of the preferential access to developed country markets they currently enjoy. Asian producers have so far mainly sought resolution through the Round’s core talks on access for agricultural goods. As a\\n contribution to this discussion, the present Information Note provides facts and figures on the reality of trade in tropical and diversification products. It also explores the extent to which there is differential access to key import markets and the implications of this for different groups of countries.

      • Preview
        Trade Costs in the Developing World: 1995 – 2010 (English)
        Working paper by ARTNET (Arvis, Jean-François, Duval, Yann, Shepherd Ben, and Utoktham, Chorthip), 2012, 40 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The paper uses newly collected data on trade and production in 178 countries to infer estimates of trade costs in agriculture and manufactured goods for the 1995-2010 period. Findings indicate that trade costs are falling noticeably faster in developed countries than in developing ones, increasing the relative isolation of the latter. In particular, Sub-Saharan African countries and low income countries remain subject to very high levels of trade costs.

      • Preview
        Trade Creation & Diversion Effects of the East African Community Regional Trade Agreement: A Gravity Model Analysis (English)
        Article by Shinyekwa, Isaac and Othieno, Lawrence, 2013, 40 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research

        The paper investigates the potential impact of the East African Community (EAC) on trade creation and diversion. The paper seeks to establish whether the EAC regional trade agreement (RTA) has diverted or created trade using an expanded(augmented)gravity model. The authors estimate static and dynamic random effects models using a panel data set from 2001 to 2011 on 70 countries that trade mainly with the EAC partner states. Results suggest that indeed the implementation of the EAC treaty has created trade, contrary to widely held views that South-South RTAs largely divert trade.

      • Preview
        Trade Effects of SPS and TBT Measures on Tropical and Diversification Products (English)
        Report by Disdier, Anne-Célia, Fekadu, Belay; Murillo, Carlos; Wong, Sara A./ICTSD, 2008, 140 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The 2004 Framework Agreement reached during the Doha Round notes that the full implementation of the liberalization of trade in tropical agricultural products is “overdue and will be addressed effectively in the market access negotiations.” However, the way in which the commitment is to be implemented, and even the identification of such products, remains far from clear. \\n Multilateral discussions on the full liberalization of trade in tropical and diversification products have focused almost exclusively on the reduction of tariffs, and tariff escalation for those products and the overlap with the mandate on preference erosion. There has been no debate and analysis on NTBs and more specifically on SPS measures and technical barriers to trade (TBTs). This is surprising, since as the following paper reveals, imports of tropical and diversification products from African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries and some Latin American countries are particularly affected by SPS and TBT measures.

      • Preview
        Trade Facilitation and Paperless Trade Implementation: 2013/14 Asia-Pacific Update (English)
        Working paper by Wang, Tengfei and Duval, Yann, 2014, 40 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper provides a unique set of data on the progress made by 29 countries in Asia and the Pacific in implementing various trade facilitation and paperless trade measures in 2013/14, as well as estimates of the benefits from moving forward with implementation. An important finding is that most countries do not regularly assess or publish release times, pointing to the lack of effective national trade facilitation monitoring mechanisms. The study reveals that, at the regional level, automation and paperless trade, including establishment of national single window, were the key focus of trade facilitation reforms in 2013. Enabling cross-border paperless trade is identified as the most challenging task to further advance trade facilitation in Asia-Pacific, highlighting the need for timely conclusion of a regional arrangement to facilitate cross-border recognition and exchange of trade-related electronic data and documents.

      • Preview
        Trade Facilitation and Poverty Reduction: China - ASEAN Region Case Study (English)
        Working paper by Wu, Laping /ARTNeT, 2013, 39 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Trade facilitation has been a key part in the opening up process of China. This paper aims to investigate the linkage between trade facilitation and poverty reduction in China. It discusses the impact of the trade facilitation practices in China and the China - ASEAN cooperation on trade between China and ASEAN countries. A provincial panel data set for China from 2000 to 2008 is employed to quantify the impact of agricultural imports, agricultural exports and trade facilitation on poverty. The results show that a 1 per cent increase in port efficiency results in a 1.051 per cent decrease in the poverty index.

      • Preview
        Trade, Income Distribution and Poverty in Developing Countries: A Survey (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2012, 36 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The paper surveys the theoretical and empirical research on how trade and trade liberalization affect poverty and income distribution. The impact of globalization on poverty reduction has been uneven but the findings in the literature are sensitive to modelling choices. Trade liberalization improves aggregate welfare but the gains are small and unequally distributed. The welfare effects are measured basically through price changes, focusing on the effect on the relative demand for domestic factors of production and, in particular, the demand for skilled relative to unskilled labour. The literature shows that poverty constraints originate from various sources including infrastructure, skills, incomplete markets, and policy.

      • Preview
        Trade in Unemployment (English)
        Report by Fugazza, Marco; Carrere, Celine; Olarreaga, Marcelo; Robert-Nicoud, Frederic /UNCTAD, 2014, 38 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Insights from a novel Trade-and-Employment theoretical framework are used to assess the relationship between openness to trade and unemployment. The impact of trade on unemployment depends on the covariance between comparative advantage and sector level labour market frictions. If the covariance is positive then trade liberalization may lead to an increase in unemployment, whereas if the correlation is negative then unemployment falls as the economy opens up to international trade. This prediction is empirically confirmed in a panel of 97 countries during the period 1995-2009.

      • Preview
        Trade Opportunities of an Fta Between Colombia and Turkey
        Working paper by Daniel Gómez-Abella; Catherine Pereira-Villa; Loly-Aylú Gaitán-Guerrero, 2013
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research

        The objective of this article is to explore the opportunities for growth, diversification and competition present in trade between Colombia and Turkey, as well as the ones that would result from a free trade agreement. It uses five indicators to characterize trade and trade policy. Disaggregated data from 2010 is used to conduct partial equilibrium simulations yielding estimates on trade, welfare and income effects. The paper shows that Turkish and Colombian consumers would gain in terms of welfare while Turkish tax revenues would fall more than those of Colombia.

      • Preview
        Trade Policies, Household Welfare and Poverty Alleviation: Case Studies from the Virtual Institute Academic Network (English)
        Book by Calvo, Paula; Fu, Dahai; Idowu, Olayinka; La, Anh; Li, Shantong; Manzano, George; Matta Jara, Carmen Cecilia; Petreski, Marjan; Pham, Ngoc; Prado, Shanti Aubren; Umana, Carlos; Vera Ganoza, Ana, 2014, 347 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This book is the outcome of a three-year UNCTAD Virtual Institute (Vi) capacity building project on trade and poverty for researchers in developing and transition countries. The studies collected in this volume examine the welfare and poverty consequences of changes in global commodity prices and trade policies in the Philippines, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Argentina, China, Costa Rica, Peru, Nigeria and Viet Nam. The research uses a methodology based on household-level surveys with a focus on the short-term effect of price changes through household consumption, production and wage earnings. The data is derived from actual price changes or a price change predicted by a policy adjustment, such as a change in an import tariff or exchange rate appreciation.

      • Preview
        Trade Policy Framework: Angola (English)
        Report by Chisanga, Edward/ UNCTAD; Mathew, Thomas/ UNCTAD, 2016, 92 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The study examines Angola’s participation in international trade and its existing trade policy, and seeks to recommend some areas of policy changes that may help the Government to improve its trade performance and bring about inclusive development. As regards merchandise trade, the study identifies several sectors that could be usefully explored for the country’s export diversification efforts, particularly through accelerated agro-based industries development. As regards trade services, the study identifies some key services sectors in which reforms and improvement in the supply side would be necessary to boost trade. For telecommunications services, it calls for raising funds to create a broadband infrastructure in order to connect all urban and rural geographic regions of the country and establish connections with the regional infrastructures supporting the development of telecommunications. For tourism services, it calls for development of the Angolan tourism services through quality products, incorporating the regional, cultural and natural diversity and to stimulate and facilitate the consumption of Angolan tourism products in the national, intraregional and international market.

      • Preview
        Trade Policy Framework: Jamaica (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 126 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This Trade Policy Framework was prepared at the request of Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade of Jamaica. It provides a review of the country’s overall national development objectives and recent economic trends, an analysis of linkages between existing strategies and plans in different spheres of policymaking and trade policy in both the goods and services sectors, and recommendations for integrated strategic approaches to achieving the country’s key vision and objectives for its trade policy.

      • Preview
        Trade Policy, Trade Costs, and Developing Country Trade (English)
        Working paper by Hoekman, Bernard; Nicita, Alessandro / World Bank, 2008, 23 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper briefly reviews new indices of trade restrictiveness and trade facilitation that have been developed at the World Bank. The paper also compares the trade impact of different types of trade restrictions applied at the border with the effects of domestic policies that affect trade costs. Based on a gravity regression framework, the analysis suggests that tariffs and non-tariff measures continue to be a significant source of trade restrictiveness for low-income countries despite preferential access programs. This is because the value of trade preferences is quite limited: a new measure of the relative preference margin developed in the paper reveals that this is very low for most country-pairs. Most countries with very good (duty-free) access to a market generally have competitors that have the same degree of access. The empirical analysis suggests that measures to improve logistics performance and facilitate trade are likely to have the greatest positive effects in expanding developing country trade, increasing the trade impacts of lowering remaining border barriers by a factor of two or more.

      • Preview
        Trade Profiles 2007 (English)
        Data by WTO, 2007, 197 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        These Trade Profiles combine information on trade flows and trade policy measures of Members, Observers and other selected economies. The information is presented in standardized format for quick reference. The indicators are divided into five categories: I. Basic economic indicators II. Trade policy indicators III. Merchandise trade indicators (customs-based statistics) IV. Commercial services indicators (balance of payments based statistics) V. Industrial property indicators

      • Preview
        Trade Profiles 2008 (English)
        Report by WTO, 2009, 196 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This trade profile combines information on trade flows and trade policy measures of members, WTO observers and other selected economies. The information is derived from various WTO divisions and external sources and presented in standardized format for quick reference.

      • Preview
        Trade Profiles 2009
        Report by WTO, 2009, 197 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Trade Profiles provides a country-by-country breakdown of trade flows and trade policy measures for WTO members and countries seeking to join the WTO. With information provided in a standardized format for each country, this publication is an invaluable quick reference tool for anyone looking for essential trade statistics. The data provided for each country includes basic economic indicators (such as GDP), trade policy indicators (such as tariffs and import duties), merchandise trade flows (broken down by broad product categories and major origins and destinations), commercial trade flows (with a breakdown by major components) and industrial property indicators (such as annual number of patents granted). Presented in a handy format, with one page devoted to each country, Trade Profiles offers a concise overview of global trade.

      • Preview
        Trade Profiles 2010 (English)
        Report by WTO, 2010, 198 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Trade Profiles provides the latest information on the trade flows and trade policy measures of WTO members, observers and other selected economies. With information for each country provided in a standardized format, the publication is an invaluable quick reference tool for anyone looking for essential trade statistics. The data provided for each country include basic economic indicators(such as GDP), trade policy indicators (such as tariffs, import duties,number of disputes, notifications outstanding and contingency measures in force), merchandise trade flows (broken down by broad product categories and major origins and destinations), services trade flows (with a breakdown by major components) and industrial property indicators. With one page devoted to each country, Trade Profiles offers a concise overview of global trade.

      • Preview
        Trade Profiles 2012 (English)
        Report by WTO, 2012, 194 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Trade Profiles 2012 provides a country-by-country breakdown of trade flows and trade policy measures for WTO members and countries seeking to join the WTO. The data provided in a standardized format for each country includes basic economic indicators, trade policy indicators, merchandise trade flows, commercial trade flows and industrial property.

      • Preview
        Trade Profiles 2013
        Report by WTO, 2013, 206 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Trade Profiles 2013 provides the latest information on the trade flows and trade policy measures of WTO members, observers and other selected economies. The data provided for each economy include basic economic indicators (such as GDP), trade policy indicators (such as tariffs, import duties, number of disputes, notifications outstanding and contingency measures in force), merchandise trade flows (broken down by broad product categories and major origins and destinations), services trade flows (with a breakdown by major components) and industrial property indicators. With one page devoted to each economy, Trade Profiles 2013 offers a concise overview of global trade.

      • Preview
        Trade Statistics in Policymaking (English)
        Data by Gilbert, John/ Utah State University and Mikic, Mia / UNESCAP, 2008, 128 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This reference material is a compilation of work associated with tracking and analyzing regional trade flows and regionalism processes. It provides comprehensive explanations of most of the indicators featured in the Asia-Pacific Trade and Investment Agreements Database.

      • Preview
        Trading with Conditions: The Effect of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures on Lower Income Countries’ Agricultural Exports (English)
        Report by Murina, Marina; Nicita, Alessandro / UNCTAD, 2014, 22 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Using the UNCTAD's TRAINS database on non-tariff measures, this paper utilizes an econometric model to investigate the effect of the European Union’s sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures across 21 broad categories of agricultural goods. The findings indicate that SPS measures result in relatively higher burdens for lower income countries but that membership in deep trade agreements seems to reduce the difficulties related to compliance with SPS measures. Overall, the additional trade distortionary effect of the European Union SPS measures is quantified in a reduction of lower income countries’ agricultural exports of about 3 billion $US (equivalent to about 14 percent of the agricultural trade from lower income countries to the European Union). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that while many middle and high income countries have the internal capacity to comply with SPS measures, lower income countries do not. In broader terms, these results may be interpreted as an indication that technical assistance is helpful for lower income countries to meet compliance costs related to SPS measures. Further progress with well-targeted technical assistance projects, both at the bilateral and multilateral levels, could generate considerable gains for lower income countries.

      • Preview
        Transparency, Trade Costs, and Regional Integration in the Asia Pacific (English)
        Working paper by Helble, Matthias; Shepherd, Ben; Wilson, John S. /World Bank, 2007, 39 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The authors show in this paper that increasing the transparency of the trading environment can be an important complement to traditional liberalization of tariff and non-tariff barriers. Our definition of transparency is grounded in a transaction cost analysis. The authors focus on two dimensions of transparency: predictability (reducing the cost of uncertainty) and simplification (reducing information costs). Using the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) member economies as a case study, the authors construct indices of importer and exporter transparency for the region from a wide range of sources. Our results from a gravity model suggest that improving trade-related transparency in APEC could hold significant benefits by raising intra-APEC trade by proximately USD 148 billion or 7.5 pecent of baseline trade in the region.

      • Preview
        Trends In Developing Country Trade 1980–2010 (English)
        Working paper by Constantine Michalopoulos, Francis Ng, 2013, 38 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The paper reviews trends and patterns in developing countries' trade from 1980 to 2010. During the 30-year span, world trade expanded rapidly, especially in developing countries in the last decade and a similar picture emerges in trade services. However, these overall trends mask different trade patterns during some of the time periods and among different developing countries. In addition, they raise questions about sustainability, trade policy and the architecture of the trading system.

      • Preview
        Turkish Enterprise-level Response to Foreign Trade Liberalization (English)
        Working paper by UNCTAD, 2013, 56 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Trade in textiles and apparel is of special interest among international trade transactions. Removal of the final Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC) quotas in 2005 brought about a division of textile- and apparel-exporting countries into groups of winners and losers. Turkey appeared as a successful country from the former category. Based firm-level data results suggest that while Turkish enterprises were more successful than most in adapting to the post-quota market in textiles and apparel, their performance paled relative to the performance of enterprises in areas not covered by the ATC. Producers that specialized in textiles and apparel during the ATC quotas removal period had ceteris paribus lower sales revenue and employment growth and a lower profit rate on average than those selling other products. The latter category of producers was also significantly more likely to fail during this period.

      • Preview
        UNCTAD B2c E-Commerce Index 2016: UNCTAD Technical Notes on Ict for Development N°7 (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2016, 30 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report provides an update on the UNCTAD Business-to-Consumer (B2C) E-Commerce Index, first introduced in the Information Economy Report 2015: Unlocking the Potential of E-commerce for Developing Countries. It reviews the possibility of incorporating other indicators, tests the robustness of existing indicators and updates the Index with the latest available data.

      • Preview
        UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics (English)
        Data by UNCTAD, 2016, 264 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics provides a collection of statistics and indicators relevant to the analysis of international trade, investment and development. Reliable statistical information is indispensable for formulating sound policies and recommendations that may commit countries for many years as they strive to integrate into the world economy and improve the living standards of their citizens.

      • Preview
        UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics 2005
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2005, 485 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics (On-line version at http://stats.unctad.org/handbook) provides a comprehensive collection of statistical data relevant to the analysis of international trade, investment and development, for individual countries and for economic and trade groupings.

      • Preview
        UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics 2008 (Manuel De Statistiques De La CNUCED) (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD - CNUCED, 2008, 512 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics provides essential data for analysing world trade, investment, international financial flows and development. In addition to collecting and checking data and calculating related indicators that facilitate the work of the secretariat's economists, the UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics provides an opportunity to share a rich statistical database with decisionmakers and research specialists – academics, officials from national Governments or international organizations, executive managers or members of NGOs from developing, transition or developed countries. In order to provide maximum benefit to all users, the publication is available in three complementary formats: printed copy, DVD and online (www.unctad.org/statistics/handbook) ------- Le but du Manuel de statistiques de la CNUCED est de fournir les données statistiques essentielles à l’analyse du commerce mondial, de l’investissement, des flux financiers internationaux et du développement. Au-delà de la mobilisation et de la vérification des données, du calcul d’indicateurs dérivés qui alimentent les travaux des économistes du secrétariat, le Manuel de statistiques de la CNUCED est l’occasion de partager une base statistique riche les décideurs et les chercheurs, qu’ils soient universitaires, fonctionnaires d’administrations nationales ou d’organisations internationales, cadres d’entreprises ou membres d’organisations non gouvernementales de pays en développement, en transition ou développés. La publication est disponible dans trois formats complémentaires, l’édition imprimée, le DVD et la version en ligne (www.unctad.org/statistics/handbook), pour que chaque utilisateur, où qu’il soit, puisse en tirer le meilleur avantage.

      • Preview
        UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics 2009 (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2009, 534 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics provides essential data for analysing world trade, investment, international financial flows and development. In addition to collecting and checking data and calculating related indicators that facilitate the work of the secretariat’s economists, the UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics provides an opportunity to share a rich statistical database with decision-makers and research specialists – academics, officials from national Governments or international organizations, executive managers or members of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) from developing, transition or developed countries. The Handbook further offers journalists comprehensive information in a presentation that meets their needs. This handbook consists of eight parts: International merchandise trade, International merchandise trade by region, International merchandise trade by product, International merchandise trade indicators, International trade in services, Commodities, International finance and Development indicators.

      • Preview
        UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics 2010 (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2010, 551 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics provides essential data for analyzing and measuring world trade, investment, international financial flows and development. In addition to facilitating the work of the secretariat’s economists, the UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics alsoenables other users, such as policy-makers, research specialists, academics, officials from national governments or international organizations, executive managers or members of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) from developing,transition or developed countries to have access to this rich statistical information. The Handbook further offers journalists comprehensive information in a presentation that meets their needs. This handbook consists of eight parts: International merchandise trade, International merchandise trade by region, International merchandise trade by product, International merchandise trade indicators, International trade in services, Commodities, International finance and Development indicators.

      • Preview
        UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics 2011 (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2011, 512 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics provides essential data for analysing and measuring world trade, investment, international financial flows and development. Reliable statistical information is often considered as the first step during the preparation of making recommendations or taking decisions that countries will commit for many years as they strive to integrate into the world economy and improve the living standards of their citizens. Whether it is for research, consultation or technical cooperation, UNCTAD requires comparable, often detailed economic, demographic and social data, over several decades and for as many countries as possible. In English and French.

      • Preview
        UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics 2012 (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2012, 522 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics provides essential data for analysing and measuring world trade, investment, international financial flows and development. In this edition of the Handbook, the presentation of data for trade in services by service category has changed. Table 5.2 now includes statistics for selected country groups, in addition to those on main exporters and importers among individual economies, by service category.

      • Preview
        Unctad Handbook of Statistics 2013 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 522 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics provides essential data for analysing and measuring world trade, investment, international financial flows and development. As reliable statistical information is often considered as the first step during the preparation of recommendations or decisions that will commit countries for many years, this publication is really useful for research or consultation.

      • Preview
        UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics 2014 (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2014, 387 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The handbook contains a collection of statistics and indicators relevant to the analysis of international trade, investment and development. Moreover, the handbook provides policymakers, research specialists, academics, officials from national governments or international organizations, journalists,executive managers, members of non-governmental organizations with access to cross-comparable sets of data. It presents a consolidated, yet wide-ranging overview of the statistical series available at UNCTAD.

      • Preview
        UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics 2015 (English)
        Data by UNCTAD, 2015, 398 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics provides a collection of statistics and indicators relevant to the analysis of international trade, investment and development. The content of the book is in English and French.

      • Preview
        UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics 2016 (English)
        Data by UNCTAD, 2016, 264 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics provides a collection of statistics and indicators relevant to the analysis of international trade, investment and development. The statistics provided can be used in formulating sound policies and recommendations for countries striving to integrate into the world economy and improve the living standards of their citizens. It features reliable and internationally comparable trade, financial and macroeconomic data, covering several decades and as many countries as possible.

      • Preview
        UNCTAD Trade and Developoment Report 2005 - Overview (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2005, 28 pages
        Categories: Commodities, International Financial System, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        What: This resource provides a brief summary of the UNCTAD flagship report. This important annual resource analyses current economic trends and major policy issues of international concern, and makes suggestions for addressing these issues at various levels. This year the report looks at, among other things, the effect of rising oil prices on global growth, domestic resources and balance of payments constraints in Asia, trends in the terms of trade and new forms of global interdependence, including the growing importance of developing countries in global markets. Who: Essential background reading for anyone looking at the impact of trade on development.

      • Preview
        UNCTAD Training Manual on Statistics for FDI and the Operations of TNCs - Volume I: FDI Flows and Stocks (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2009, 162 pages
        Categories: Investment, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This volume aims to assist developing countries to compile timely, accurate and internationally comparable statistics on foreign direct investment (FDI) and on the operations of transnational corporations (TNCs). The overall objective is to promote a better understanding of the FDI situation in their respective economies and to assist policymakers in formulating development-oriented FDI policies.

      • Preview
        UNCTAD Training Manual on Statistics for FDI and the Operations of TNCs - Volume II: Statistics on the Operations of Transnational Corporations (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2009, 138 pages
        Categories: Investment, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The purpose of this volume is to clarify concepts, definitions and methodologies needed to collect and compile information on the operations of transnational corporations (TNCs) – in their respective economies. Its aim is to provide practical guidance on collecting statistics on the operations of home-based as well as foreign-based TNCs. Concrete and useful examples are collected from various countries to illustrate key points.

      • Preview
        UNCTAD Training Manual on Statistics for FDI and the Operations of Ts - Volume III: Collecting and Reporting FDI/TNC Statistics: Institutional Issues (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2009, 104 pages
        Categories: Investment, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The third in a series, this volume provides an overview of the methodologies being used in the countries where FDI and TNC data are collected and reported. The aim is to examine how the surveys are actually conducted and how the work of various institutions is coordinated. Based on the findings, best practices of standard survey questionnaires are provided.

      • Preview
        The United States 2014 Farm Bill and Its Implications for Cotton Producers in Low-income Developing Countries (English)
        Report by Townsend, Terry /y UNCTAD's Special Unit on Commodities, 2014, 29 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The report seeks to examine whether the subsidies paid to United States cotton growers are likely to lead to increased or decreased United States cotton production by 2018 based on findings from the 2014 Farm Bill and the Stacked Income Protection Plan (STAX).

      • Preview
        Unraveling the Underlying Causes of Price Volatility in World Coffee and Cocoa Commodity Markets (English)
        Discussion paper by Maurice, Noemie Eliana, Davis, Junior / UNCTAD, 2011, 43 pages
        Categories: Commodities, International Financial System, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        In recent years, Commodity Dependent Developing Countries (CDDCs) have faced multiple global food, energy and climate crises, compounded by the recent financial and economic crises, which have increased their vulnerability to excessive price volatility in commodity markets. Moreover, structural vulnerabilities in most CDDCs render their economies more vulnerable to increased commodity market turbulence than developed countries, given their comparatively lower income and high dependence on commodity exports. Therefore, this paper empirically examines the patterns and underlying causes of excessive price volatility for two major soft commodities of critical importance to many of the poorest CDDCs: coffee and cocoa. It aims to identify interactions, similarities and causalities between coffee and cocoa prices on the one hand and, oil and futures prices on the other hand. Our analysis of coffee and cocoa historical prices shows that, coffee price volatility has uneven or differing reactions depending on the nature of the market shock. Oil price spillover effects on coffee and cocoa markets are also assessed using cointegration and causality models. Long-run causality is found between oil prices, and coffee and cocoa prices but, only cocoa has an equilibrium relationship with oil in the longterm. Given the results, this study proposes some policy recommendations for managing price risk and addressing regulation in cocoa and coffee exporting countries

      • Preview
        Using Supply Chain Analysis to Examine the Costs of Non-tariff Measures (ntms) and the Benefits of Trade Facilitation (English)
        Working paper by Ferrantino, Michael J., 2012, 33 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        It has become increasingly common to produce goods in a number of geographically dispersed stages linked by international trade. This tendency, known by names such as “production fragmentation”, “processing trade”, and “vertical specialization”, has important implications for the analysis of nontariff measures (NTMs) and trade facilitation. First, different types of NTMs or trade facilitation issues are naturally associated with different stages in the movement of goods. Different price gaps can be assigned to these stages, making it possible to decompose the overall amount of distortion and to prioritize the policies with the largest potential efficiency gains. Second, NTMs may accumulate in long supply chains, implying that their trade-distorting effects are greater for goods produced in a fragmented manner than for goods with simple production processes. There is evidence that trade costs are more important for high technology goods or goods undergoing several stages of processing. Issues with product standards may be particularly important for goods with long supply chains. The link between NTMs and supply chains also has implications for economic development and for the relationship between liberalization in services and goods.

      • Preview
        Virtual Institute Teaching Material on Trade and Gender: Unfolding the Links (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD Virtual Institute, 2015, 215 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This teaching material aims to help academics from developing and transition countries strengthen their teaching and research capacities on trade and gender, and to enhance the capacity of relevant stakeholders to mainstream gender into trade policy. The first volume, entitled "Unfolding the links", provides readers with the knowledge needed to analyze the two-way relationship between trade and gender. The second volume, entitled "Empirical analysis of the trade and gender links", takes the readers through the three principal methodologies used for the quantitative analysis of the link between trade and gender: the microeconomic approach, the macroeconomic approach and the sectoral approach.

      • Preview
        What Drives Export Diversification? New Evidence from a Panel of Developing Countries (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2018, 23 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, Trade Related Capacity Building

        This paper attempts to fill the existing gap in the literature. It uses a large sample of developing countries and different regression techniques to analyse the role of various factors on export diversification in developing countries, particularly those in Africa and LDCs. The key contribution of this paper to the extant literature is that it incorporates simultaneously the roles of domestic production structure, natural resource endowments, and energy infrastructure and services in export diversification in developing countries. The incorporation of measures of domestic production structure and energy infrastructure capture the well-known idea that poor energy services and weak domestic production structures are binding constraints to exports, diversification and development in Africa and LDCs. The incorporation of natural resource endowments is justified because many countries in Africa and LDCs are resource-rich and economic theory suggests that resource endowments play a role in the diversification process. The rest of the paper is organized as follows: section 2 describes the data while section 3 presents the empirical strategy and the regression analyses. Section 4 contains concluding remarks and policy implications.

      • Preview
        Who is Benefiting from Trade Liberalization in Bhutan? A Gender Perspective (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2011, 68 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The aim of this report is to determine who would benefit from further trade liberalization or facilitation in Bhutan and, in particular, to analyse whether there is a gender bias in the gains from trade. Chapters 1 to 3 provide a stocktaking and analytical background. The core of the analysis is chapter 4, which looks into the income and expenditure distribution for men and women in rural and urban areas, as well as in different economic sectors. It explores how trade expansion would affect men and women, mainly through changes in income and consumption patterns. It then critically assesses the findings from the analysis against the background of important non-trade concerns such as food-security, equitable development, biodiversity conservation and cultural heritage. Chapter 5 concludes with some policy recommendations background.

      • Preview
        Who is Benefiting from Trade Liberalization in Cape Verde? A Gender Perspective (English)
        Report by Froystad, Mona, Musselli, Irene, Zarrilli, Simonetta, 2011, 85 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The two principal aims of this report are to (a) shed light on the differentiated impacts of trade policies, especially policies geared to trade liberalization and facilitation, on men and women in Cape Verde; and (b) analyse whether there is a gender bias in the gains from trade. Specifically, the report looks at food prices, remittances and tourism as important transmission channels through which trade policies affect gender relations in Cape Verde.

      • Preview
        Who is Benefiting from Trade Liberalization in Rwanda? A Gender Perspective (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 88 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report analyzes the ways in which trade policies may impact women's well-being in Rwanda and explores possible strategies to encourage the inclusion of gender considerations in trade policy formulation and implementation.

      • Preview
        Who Profits from Trade Facilitation Initiatives? (English)
        Working paper by Hoekman, Bernard and Shepherd, Ben/ARTNeT, 2013, 32 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Extensive research has demonstrated the existence of large potential welfare gains from trade facilitation—measures to reduce the overall costs of the international movement of goods. From an equity perspective an important question is how those benefits are distributed across and within nations. The paper evaluates the possible impacts of trade facilitation, and uses firm-level data for a wide variety of developing countries to investigate whether it is mostly large firms that benefit from trade facilitation. It finds that firms of all sizes export more in response to improved trade facilitation, suggesting that trade facilitation can be beneficial in a range of countries, including those that are primarily involved in value chains as suppliers.

      • Preview
        World Development Indicators 2013 (English)
        Book by The World Bank, 2013, 150 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This compilation of cross-country comparable statistics about development is organized around six themes—world view, people, environment, economy, states and markets, and global links. Each section includes an introduction, a set of six stories highlighting regional trends, a table of the most relevant and popular indicators, and an index to the full set of tables and indicators available online.It also reviews progress toward the Millennium Development Goals.

      • Preview
        World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography - Overview (English)
        Report by World Bank, 2008, 32 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Places do well when they promote transformations along the dimensions of economic geography: higher densities as cities grow; shorter distances as workers and businesses migrate closer to density; and fewer divisions as nations lower their economic borders and enter world markets to take advantage of scale and trade in specialized products. World Development Report 2009 concludes that the transformations along these three dimensions--density, distance, and division--are essential for development and should be encouraged. The conclusion is controversial. Slum-dwellers now number a billion, but the rush to cities continues. A billion people live in lagging areas of developing nations, remote from globalization's many benefits. And poverty and high mortality persist among the world's "bottom billion," trapped without access to global markets, even as others grow more prosperous and live ever longer lives. Concern for these three intersecting billions often comes with the prescription that growth must be spatially balanced. This report has a different message: economic growth will be unbalanced. To try to spread it out is to discourage it--to fight prosperity, not poverty. But development can still be inclusive, even for people who start their lives distant from dense economic activity. For growth to be rapid and shared, governments must promote economic integration, the pivotal concept, as this report argues, in the policy debates on urbanization, territorial development, and regional integration. Instead, all three debates overemphasize place-based interventions. Reshaping Economic Geography reframes these debates to include all the instruments of integration--spatially blind institutions, spatially connective infrastructure, and spatially targeted interventions. By calibrating the blend of these instruments, today's developers can reshape their economic geography. If they do this well, their growth will still be unbalanced, but their development will be inclusive.

      • Preview
        World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography - Part One (English)
        Report by World Bank, 2008, 149 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Places do well when they promote transformations along the dimensions of economic geography: higher densities as cities grow; shorter distances as workers and businesses migrate closer to density; and fewer divisions as nations lower their economic borders and enter world markets to take advantage of scale and trade in specialized products. World Development Report 2009 concludes that the transformations along these three dimensions--density, distance, and division--are essential for development and should be encouraged. The conclusion is controversial. Slum-dwellers now number a billion, but the rush to cities continues. A billion people live in lagging areas of developing nations, remote from globalization's many benefits. And poverty and high mortality persist among the world's "bottom billion," trapped without access to global markets, even as others grow more prosperous and live ever longer lives. Concern for these three intersecting billions often comes with the prescription that growth must be spatially balanced. This report has a different message: economic growth will be unbalanced. To try to spread it out is to discourage it--to fight prosperity, not poverty. But development can still be inclusive, even for people who start their lives distant from dense economic activity. For growth to be rapid and shared, governments must promote economic integration, the pivotal concept, as this report argues, in the policy debates on urbanization, territorial development, and regional integration. Instead, all three debates overemphasize place-based interventions. Reshaping Economic Geography reframes these debates to include all the instruments of integration--spatially blind institutions, spatially connective infrastructure, and spatially targeted interventions. By calibrating the blend of these instruments, today's developers can reshape their economic geography. If they do this well, their growth will still be unbalanced, but their development will be inclusive.

      • Preview
        World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography - Part Two (English)
        Report by World Bank, 2008, 261 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

      • Preview
        World Tariff Profiles 2008 (English)
        Report by WTO; UNCTAD; ITC, 2008, 235 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The 2008 edition of World Tariff Profiles presents a comprehensive and updated compilation of the main tariff indicators for the WTO's members as well as for other countries and customs territories. The publication is presented in three main parts. The first part shows summary statistics for all countries and territories for all products, as well as a breakdown into agricultural and non-agricultural products. The second part shows one full page for each of these countries and territories, with disaggregation by sectors and duty ranges. It also contains a section on the market access conditions faced in their respective major export markets. The third part looks at the impact of the changes in the HS on WTO members’ schedules and includes a summary table on concessions on other duties and charges (ODCs).

      • Preview
        World Tariff Profiles 2009
        Report by WTO; UNCTAD; ITC, 2009, 205 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        World Tariff Profiles 2009 provides invaluable information on market access. The listing of the tariffs imposed by each WTO member on its imports is complemented with an analysis of the market access conditions it faces in its major export markets. The publication provides a comprehensive picture of tariffs. Presented in a handy format, it offers both summary tables and country-by-country breakdowns, with one page devoted to each country. The standardized presentation allows for analyses and comparisons between countries and sectors and between bound and applied duties for WTO members. This joint publication of the World Trade Organization (WTO), the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) and the International Trade Centre (ITC) is aimed at both specialists and non-specialists alike.

      • Preview
        World Tariff Profiles 2010 (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD/WTO, 2010, 205 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The publication provides a comprehensive picture of tariffs. Presented in a handy format, it offers both summary tables and country-by-country breakdowns, with one page devoted to each country. The standardized presentation allows for analyses and comparisons between countries and sectors and between bound and applied duties for WTO members.

      • Preview
        World Tariff Profiles 2012 (English)
        Report by WTO, ITC, UNCTAD, 2012, 220 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This co-publication of the WTO, ITC and UNCTAD covers market access for goods. It contains a comprehensive compilation of the tariffs imposed by each of the 155 WTO members plus a number of other countries and customs territories. Non-WTO members are included in this year’s issue if data on the tariffs they applied in 2010 or 2011 is available in the databases of the WTO, ITC or UNCTAD.

      • Preview
        World Tariff Profiles 2013
        Report by WTO, ITC and UNCTAD, 2013, 202 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The World Tariff Profiles is a joint publication of the WTO, ITC and UNCTAD devoted to market access for goods. This statistical yearbook contains a comprehensive compilation of the main tariff parameters for each of the 159 WTO members plus other countries and customs territories where data is available. Each country profile presents information on tariffs imposed by each economy on its imports complemented with an analysis of the market access conditions it faces in its major export markets.

      • Preview
        World Tariff Profiles 2014 (English)
        Report by WTO, 2014, 204 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        World Tariff Profiles 2014 provides a unique collection of data on tariffs imposed by WTO members and other countries. It is jointly published by the WTO, the International Trade Centre (ITC) and the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). The first part of the publication provides summary tables showing the average tariffs imposed by individual countries. The second part provides a more detailed table for each country, listing the tariffs it imposes on imports (by product group) as well as the tariffs it faces for exports to major trading partners. The profiles show the maximum tariff rates that are legally “bound” in the WTO and the rates that countries actually apply. This edition of World Trade Profiles has anti-dumping measures as its special topic, and includes a compilation of frequently asked questions.

      • Preview
        World Tariff Profiles 2016 (English)
        Report by WTO, ITC, UNCTAD, 2016, 232 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        World Tariff Profiles 2016 provides summary tariff statistics for all countries and territories for all products, as well as a breakdown into agricultural and non-agricultural products. It also shows for each country a disaggregation by sectors and duty ranges. The report contains a section on the market on the market access conditions faced in their respective export markets, and a new section on the statistics of the impact on non-tariff measures. This edition also contains a special topic focusing on the 2017 version of the Harmonized System.

      • Preview
        World Tariff Profiles 2018 - Co-Publication of the Wto, Itc and UNCTAD (English)
        Report by UNCTAD; ITC; WTO, 2018, 236 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This publication is presented in five main parts. The first part shows summary tariff statistics for all countries and territories for all products, as well as a breakdown into agricultural and nonagricultural products. The second part shows for each of these countries and territories one full page with disaggregation by sectors and duty ranges. It also contains a section on the market access conditions faced in their respective major export markets. A new third part has been added to this edition to cover information on non-tariff measures which are of increasing importance in international trade. The fourth part contains the special topic which presents a new subject in each edition. The annexes are in part five and include the data sources and the compilation of “Frequently Asked Questions”.

      • Preview
        World Trade Indicators 2008: Benchmarking Policy and Performance (English)
        Report by Islam, Roumeen; Zanini, Gianni/World Bank, 2008, 150 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This publication summarizes patterns in world trade policy and trade outcomes revealed by the WTI database, focusing mainly on regional and income-level variations and providing the context to help evaluate individual country progress. The trade reform agenda going forward is about rationalizing substantial tariff peaks (particularly in agriculture), reducing overall tariff levels in some groups or countries, reducing tariff escalation aimed at protecting special goods, liberalizing services trade, and improving the other behind-the-border factors that affect trade expansion and the gains from it. Locking in current levels of liberalization through the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) would be a first important step toward a more ambitious reform agenda, especially for low-income countries. Improvements in domestic institutions could boost export performance, particularly in manufacturing and services, and help support new markets and new products. Overcoming inefficiencies in trade facilitation in developing countries would have a high payoff for trade performance, especially as tariffs have been reduced below trade costs in most countries.

      • Preview
        World Trade Statistical Review 2016 (English)
        Report by WTO, 2016, 165 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The 2016 World Trade Statistical Review provides an overview of current trends in world trade and policy developments. This year's publication uses statistics within a global economic context to explain the reasons how and why global trade is changing. It provides comprehensive data with a particular focus on trade policy, the participation of developing economies in world trade and a more detailed look at selected goods and services.

      • Preview
        Wto - International Trade Statistics 2007 (English)
        Data by WTO, 2007, 262 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The WTO International Trade Statistics 2007 provides a comprehensive collection of statistical data on trade in merchandise and commercial services relevant for an assessment of world trade flows by country, region and main product groups or services by category. This year's report provides a more user-friendly presentation of statistical tables, and covers new fields, in particular to satisfy the increasing demand for data on international trade in services. The report, furthermore, provides for the first time information on sales of foreign affiliates relating to trade in services.

Login