A partnership with academia

Building knowledge for trade and development

    • Subjects include: the definition of trade-related capacity-building, examples of initiatives and programs in the area of long-term and short-term teaching and training, the development of a local research capacity and policy-research linkages in the area of trade and development.
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        Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals in the Least Developed Countries: a Compendium of Policy Options (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 223 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Related Capacity Building

        This Compendium reviews the policy recommendations derived from the analytical reports of UNCTAD’s Division for Africa, Least Developed Countries and Special Programmes over the past 14 years. It is primarily addressed to LDC policymakers, as an easily accessible reference, offering a comprehensive and coherent set of policy options which LDC governments may consider in their challenging undertaking of achieving the SDGs. At the same time, the Compendium also serves as an appeal to their development partners for collaborative support at the international level.

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        Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals Through Consumer Protection (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 32 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Related Capacity Building

        The publication Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals through Consumer Protection aims to provide policymakers and enforcers with a basis for reflection on the positive impacts that protecting consumers bears in promoting a more inclusive and sustainable development. This approach will help them improve the consumer protection framework while also devising and implementing development strategies. Equally, it underscores the close link between Agenda 2030 and the United Nations Guidelines for Consumer Protection. This publication begins with a general overview of the contributions made by consumer policies in meeting the Sustainable Development Goals. It then focuses on two issues that are of special relevance to this matter: sustainable consumption related to Goal 12 on Responsible Consumption and Production; and consumer protection in health-care delivery, according to Goal 3 on Good Health and Well-being.

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        Africa Capacity Report 2015: Capacity Imperatives for Domestic Resource Mobilization in Africa (English)
        Report by African Capacity Building Foundation, 2015, 184 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Related Capacity Building

        The objective of the Africa Capacity Report (ACR) is to measure and examine capacity in relation to the development agenda in African countries and this year’s theme focuses on the capacity development challenges in domestic resource mobilization. The report looks at the state of trends in domestic resource mobilization and illicit financial flows across the continent, and it identifies capacity gaps and requirements for countries to mobilize more resources domestically and reduce illicit financial flows abroad.

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        Africa Capacity Report 2015: Capacity Imperatives for Domestic Resource Mobilization in Africa - Overview (English)
        Summary by African Capacity Building Foundation, 2015, 8 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Related Capacity Building

        The objective of the Africa Capacity Report (ACR) is to measure and examine capacity in relation to the development agenda in African countries and this year’s theme focuses on the capacity development challenges in domestic resource mobilization. The report looks at the state of trends in domestic resource mobilization and illicit financial flows across the continent, and it identifies capacity gaps and requirements for countries to mobilize more resources domestically and reduce illicit financial flows abroad.

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        Aid for Trade : A Failing Grade in LDCs? (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2012, 4 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Trade Related Capacity Building

        The Aid for Trade programme was launched at the 2005 World Trade Organization (WTO) Ministerial meeting in Hong Kong (China). Its reported aims are to bring greater coherence to existing trade-support programmes and to generate additional funds to assist developing countries to build supply capacity and trade-related skills, so that they can adjust to the post-Doha trading environment. There are some positives to take on the first of these aims but despite the expectation of supplementary resources (‘additionality’), much of the programme has been a repackaging of existing trade-related aid flows. This has worrying implications for the future of the scheme and for the developmental impact of aid more generally.

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        Aid for Trade at a Glance 2009: Maintaining Momentum (English)
        Report by WTO / OECD, 2009, 318 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Trade Related Capacity Building

        The report presents the results of the second monitoring exercise of the Aid-for-Trade Initiative and documents its success so far. It examines trends and developments, and presents a comprehensive analysis of donor and partner country engagement. In addition, it addresses the regional dimension of aid for trade and showcases three cross-border infrastructure projects. Moreover, the report provides country factsheets that help assess the outcomes and impacts of aid for trade. The outlook is clearly affected by the current global economic crisis. However, aid for trade must remain an essential component of development assistance.

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        Aid for Trade: Resource Materials for Trade Development (English)
        Report by UNECE, 2013, 35 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Trade Related Capacity Building

        This publication provides information about the resources available, free of charge, from the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) that can be used to support Aid-for-Trade projects. The resources include international conventions, publications, standards and training materials, and are available to all interested stakeholders in Aid for Trade: countries, bilateral donors, development banks, international organizations and non-governmental organizations. They are developed by country-nominated experts and the UNECE secretariat under the supervision of a wide range of intergovernmental bodies.

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        Biodiversity and Trade: Promoting Sustainable Use Through Business Engagement (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 32 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade Facilitation, Trade Related Capacity Building

        This paper reports on the key discussion points and presentations at the III Biotrade Congress held by the International Trade in Goods and Services, and Commodities Division in the Republic of Korea in 2014. The Congress aimed to foster discussions and stimulate debate on new approaches and schemes to promote the sustainable use and trade of biodiversity, legal access and benefit sharing when engaging in BioTrade activities. It provided an important and useful platform for business engagement and multi-stakeholder dialogue on issues related to sustainability and biological diversity. Different views and perspectives on the new challenges and opportunities ahead in the BioTrade area were shared, such as the Nagoya Protocol’s entry into force. For the effective implementation of the Nagoya Protocol, there is a need for tailor-made technical assistance to governments, businesses and other relevant stakeholders. Different practices and tools applicable to sustainable sourcing and corporate social (and environmental) responsibility in the cosmetic, traditional medicine, fashion design and tourism sectors exist. The importance and value of openness and transparency along the value chains and the need for inclusive processes were stressed. Some reflections were shared on the importance given by consumers to sustainability and its impact to business branding strategies. Many tools were identified such as assessments, guidelines, codes of conduct, standards, traceability systems, certification, public-private partnerships (PPPs) and accountability practices. The Congress recognized the value of partnerships and cooperation by all participants and organizations involved, as well as with relevant stakeholders in the field.

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        Building the Capacities of Least Developed Countries to Upgrade and Diversify Fish Exports: Training Manual (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2018, 85 pages
        Categories: Trade Related Capacity Building

        The manual combines information and knowledge from two areas: (1) export development and diversification, on the one hand, and (2) standards on fish safety and quality, on the other. It does not go deeply into the details of either field; instead, a premium is put on brevity and clarity to enable ease of understanding and to promote the effective implementation of the recommendations made. Additional sources are provided throughout the text for readers interested in further — and more detailed — explorations of the issues discussed.

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        The Challenge of Establishing World-Class Universities (English)
        Report by Salmi, Jamil / World Bank, 2009, 136 pages
        Categories: Trade Related Capacity Building

        This new report examines the power of tertiary education for development from the perspective of excellence in research and scholarship at its most competitive levels. It concludes that the highest-ranked universities are the ones that make significant contributions to the advancement of knowledge through research, teach with the most innovative curricula and pedagogical methods under the most conducive circumstances, make research an integral component of undergraduate teaching, and produce graduates who stand out because of their success in intensely competitive arenas during their education and (more important) after graduation.

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        Une collaboration entre l'université et les décideurs - Linking university with decision makers in Senegal (French)
        Interview by ALD/OF, 2005
        Categories: Trade Related Capacity Building

        Highlights of an interview (in French) given by the Vi coordinator at the University of Dakar, Aly Mbaye, on the occasion of the Days of the Senegalese Economy organized by the Centre for Applied Economic Research (CREA) that he is heading. The interview advocates for a strong relation between university research and the decision-making processes, in particular in the context of increasing globalization of the world economy. Aly Mbaye argues that such cooperation is mutually beneficial - researchers can access empirical information that they can use in their work, and test working hypotheses, and policy makers benefit from research outputs to underpin their policy decisions. CREA intends to strengthen its communication and collaboration with decision makers. To support the government, the University of Dakar plans to open a graduate programme in international negotiations and economic diplomacy.

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        Compétitivité, globalisation et attractivité: Ce que l’on savait (ou pensait savoir) il y a 20 ans - Course on Analysis of International Competitiveness (English)
        Outline by Pierre Berthaud, Université Pierre Mendès France of Grenoble, 2004
        Categories: Competitiveness, Trade Related Capacity Building

        The material of the International Economics course on Analysis of International Competitiveness consists of a Table of Contents (structure) of the course, an Introduction putting competitiveness into the context of today's globalized world and an Assessment document explaining the assignments that the students have to accomplish during the course. The course outline, introduction and the assessment descriptions are in French.

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        Economic Diplomacy Course: University of Campinas (English)
        Outline by Mário Ferreira Presser, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), 2003
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, Trade Related Capacity Building, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This document provides an overview of the course outline for a Master's degree including the rational for the programme, a description of target students and compulsory modules as well as information about elective options.

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        Economic feasibility study course syllabus (English)
        Outline by Amir Bakir, University of Jordan, Department of Economics, 2004
        Categories: Trade Related Capacity Building

        This course is primarily concerned with the appraisal of projects/investments from the view points of the entrepreneur and the national economy. It starts with the financial evaluation of the inflows and outflows, and next a series of adjustments for any external effect to reflect the social costs and benefits to the country as a whole, is developed. Finally, risk analysis is introduced to deal with the problems of uncertainty.

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        Economics development (English)
        Outline by Abed Kharabsheh, University of Jordan, Department of Economics, 2004
        Categories: Trade Related Capacity Building

        This course explains the concepts and theories related to social and economic development and deals with the identification of appropriate policies that help developing countries in their way towards modernization. It also analyzes economic development in Jordan as a case study. Overview of the course on Economics Development includes course outline and a reading list.

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        Farm Support and Trade Rules: Towards a New Paradigm Under the 2030 Agenda (English)
        Report by Musselli, Irene/UNCTAD, 2016, 30 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Facilitation, Trade Related Capacity Building

        There is a need to move beyond existing metrics in agricultural trade governance. This on account of major changes in farm support policies and in the overall policy framework. The way ahead requires a pragmatic and ground-breaking approach. A comprehensive approach is needed to improve coherence between farm support policies and sustainability concerns. The boundaries of the Green Box have to be redefined accordingly. Specifically, Green Box transfers have to be made conditional on the respect of specific agri-environmental practices. Decoupled income support not subject to agrienvironmental “cross-compliance” conditions should only be available to low-income or resource-poor producers. It is also important to acknowledge the fact that different developing countries have different agricultural profiles and different needs for farm support, and to give operational meaning to these differences. Overall, trade policy in agriculture should be re-oriented towards context-specific, circumstantial assessments, informed by equitable considerations and sustainability imperatives.

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        Financial economics course syllabus (English)
        Outline by Talib M. Awad, University of Jordan, Department of Economics, 2004
        Categories: Trade Related Capacity Building

        The course covers the basics of financial economics, valuation of individual firm, bonds and fixed income fundamentals, bond valuation and investment, market efficiency, investor's behaviours toward risk and capital market theory, and measures of portfolio performance.

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        Financing Organic Agriculture in Africa (English)
        Report by Kane, Malick and Pacini, Henrique/UNCTAD, 2016, 10 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty, Trade Related Capacity Building

        In recent years, there has been a steady reduction in the proportion of African government expenditure devoted to agriculture1. In view of the needs expressed by African OA stakeholders, UNCTAD sought to identify the needs, challenges and opportunities related to the funding of OA on the continent. Due to limitations in official data, a structured survey was conducted, with support from AfrONet2, among targeted OA stakeholders, including National Organic Agriculture Movements (NOAMs), farmers and exporters from 16 African countries. The results, presented in this technical paper, are in line with existing studies on both conventional and Organic Agriculture in Africa (FAO, 2012; UNCTAD, 2009). They highlight the existence of a persistent funding gap and the need to better address barriers faced by OA stakeholders in securing external capital to finance their activities.

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        from Regional Economic Communities to a Continental Free Trade Area - Strategic Tools to Assist Negotiators and Agricultural Policy Design in Africa (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 54 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Negotiations, Trade Related Capacity Building

        This report seeks to enhance knowledge among policymakers, experts and private sector stakeholders on essential policies and measures for establishing the CFTA and boost regional supply chains in not only agricultural commodities but also processed food products. This has been done through network analysis, which allows visualizing which country has competitive advantage over others in each trade agreement or regional context, as well as highlight overlapping regional agreements and identify trade hubs within Africa. It then carries out a specific analysis of agricultural products identified in the Abuja declaration and in other literature sources as being of interest. The ultimate purpose of this work is to inform African policy-makers with strategic tools to assist trade negotiations and agricultural policy design. Its focus is on the eight Regional Economic Communities that exist in Africa, as they do not only constitute key building blocks for economic integration, but are also important actors working in collaboration with the AU in ensuring peace and stability in their regions.

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        International finance course syllabus (English)
        Outline by Talib M. Awad, University of Jordan, Department of Economics, 2004
        Categories: Trade Related Capacity Building

        This course examines international trade, finance and investment. Essential topics include: the international balance of payments, foreign exchange with emphasis on exchange rate determination, exchange risk, hedging, and interest arbitrage, international money and capital markets, international financing, and international portfolio management.

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        International Trade in Services and Economic Growth: The Case of Jordan
        Working paper by Buthaina Muhtaseb/ University of Jordan, 2013
        Categories: Trade Related Capacity Building, VI Members Research

        The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of services imports on Jordanian economic growth during 1990 – 2012 . The regression analysis is based on an output growth equation, utilizing the Fully-Modified Ordinary Least Square method after performing the appropriate statistical tests.

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        Knowledge As a Competitive Weapon (English)
        Case study by Parahoo,A, 2005, 13 pages
        Categories: Trade Related Capacity Building, VI Members Research

        This presentation, which is essentially developmental in approach, analyses the contribution of the University of Mauritius as an Institution of Higher Learning in knowledge creation to prepare the nation for the challenges of a Knowledge based society.

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        Manual on Consumer Protection (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2017, 151 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Trade Related Capacity Building

        The UNCTAD Manual on Consumer Protection 2017 edition is the first comprehensive international reference in this field, aiming to support developing countries and economies in transition in their choice of policies and providing practical tools to assist policy makers in enhancing capacities while implementing the recently revised United Nations Guidelines for Consumer Protection. With this manual, UNCTAD is contributing to spreading good practices and enhancing the capacities of developing countries and economies in transition to step up the protection of their consumers.

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        Market Access, Trade and Sustainable Development: the Labour Market Channel (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 83 pages
        Categories: Trade Related Capacity Building

        This report provides guidance to trade-policy makers aiming to design employment-centered trade policies. The first chapter is a brief introduction to the issue at stake and underlines its relevance to the current debate about the role of international trade in facilitating the achievement of the SDGs. The second chapter of this report reviews the existing theoretical and empirical literature on the relationship between trade and labour market outcomes. Informality, which is an important feature of the labour market in most developing countries, and its role in framing the latter relationship are discussed in detail. The third chapter of the report presents a diagnostic tool constructed based on insights from the previous chapter, providing detailed information on data requirements and methodology. The diagnostic tool is designed to be used as a first step in assessing the potential employment implications of trade policy. It uses data to build evidence that provides qualitative guidance. It is complementary to simulation tools that estimate numerical outcomes under possible policy reform scenarios but rely on simplifying assumptions.

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        My Experience in Teaching English content course in Finances (English)
        Article by Restrepo,Jorge/universidad de La Sabana, 2007
        Categories: Trade Related Capacity Building

        This paper presents a brief description of English Content Based Instruction (CBI) as a process in which the student gains mastery of the language (procedural knowledge) and mastery of the subject learned ( declarative knowledge) along with the characteristics of the integration of the teaching process. Also, the author describes his experiences in planning and teaching a course in Financial Analysis using the techniques of CBI and student-centered learning in addition to the tools and procedures used in performing this task. Furthermore the experiences of other universities in giving CBI courses are analyzed in light of this experience. The result of a survey about the perception of the course among a representative sample of the students is presented and discussed. Finally the paper presents an analysis of a survey which suggests the importance of the CBI approach in teaching finance in English.

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        National Green Export Review of Ethiopia: Leather and Sesame Seeds (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 39 pages
        Categories: Trade Related Capacity Building

        This report reviews global trends in the leather and sesame sectors, their role to the national economy, and Ethiopia's export policy framework, performance, and competitiveness in these sectors. In addition, the report also presents SWOT analysis that indicates remaining challenges and barriers that constrain performance in these sectors.

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        Negotiating for food security - What makes a successful negotiator: Skills for negotiators (English)
        Note by Virtual Institute, UNCTAD, 2005, 2 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, Trade Related Capacity Building, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        A brief overview of some of the skills and behaviours that a successful negotiator requires. A useful background document for any simulation exercise or wider discussion of the function and role of negotiations.

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        Only Words? How Power in Trade Agreement Texts Affects International Trade Flows (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2018, 23 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Related Capacity Building

        The texts of international trade agreements are often recycled from previous treaties. Large and rich countries are more likely to act as "rulemakers" who have an internally consistent treaty network, while smaller and poorer countries are more likely to be "rule-takers" whose treaties resemble those of their partners more than their own. To study whether rule-makers benefit more from trade agreements than rule-takers, the paper uses a new text corpus of machine-readable trade agreement texts, Texts of Trade Agreements (ToTA). It builds indicators of textual similarity that capture how much an agreement resembles each party's previous agreements and introduce them into a gravity model of international trade. The results show that the exports of countries that had a greater influence on the treaty text increase more than their partners'. In an "average" situation, the rule-maker increases its exports by about 16.3%, while the rule-taker only increases its exports by about 8.8%.The effect is driven by the influence of the importer, suggesting that powerful countries effectively restrict access to their markets. The results demonstrate that the recycling of trade agreements has real economic effects, suggesting that countries should carefully assess text proposals when negotiating a trade agreement.

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        Postgraduate Diploma in International Trade and Economic Diplomacy, University of Mauritius (English)
        Outline by University of Mauritius, Faculty of Social Studies and Humanities, 2004
        Categories: Trade Related Capacity Building

        An overview of the post-graduate course which includes detailed information about the content of the module.

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        The Potential Impact of the Aid for Trade Initiative (English)
        Discussion paper by Page, Sheila/UNCTAD, 2006, 54 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Trade Related Capacity Building, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: The paper analyzes the situation of the Aid for Trade initiative and gives recommendations for the actors involved. The initiative marked international acceptance of the limitations of trade as a tool for development for some countries, as they need infrastructure, institutions, technical capacity, and investment in order to trade, and to respond to liberalization. Aid for Trade as an issue in the Doha Round was driven by the need to find benefits for all countries. By the time the Round stalled, it had acquired sufficient support to go forward independently of the Round. When it was part of the negotiations, there was pressure to define a new structure for trade aid, outside normal aid mechanisms and parallel to those for other international concerns such as health or the environment. Without the need to secure developing countries’ support for a trade settlement, there is now a risk that it will be absorbed into normal aid programmes. The paper argues that to ensure that Aid for Trade reflects trade priorities and decisions made in the WTO; countries must require donors and the international financial institutions to accept priority for trade and the obligation of coherence with the WTO. How: Background information for policy-making in the area of multilateral trade. Who: Trade policy-makers, particularly from developing countries.

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        Public Consultation and International Trade Policy (English)
        Discussion Paper by Centre for Trade Policy and Law, 2005, 25 pages
        Categories: VI Members Research, Trade Related Capacity Building

        This paper provides an overview of the rationale for public consultation in trade policy formulation and various methods. Canada and United States are presented as models. It is a useful for anyone interested in the relationship between domestic governance and international policy formation.

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        Rethinking Maritime Cabotage for Improved Connectivity (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 42 pages
        Categories: Trade Related Capacity Building

        This report analyses and discusses various considerations relating to maritime cabotage and the ways in which these can influence the liner shipping connectivity of developing countries, to assist policy makers in identifying and analysing relevant options that could help leverage maritime cabotage in support of enhanced liner connectivity levels.

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        Technology and Innovation Report 2015 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 142 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Science and Technology, Trade Related Capacity Building

        In the 2015 Technology and Innovation Report subtitled ‘Fostering Innovation Policies for Industrial Development’ addresses the urgency of building productive capacities and promoting sustainable industrialization in development. It analyzes the crucial role of technological learning and innovation capacity, and helps to address some of the questions that policymakers face when seeking to forge new paths to secure a prosperous future for their people. The report argues that sustainable industrialization is not solely limited to environmental sustainability, but refers to efforts that are technology-led, productivity enhancing and poverty-reducing. It is based on the understanding that no industrial policy is complete without an accompanying innovation policy.

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        Technology and Innovation Report 2015 (Overview) (English)
        Also available in Spanish, Russian
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 30 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade Related Capacity Building

        This overview of the 2015 Technology and Innovation Report subtitled ‘Fostering Innovation Policies for Industrial Development’ summarizes the key findings presented in the Report. It addresses the urgency of building productive capacities and promoting sustainable industrialization in development. It analyzes the crucial role of technological learning and innovation capacity, and helps to address some of the questions that policymakers face when seeking to forge new paths to secure a prosperous future for their people. The report argues that sustainable industrialization is not solely limited to environmental sustainability, but refers to efforts that are technology-led, productivity enhancing and poverty-reducing. It is based on the understanding that no industrial policy is complete without an accompanying innovation policy.

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        Trade and Development Report 2018 - Power, Platforms and the Free Trade Delusion (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 162 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Related Capacity Building

        Managing structural transformation is a big challenge at all levels of development. In part, that is because the mixture of creative and destructive forces accompanying such a transformation do not automatically translate into a virtuous growth circle while the rents that are inevitably created in the process can be captured by a privileged group in ways that clog the economic arteries and increase the dangers of a political stroke. There are already signs of this happening with the digital revolution. However, this is not inevitable and if history is any guide, public policy, including industrial policy, can help to manage more inclusive and sustainable outcomes. This set out some elements of that agenda. It has argued that structural transformation will also need to be accompanied by infrastructure planning. It has suggested that the old debate between balanced and unbalanced growth provides a rich discussion for thinking about those techniques, skills and institutional requirements. The bottom line when it comes to infrastructure spending is that it is too important a development matter to be left to the sole responsibility of finance ministries.

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        Trade and Development Report 2018 - Power, Platforms and the Free Trade Delusion - Overview (English)
        Also available in Arabic, Chinese, Spanish, French, Russian
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 31 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Related Capacity Building

        Managing structural transformation is a big challenge at all levels of development. In part, that is because the mixture of creative and destructive forces accompanying such a transformation do not automatically translate into a virtuous growth circle while the rents that are inevitably created in the process can be captured by a privileged group in ways that clog the economic arteries and increase the dangers of a political stroke. There are already signs of this happening with the digital revolution. However, this is not inevitable and if history is any guide, public policy, including industrial policy, can help to manage more inclusive and sustainable outcomes. This set out some elements of that agenda. It has argued that structural transformation will also need to be accompanied by infrastructure planning. It has suggested that the old debate between balanced and unbalanced growth provides a rich discussion for thinking about those techniques, skills and institutional requirements. The bottom line when it comes to infrastructure spending is that it is too important a development matter to be left to the sole responsibility of finance ministries.

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        Trade and Environment Review 2016: Fish Trade (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 95 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Facilitation, Trade Related Capacity Building

        The 2016 Trade and Environment Review on fish trade examines issues pertinent to the promotion of sustainable use of living marine resources mainly fish in healthy oceans and seas. It focuses on trade in fish within the context of the oceans economy, often also referred to as the blue economy, in terms of challenges and opportunities for the global community in implementing Agenda 2030 and specifically SDG 14. The report is structured in three parts. Part I focuses on the international and regional (governance and legal) framework for oceans and sustainable fisheries and to future trade trends and prospects, including the potential impact of climate change. Part II of the TER provides a prognosis of international trade in fish and fish products by 2035. And Part III addresses the difficult matter of harmful incentives that facilitate overfishing and leads to fish stock depletion, primarily in terms of IUU fishing and fisheries subsidies.

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        Trade Misinvoicing in Primary Commodities in Developing Countries: the Cases of Chile, Cote D’ivoire, Nigeria, South Africa and Zambia (English)
        Policy brief by Ndikumana, Léonce/UNCTAD, 2016, 38 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Investment, Trade Related Capacity Building

        This policy brief discusses features of the regulatory environment, notably tariffs, customs, export subsidies, exchange controls, coupled with imperfect monitoring and poor enforcement of regulations which may create incentives for trade misinvoicing by agents seeking to maximize profits and other gains such as access to foreign exchange out of control of the regulating authority. It argues these factors contribute to the undermining developing countries’ gains from commodity trade. This study specifically aims to contribute to research and policy debates by providing empirical evidence on the magnitude of trade misinvoicing in the particular case of primary commodity exports from a sample comprising four resource-dependent developing countries (Chile, Côte d’Ivoire, Nigeria and Zambia) and a more diversified resource-rich middle-income country (South Africa). This study describes in detail the process of using UN Comtrade data to identify major products and leading partners that will be the focus of the analysis based on the established statistical methodology for estimation of export misinvoicing at the product and partner levels.

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        Trade-related Capacity Building for Academia in African Least Developed Countries: Development of Human Resources and Policy Support (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD Virtual Institute, 2010, 47 pages
        Categories: Trade Related Capacity Building

        The study is a contribution to the reflection on trade-related capacity building in the specific context of least developed countries in Africa, with a focus on the role of academia in building a critical mass of trade experts and engaging in policy advocacy. It analyzes the trade-related capacity-building needs in African LDCs and outlines various initiatives and actors – including the UNCTAD Virtual Institute – that are providers and beneficiaries of academic capacity-building services.

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        Viewing the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement Through an Agriculture Lens (English)
        Discussion paper by Boonekamp, Clemens/UNCTAD, 2016, 56 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Related Capacity Building

        The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) trade agreement will be one of the most consequential trade agreements in twenty years, on par with the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) or China’s entry to the World Trade Organization (WTO).1 The TPP is deeper and broader than other agreements, containing 30 chapters that bind 12 member countries (Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, United States and Vietnam) together in ways that are often covered in less depth or are even carved out completely. Most the TPP takes effect immediately. As discussed in greater detail below, roughly 90 percent of all tariffs fall to zero on the date of entry into force of the agreement. All of the services and investment provisions kick in immediately. Much of the remainder of the agreement’s rule book also becomes active from the first day, with some flexibility for some of the rules in areas like intellectual property rights protections for countries like Vietnam. Once the TPP has been fully implemented, nearly all of the tariffs will be at zero for all of the TPP members moving goods between markets in the agreement. These provisions apply even to sensitive items like agriculture. The TPP could dramatically reconfigure supply chains in food and processed food items in ways that past trade agreements did not. The deep and broad commitments in the TPP sets up some interesting new dynamics. It is likely to exacerbate tensions in the global trading system that fall most acutely on the smallest, poorest states as companies increasingly “vote with their feet” and shift production, sales and services into TPP member markets and leave behind non-member markets in the region.

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        What Drives Export Diversification? New Evidence from a Panel of Developing Countries (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2018, 23 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, Trade Related Capacity Building

        This paper attempts to fill the existing gap in the literature. It uses a large sample of developing countries and different regression techniques to analyse the role of various factors on export diversification in developing countries, particularly those in Africa and LDCs. The key contribution of this paper to the extant literature is that it incorporates simultaneously the roles of domestic production structure, natural resource endowments, and energy infrastructure and services in export diversification in developing countries. The incorporation of measures of domestic production structure and energy infrastructure capture the well-known idea that poor energy services and weak domestic production structures are binding constraints to exports, diversification and development in Africa and LDCs. The incorporation of natural resource endowments is justified because many countries in Africa and LDCs are resource-rich and economic theory suggests that resource endowments play a role in the diversification process. The rest of the paper is organized as follows: section 2 describes the data while section 3 presents the empirical strategy and the regression analyses. Section 4 contains concluding remarks and policy implications.

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