A partnership with academia

Building knowledge for trade and development

    • Publications, case studies, and training tools about the multilateral trading system. Subjects include: Doha Round negotiations (NAMA, services, agriculture etc.), the impact of previous rounds, the role of Special and Differential Treatment, effect and analysis of non-tariff barriers, dispute settlement mechanisms.
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        15 Years of the Information Technology Agreement: Trade, Innovation and Global Production Networks
        Report by WTO, 2012, 112 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This publication charts the history of the WTO Information Technology Agreement and the effect it has had on the global trade in information technology (IT) products. Details of the latest trends in IT trade and discussions on the future of the ITA make this publication a useful source of information for government officials and policy-makers as well as academics, students and all those involved in the IT sector.

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        An Advanced Guide to Trade Policy Analysis: the Structural Gravity Model (English)
        Book by WTO; UNCTAD, 2016, 144 pages
        Categories: Trade Negotiations, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The gravity model is one of the most successful frameworks in economics. Hundreds of papers have used the gravity model to study and quantify the effects of various factors on international trade. This book guides the reader through the challenges of applying the model and provides recommendations on how to obtain reliable partial equilibrium estimates for the effects of trade policy. The book has been written by experts who have rich practical experience in this field. It is aimed at government experts engaged in trade negotiations as well as graduate students and researchers involved in trade-related study or research.

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        Advanced Training Tools for Multilateral Trade Negotiations on Agriculture (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2003, 69 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This training module serves to inform trade experts and negotiators of developing countries of the major economic trends in agricultural trade and of the multilateral rules, which govern the trade in agricultural products. In so doing, it also serves to put the current WTO trade negotiations in agriculture in context.

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        Africa’s Development And The Global Trading System: Challenges And Options (English)
        Working paper by OSABUOHIEN, Evans S. / Covenant University, Nigeria and EGWAKHE, Johnson A. /Adventist University of Central Africa, Rwanda, 2011, 27 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper empirically explores development in Africa in relation to the global trading system using panel data techniques. It examines the economic development of African economies in relation to the countries’ regional grouping and also assesses Random Effects (RE) and Generalised Method of Moments (GMM) estimates. The results establish, among other things, that sub-regions with higher level of domestic investment had higher values in economic development indicators.

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        Agricultural Subsidies in the WTO Green Box: Ensuring Coherence with Sustainable Development Goals (English)
        Report by Meléndez-Ortiz, Ricardo; Bellmann, Christophe; Hepburn, Jonathan/ICTSD, 2009, 16 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Current WTO requirements set no ceiling on the amount of green box subsidies that governments can provide, on the basis that these payments cause only minimal trade distortion. Governments are thus increasingly shifting their subsidy spending into this category, as they come under pressure to reduce subsidies that are more directly linked to production. However, growing evidence suggests that green box payments can affect production and trade, harm farmers in developing countries and cause environmental damage. This information note summarises some of the findings.

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        Agricultural Trade Reform and Poverty in the Asia-Pacific: A Survey and Some New Results (English)
        Working paper by Gilbert, John / UNESCAP, 2008, 46 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        We review the literature on the relationship between agricultural trade policy reform and poverty, and the results of recent detailed simulation studies applied to economies in the ESCAP region. We then use the GTAP model to evaluate the possible impacts of the most recently proposed modality for agricultural trade reform under Doha on the economies of the ESCAP region. We compare the results to a benchmark of comprehensive agricultural trade reform. We find that the current proposal does not result in significant cuts to applied tariffs, and has very modest overall effects on welfare. Poverty in the region would decrease overall, but the distribution across countries is uneven. By contrast, comprehensive agricultural trade reform, with developing economies fully engaged, tends to benefit most economies in the region in the aggregate, and to consistently lower poverty.

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        Agriculture, Trade Reform and Poverty Reduction: Implications for Sub-Saharan Africa (English)
        Case study by Kym Anderson, CEPR and School of Economics and Centre for International Economic Studies, University of Adelaide, 2004, 37 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: An interesting study that explores the poverty implications of the post-Doha multilateral trade reform agenda of the WTO for Sub-Saharan countries. It addresses the effects of trade reform on poverty at three levels: first developing countries as a group; then on different types of developing countries and finally on different types of households within developing countries. Who: Relevant for anyone studying or teaching trade in an LDC context in relation to poverty reduction. How: Can be used as a background reading on the implications of the current WTO Multilateral Trade Negotiations (MTN) on low-income countries and offers a lot of relevant reference materials.

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        An Analysis of the Agricultural Domestic Support under the Uruguay Round Agreement: the Blue Box (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2003, 69 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: Domestic agricultural support is a sensitive issue for all countries producing agricultural commodities. Some countries grant large subsidies to producers, while others cannot afford such expensive policies. The Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture was a first step towards improving competition in the field of international agricultural trade. The new agenda of negotiations, agreed at the Doha Ministerial Conference, set new challenges for negotiators in terms of market access, export subsidies and domestic support. Although those three areas are linked to each other and are of importance, this short paper is not intended to address the whole problem but to focus on "Blue Box" measures in the context of domestic support. This paper will define the Blue Box, describe the type of subsidies used under it and briefly analyse its potential for trade distortion. Who: For teachers, students and researchers on agricultural subsidies and its effects on international trade. How: This study can be used as a background reading for issues on the effects of agricultural subsidies in international trade.

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        Article XXIV and RTAS: How Much Wiggle Room for Developing Countries? (English)
        Note by South Centre, 2008, 33 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The issue of ‘WTO Compatibility’ of regional trade agreements (RTAs) has been intensely debated ever since the days of the GATT. RTAs are governed by Article XXIV in the GATT. The Article however does not have a development dimension. This paper argues for the need to insert strong Special and Differential Treatment clauses into Article XXIV in order to be legally consistent with GATS V. It also looks at the ways in which some WTO Members, especially developed countries, have protected their markets in their RTAs. These are grounds for developing countries to legitimately open up less fully.

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        Asian Participation in the WTO Dispute Settlement System (English)
        Note by Curran, John, 2012, 12 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The WTO dispute settlement system provides member countries with the opportunity to have their trade-related disputes heard and adjudicated upon in a rules-based forum. By design, every country has equal access to the system; however it is much less frequently used by developing countries. This Information Note examines how Asian countries are engaging the dispute settlement system, and examines whether the constraints generally limiting developing country participation also apply to select Asian countries.

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        Assessment of the Impact of Trade Policy Reform in Countries Acceding to the World Trade Organization: The Gender Dimension (English)
        Working paper by UNCTAD, 2010, 62 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The following overview sets forth a generalized background into the gendered impacts of trade liberalization. Reflecting findings reported by gender specialists examining such impacts, this paper first indicates policy areas that warrant particular scrutiny by governments concerned with gender equality and disparate impacts of economic liberalization between females and males due to social constructs. Next, a description of the WTO rules on accession highlight areas of trade policy that are the locus of attention in the proceedings leading to WTO membership. A brief depiction of the acceding governments’ extra-WTO legal obligations to pursue gender-equality follows. Finally, the paper sets forth a number of generalizable policy suggestions as to how governments in WTO accession processes could minimize negative aspects of liberalization and how they could maximize the positive potentials held by liberalization.

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        Back to Basics: Market access issues in the Doha Agenda (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Division on International Trade in Goods and Services and Commodities , 2003, 73 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: This report reviews the problem of market access for developing countries. It provides an analysis of the impacts of tariff barriers by focusing on the potential gains of trade liberalization and the challenges for developing countries of the WTO negotiations on market access. Who: This paper is an excellent reading for anyone interested in market access for developing countries and particularly in commodities trade. Gives interesting up-to-date tables and charts. The bibliography provides references for further readings.

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        Bargaining over the Doha Development Agenda: Coalitions in the World Trade Organization (English)
        Working paper by Dr Amrita Narlikar, Centre of International Studies University of Cambridge, 2005, 17 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: Within the last years, developing countries have emerged as major actors within international trade negotiations. For developing countries with small markets and limited diplomatic resources, building coalitions has often proved to be the only instrument they have to improve their bargaining position in these negotiations. This paper provides an analysis of bargaining coalitions in the WTO. The first section examines the reasons behind the formation of coalitions in the WTO, and the problems that countries encounter in this process. The second section analyzes the development of coalitions involving developing countries from the GATT to the WTO. In section three the coalitions that have been active in the negotiations within the Doha Development Round are outlined. Finally, the fourth section examines the influence of these coalitions and their possible implications for the trade negotiation process. Who: For anyone dealing with international trade negotiations and the role of developing countries within these negotiations who is interested in the phenomenon of coalition building. How: Can be used as an excellent and precise additional reading in classes that are dealing with international trade negotiations within the WTO. Also as a very good reading in classes that aim at simulating negotiations since the importance of coalition building is underlined in the paper. A detailed table on coalitions and their memberships that evolved within the last 20 years of international GATT and WTO negotiations is provided. The paper can also serve as a starting point for further research on the main mutual needs and interests of the various coalitions.

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        Biofuels Certification and the Law of the World Trade Organization (English)
        Report by Echols, Marsha A./ICTSD, 2009, 68 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This report places biofuels certification in an international trade context. It assesses certification through the World Trade Organization (WTO) lens and develops the requirements for trade compliance. This paper identifies a number of issues for policymakers to consider, including the following: - compliance with a variety of standards and incentives related to their encouragement of the switch to biofuels from fossil fuels - the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and other WTO agreements - the issues, steps and unsettled areas that must be faced by when planning a biofuels-certification programme

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        Biofuels Subsidies and The Law of the WTO (English)
        Report by Harmer, Toni/ICTSD, 2009, 50 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper reviews biofuel measures that are commonly used in major producing countries against WTO subsidies disciplines. These measures are found in a range of laws and policies relating to energy, the environment and agriculture. There is little evidence that domestic policymakers have taken into account WTO disciplines when crafting these measures. This paper identifies a number of issues for policymakers to consider, including the following: - WTO subsidy disciplines do not prohibit all subsidies or support to biofuels. Rather, the WTO rules concern themselves with subsidies that have a trade-distorting effect. - Although often cited in discussions about the WTO and biofuel subsidies, the green box provisions of the WTO Agreement on Agriculture (AoA) do not provide a broad category sheltering measures on the basis that they offer some environmental benefits. To qualify as green box support, specific requirements must be met. For example, payments under environmental programmes must be limited to the costs of compliance with the programme.

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        Capping Unusually High Tariffs: The WTO Doha Round and ‘Tariff Peaks’ (English)
        Report by ICTSD, 2009, 12 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This information note examines the proposed tariff cap and what this would mean for countries with extremely high tariffs. The tariff peaks of Iceland, Japan, Norway and Switzerland are examined in closer detail.

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        The Changing Landscape of Regional Trade Agreements (English)
        Discussion Paper by Jo-Ann Crawford, Roberto V. Fiorentino, World Trade Organization, 2005, 39 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: A very informative paper with an up-to-date comprehensive overview of existing RTAs in different regions as notified to the WTO. Useful illustrative maps of regions and agreements within. Reviews recent trends in RTAs and reasons behind their proliferation since the 1990s, and discusses relationship of RTAs and the multilateral trading system/WTO. Who:University teachers/students and anyone interested in comprehensive recent information about RTAs. How: Can be used in trade courses to discuss the background and evolution of RTAs, the merits/demerits of regional vs. multilateral liberalization, and the status of RTAs in the WTO.

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        The Changing Structure and Governance of Intellectual Property Enforcement (English)
        Working paper by Biadgleng, Ermias; Munoz, Viviana, 2008, 64 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This research paper provides a broad overview and analysis of the changing multilateral framework for intellectual property enforcement and the challenges that it presents for developing countries. It examines current multilateral obligations and traces developments in the field of intellectual property enforcement in various multilateral fora, including the WCO, WHO, WIPO, WTO and Interpol. Finally, it analyses the approach of the United States and European Union to strengthening intellectual property enforcement in third countries through regional, bilateral and unilateral mechanisms such as regional and bilateral agreements.

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        Coaliciones Entre Los Países De América Latina Y Caribe En Las Relaciones Multilaterales Del Comercio Agrícola
        Study by Alfaro, Daniela/Universidad de la República, 2007, 38 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System, VI Members Research

        El estudio analiza la consistencia de los rasgos estructurales e influencia de los procesos de integración regional de los países de América Latina y el Caribe (AL y C) y de la modalidad de acceso comercial en Estados Unidos en la posición adoptada en las negociaciones agrícolas multilaterales. Se utiliza la técnica multivariada de cluster para medir las “distancias” entre los países a través de indicadores económicos, de desarrollo, agrícolas, comerciales, política agrícola comercial y de intensidad comercial con EUA. Tres hallazgos merecen resaltarse. El primero refiere a la posibilidad de esperar una convergencia entre los países latinoamericanos hacia una posición agrícola común en las negociaciones agrícolas de la OMC, al utilizar la correspondencia entre los tres clusters hallados y las coaliciones de negociaciones existentes. Una segunda constatación refiere a la influencia de los procesos de integración regional en la formación de las coaliciones para las negociaciones multilaterales. Y por último, se constató que la posición que adopten los países en las negociaciones agrícolas internacionales está “ligada” a la relación comercial con EUA.

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        Comments to the Chairman's Revised Draft Modalities for WTO NAMA Negotiations (English)
        Note by South Centre, 2008, 23 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This note reviews the revised Draft modalities for WTO NAMA negotiations prepared by the Chairman of the Negotiating Group on Market Access (TN/MA/W/103). After undertaking an overall assessment of the revised NAMA draft modalities text, this note comments on various specific sections thereof, particularly with respect to developing countries’concerns and interests in these negotiations. A useful table summarises the treatment of WTO Members with respect to tariff reduction modalities

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        Commercial policies - Course syllabus (English)
        Outline by Amir Bakir, University of Jordan, Department of Economics, 2004
        Categories: Competition Policy, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The course analyzes trade policy tools in both perfect and imperfect competition. Trade restrictions are common in the world, so micro and macro-economics' trade tools are used to study the effects of these restrictions on the different countries of the world. Economic integrations (regionalism), world trade organization, and trade strategies for developing countries are among the topics of interest in this course.

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        Compendium of Teaching Materials on the International Trading System (2011) (English)
        Article by St. Petersburg State University, 2011, 216 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The main purpose of the compendium is to support implementation of new teaching technologies that are used in the educational process. It is developed especially for the students of MA programme International Trading System that was designed to train well qualified specialists in international trade and trade policy analysis. The book can also be helpful for other academic and business-oriented programmes devoted to international trade, international business and international economics. It includes two types of teaching materials: discussion papers and cases. Both can be used in class as well as for students’ self-study. Analysis of papers might be followed by discussions, and some cases require team work. All cases are based on real situations.

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        Compliance Bargaining in the WTO: Ecuador and the Banana Dispute (English)
        Discussion paper by James McCall Smith, 2003, 30 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        An analysis of Ecuador's tactics to ensure compliance with the WTO ruling in their favour (against the EU) in the banana case. The paper offers excellent detail of the specific strategies Ecuador used - both politically and economically and could be of interest to anyone concerned with the evolving jurisprudence on WTO law but also in how the rulings impact on the international trade regime.

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        Connecting to Global Markets (English)
        Case study by Jansen, Marion; Jallab, Mustapha and Smeets, Maarten., 2014, 236 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Developing countries and emerging economies have played an ever-expanding role in world trade flows in recent decades but they still face a number of constraints in connecting to global markets. In this volume, members of the WTO’s academic network in developing countries — the WTO Chairs Programme — identify major challenges in their respective countries and how to overcome them.

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        Constructing a Composite Index of Market Access (English)
        Report by Josling, Timothy/ICTSD, 2009, 40 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Trade barriers are often opaque and difficult to compare. All too often, an exporter faces costs well in excess of a simple tariff when seeking entry to a market. However, to date, there exist few tools to measure the changes in market access that will takeplace at the conclusion of the Doha Round, or those that may result from any other trade agreement. The Composite Index of Market Access (CIMA) has been conceived as a tool to help trade policy-makers and other stakeholders to address this challenge. This study provides a methdology and country study guide to illustrate the actual costs faced by exporters of selected tropical products when trying to penetrate markets of interest. While liberalisation through tariff reduction may partially achieve the aim of facilitating access for tropical products, the CIMA project highlights the fact that tariff reductions are only a part of the puzzle that trade policy has to solve.

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        Controversial Points in the Discussion on Special Safeguard Mechanism (SSM) in the Doha Round (English)
        Note by South Centre, 2008, 14 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The Special Safeguard Mechanism (SSM) is often quoted as one of the main controversial points that lead to the failure to the WTO mini-ministerial process in July 2008. Technical divergences relate to key aspects of the design and operation of the mechanism but also strong political divergences among exporters and importers. The purpose of this note is to explain the rationale and origins of the SSM and the main contentious issues in the current debate.

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        Coordination Failures in Immigration Policy (English)
        Working paper by Giordani , Paolo E., Ruta, Michele, 2011, 42 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Migration and Development, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        We propose a theoretical framework for analyzing the problems associated to unilateral immigration policy in receiving countries and for evaluating the grounds for reform of international institutions governing immigration. We build a model with multiple destination countries and show that immigration policy in one country is influenced by measures adopted abroad as migrants choose where to locate (in part) in response to differences in immigration policy. This interdependence gives rise to a leakage effect of immigration policy, an international externality well documented in the empirical literature. In this environment, immigration policy becomes strategic and unilateral behavior may lead to coordination failures, where receiving countries are stuck in welfare inferior equilibria. We then study the conditions under which a coordination failure is more likely to emerge and argue that multilateral institutions that help receiving countries make immigration policy commitments would address this inefficiency.

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        Coping with Trade Reforms: Implications of the WTO Industrial Tariff Negotiations (English)
        Presentation by Santiago Fernandez de Cordoba, UNCTAD, 2005, 20 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        A presentation for an UNCTAD expert group meeting providing an overview of the methodologies and results of UNCTAD studies on the impact of trade reforms as well as introduction to the NAMA negotiations and an overview of the methodologies and results of UNCTAD studies on the impact of trade reforms.

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        Cotton: What Could a Doha Deal Mean for Trade? (English)
        Note by ICTSD, 2010, 16 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Cuts to developed country cotton subsidies could increase world prices, boosting production and exports in a number of developing countries including some of the poorest producers in Africa. This information note examines how different countries could be affected by greater or smaller reductions in subsidies as part of the WTO’s Doha Round, in addition to looking at what would happen if countries cut subsidies that were deemed unlawful by the WTO’s dispute settlement panel.

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        Developing Countries and Enforcement of Trade Agreements: Why Dispute Settlement is Not Enough (English)
        Working paper by Bown, Chad P.; Bernard M., Hoekman /World Bank, 2007, 33 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Poor countries are rarely challenged in formal World Trade Organization trade disputes for failing to live up to commitments, reducing the benefits of their participation in international trade agreements. This paper examines the political-economic causes of the failure to challenge poor countries, and discusses the static and dynamic costs and externality implications of this failure. Given the weak incentives to enforce World Trade Organization rules and disciplines against small and poor members, bolstering the transparency function of the World Trade Organization is important for making trade agreements more relevant to trade constituencies in developing countries. Although the paper focuses on the World Trade Organization system, the arguments also apply to reciprocal North-South trade agreements.

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        Development, Trade and the WTO : A Handbook (English)
        Manual by Hoekman, Bernard; Mattoo, Aaditya; English, Philip/World Bank., 2004, 672 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Developing countries are increasingly confronted with the need to address trade policy related issues in international agreements, most prominently the World Trade Organization (WTO). New WTO negotiations on a broad range of subjects were launched in November 2001. Determining whether and how international trade agreements can support economic development is a major challenge. Stakeholders in developing countries must be informed on the issues and understand how their interests can be pursued through international cooperation. This handbook offers guidance on the design of trade policy reform, surveys key disciplines and the functioning of the World Trade Organization (WTO), and discusses numerous issues and options that confront developing countries in using international cooperation to improve domestic policy and obtain access to export markets. Many of the issues discussed are also relevant in the context of regional integration agreements. Separate sections of the handbook summarize what constitutes sound trade policy; the major aspects of the WTO from a development perspective; policy issues in the area of merchandise trade and the liberalization of international transactions in services; protection of intellectual property rights and economic development; new regulatory subjects that are emerging in the agenda of trade talks; and enhancing participation of developing countries in the global trading system.

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        Does Regionalism Affect Trade Liberalization Toward Non-Members? (English)
        Working paper by Estevadeordal, Antoni; Freund, Caroline; Ornelas, Emanuel / World Bank, 2008, 61 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper examines the effect of regionalism on unilateral trade liberalization using industry-level data on applied most-favored nation tariffs and bilateral preferences for ten Latin American countries from 1990 to 2001. The findings show that preferential tariff reduction in a given sector leads to a reduction in the external (most-favored nation) tariff in that sector. External liberalization is greater if preferences are granted to important suppliers. However, these "complementarity effects" of preferential liberalization on external liberalization do not arise in customs unions. Overall, the results suggest that concerns about a negative effect of preferential liberalization on external trade liberalization are unfounded.

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        The Doha Development Agenda: What's on the Table? (English)
        Working paper by Martin, Will; Mattoo, Aaditya / World Bank, 2008, 37 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The outlines of a potential agreement, emerging after seven years of negotiations, imply that Doha offers three key benefits: reduced uncertainty of market access in goods and services; improved market access in agriculture and manufacturing; and the mobilization of resources to deal with the trade problems of least developed countries. WTO Members have offered to make large reductions in legally bound levels of protection in goods and services. The reductions in currently applied levels of protection are smaller. For the least developed countries, the proposed "duty free and quota free" access will only add significantly to their access under existing preferential access arrangements if industrial and developing country members include vital tariff lines. The initiatives on trade facilitation and aid for trade can play a valuable catalytic role in promoting reform and mobilizing assistance, but substantial effort is still needed to translate notional benefits into actual gain.

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        The Doha Round and Food Security in the Dairy Sector in Cameroon: A Global Simulation Model (gsim) Approach (English)
        Discussion paper by Roland R. Leudjou, 2012, 20 pages
        Categories: Commodities, VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        In the framework of the new round of trade liberalization launched in Doha, paragraph 13 of the Development Declaration states that members will support special and differential treatment to accommodate development, including food security. This article simulates scenarios of multilateral tariff reduction from the WTO December 2008 draft modalities on agriculture for the Cameroon dairy sector. Using the Global Simulation Model, the analysis shows a substantial increase in world and domestic consumer prices, as the reduction of bound tariffs does not affect the applied tariffs given the high “binding overhang”. As a consequence, consumers’ welfare decreases.

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        Domestic Climate Change Policies and the WTO (English)
        Discussion Paper by Lucas Assuncao and ZhongXiang Zhang, UNCTAD, 2002, 32 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This discussion paper describes how governments that signed the Kyoto Protocol may pursue domestic climate policies that conflict with WTO obligations and development and growth strategies and recommends potential solutions. Useful reading for students and lecturers interested in the relationship betweem environment and trade/trading system. The paper gives plenty of useful examples and is clear and comprehensible.

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        Domestic Preparedness for Trade in Services Liberalization: Are East African Countries Prepared for Further Trade Liberalization? (English)
        Discussion paper by E.P Bagumhe, 2011, 24 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Over the past decades East African Countries have witnessed even faster growing rates of the share of trade services in their GDPs. This paper argues that although the importance of services as a share of overall GDP, increase with growth on FDI and employment. Its growth can be driven by number of factors, such as final demand factors and basic structural changes in production, linked to development. Weak domestic preparedness before opening up is likely to be associated with unsatisfactory and undesirable outcomes of Services Trade liberalization. This paper tries to expound issues that are essential on domestic preparedness for Service Trade Liberalization and analyses the associated concerns. The purpose of this paper is not to provide answers but to shed some light on how services Trade liberalization is currently operationalized in the East African Countries, in particular, that is, to open up the “black box,” and indicate the operational design elements around which variance is the highest.

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        Do Sensitive Products Undermine Ambition? (English)
        Report by Vanzetti, David, Peters, Ralf, 2011, 22 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The long-running WTO negotiations remain unresolved. Agriculture is a main stumbling block. Members have agreed to linear tariff reductions within bands, but proposed exemptions for sensitive products, while providing for much needed flexibility, threaten to undermine the ambition. A detailed partial equilibrium global agricultural trade model is used to analyse the likely impact of exemptions from the formula tariff reductions. Applying one third of the formula cuts to the 5 per cent of lines with the highest tariffs increases the final developed country average agricultural tariff from 16 to 24 per cent but the negative impacts on trade and welfare are less dramatic.

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        E-Commerce, WTO and developing countries (English)
        Discussion Paper by Arvind Panagariya, University of Maryland, 2000, 32 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: The paper discusses policy issues that e-commerce raises for developing countries in the WTO context. With regard to the WTO rules, benefit developing countries would benefit if e-commerce is classified as trade in services with GATS discipline applied to it and Internet transactions as cross-border trade. Developing countries that have the capacity to export skilled services through Internet would gain if they negotiate market access with developed countries in the future WTO negotiations' in terms of liberalization of sectors in which they have a comparative advantage. Who: Useful for anyone teaching electronic commerce and WTO. How: A background reading on e-commerce and negotiations with WTO.

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        Economic Diplomacy Course: University of Campinas (English)
        Outline by Mário Ferreira Presser, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), 2003
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, Trade Related Capacity Building, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This document provides an overview of the course outline for a Master's degree including the rational for the programme, a description of target students and compulsory modules as well as information about elective options.

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        The Economics Of Trade Agreements In The Linear Cournot Delocation Model (English)
        Working paper by Bagwell, Kyle, Staiger, Robert W., 2009, 36 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Existing theories of trade agreements suggest that GATT/WTO efforts to reign in export subsidies represent an inefficient victory for exporting governments that comes at the expense of importing governments. Building from the Cournot delocation model …first introduced by Venables (1985), we demonstrate that it is possible to develop a formal treatment of export subsidies in trade agreements in which a more benign interpretation of efforts to restrain export subsidies emerges. And we suggest that the gradual tightening of restraints on export subsidies that has occurred in the GATT/WTO may be interpreted as deriving naturally from the gradual reduction in import barriers that member countries have negotiated. Together with existing theories, the Cournot delocation model may help to provide a more nuanced and complete understanding of the treatment of export subsidies in trade agreements.

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        Emergency safeguard measures in the GATS: beyond feasible and desirable (English)
        Discussion Paper by Mario Marconini, 2005, 28 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: An up-to-date resource on the issues arising on the context of WTO negotiations on an Emergency Safeguards Mechanisms (ESM) for services, it argues in favour of an ESM and special and differential treatment (SDT) for developing countries. Who: Could be of interest for anyone interested in current WTO negotiations. How: Detailed analysis on the need for an ESM for services and special and differential measures to implement services liberalization in developing countries.

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        Endowments, Power, And Democracy: Political Economy Of Multilateral Commitments On Trade In Services (English)
        Working paper by Roy, Martin/WTO, 2010, 54 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        In spite of their growing importance in international trade as well as in bilateral and multilateral trade negotiations, services have only attracted limited attention from researchers interested in determinants of trade policies and trade cooperation. This paper seeks to account for countries' varying levels of market access commitments under the multilateral General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). I develop an argument suggesting how levels of democracy and factor endowments are associated with more commitments. The empirical analysis supports these propositions, and also suggests that relative size, as well as regulatory capacity, are positively linked to GATS commitments.

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        Energy and Environmental Services - Negotiating Objectives and Development Priorities (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2003, 429 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: This study provides insight and analysis of the negotiating positions taken by the WTO Member countries on energy and environmental services within the ongoing GATS negotiations. Readers will get a better understanding of what is at stake in the negotiations by learning about the business trends, the major market players and the national strategies in these two service sectors which have a huge economic value and immediate links with economic growth and investment, country competitiveness and, ultimately, sustainable development. Who: Useful for teachers and students studying energy and environmental services. How: Can be used as a background reading for courses on energy and environmental services.

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        Energy Services in International Trade: Development Implications (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2001, 25 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: Developing countries are faced with the challenge of, on the one hand, achieving more reliable and efficient access to energy, and on the other hand, of obtaining a greater share of the energy “business”. The pursuit of these goals requires access to knowledge, expertise, technology and managerial know-how. This discussion paper addresses the elements of an energy services sector strategy for developing countries. Who: For teachers and students specialising on energy services and their implications on development. How: Can be used as a background reading for courses on energy 'business' and the implications on development.

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        Ensuring EU Farm Policy Supports the Millennium Development Goals (English)
        Note by ICTSD, 2009, 12 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This short information note addresses how aid that governments provide to developing countries can often be undermined by their counteractive domestic agricultural policies. The EU’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), originally intended to address post-war food shortages, now causes overproduction at home while undermining some development efforts abroad. Developing country farmers are not only unable to compete in the international market with subsidized European products, but are also denied access to the European market due to high tariff barriers. Although a series of reforms have taken place aimed at reducing overproduction and waste, more substantial reforms are needed in order to align EU farm policy with its policies on development.

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        Ensuring Trade Policy Supports Food Security Goals (English)
        Policy brief by ICTSD, 2009, 13 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Policy Reviews and Briefs, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        While analysts, negotiators and policy-makers have long been aware of the trade barriers and distortions facing developing country agriculture, the renewed attention to food insecurity has yet to spark concrete action on trade policy reform. Indeed, if progress is to be achieved towards achieving food security goals, action to tackle the trade-related causes of hunger has to be an integral part of a broader set of development-oriented reforms in both the developed and developing world. This short analytical note attempts to summarise some of the relationships between trade policy and food security, and pinpoint some of the changes that might be required if governments are to achieve their goals in this area.

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        Environmental Goods and Services: Defining Negotiations or Negotiating Definitions? (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 29 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: This article from the Trade and Environment Review 2003 emphasizes the lack of agreed definitions and classifications concerning environmental goods and services and questions the goal of a win-win scenario in WTO negotiations (positive outcomes for both trade and environmental aspects), e.g. will environmental benefits go to one set of countries and trade gains to another? How to balance market access with public services? How:The article presents a good overview of negotiations in environmental goods and services, can be used as key reading for course related to trade and environment.

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        Evolution Of Non-tariff Measures: Emerging Cases From Selected Developing Countries (English)
        Discussion paper by Basu, Ranjan Sudip; Kuwahara, Hiroaki;Dumesnil, Fabien, 2012, 39 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The objective of the paper is to provide a brief account of the international efforts in understanding non-tariff measure-related trade policies. It uses the NTMs classification system to reflect the increasing use and importance of these policy measures, and includes the concept of procedural obstacles, which refers to issues related to the process of applying an NTM, rather than the measure itself.

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        Exceptions to Patent Rights in Developing Countries (English)
        Case study by Garrison, Christopher, 2006, 104 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This Paper examines the principles and practice of “exceptions to patent rights”, especially as regards developing countries. Many WTO Members (“Members”) are convinced of the utility of the patent system in encouraging research and development activity for new inventions. Many other Members are less confident of the benefits of the patent system and indeed are concerned about the dangers that the patent system poses, in terms of, for example, the impact that it and other intellectual property rights syste ms will have on their economic and social welfare. Where the line is drawn between those areas that are the preserve of the patent holder to control, and those areas which the patent holder may not control, is therefore a very important policy question for Members. The subject of this Paper relates to one aspect of this policy question, that is to say, “exceptions to patent rights”, which for present purposes, is taken to mean certain “safe harbour” areas of activity where the rights of a patent holder do not extend. Other limitations of the rights of patent holders and other matters such as the scope of patentability of inventions or the compulsory licensing of patents are outside the scope of this Paper, although they are touched on as and when appropriate.

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        Export Promotion and the WTO: A Brief Guide (English)
        Book by ITC, 2009, 50 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Study looking at export promotion schemes which are consistent with international rules on subsidies, and are most frequently used by developing countries – examines the rules contained in the WTO Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (ASCM), covering manufactured goods; highlights rules in the WTO Agreement on Agriculture (AoA) on subsidies, covering certain primary or agricultural products; outlines tools such as duty drawback, export credits and export guarantees, which are at the disposal of countries wishing to promote exports; presents and analyses examples of schemes in place in selected countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America.

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        Fog in GATS Commitments – Boon Or Bane? (English)
        Working paper by Adlung, Rudolf, Morrison, Peter, Roy, Martin, Zhang, Weiwei, 2011, 23 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The creation of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), in the Uruguay Round, and its entry into force in 1995 marked a new stage in the history of the multilateral system. It was motivated essentially by the rapid expansion of international services trade within an increasingly open environment in many countries. Given the peculiarities of services trade, including the intangible nature of the products concerned and the need for direct contact between supplier and user in many cases, the Agreement contains a variety of conceptual innovations, including its extension to modes of supply beyond conventional cross-border trade (consumption abroad, commercial presence, and presence of natural persons) and its coverage, and legitimization, of various types of non-tariff restrictions. In turn, the new concepts needed time to be absorbed by the ministries and agencies involved in services trade. Further, the positive-list, or bottom-up, approach to scheduling trade commitments under the GATS meant that great flexibility was given to Members in selecting the sectors concerned and specifying the levels of access provided under individual modes. Thus, not surprisingly, the schedules that emerged from the Uruguay Round, which still account for the majority of current commitments, contain a variety of unclear or superfluous entries that may cause interpretation problems. Their solution could contribute significantly to the clarity and comparability of access obligations across sectors and WTO Members. The scheduling conventions agreed for the Doha Round thus provide specifically for the possibility of technical refinements that leave the substance of commitments unchanged. However, not only was this possibility used more sparingly to date than might have been expected, but additional flaws would be introduced if some current offers were to enter into effect. The following discussion, with a focus on a particular group of entries (market access via commercial presence), tries to explain the scope for such refinement and develop a clearer picture of the areas where further action might be needed.

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        Free trade or fair trade? An enquiry into the causes of failure in recent trade negotiations (English)
        Discussion paper by Mehdi Shafaeddin, UNCTAD, 2000, 44 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: Trade policy is at a crossroads. So is trade diplomacy. The failure of the traditional import substitution policies of the 1950s-1970s has been followed by the failure of trade liberalization in the 1980s and 1990s by developing countries. In particular, the deadlock in the negotiations during the recent meetings of WTO has demonstrated the severe differences among various groups of member countries. Focusing on frictions between developing countries and industrial economies in the particular area of trade in manufactured goods, this paper argues that the failure of the negotiations is related to a number of fallacies and contradictions surrounding the concepts and practices of universal trade liberalization and infant industry protection. Who: Can be used for course and/or research work on trade negotiations, policy and diplomacy, liberalization and WTO issues. How: As a background reading material on trade negotiations and WTO issues.

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        The Future of Trade: The Challenges of Convergence Report of the Panel on Defining the Future of Trade Convened by WTO Director-general Pascal Lamy (English)
        Report by WTO, 2013, 54 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Chapter 1 of the Panel on Defining the Future of Trade Report discusses the contribution that trade opening has made to growth, development prosperity, the challenges of managing jobless growth, high unemployment, poverty, inequality, the environment and sustainable development, and the role of trade as well as investment in this context. Chapter 2 examines certain transformational actors that have shaped trade in recent years and will continue to do so in the future. Finally, chapter 3 contains a number of recommendations for possible action.

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        Globalization and Trade Flows: What You See is Not What You Get!
        Working paper by Maurer, Andreas, Degain, Christophe, 2010, 29 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The trade collapse that followed the recent financial crisis has led to a renewed interest on the measurement issues affecting international merchandise trade statistics in the new globalized economy. The international fragmentation of industrial production blurs the concept of country of origin and calls for the production of new statistics on the domestic content of exports, with a view of estimating trade in value added. Alongside, the international statistical community has revised in 2010 the concepts and definitions on both, international merchandise trade and trade in services statistics. This paper discusses the various issues related to the concepts of "goods for processing" and "intra-firm trade" in trade statistics, and provides an overview of the method of analysing the impact of the fragmentation of production in international value chains.

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        Greenhouse Gas Reduction Policies and Agriculture: Implications for Production Incentives and International Trade Disciplines (English)
        Report by Blandford, David; Josling, Tim/ICTSD, 2009, 32 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Climate change and the instruments of policy that are emerging as a response to that phenomenon pose a multitude of challenges to the multilateral trade system. Both are likely to have an impact on agricultural production. There is also a potential for conflict with World Trade Organization (WTO) trade rules, both through the choice of policy instruments to address climate change and through the way in which governments react to pressures to avoid or deflect the costs of climate change mitigation and adaptation. We assess the implications of domestic policies designed to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture and to enhance the role of agriculture in GHG mitigation in the context of existing and future WTO disciplines. The following types of policies are examined: (1) performance standards, (2) best-practice requirements, (3) subsidies, (4) carbon taxes, (5) cap and trade (CT) schemes and (6) public expenditure for research and extension.

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        Handbook on Duty-Free and Quota-Free Market Access and Rules of Origin for Least Developed Countries – Part Ii : Other Developed Countries and Developing Countries (English)
        Manual by Inama, Stefano / UNCTAD, 2012, 206 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This handbook reviews the progress made to implement the Hong Kong (China) Ministerial Decision on the Duty-Free Quota-Free (DFQF) by other Developed countries and Developing countries in the light of past initiatives and ongoing negotiations in the context of the Doha round of trade negotiations.

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        Handbook on Duty-Free and Quota-Free Market Access and Rules of Origin for Least Developed Countries – Part I : Quad Countries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 82 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The present handbook reviews the progress made to implement the Hong Kong (China) decision until the Nairobi WTO Ministerial of 2015 and subsequent changes that individual QUAD countries have made to their schemes till 31 December 2017. Part I of this handbook focuses on the special provisions in favour of LDCs and related rules of origin, as contained in the GSP schemes of the Quad countries, namely Canada, those of the European Union Japan and the United States.

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        The Harmonized System - Amendments and Their Impact on WTO Members' Schedules (English)
        Manual by Yu, Dayong /WTO, 2008, 25 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        As an internationally standardized product nomenclature, the Harmonized System (HS) is used by WTO Members in their schedules of concessions and in the definitions of product coverage for a number of WTO agreements. This paper starts by providing an overview of the HS amendments and proposing a categorization of those HS changes in the context of transposition. It then looks back at the history of the introduction of the HS and its subsequent amendments into the WTO schedules and assesses the difficulties and problems which have been faced by WTO Members. On the basis of such analysis, it introduces the successful procedures and methodologies used by WTO Members and the WTO Secretariat to deal with the recent HS2002 transposition. The paper also discusses the implications of the HS amendments to three WTO agreements and the possible approaches to transpose their product lists into a new HS nomenclature.

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        Harnessing Trade for Sustainable Development and a Green Economy
        Manual by WTO, 2011, 24 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        In 1992 the United Nations convened a landmark conference in Rio de Janeiro which set the tone and ambition for global policy on development and environment for the years to come. The results of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, popularly known as the Earth Summit, were reaffirmed in Johannesburg in 2002 at the World Summit on Sustainable Development. Global leaders will reconvene in Rio in 2012 at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20). They will consider progress made since the two earlier meetings, assess remaining challenges, and reset the world on a path towards sustainable development. Part II of this brochure offers a set of messages on sustainable development and trade that may be pronounced at the Rio+20 Conference. Part III looks at the workings of the WTO and how the multilateral trading system supports countries’ efforts to realize sustainable development and a green economy. Part IV examines the contribution of trade to sustainable development. Part V refers to green economy measures and discusses how WTO rules and monitoring mechanisms help ensure such measures are not disguised protectionism. Part VI looks at WTO efforts to help developing countries maximize the benefits of participation in international trade. And Part VII discusses the contribution to sustainable development that can be made through a successful completion of the Doha Round.

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        ¿Hay Vida Después del SGP? Implicancias de la Posible Exclusión de Argentina de los Sistemas Generalizados de Preferencias de Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea (English)
        Policy brief by Dalle, Demián, Lavopa, Federico, 2011, 12 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        El Sistema Generalizado de Preferencias (“SGP”) es una de las manifestaciones centrales del principio del “Trato Especial y Diferenciado” que los países desarrollados accedieron a otorgar a aquellos en vías de desarrollo en el ámbito de Acuerdo General sobre Aranceles y Comercio (“GATT”) y su sucesora, la Organización Mundial del Comercio (“OMC”). Este principio deriva de uno de los aspectos más elementales de cualquier noción de justicia: la igualdad entre desiguales no es igualdad. Traducido a la jerga de la OMC, este imperativo implica que los países desarrollados miembros de la OMC están autorizados a realizar concesiones unilaterales a países en desarrollo sin la obligación de extender automática e incondicionalmente dichas preferencias a todos los países miembros de la OMC. Funciona, por lo tanto, como una excepción a uno de los pilares de dicho organismo: el principio de no discriminación y, en particular, la Cláusula de la Nación Más Favorecida.

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        The Hong Kong Ministerial and Beyond (English)
        Other by Virtual Institute, 2005
        Categories: VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: A collection of articles by Virtual Institute members assessing the challenges for the current WTO ministerial in Hong Hong and beyond. These articles look at the development challenge of the current multilateral negotiations from the perspective of developed countries, middle income developing countries and the Least Developed Countries. Who: For anyone interested in WTO issues and the current debates around the outcome of the WTO ministerial in Hong Kong. How: A series of short articles introduce several key issues which could provide a succinct resource for discussion and further research.

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        How Would a Trade Deal on Cotton Affect Exporting and Importing Countries? (English)
        Working paper by ICTSD, 2010, 59 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper aims to provide policy-makers, negotiators and other stakeholders with a clear and accurate assessment of the likely implications of a trade deal on cotton along the lines of that being discussed in the WTO’s Doha Round. The study also examines the implications of various alternative trade policy scenarios, taking into consideration recent historical trends in cotton prices, production and trade in different countries and geographical regions, and analyses the relevance of internal policy reforms in the EU and the US in particular.

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        How Would a Trade Deal on Sugar Affect Exporting and Importing Countries? (English)
        Report by Elobeid, Amani/ICTSD, 2009, 62 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This study examines how exporting and importing countries could be affected by a trade deal on sugar along the lines of that under discussion in the WTO’s Doha Round, as well as in bilateral and regional negotiations. The study takes into consideration the preferential access arrangements that currently exist, recent historical trends in sugar trade in different countries and geographical regions, and the internal market reforms in importing regions such as the EU.How would a trade deal on sugar affect exporting and importing countries?How would a trade deal on sugar affect exporting and importing countries?

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        How Would a WTO Agreement on Bananas Affect Exporting and Importing Countries? (English)
        Report by Anania, Giovanni/ICTSD, 2009, 49 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Bananas, an essential source of export revenue for many developing countries, have been an important source of disagreement in the Doha Round of trade talks. This study employs economic modeling to assess the implications of a deal on trade in bananas. The scenarios it uses focus on the role of Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) and a conclusion to the WTO Doha Round.

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        Impact Des Accords De L’OMC Sur L’économie De La Mauritanie, Négociation et Mise En Oeuvre, Avril 2006 (French)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2006, 32 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Pays à forte tradition commerciale, la Mauritanie a vu s’installer sur ses côtes dès le 16e siècle des comptoirs hollandais, portugais, anglais et français, comptoirs dont l’installation, a attisé les convoitises et entraîné de fortes rivalités entre les puissances européennes de l’époque. Le principal objet de ce commerce était la gomme arabique, sève d’une espèce d’acacia très répandue en Mauritanie avant la grande sécheresse des années 1970. Puis ce fut autour du minerai de fer et des produits halieutiques de constituer l’essentiel des exportations mauritaniennes. En termes de valeur, la balance commerciale a connu une évolution en dents de scie entre 1990 et 2004 caractérisée par une tendance déficitaire très marquée en 1997 en raison du concours des facteurs suivants : - la baisse des captures et des cours des produits halieutiques, - la crise financière asiatique de la fin des années 1990 qui s’est répercutée sur l’économie et la monnaie du Japon principal acheteur du poisson mauritanien (notamment les céphalopodes à grande valeur marchande). - La baisse continue des cours du minerai de fer. Mais, en dépit de la refonte de l’arsenal juridique régissant l’activité privée et l’entreprise de manière générale, un ensemble de facteurs entravent le développement du secteur du commerce. On citera en particulier l’absence d’orientations clairement définies, la prévalence de la « logique commerçante» dans la gestion des entreprises, la forte présence puis le retrait soudain de l’Etat d’un ensemble de secteurs clés de l’économie dont il détenait le monopôle, l’absence d’unités de production agro-industrielles, le coût élevé du crédit, l’absence de culture du service,le coût élevé des facteurs de production, l’exiguïté du marché domestique….etc.

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        Impact Des Accords De L’OMC Sur L’économie Du Cameroun, Négociation et Mise En Oeuvre (French)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2006, 69 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Le Cameroun est signataire de puis 1960 de plusieurs accords commerciaux bilatéraux et multilatéraux et s’inscrit résolument dans la logique de diversification de ses partenaires. Membre de l’organisation Mondiale du Commerce (OMC) depuis le 1er janvier 1995, il coopère avec l’Union Européenne dans la zone franche sur le plan monétaire et au sein des pays ACP dans le cadre des Accords de Partenariat Economique signés en 2000 à Cotonou (UE/ACP) dont les négociations en cours s’achèvent en 2007. L’issue des négociations du cycle actuel de Doha relative au nouveau Système Commercial Multilatéral et des accords de partenariat économique régionaux conditionne par conséquent le développement économique du pays, tant il est vrai en principe que l’expansion des échanges internationaux dans le contexte du libre échange est un facteur de développement mutuel des partenaires à l’échange. Le besoin d’une stratégie de négociation indispensable à l’optimisation des gains nécessaire à la réalisation de l’option du gouvernement pour la réduction de la pauvreté et l’atteinte des objectifs du millénaire pour le développement s’avère important et urgent. Les contours de cette stratégie se fondent sur l’impact actuel des différents accords de l’OMC et des accords régionaux sur l’économie camerounaise. La présente étude sur l’impact des Accords de l’OMC et positions de négociations à l’initiative de la CNUCED dans le cadre du Projet JITAP II vient opportunément aider à la préparation des négociations d’une part, à l’harmonisation et à l’amélioration de la législation et de la réglementation nationale d’autre part.

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        Implications for China of the December 2008 Draft Agricultural Modalities (English)
        Report by Zhihong, Tian/ICTSD, 2009, 50 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        With nearly 900 million people dependent on agriculture for income, China produces more wheat and paddy than any other country, yet it is a country dependent upon trade to both employ and feed its people. Moreover, China has some of the lowest agricultural tariffs of any WTO Member and yet subsidies that rival the EU’s in total. The ongoing Doha Round of trade negotiations at the WTO may significantly alter the relationship of Chinese agriculture with the world. This study explores the latest draft WTO agreement on agriculture and what it means for China.

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        Indisputably Essential- The Economics of Dispute Settlement Institutions in Trade Agreements (English)
        Working paper by Keck, Alexander /WTO, Schropp, Simon /University of St. Gallen, HEI Geneva and NCCR Democracy, 2007, 29 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper is a step towards the formulation of a coherent economic theory of dispute settlement. It challenges traditional models of enforcement (primarily concerned with acts of punishment) for being insufficient in explaining the existence of dispute settlement institutions. The authors perform a comprehensive analysis of the economics of dispute settlement institutions and demonstrate to what extent the literatures of trade cooperation and dispute institutions are (and should be) interlinked. On the basis of these theories, they show that dispute settlement institutions in trade agreements may assume a variety of roles, including that of an information repository and disseminator, an honest broker, an arbitrator and calculator of damages, an active information gatherer or an adjudicator.

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        Intellectual Property in the World Trade Organization (English)
        Working paper by UNCTAD, 2010, 87 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The paper examines the development implications of the World Trade Organization(WTO) Agreement on Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and aims to offer suggestions on how to reduce the agreement’s development deficit and increase its development friendliness. The paper provides a historic overview of the TRIPS negotiations, the agreement itself and the development deficits therein. It also presents the broader context surrounding intellectual property (IP) issues, namely, on the one hand, the increasing trend towards higher IP standards and on the other hand, the growing insight on the need to rebalance existing IP rules. It also analyses selected aspects of the TRIPS Agreement,highlighting their development implications.

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        Intellectual Property Rights and the TRIPS Agreement: An Overview of Ethical Problems and Some Proposed Solutions (English)
        Working paper by Sonderholm, Jorn/World Bank, 2010, 48 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights negotiated in 1986 under the auspices of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, the institutional predecessor of the World Trade Organization, incorporated substantial and uniform protections of intellectual property rights into the international trade system. A large body of contemporary academic literature suggests that intellectual property rights on socially valuable goods such as essential medicines give rise to a number of ethical problems. This review paper seeks to give an overview of these problems. Moreover, it offers an outline and discussion of a number of proposals as to how these problems might be alleviated. The paper is primarily descriptive in character. This means that although a personal perspective is sometimes offered, the primary ambition of the paper is not to argue for, and defend, a particular solution to the issues discussed. The aim is rather to highlight, explain and put into perspective a number of important arguments in the debate on the ethical nature of intellectual property rights so that policy-makers and other stakeholders are relatively well-equipped to make up their own mind on the issue.

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        The Interface Between The Trade And Climate Change Regimes : Scoping The Issues
        Working paper by Low, Patrick, Marceau, Gabrielle, Reinaud, Julia, 2011, 45 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        As governments increasingly adopt policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, concern has grown on two fronts. First, carbon leakage can occur when mitigation policies are not the same across countries and producers seek to locate in jurisdictions where production costs are least affected by emission constraints. The risk of carbon leakage raises questions about the efficacy of climate change policies in a global sense. Secondly, it is precisely the cost-related consequences of differential mitigation policies that feed industry concerns about competitiveness. We thus have a link between environmental and competitiveness perspectives that fuses climate change and trade regimes in potentially problematic ways as governments contemplate trade actions to manage the environmental and/or competitiveness consequences of differential climate change policies. On the trade side of this relationship, we have the reality that the GATT/WTO rules were not originally drafted to accommodate climate change policies and concerns. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relevance of certain WTO rules to the interface between climate change and trade, focusing in particular on border measures, technical regulations on trade, standards and labelling, and subsidies and countervailing duties. It concludes that in the absence of clear international understandings on how to manage the climate change and trade interface, we run the risk of a clash that compromises the effectiveness of climate change policies as well as the potential gains from specialization through trade.

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        Introduction to Negotiation Skills and Strategies - A Brief History of Negotiations (English)
        Summary by Virtual Institute, UNCTAD, 2006
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: This paper offers both a brief summary of the history of diplomacy and international negotiations as well as a review on the history of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the World Trade Organization (WTO). Who: Especially for teachers and students in classes on international relations that deal with international negotiations. How: Can be used as a starting point to get an overview on the history of negotiations. On points of interest, the paper can be complemented by additional reading. The content of the paper could also be used to design a PowerPoint presentation on the topic.

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        Las Políticas Para La Seguridad Alimentaria Ante Un Escenario Global Más Complejo (English)
        Working paper by Pomareda, Carlos, 2011, 18 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        La inseguridad alimentaria tiene múltiples dimensiones, y tanto los gobiernos como las agencias de cooperación (ONGs y organismos internacionales) la abordan en diferente forma. El resultado de tal abordaje es un gran desorden en los esfuerzos de los gobiernos y de las agencias, poniendo en tela de juicio la efectividad de las medidas que se toman. La situación tiende a complicarse a medida que pasa el tiempo y no se resuelven problemas estructurales y a raíz de nuevos elementos que hacen más difícil que la seguridad alimentaria, como objetivo de desarrollo, sea alcanzada. De no tenerse en cuenta el agravante contexto, continuará el desperdicio de recursos y la profundización de los problemas. Estas notas tienen el propósito de contribuir a identificar vacíos en los que se requiere profundizar el conocimiento y por lo tanto reconsiderar los factores que influencian las condiciones de inseguridad alimentaria y las alternativas para superar la situación, a raíz de un escenario cambiante que tiene influencia en la inseguridad alimentaria global, aunque con implicaciones particulares para los diferentes países. El documento toma en cuenta los diferentes niveles en los que se manifiesta la inseguridad alimentaria y sus vínculos con otros temas como la pobreza, el hambre y la desnutrición. Plantea la necesidad de revisar los enfoques a la luz de las complicaciones en el escenario global de inestabilidad; y los compromisos y oportunidades en el comercio internacional. El documento ofrece una revisión de estos aspectos para motivar el diálogo en un tema amplio y complejo.

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        Latin American Experience in Wto Dispute Settlement: Recommendations for Russia
        Working paper by St. Petersburg State University, 2013
        Categories: VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The article analyses the experience of Latin American countries (LAC) with regards to their participation in various economic dispute settlement mechanisms. On the basis of this analysis, the paper makes some recommendations for the Russian Federation as a new member of the organization that may use the World Trade Organization dispute settlement mechanism in order to defend its economic interests.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2004: Improving the Trade-Poverty Relationship through the International Trade Regime (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 2004, 52 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: LDC Report 2004 Part 2, Chapter 6. An argument for how international trade can be made a more effective mechanism for poverty reduction for LDCs focusing on the international trade regime in a holistic sense not limited to the WTO but demonstrating the importance of the world commodity economy and market access issues. Who: Anyone teaching or researching the links between trade and poverty as well as anyone interested in the structure of international trade. How: Good, detailed background reading that clearly explains a range of interconnected issues relating to trade and poverty. For a more detailed presentation on the issue, the bibliography offers a number of reference materials. It is highly recommend that anyone who is in interested in this chapter should also look at the chapter entitled "Improving the Trade-Poverty Relationship through National Development Strategies".

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2004, Part 1, Chapter 3 - Selected Recent Policy Trends: Accession of LDCs to the WTO (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 17 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: A descriptive overview of the issues and challenges involved in LDC accession to the WTO followed by three brief country case studies of Cambodia, Vanuatu and Nepal (detailing their systemic commitments, proposed bound tariffs rates and proposals on services). Additionally the chapter offers a comparative analysis amongst accession countries as well as existing WTO members. Who: Anyone teaching or researching LDC accession to the WTO. How: Useful background reading on issues and challenges of WTO membership.

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        Le Mali et Le Système Commercial Multilatéral: L’impact Des Accords De L’OMC, Négociation et Mise En Oeuvre (French)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2006, 114 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        La mondialisation des économies, puisqu’il c’est d’elle qu’il s’agit, apparaît désormais comme une fatalité avec ses revers et ses effets pervers, mais aussi, au-delà de ses exigences, ses avantages et ses espoirs d’un lendemain meilleur. Avec ses inconvénients et ses avantages, la mondialisation des économies est acceptée par tous à l’exception de quelques irréductibles et s’avère comme la seule issue possible de l’avenir du genre humain dans sa quête d’un mieux être constant. Dans un tel contexte de rigueur caractérisé par une compétitivité internationale accrue et en poursuivant des objectifs de prospérité généralisée, les pays comme le Mali qui apparaissent comme des acteurs émergeants de la scène mondiale, cherchent à prendre pied sur le marché mondial pour vendre et acheter à meilleur compte. Cette insertion dynamique dans le processus de la mondialisation comporte des défis et des opportunités. C’est dans le cadre de ces défis et la recherche des opportunités offertes par le commerce mondial, que le Mali a adhéré à l’OMC en 1995 et commencé à appliquer les accords de cette institution tout en participant dans toute la mesure du possible aux négociations commerciales multilatérales. Quel a été l’impact de l’application des règles de l’OMC au niveau de l’économie nationale du Mali ? La présente étude tente de répondre à cette question

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        Lessons from European Union Policies for Regional Development (English)
        Working paper by Shankar, Raja; Shah, Anwar / The World Bank, 2009, 47 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The neglect of regional disparities may create the potential for disunity and disintegration in any country. Hence, most countries aim at helping lagging regions catch up with faster growing regions. However, it is useful to discern what type of policies work and why. The experience of the European Union (EU) may be particularly instructive in this context. This paper reviews the impact of EU policies for regional development and draws lessons that can be of interest to other countries pursuing similar goals. The paper concludes that policies that serve to create an internal common market by creating a level playing field have the best potential to advance regional income convergence. In this context, the main policy priorities for regional development include the removal of barriers to trade and factor mobility, and providing enhanced access to information and technology to the lagging regions.

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        Lessons From The First Two Decades Of Trade Policy Reviews In The Americas (English)
        Working paper by Valdés, Raymundo, 2010, 59 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The Trade Policy Reviews conducted in the Western Hemisphere over 1989-2009 contain a wealth of information that puts in clear evidence the considerable improvements achieved in most American countries during the first two decades of operation of the Trade Policy Review Mechanism. Those Reviews show that trade liberalization came hand-in-hand with internal reforms, and was generally of an autonomous nature and an intrinsic component of improved economic management. Trade liberalization slowed down during the second decade under review, with tariffs having come down mostly during the earlier years. The use of non-tariff barriers also fell over time although at a slow pace in some of the smallest Members, which found it difficult to implement the more complex trade policy instrument applied by larger countries. Export and other government assistance schemes proliferated throughout the continent but were often characterized by a lack of unity in the criteria used to assign and apply them. The review period also witnessed enormous changes in the services sectors, where reforms usually proved more complex than in the goods area. The multilateral and other international trade agreements contributed to the stability of trade policies and the general rejection of protectionism, although backtracking did occur in a number of cases. Because the commitments made during the Uruguay Round negotiation now fall short of the more liberal trade regimes that came to be over the review period, most Members in the Americas could presently raise trade and investment barriers without violating multilateral rules. Thus, the pressing need to conclude the Doha Development Agenda in order to lock in the considerable trade policy liberalization achieved during past years, and to strengthen the multilateral trading system.

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        Le Sénégal et Le Système Commercial Multilatéral: L´impact Des Accords De L´OMC, Négociation et Mise En Oeuvre (French)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005, 63 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        En 1994, les pays africains ont signé les Accords de l’OMC. Puis, tout au long du Cycle d’Uruguay (CU), ils se sont efforcés de les appliquer et de participer activement aux négociations. Pour se faire, les pays africains et singulièrement le Sénégal, ont initié un large processus de réforme, d’un coût social parfois élevé, de leur politique macroéconomique, de leur politique commerciale, de leur dispositif institutionnel, ou encore de leur environnement légal et réglementaire, afin d’être conforme tant à la lettre qu’à l’esprit de ces Accords. Aussi, la présente étude a-t-elle pour objet i) d’évaluer l´impact des règles commerciales multilatérales et régionales sur l´économie et le commerce extérieur du Sénégal, ii) d’évaluer la mesure dans laquelle le Sénégal a été capable de profiter et de bénéficier de sa participation dans l´OMC et d´adapter et d´ajuster sa législation nationale pour mettre en oeuvre ses obligations dans le cadre de l´OMC, iii) d’identifier les stratégies de négociation pour une participation effective du Sénégal aux négociations de Doha et les façonner en fonction des objectifs commerciaux, de développement et de réduction de la pauvreté du pays. La présente étude constitue une synthèse de l’ensemble des travaux d’ores et déjà effectués et des documents d’analyse existants. Elle se réfère aux principaux documents de stratégie de développement dont la mise en oeuvre est en cours (document de stratégie de développement du secteur privé, document de stratégie de réduction de la pauvreté, document de stratégie de croissance accélérée, document de stratégie de développement des exportations). Elle prend également en compte un certain nombre d’études et d’analyses portant sur des aspects spécifiques (par secteur d’activité) du commerce extérieur du Sénégal.

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        Managing "Request-Offer" Negotiations under the GATS: The Case of Energy Services (English)
        Working paper by UNCTAD, 2006, 33 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: This paper gives, at first, an introduction to the international energy services market, by analyzing its scope, size, major players and trade flows. Then, the treatment of energy services in the GATS is analyzed, including the future negotiation topics. The advantages and drawbacks of liberalizing trade in energy services are investigated, particularly from developing countries' perspective. Conversely, the paper also discusses domestic regulations on energy services. Particular attention is devoted to negotiations on energy services trade. Thus, the author provides a list of recent country-by-country negotiation proposals and a comprehensive negotiating checklist. How: Primarily, useful for training courses on trade negotiations. Besides, the paper can be used as a background reading in international trade courses. Who: The paper should be particularly interesting for trade negotiators and policy-makers, but also for trade researchers and students.

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        Managing the Request-Offer Negotiations Under the GATS: Construction & Related Engineering Services (English)
        Presentation by UNCTAD, 2006, 10 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: This presentation gives, at first, an introduction to the international construction services market, by analyzing its scope, size, major players and trade flows. Then, the treatment of construction and related services in the GATS is analyzed, including the future negotiation topics. The advantages and drawbacks of liberalizing trade in construction services are investigated, particularly from developing countries' perspective. Conversely, the paper also discusses domestic regulations on construction services. Particular attention is devoted to negotiations on construction services trade. Thus, the author provides a list of recent country-by-country negotiation proposals and a comprehensive negotiating checklist. How: Primarily, useful for training courses on trade negotiations. Who: The presentation should be particularly interesting for trade negotiators and policy-makers, but also for trade researchers and students.

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        MANAGING THE REQUEST-OFFER NEGOTIATIONS UNDER THE GATS: LOGISTICS SERVICES (English)
        Working paper by UNCTAD, 2006, 47 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The aim of this paper is to identify issues of relevance to current negotiations on logistics services under the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). The paper also seeks to provide the World Trade Organization (WTO) Members with suggestions on how they can approach the negotiations. Achieving meaningful liberalization, commensurate with their individual level of development, will require informed participation by WTO Members, based on their market access interests and their regulatory, infrastructural and institutional constraints. A precondition to increased participation in world trade will be to ensure the development of the logistics services sector in developing countries and the competitiveness of their exports in this area.

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        Mapping the Tariff Waters (English)
        Working paper by Diakantoni, Antonia, Escaith, Hubert, 2009, 31 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Tariff water –the difference between bound and applied duties– provides relevant information on domestic trade policy and WTO trade negotiations. This paper examines the general and sectoral tariff structure of 120 economies, using exploratory data analysis.

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        Market access proposals for non-agricultural products (English)
        Presentation by Sam Laird, Santiago Fernandez de Cordoba and David Vanzetti, 2002, 39 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: This paper explains and analyses various proposals in the WTO non-agricultural market access negotiations using a global general equilibrium model. The results show that proposals involving deeper tariff cuts imply greater increases in imports and exports, but greater losses in tariff revenues that will need to be made up in some other way. They also show greater welfare gains in the longer term, resulting from the improved allocation of resources and changes in the terms of trade. Who: Useful for anyone focusing on WTO negotiations on non-agricultural products. How: Can be used as a background reading for courses on WTO negotiations.

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        Measuring the Relative Strength of Preferential Market Access (English)
        Report by Nicita, Alessandro / UNCTAD, 2011, 29 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        In the past 20 years, tariffs imposed on international trade have been decreasing both in virtue of multilateral agreements under the auspices of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and of the proliferation of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) at the regional and bilateral level. The consequence of the large number of PTAs is that an increasing share of international trade is not subject to the most favoured nation tariffs, but enters markets through preferential access. Preferential access can be thought of as a policy given comparative advantage where countries discriminate across trading partners by providing some countries with a relative advantage. As the number of PTAs increases, it becomes more difficult to assess the tariff advantage originating from an existing or future trade agreement. This paper proposes two new indices aimed at assessing the value of the preferential margin. The first index measures the relative value of preferential regimes on actual exports flows. It provides the tariff advan age to the exports originating from a given country relative to similar exports originating elsewhere. The second index measures the potential value of the preferential regime and it is calculated not on observed but on “potential” export flows. These indices are useful for calculating both the strength of existing or future trade agreements as well as the preference erosion that a third-parties trade agreement may cause.

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        Mobilizing Business for Trade in Services (English)
        Book by ITC, 2013, 156 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The book summarizes key arguments on the role of services in development, providing analysis and explanation of the regulatory reforms and trade negotiations needed to foster a vibrant services sector in developing countries. It provides an overview of how policymakers and people working in business can work together to develop specific services sectors, such as tourism; transport and logistics; communications; audiovisual; computer and business process outsourcing; financial services; professional and other business services; construction; distribution; and cultural and recreational services.

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        Multilateralism and Regionalism: The New Interface (English)
        Book by Mashayekhi, Mina and Ito, Taisuke /UNCTAD, 2005, 205 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        There is a resurgence of regionalism in today’s international trading system. Regional trade agreements have multiplied worldwide; almost all countries are members of at least one agreement and many are party to multiple agreements. Existing agreements are re-invigorated and expanded while new ones are being negotiated and formed. What: The volume contains papers delivered at a pre-UNCTAD XI Forum on “Multilateralism and Regionalism: The New Interface” held on 8 June 2004 at the BNDES, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, organized during the Rio Trade Week. The publication starts with some initial perspectives on the new interface between the post-WTO multilateralism, with a view to identifying ways and means of addressing important policy challenges. It further provides more in depth-analysis of RTA issues including Rules of Origin, Notification to the WTO of a RTA, New North-South and South-South Models, Market Access and Competition Policy. How: Ideal background paper for regional trade agreements of for further reading purposes. Who: Trade Policy Classes at a higher level.

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        Multilateralism in Crisis (English)
        Working paper by Peter Lloyd, 2012, 30 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper examines multilateralism by looking at the two most important current efforts to devise new multilateral rules binding all nations - the negotiations in the World Trade Organization (WTO) about trade rules and the negotioations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) to devise rules restricting the annual emissions of greenhouse gases. Both negotiations have failed after several years of intensive effort.

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        Multilateral Trade Rules Governing Environmental and Health Requirements: The TBT and SPS Agreement (English)
        Presentation by Ulrich Hoffmann, UNCTAD, 2004, 8 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This presentation describes the objectives, definitions, scope, and principles of the WTO Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT Agreement) and the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phyto-sanitary Measures (SPS Agreement).

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        Natural Resources and Non-cooperative Trade Policy (English)
        Working paper by Latina, Joelle, Piermartini, Roberta, Ruta, Michele / WTO, 2011, 29 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        When looking at the conditions of trade in natural resources the world appears upside down: tariff protection in natural resources sectors is generally lower than for overall merchandise trade, while export restrictions are twice as likely as in other sectors. On the other hand, tariff escalation is significant in natural resources sectors, where materials in their raw state face, on average, lower duties than in their processed form. In this paper, we discuss how export taxes and tariff escalation may be the result of an uncooperative trade policy. Specifically, tariff escalation and export taxes can be "beggar-thy-neighbor" policies because governments may be tempted to use them to alter the relative price of exports to their advantage (terms-of-trade effect) or to expand the domestic processing industry at the expenses of foreign production (production relocation effect). In equilibrium, these policies offset each other in a Prisoners' Dilemma situation, where trade is inefficiently low.

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        Negociações em agricultura na OMC (English)
        Summary by Mário Ferreira Presser, Frederico Quaresma Madureira, Wolfgang Lenk, 2004
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper (in Portuguese) provides a general overview of agricultural trade negotiations at the WTO through Doha, Cancun and beyond. Also contains a glossary of key terms.

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        Negotiating for food security - Glossary of trade negotiation terms (English)
        Manual by Virtual Institute, UNCTAD, 2005, 4 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        An explanation of some key trade negotiation terms, particularly as they apply to the negotiations on agriculture at the WTO. A useful handout for any course dealing with the multinational trading system.

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        Negotiating for food security - Simulation of multilateral trade negotiations on agriculture (English)
        Simulation by Virtual Institute, UNCTAD, 2005, 33 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        A simulation exercise based on WTO agricultural negotiations. The resources for the simulation include a sample negotiating text, suggested agenda, detailed instructions, and background information on the countries involved in the negotiations. Additionally, tips on how to manage the exercise are included for teachers or facilitators. With proper preparation and background information the simulation can be used to give students an introduction to basic negotiating techniques and provides an excellent practical opportunity for them to extend and deepen their knowledge on the WTO Agreement on Agriculture.

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        Negotiating for food security - What makes a successful negotiator: Skills for negotiators (English)
        Note by Virtual Institute, UNCTAD, 2005, 2 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, Trade Related Capacity Building, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        A brief overview of some of the skills and behaviours that a successful negotiator requires. A useful background document for any simulation exercise or wider discussion of the function and role of negotiations.

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        Negotiations on Transport and Logistics Services: Issues to Consider (English)
        Working paper by UNCTAD, 2006, 29 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: This paper analyzes the proposals by a group of WTO members to consider multimodal transports and logistics services in the Doha Round GATS-negotiations. First, the paper discusses current trends in trade and transport. Then, the transport and logistics services regulations under the GATS are examined, hereby particularly considering recent developments. The paper discusses at length which aspects need to be considered by developing countries in GATS-negotiations and how developing countries can contribute to these negotiations in the best possible way. How: The paper is particularly useful for training courses for trade negotiators and policy-makers. Who: Should be very informative for trade negotiators and policy-makers. Could also be a useful reading for students and researchers dealing with trade negotiations.

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        Negotiation theory - An overview (English)
        Summary by Virtual Institute, UNCTAD, 2006
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What:this paper is a brief introduction to the theory of negotiations containing links to more detailed resources on negotiations posted on the Vi site. The paper describes the strategies and tactics used in negotiations and some of the skills required for negotiation. Who: the paper provides an overview for anyone studying negotiations and could be used by teachers to introduce students to the field. How: as a background reading on negotiations defining the scope of the field and linking to more detailed resources for further reading.

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        A "new" Trade Theory of GATT/WTO Negotiations (English)
        Working paper by Ossa, Ralph, 2009, 51 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        A novel theory of GATT/WTO negotiations that provides new answers to two prominent questions in the trade policy literature: First, what is the purpose of trade negotiations? And second, what is the role played by the fundamental GATT/WTO principles of reciprocity and nondiscrimination? Relative to the standard terms-of-trade theory of GATT/WTO negotiations, my theory makes two main contributions: First, it builds on a "new trade" model rather than the neoclassical trade model and therefore sheds new light on GATT/WTO negotiations between similar countries. Second, it relies on a production relocation externality rather than the terms-of-trade externality and therefore demonstrates that the terms-of-trade externality is not the only trade policy externality, which can be internalized in GATT/WTO negotiations.

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        Nondiscrimination in GATT/WTO: Was There Anything to Begin with and is There Anything Left? (English)
        Discussion paper by T.N. Srinivasan, 2005, 27 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: Non-discriminatory treatment is one of the main principles of the World Trade Organization (WTO). Under normal circumstances countries cannot discriminate between their trading partners: they must accord the same preferences to one country as they do to all their trading partners (Most Favoured Nation Principle [MFN]). Under WTO rules foreigners and locals also have to be treated equally in domestic markets (National Treatment [NT]). However, exceptions to non-discriminatory treatment are outlined in the WTO articles relating to customs unions and free trade areas, antidumping and safeguards. In this paper the author argues that these exceptions have become dominant over the past few years causing an erosion of the non-discrimination principle. In Section 2, non-discriminatory treatment, as mandated in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), is outlined. Section 3 summarizes the exceptions to non-discrimination in the WTO. Section 4 examines the role of MFN and reciprocity as a means of self-enforcement of the GATT contract. In section 5 aspects of MFN and NT are analyzed with a simple theoretical model. Section 6 offers a conclusion on the role of non-discrimination in GATT/WTO. Who: For anyone dealing with the non-discrimination principle of the WTO. How: Can serve as an additional reading for anyone dealing with the non-discrimination principle of the WTO. Preliminary knowledge of the principles of non-discrimination and of economic theory would be an asset.

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        Non-tariff Measures and the WTO (English)
        Working paper by Staiger, Robert W., 2012, 47 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        In this paper I sketch out the rough contours of the challenge faced by the WTO in dealing with non-tariff measures (NTMs) as seen from the economic theories of trade agreements. The key questions for the WTO - the answers to which largely dictate the choice between shallow and deep approaches to integration - appear to be two: (1) Is it the terms-of-trade problem or the commitment problem that WTO member governments seek to solve with their WTO membership?; and (2) Is it market clearing or offshoring/bilateral bargaining that is now the most prominent mechanism for the determination of international prices? I suggest that evidence on the …rst question points to the terms-of-trade theory and hence toward shallow integration, but that answering the second question may be the key to identifying the best way forward on NTMs for the WTO.

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        Not Totally Naked: Textiles and Clothing Trade in a Quota Free Environment (English)
        Discussion paper by Jörg Mayer, 2004, 55 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: A very good discussion paper that deals with quota regulations and tariff protection in textiles and clothing trade focusing mainly on China. It discusses at length the effects of the implementation of the Termination of the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC). The paper uses several data and provides selected number of reference materials. Who: Relevant for anyone studying or teaching trade - quota regulations and tariff protection on textiles and clothing. How: The discussion paper can be used for a lecture or a seminar to teach the trade effects on the termination of ATC on both developed and developing countries.

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        Os Brics Na OMC: Políticas Comerciais Comparadas De Brasil, Rússia, Índia, China E África Do Sul (English)
        Book by Oliveira, Ivan (IPEA) and Thorstensen, Vera (FGV), 2012, 484 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The result of a research project of the Department of International Studies at IPEA, in partnership with researchers from FGV, the study analyzes the trade policy of the BRICS countries, particularly with respect to their participation in the multilateral trading system.

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        Outsourcing and development (English)
        Discussion paper by Navdeep Suri, 2005
        Categories: Competitiveness, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: A study of a newly emerging market for outsourcing of services, with a focus on outsourcing to developing countries. Reviews the market, trends and players (wealth of data) and presents different views from both developed and developing countries about the benefits and losses from service outsourcing. Shows the political economy background of this discussion in a broader context of a shifting competitive advantage debate. Short case studies of India, the Philippines, Vietnam, Ghana, South Africa. Examines how outsourcing of services links to the treatment of services in the WTO. Who: University teachers and students, and anybody interested in the very topical issue of service outsourcing to developing countries. How: Chapters presenting different opinions about the benefits or losses of outsourcing for developed and developing countries could serve to stimulate discussion among (groups of) students. Chapter about inter-modal linkages useful for understanding the interrelationship among the different modes of services delivery in the WTO and their evolution. Cases to show how use of IT can benefit developing countries.

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        An Overview Assessment of the Revised WTO Draft Modalities for Agriculture (English)
        Study by Gifford, Mike and Montemayor, Raul/ICTSD, IFPRI, 2008, 22 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The revised draft modalities text issued by the Chair of the WTO agricultural negotiating group on February 8, 2008, reflects the considerable incremental progress which has been made in elaborating, clarifying and putting into legal language the first draft of July 2007. However, there are still a large number of issues which remain open and which will need to be narrowed down further by senior officials before ministers can be asked to resolve the most politically sensitive. The Chair has suggested half a dozen to a dozen issues are about the maximum ministers could be realistically asked to settle. This paper provides an overview assessment of the implications of the revised modalities text in terms of its ambition and balance as viewed from the perspective of both developed and developing countries, and identifies the key issues that will likely require ministerial decisions. It goes on to examine what additional issues could be added as part of a final deal once there is agreement on modalities and there is an assessment of the ensuing draft schedules. It concludes by venturing some views on the likely trade-offs between agriculture and other parts of the Doha negotiations, particularly the non-agricultural market access (NAMA) negotiations. This assessment draws from and builds on the complementary detailed analysis which has been undertaken on the implications of the new draft modalities text for four major Doha participants - the US, EU, Brazil and India.

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        Poison In The Wine? Tracing GATS-minus Commitments In Regional Trade Agreements (English)
        Working paper by Adlung, Rudolf, Miroudot, Sébastien, 2012, 25 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Commitments in regional trade agreements (RTAs) that fall short of the same countries'obligations under the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) are a relatively frequent phenomenon. However, they have gone widely unnoticed in the literature to date and drawn very little attention in relevant WTO fora either. Nevertheless, 'minus commitments' are potentially poisonous and, for various reasons, would deserve close attention. Given the broad definitional scope of the GATS, extending inter alia to commercial presence, such commitments may impinge upon the rights of third-country investors in the RTA economies. Their existence casts doubts on the legal status of the respective agreements under the GATS and can have severe implications for the trading system overall. If not complemented by comprehensive Most-favoured-Nation clauses, the RTAs concerned are disconnected from the WTO and virtually impossible to multilateralize. Based on a review of some 80,000 commitments in 66 agreements, this study seeks to develop a reasonably comprehensive picture of the frequency of 'minus commitments' and their dosage in terms of sectors, measures and modes of supply. It also discusses potential remedies from a WTO perspective.

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        A positive agenda for developing countries: Issues for future trade negotiations (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2000, 518 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: The “positive agenda” programme was launched with a view to assisting developing countries to build their capacity to identify their interests, formulate trade objectives and pursue those objectives in international trade negotiations. The scope of multilateral obligations, the technical complexity and sheer volume of the issues covered have placed most developing countries in a situation where participation in the system, let alone attempting to shape its future course, is almost beyond their means. This book represents a compendium of papers which are meant to assist developing countries in their efforts to shape a multilateral trading system that serves the interests of all. Who: For teachers, students and researchers focusing on WTO issues. How: The various chapters covering a number of complex WTO issues can be used for background reading for courses that cover relevant topics.

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        Possible Approaches for the Accession of Iran to WTO (English)
        Book by Fakheri, Mehdi/SIR, 2007
        Categories: VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The book has been writen for policy makers involved in the process of the Iranian accession and can be useful for other developing countries

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        The Potential Impact of the Aid for Trade Initiative (English)
        Discussion paper by Page, Sheila/UNCTAD, 2006, 54 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Trade Related Capacity Building, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: The paper analyzes the situation of the Aid for Trade initiative and gives recommendations for the actors involved. The initiative marked international acceptance of the limitations of trade as a tool for development for some countries, as they need infrastructure, institutions, technical capacity, and investment in order to trade, and to respond to liberalization. Aid for Trade as an issue in the Doha Round was driven by the need to find benefits for all countries. By the time the Round stalled, it had acquired sufficient support to go forward independently of the Round. When it was part of the negotiations, there was pressure to define a new structure for trade aid, outside normal aid mechanisms and parallel to those for other international concerns such as health or the environment. Without the need to secure developing countries’ support for a trade settlement, there is now a risk that it will be absorbed into normal aid programmes. The paper argues that to ensure that Aid for Trade reflects trade priorities and decisions made in the WTO; countries must require donors and the international financial institutions to accept priority for trade and the obligation of coherence with the WTO. How: Background information for policy-making in the area of multilateral trade. Who: Trade policy-makers, particularly from developing countries.

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        Practical Considerations in Managing Trade Disputes (English)
        Note by ICTSD, 2012, 22 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This note presents the main findings and recommendations from the “South-South Dialogue on Managing Trade Disputes”, facilitated by the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD), the WTO and the Advisory Centre on WTO Law (ACWL). Aimed at identifying lessons and best-practices, the dialogue focused on developing countries’ experiences with managing disputes at the domestic level.

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        Production Methods in the WTO: Considerations for Colombian Biotrade (English)
        Working paper by Calle-Saldarriaga, Maria Alejandra, 2011, 50 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper aims to identify the role of consumers as catalysts of trade policy actions and regulations when implementing bioethical concerns embedded in process and production methods (PPMs), traditionally considered as Non Tariff Barriers and incompatible with the purpose of WTO member states obligations, especially taking the Colombian biotrade initiatives as an example.

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        Prospects for the WTO Hong Kong Ministerial: An Agenda for Trade and Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        A report from a seminar on July 21 2005 at at the Graduate School for International Studies in Geneva with: Paulo Mesquita Deputy Permanent Representative of Brazil to the WTO; Peter Thompson Deputy Head of Delegation, ECropean Commission, Rufus Yerxa, Deputy Director General, WTO; Tony Miller Permanent Representative of Hong Kong, China to the WTO Good background information on the status of the Doha round useful to students and teachers.

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        Prospects of the Bali Ministerial (English)
        Working paper by Dhar, Biswajit and Kishore, Roshan/ARTNeT, 2013, 22 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper looks at the possibilities of a concluding “Bali package” on the issues that are currently engaging the WTO Members. It gives an account of the discussions currently taking place on each of the three areas and makes an assessment whether it is possible for the key countries to arrive at a consensus in time for the Ministers to give their endorsement in Bali.

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        Regional Approaches in Central Asia to Technical Barriers to Trade (English)
        Case study by UNESCAP, 2008, 55 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The aim of the study is to identify key SPS and TBT issues in the Central Asian Subregion and suggest options for regional approaches to address these issues. Countries included in the study are Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. The study provides a brief overview of the present status of SPS and TBT capacity and identifies key issues for enterprises – including SMEs – and Governments in Central Asia. In the light of good practices at the national and regional level for facilitating effective WTO compliance and taking advantage of WTO rights related to technical barriers to trade both in Central Asia and elsewhere, options are discussed as to how ESCAP can use its comparative advantage to facilitate regional approaches to address the key issues.

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        Regulatory Cooperation, Aid for Trade and the General Agreement on Trade in Services (English)
        Working paper by Hoekman, Bernard; Mattoo, Aaditya /World Bank, 2007, 28 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper discusses what could be done to expand services trade and investment through a multilateral agreement in the World Trade Organization. A distinction is made between market access liberalization and the regulatory preconditions for benefiting from market opening. The authors argue that prospects for multilateral services liberalization would be enhanced by making national treatment the objective of World Trade Organization services negotiations, thereby clarifying the scope of World Trade Organization commitments for regulators. Moreover, liberalization by smaller and poorer members of the World Trade Organization would be facilitated by complementary actions to strengthen regulatory capacity. If pursued as part of the operationalization of the World Trade Organization's 2006 Aid for Trade taskforce report, the World Trade Organization could become more relevant in promoting not just services liberalization but, more importantly, domestic reforms of services policies.

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        A Regulação Do Comércio Internacional Agrícola: Histórico E Perspectivas
        Discussion paper by Machado Oliveira, Ivan Tiago, 2011, 36 pages
        Categories: VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper analyzes the multilateral regulation of international trade in agriculture from the GATT/1947 to the Doha Round, under the auspices of the WTO. From a historical-analytical perspective, the international context in which the multilateral system has been built is presented taking into account how the agricultural agenda has been introduced in the system. Furthermore, the conflicts and negotiations among developing and developed countries are analyzed in order to observe the relationship between international agricultural trade and economic development. Finally, we discuss the current round of multilateral negotiations, the Doha Round, and its relevance for developing countries, focusing on agricultural negotiations, considered the center of the multilateral negotiating process. Este texto analisa a regulação multilateral do comércio internacional agrícola desde o GATT/1947 até a Rodada Doha, já sob os auspícios da OMC. Sob uma ótica históricoanalítica, faz-se uma apresentação do contexto internacional no qual o sistema multilateral foi construído e identificam-se as interações entre a formação do sistema e a inserção da temática agrícola nas regras multilaterais no pós-Segunda Guerra Mundial. Ademais, uma análise das lógicas de conflitos e negociação entre os países em desenvolvimento e os desenvolvidos é apresentada no sentido de se observar a relação entre o comércio internacional agrícola e o desenvolvimento econômico. Por fim, são realizadas análises sobre a atual rodada de negociações multilaterais, a Rodada Doha, e sua relevância na ótica dos países em desenvolvimento, tendo em vista as negociações agrícolas, colocadas no centro do processo negociador multilateral.

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        Review of developments and issues in the post-Doha work programme of concern to developing countries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005, 18 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: A concise update of the state of WTO negotiations following the July package and in preparation of the Hong Kong ministerial, focusing on the interests of developing countries. An overview of the broader context of negotiations, including the recommendations of the Commission for Africa and the G8 Summit at Gleneagles. Brief discussion of the adjustment support to developing countries to accompany trade liberalization. Explanations of issues at stake and details of negotiated proposals in specific areas, such as agriculture (including cotton), NAMA, services, SDT, commodities, trade facilitation, rules, TRIPS, and dispute settlement. Well documented with figures assessing the impact of different policy measures and options. Argues for the need to realize an equitable and fair deal in negotiations for developing countries. Who: University teachers/researchers and students of advanced trade policy courses. Anyone who follows closely the ongoing WTO negotiations. How: The paper offers a detailed technical explanation of different issues related to the DDR WTO negotiations and pre-supposes that the users have the necessary basic background knowledge of these negotiations and master the terms used in them. Very informative and suitable for users with advanced knowledge of the subject matter.

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        Review of Maritime Transport 2018 - 50th Anniversary Edition (1968-2018) (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 116 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Maritime transport is the backbone of international trade and the global economy. Around 80 per cent of global trade by volume and over 70 per cent of global trade by value are carried by sea and are handled by ports worldwide. Global seaborne trade is doing well, supported by the 2017 upswing in the world economy. Expanding at 4 per cent, the fastest growth in five years, global maritime trade gathered momentum and raised sentiment in the shipping industry. While the prospects for seaborne trade are bright, downside risks such as increased inward-looking policies and the rise of trade protectionism are, nevertheless, weighing on the outlook. An immediate concern is the trade tensions between China and the United States of America, the world’s two largest economies, as well as those between Canada, Mexico, the United States and the European Union. Escalating trade frictions may lead to a trade war that could derail recovery, reshape global maritime trade patterns and dampen the outlook. Other factors driving uncertainty include the ongoing global energy transition, structural shifts in economies such as China, and shifts in global value chain development patterns. If leveraged effectively, game-changing trends, such as digitalization, electronic commerce (e-commerce) and the Belt and Road Initiative, the exact impact of which is yet to be fully understood, have the potential to add wind to the sails of global seaborne trade.

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        Risk Assessment in the International Food Safety Policy Arena - Can the Multilateral Institutions Encourage Unbiased Outcomes? (English)
        Working paper by Jackson, Lee Ann; Jansen, Marion / WTO, 2009, 25 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        In this paper we provide a description of how food safety related scientific evidence is generated and how it is used in the context of risk assessment for international standard-setting at CODEX and in WTO trade disputes. In particular, we discuss the processes leading to policy conclusions on the basis of scientific evidence, with a focus on the interactions involved between private and public sector actors and those between “scientific experts” and others. We identify weaknesses in the current institutional set-up and provide suggestions on how to improve the interaction between different players at the national and international level so as to strengthen the existing system and increase its cost efficiency.

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        The Role of Ict in Implementation of the Wto Trade Facilitation Agreement: Some Preliminary Reflections (English)
        Policy brief by Lacey, Simon/ARTNet, 2016, 8 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This policy brief aims to highlight some ways that Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) will play a role in helping WTO members implement their commitments under the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA). It argues that there are ways ICT can be leveraged to enhance and facilitate WTO members in realizing the objectives inherent to the TFA.

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        Russian WTO Accession: What Has Been Accomplished, What Can Be Expected (English)
        Working paper by Tarr, David /World Bank, 2007, 20 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper summarizes the principal reform commitments that Russia has undertaken as part of its World Trade Organization (WTO) accession negotiations, providing detailed assessments in banking, insurance, and agriculture. The paper assesses the gains to the Russian economy from these commitments, based on a summary of several modeling efforts undertaken by the author and his colleagues. The author compares Russian commitments with those of other countries that have recently acceded to the WTO to assess the claim that the demands on Russia are excessive due to political considerations. He explains why Russian WTO accession will result in the elimination of the Jackson-Vanik Amendment against Russia. Finally, he discusses the remaining issues in the negotiations and the time frame for Russian accession as of the fall of 2007.

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        Russia's Accession to the WTO: Major Commitments, Possible Implications (English)
        Article by St Petersburg State University, 2012, 35 pages
        Categories: VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The article provides insights into the terms of Russia’s accession to the WTO in the area of trade in goods and services, as well as domestic reforms of the economy that have been undertaken. The paper shows both advantages and disadvantages of Accession for Russia's economic entities. It includes more focused sections on business implications of Russia’s WTO Accession commitments in the sectors of automobile manufacturing, production of meat and meat products, financial services, and energy services.

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        Selected Issues Concerning the Multilateral Trading System (English)
        Discussion Paper by Rohini Acharya, Michael Daly, 2004, 43 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: Since the establishment of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), a growing international community has sought to promote the liberalization of international trade. With the creation of the permanent World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1994, which replaces the GATT, originally a temporary structure, this aim has become more institutionalized. The paper outlines details of selected issues of special concern for developing countries within the WTO negotiations. Section 2 examines causes for trade imbalances. In section 3 some unfinished business concerning tariffs, such as tariff escalation or tariff "peaks", are summarized. Section 4 evaluates the high level of support for the agricultural sector. In section 5, market access concerns of developing countries in textiles and clothing are analyzed. Section 6 deals with the effects of non-tariff barriers such as anti-dumping and technical standards. Market access issues on services are outlined in section 7. The final section offers some concluding remarks. Who: For teachers and students of multilateral trade who want to focus on specific technical aspects of the WTO negotiations such as causes for account imbalances or details on the unfinished business of tariff reductions. How: An excellent reading on some of the most contentious aspects within the WTO trade negotiations. The Annex provides very interesting and detailed data and figures on tariff structures in selected countries. However, since the paper was written in 2004, progress has taken place within the WTO negotiations. Therefore, in order to have an up-to-date standard of knowledge, the paper should be complemented by additional reading.

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        Services Liberalization From a WTO/GATS Perspective : In Search Of Volunteers (English)
        Working paper by Adlung, Rudolf, 2009, 26 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        There has been virtually no liberalization under the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) to date. Most existing commitments are confined to guaranteeing the levels of access that existed in the mid-1990s, when the Agreement entered into force, in a limited number of sectors. The only significant exceptions are the accession schedules of recent WTO Members and the negotiating results in two sectors (financial services and, in particular, basic telecommunications) that were achieved after the Uruguay Round. The offers tabled so far in the ongoing Round would not add a lot of substance either. Apparently, negotiators are 'caught between a rock and a hard place'. For one thing, the traditional mercantilist paradigm, relying on reciprocal exchanges of concessions, seems to be provide less momentum than in the goods area. For another, there are additional - technical, economic and political - frictions that tend to render services negotiations more complicated, timeconsuming and resource-intensive. The no elty of the Agreement adds an additional element of legal uncertainty from a negotiator's perspective. This paper discusses various options that might help to overcome the ensuing reticence to engage. Few appear within reach at present, however. The bare minimum that would need to be achieved is to revive work on scheduling and classification issues with a view to putting both existing commitments and new offers on a safer footing, and to improve compliance with long-existing information/notification obligations.

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        Simulations on the Special Safeguard Mechanism. A Look at the December 2008 Draft Agriculture Modalities. (English)
        Working paper by Montemayor, Raul/ICTSD, 2010, 58 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper aims to provide policy-makers, negotiators and other stakeholders with a clear technical assessment of how the December 2008 draft modalities (TN/AG/W/4/Rev.4) and the accompanying working document (TN/AG/W/7) could affect the functioning of the proposed special safeguard mechanism, and, in particular, accessibility of the mechanism and its effectiveness.

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        Some Issues in the Determination of Dumping and Injury Under China\\'s Antidumping Regulations (English)
        Article by LI, Yang/UIBE, 2004, 17 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System, VI Members Research

        This paper makes case studies of Chinese antidumping practices concerning the determination of dumping and injury, which can be considered the two key aspects in the rendering of all antidumping determinations, to see whether they are in compliance with the standards of the WTO Antidumping Agreement.

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        South Centre Comments on the Revised Draft Modalities for Agriculture ((TN/AG/W/4 REV. 1 OF 8TH FEBRUARY 2008) (English)
        Note by South Centre, 2008, 18 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This note comments on various specific sections of the Revised Draft Modalities for Agriculture (TN/AG/W/4 rev. 1 of 8th February 2008). It highlights elements that were revised and pending contentious issues. A useful table summarizing the treatment of WTO Members with respect to tariff reduction modalities is also included.

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        Specific Trade Obligations in Multilateral Environmental Agreements (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 33 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: the article (Trade and Environment Review 2003, Article 1) gives background information for a discussion on the relationship between specific trade obligations (STOs) in multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) and WTO rules. What objectives do developing countries pursue in negotiations? What happens if STOs are not compatible with WTO rules? Who: anyone involved in research or policy-making related to environmental goods and trade. How: previous knowledge on WTO negotiations is needed, if the article is used as background reading for a course on trade and environment.

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        Statistics for International Trade in Banking Services: Requirements, Availability and Prospects (English)
        Discussion paper by Cornford, Andrew/UNCTAD, 2009, 34 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper addresses the availability of statistical data for international trade in banking services. Such data are required for WTO negotiations and work on other aspects of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). Assessment exercises for trade in banking services, valuation of offers and commitments in negotiations, the proposed extension of GATS rules to cover emergency safeguard measures and subsidies, and decisions on compensation in dispute settlement for services under the WTO agreement are all currently handicapped by the lack of pertinent data. However, international initiatives directed at the development of statistics for international trade in services have so far failed to fill this gap. Following a discussion of areas of work for which data on international trade in banking services are required and of the outcome so far of international initiatives directed at the development of statistics for international trade in services, the availability of statistics relevant to the different GATS Modes of Supply is reviewed. These statistics include cross-border trade in financial services as classified in IMF balance-of-payments statistics, supply through the temporary presence of natural persons, local lending by international banks; FDI and cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&A) in financial services, financial output and other indicators of aggregate financial activity in national accounts and FATS statistics, and numbers and assets of foreign banks in selected countries. None of the currently available statistics under these headings provides a satisfactory measure of trade in banking services under Mode of Delivery 1 of the GATS nor one corresponding to such trade under Mode of Supply 3. The remainder of the paper focuses on two other more promising categories of information, namely the income statements of banks, which depend on data already generated by private-sector entities and data on trading in financial markets. The paper shows how information in banks’ income statements can be approximately matched to the activities specified in the definition of financial services in the Annex on Financial Services of the GATS, and exemplifies the potential of this information with recent income statements of Jordanian banks. An advantage of these income statements (as well as of the trading data) is that the measurement would depend on pre-existing work by banks and other financial systems themselves.

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        STRATEGY ON SOLUTIONS FOR HARMONIZING INTERNATIONAL REGULATION OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE (Volume 2 (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2006, 95 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This volume represents a further step in the development of proposals on harmonization of the regulation of production and trade in products from organic agriculture. It was commissioned by the International Task Force on Harmonization and Equivalence in Organic Agriculture (ITF), which was established by IFOAM, FAO and UNCTAD in February 2003. The main paper in this volume aims to summarise: • the current situation • the problems experienced, and • the harmonization tools available and then • establish criteria for assessing potential harmonizing models • perform an initial analysis of likely models • recommend best options where possible • develop an initial work programme to lead towards a final workable harmonized model The volume also contains the reports of the third and fourth meetings of the ITF in November 2004 and February 2005, respectively.

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        Subsidies to services sectors: a neo-protectionist distortion or a useful development tool (English)
        Report by Alberto Gabriele, UNCTAD, 2003, 43 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: Key document that examines from a conceptual and policy economy point of view the consequences of subsidies in services trade. It also presents a quantitative analysis of the effects of subsidies and the risks and opportunities for developing countries. Who: Essential document for a research or for further reading for students. How: Provides a high quality analysis based on conceptual and policy economy implications.

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        Swimming in the spaghetti bowl: challenges for developing countries under the "new regionalism" (English)
        Other by Luis Abugattas Majluf, 2004, 34 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: This paper present the new challenges for developing countries in the context of regional integration and multilateral negotiations and the implications for their development perspectives. It focuses on the issue of preferential trade in services to study its compatibility with the GATS provisions. Who: Students and teachers interested in the new regionalism and its consequences. How: Presentation of new regionalism and opportunities for developing countries that could be used as a basis for a course.

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        Tariffs, Taxes and Electronic Commerce: Revenue Implications for Developing Countries (English)
        Report by Susanne Teltscher, UNCTAD, 2000, 66 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: Within the last decade, cross-border electronic commerce has increased substantially. So far, it is operating in a tax- and tariff-free environment. Especially for developing countries a major concern is the potential loss in tax and tariff revenues. This paper offers a review on the classification of e-commerce and summarizes the debate on how to tax e-commerce. Data on potential revenue losses from import duties on goods that have formerly been traded physically and increasingly are imported digitally. The paper provides a solid review on some of the complex issues related to e-commerce taxation. Who: For anyone dealing with the topic on e-commerce taxation and its implications for developing countries. How: Can be used as a background reading. The annex offers excellent data for further research.

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        Trade And Development Symposium. Perspectives On the Multilateral Trading System. How To Encourage The Network Trade Rules Interconnections? An Application To The Case Of Non Tariff Barriers
        Report by Vaillant, Marcel, 2011, 8 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The focus of this paper is different and is also a by-product of the globalization process. The extension of the set of economic activities in the international economy provokes an extension of the themes that require necessary consideration in trade agreements. The adaptation speed in the multilateral field is structurally slow. Countries are less willing to establish rules on the basis of Most Favored Nation than within preferential trade agreements. Hence the demands to expand and deepen in new topics have been channeled through the proliferation of preferential trade agreements. The content of commitments and themes in the agenda of international trade negotiations between national jurisdictions has widened: from the trade of goods to the trade of services, as well as to the mobility of some production factors. At the same time, the field where commitments are achieved has increased exponentially: bilateral agreements, plurilateral agreements, agreements between groups of countries, extension of agreement . This paper chooses, within the wider subject related to goods, the topic of non-tariff barriers, which will be more thoroughly developed in the third section.

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        Trade and Environment Review 2003, Article 3 - Environmental Goods and Services: Challenges/Opportunities for Central American and Caribbean Countries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2003, 33 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: UNCTAD has been providing assistance to five Central American and two Caribbean countries with a view to enhancing their ability to participate effectively in WTO negotiations on trade and environment and address key trade and sustainable development linkages. These countries have identified the examination of implications of trade liberalization and strengthening of domestic capacities in environmental goods and services (EGS) as a priority issue to be addressed under the project "Building Capacity for Improved Policy Making and Negotiation on Key Trade and Environment Issues". The activities carried out thus far have provided valuable lessons learned that are reflected in this article. Who: Useful for teachers and students studying WTO negotiations on environmental goods and services. How: Can be used as a background reading for courses on negotiations on environmental goods and services.

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        Trade and Environment Review 2006
        Report by UNCTAD, 2006, 296 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The TER 2006 focuses on environmental and related health requirements and their impact on developing countries´ market access. It examines both the opportunities and challenges presented by these requirements, which are increasingly stringent, complex and multi-dimensional. The Review includes both general and sectoral analyses of the issue, and looks at two sectors where environmental requirements are critical to market access: electrical and electronic equipment and organic agricultural products. The evidence presented in the Review supports recommendations for developing countries to adopt a more strategic and proactive approach to coping with environmental and related health requirements in export markets. This requires being involved from the initial stages of standards-setting, both in the context of government regulations and the increasing number of private-sector standards that apply across supply chains. A proactive approach is also needed in order to take full advantage of the trade and development opportunities generated by increased environmental and health requirements, such as expanding markets for organic products and catalytic effects on resource efficiency and occupational safety.

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        Trade and Environment Review 2009/2010
        Review by UNCTAD, 2010, 230 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        While several rapidly industrializing developing countries have not seen a major slump in their growth by the recent economic and financial crises, UNCTAD´s Trade and Environment Review 2009/2010 (TER 09/10) focuses on the 140 plus low-income and least developed countries, which have not caused the economic, financial, climate and food crises (they account, for instance, for less than 10% of energy-related GHG emissions of all developing countries), but have to bear the full brunt of these crises. How can they effectively mitigate these inter-related crises while transiting to a qualitatively and structurally different growth and development model? The TER 09/10 singles out three areas of sustainable, "green" growth that are of particular and strategic importance for the low-income and least developed countries: 1) Enhancing energy efficiency, often implemented in combination with material and resource efficiency; 2) Mainstreaming sustainable agriculture, including organic agriculture; and 3) Harnessing the use of off-grid renewable energy technologies for sustainable rural development.

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        Trade Barriers Faced by Developing Countries’ Exporters of Tropical and Diversification Products (English)
        Note by ICTSD; FAO, 2008, 16 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This debate outlines how best to treat agricultural products of export interest to developing countries that remains protracted in the multilateral trade system. Tropical and diversification products have been at the heart of this discussion given the extent of long-standing tariffs and non-tariff barriers affecting them, as well as due to their importance as a source of income, employment and rural development. The prospects for liberalisation of trade in these products, particularly opposed in some key markets, remain uncertain in the WTO’s Doha Round of negotiations. While some developing countries, most visibly a group of Latin American economies, have persistently requested trade openness, others such as the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) states have expressed their concerns that a multilateral elimination of tariffs might result in loss of the preferential access to developed country markets they currently enjoy. Asian producers have so far mainly sought resolution through the Round’s core talks on access for agricultural goods. As a\\n contribution to this discussion, the present Information Note provides facts and figures on the reality of trade in tropical and diversification products. It also explores the extent to which there is differential access to key import markets and the implications of this for different groups of countries.

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        Trade Effects of SPS and TBT Measures on Tropical and Diversification Products (English)
        Report by Disdier, Anne-Célia, Fekadu, Belay; Murillo, Carlos; Wong, Sara A./ICTSD, 2008, 140 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The 2004 Framework Agreement reached during the Doha Round notes that the full implementation of the liberalization of trade in tropical agricultural products is “overdue and will be addressed effectively in the market access negotiations.” However, the way in which the commitment is to be implemented, and even the identification of such products, remains far from clear. \\n Multilateral discussions on the full liberalization of trade in tropical and diversification products have focused almost exclusively on the reduction of tariffs, and tariff escalation for those products and the overlap with the mandate on preference erosion. There has been no debate and analysis on NTBs and more specifically on SPS measures and technical barriers to trade (TBTs). This is surprising, since as the following paper reveals, imports of tropical and diversification products from African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries and some Latin American countries are particularly affected by SPS and TBT measures.

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        Trade Facilitation Beyond the Multilateral Trade Negotiations: Regional Practices, Customs Valuation and Other Emerging Issues (English)
        Working paper by Asia-Pacific Research and Training Network on Trade (ARTNeT), 2007, 333 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Facilitation, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The series of studies provides an overview of trade facilitation in the Asia-Pacific region, both in relation to WTO negotiations and regional and bilateral trade initiatives and agreements. Of particular interest is the information about how trade facilitation is being handled by different regional trade initiatives. Other studies look in greater detail at some broader aspects of concern to exporters and importers, such as rules of origin and customs valuation (a comparative analysis of customs valuation in India, Nepal and Fiji). The collection also contains two studies which focus more broadly on trade logistics - one examining the relationship between liberalization in the logistics sector in Australia and trade facilitation, and the other estimating the effects of trade transaction costs, including transport costs and underdeveloped infrastructure, on bilateral trade flows of 10 Asian developing countries. The value of different studies included in the collection is among others in the empirical data and information about the region that they present. Finally, the concluding chapter provides policy recommendations with regard to a meaningful multilateral agreement on trade facilitation.

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        Trade Facilitation from an African Perspective (English)
        Working paper by UNECA, 2013, 71 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        In the context of negotiations on the proposed agreement on trade facilitation, this paper provides a thorough analysis of key trade facilitation issues from an African perspective, highlighting what is at stake for the continent, thereby contributing to inform the opinions of African negotiators at a critical juncture. The premise of this analysis is that there is a consensus in the empirical literature, regardless of the methodology utilized, on the positive and significant impact trade facilitation could have for Africa’s trade performance.

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        Trade Facilitation Potential of Asian Transit Agreements in the Context of the WTO (English)
        Working paper by Cousin, Louis and Duval, Yann, 2014, 37 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Trade Facilitation, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper examines how freedom of transit and transit facilitation are addressed in trade, transport as well as transit specific agreements in the ESCAP region, with a view to identifying good practices and the extent to which existing agreements meet the transit facilitation provisions set out in the draft text of the WTO trade facilitation agreement (TFA). Following an overview of the provisions on transit found in 153 preferential trade agreements involving ESCAP countries, the study provides a more detailed analysis of a sample of 19 international transport and transit agreements in Asia in terms of their trade facilitation potential. Although some useful provisions for transit facilitation considered during the WTO negotiations did not find their way into the final TFA, the text agreed in Bali strengthens the basis for implementation of freedom of transit in the Asia-Pacific region. At the same time, the analysis highlights the complexity of the existing legal environment for transit and suggests a need for further enhancing inter-agency coordination and strengthening of multilateral rules in this area, building on the “good practices” found in the many existing bilateral, regional and multilateral instruments.

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        Trade In Healthcare And Health Insurance Services : The GATS As A Supporting Actor (English)
        Working paper by Adlung, Rudolf/WTO, 2009, 29 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) is broader in policy coverage than conventional trade agreements for goods and, at the same time, offers governments more flexibility, in various dimensions, to tailor their obligations to sector- or country-specific needs. An overview of existing commitments on healthcare and health insurance services shows that WTO Members have made abundant use of these possibilities. While most participants elected not to undertake bindings on healthcare services at the end of the Uruguay Round, nor to make offers in the ongoing negotiations, insurance services have been among the most frequently committed sectors. If there is a common denominator, regardless of the Members concerned (except for recently acceded countries), it is the existence of a lot of 'water' between existing commitments and more open conditions of actual access in many sectors. This may also explain, in part, why there have been very few trade disputes under the GATS to date - far fewer than under the GATT in merchandise trade. Also,governments appear to be generally hesitant in politically and socially sensitive areas to take action in the WTO. There are indications, however, that the same 'players' have acted differently in other policy contexts. For example, it appears that under recent preferential trade agreements (PTAs) the European Communities has been even more cautious in committing on hospital services and protecting scope for (discriminatory) subsidies than under the GATS. Yet, this is not necessarily true for the obligations assumed by many countries, including individual EC Member States, under bilateral investment treaties (BITs). These treaties overlap with the GATS, as far as commercial presence is concerned, and may be used by aggrieved investors to challenge policy restrictions in host countries. However, though frequently invoked, BITs do not meet the same standards, in terms of transparency, open (consensual) rulemaking and legal certainty, as commitments under the GATS.

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        Trade Policy and Food Security: The Implications of the WTO’s Agreement on Agriculture for Caribbean Small Vulnerable Economies (English)
        Working paper by Pennycooke, Camiel / University of the West Indies, 2011, 46 pages
        Categories: Commodities, VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The paper focuses on the impact of the Agreement on Agriculture on food security in Caribbean SVEs and was approached by examining its three pillars. In terms of the objectives and commitments made under the Uruguay Round an assessment was made on the implementation of such commitments and the outcomes for the SVEs. The research showed that to date, the objectives of the Agreement have not been fully realized and protectionism has actually increased in developed countries. The multilateral agricultural trade negotiations under the auspices of the World Trade Organization had projected the reduction in trade distortions and protectionism in international trade, thereby creating a fair trading environment for WTO members. This has resulted in the SVEs bringing to attention, in the current round of negotiations (Doha), trade-related problems experienced by the group, among which are the implications of the WTO agreements on their open economies, agriculture and sustained development.

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        Trade Remedies: Targeting the Renewable Energy Sector (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 50 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The report disputes the adverse effects of trade remedies on the renewable energy sector. It explains how anti-dumping and countervailing duties implemented by both developed and developing countries contradict the pre-existing climate and environmental policies put into place to advance the renewable energy sector. This report is useful for courses in environmental trade and policy as it will generate in-depth debate on the positive and negative aspects of trade protection policy. It provides a survey of cases studies from the Great Recession in 2008 until 2014, recent trade disputes presented to the World Trade Organization, and a literature overview on the topic in order to better analyses the results of these policy measures and further determine how to advance the green economy.

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        Trade Remedy Provisions in Regional Trade Agreements (English)
        Working paper by Teh, Robert /WTO; Prusa, Thomas J./ Rutgers University, USA, 2007, 83 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper maps and examines the provisions on anti-dumping, countervailing duties and safeguards in seventy-four regional trade agreements (RTAs). The RTAs vary in size, degree of integration, geographic region and the level of economic development of their members.

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        Trading with Conditions: The Effect of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures on Lower Income Countries’ Agricultural Exports (English)
        Report by Murina, Marina; Nicita, Alessandro / UNCTAD, 2014, 22 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Using the UNCTAD's TRAINS database on non-tariff measures, this paper utilizes an econometric model to investigate the effect of the European Union’s sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures across 21 broad categories of agricultural goods. The findings indicate that SPS measures result in relatively higher burdens for lower income countries but that membership in deep trade agreements seems to reduce the difficulties related to compliance with SPS measures. Overall, the additional trade distortionary effect of the European Union SPS measures is quantified in a reduction of lower income countries’ agricultural exports of about 3 billion $US (equivalent to about 14 percent of the agricultural trade from lower income countries to the European Union). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that while many middle and high income countries have the internal capacity to comply with SPS measures, lower income countries do not. In broader terms, these results may be interpreted as an indication that technical assistance is helpful for lower income countries to meet compliance costs related to SPS measures. Further progress with well-targeted technical assistance projects, both at the bilateral and multilateral levels, could generate considerable gains for lower income countries.

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        Training Module for Multilateral Trade Negotiations on Agriculture (English)
        Manual by Peters, Ralf/ UNCTAD, 2007, 116 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This module provides an overview of the current Agreement on Agriculture that was the outcome of the Uruguay Round negotiations, implementation of commitments and ongoing negotiations. All three so-called pillars of agriculture, namely market access, domestic support and export competition, are discussed with an emphasis on the importance and impact of potential policy changes on development. Also covered are cross-cutting issues, such as special and differential treatment for developing and least developed countries and the cotton initiative.

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        Training Module on the WTO Agreement on Anti-dumping (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2006, 163 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The first chapter of this module contains substantive material related to the Anti-Dumping Agreement (ADA) and current WTO negotiations. The second chapter gives detailed explanations of the dumping margin calculation, including sample calculations.

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        Training module on the WTO agreement on sanitary and phytosanitary measures (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2004
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This training module aims to provide materials and inputs for developing countries’ trainers, lecturers and government officials involved in training and research tasks on the multilateral rules governing the application of sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures in international trade.

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        Training Module on the WTO Agreement on Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (trips) (English)
        Manual by Correa, Carlos/ UNCTAD, 2010, 60 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This module commences by providing background – including a historical perspective – on IPRs and the TRIPS Agreement. Then, chapter II offers a brief overview of different IPRs followed by chapter III, which discusses the interlinkages between IPRs and development. In so doing, chapter III looks at key aspects, including sector-specific impacts of IPRs, the impact of IPRs on gross domestic product (GDP) and the impact of IPRs on the private sector and on key public policy issues. Chapter IV provides a short description of the TRIPS Agreements and its main cross-cutting and IPR-specific provisions. Finally, chapter VI sketches out how the TRIPS Agreement evolves, most importantly through dispute settlement and the built-in agenda.

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        Training Module on Trade in Textiles and Clothing: the Post-ATC Context (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2008, 114 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Chapter I of this module discusses historical background of trade in textiles and clothing. Chapter II offers a statistical overview of trade in textiles and clothing, with an emphasis on the situation of developing economies in this trade. Chapter III reviews the issues of tariffs and tariff preferences, while chapter IV addresses non-tariff barriers. Chapter V provides an analysis of the impact of origin rules on trade flows in the sector. Chapter VI discusses rules on trade remedy measures such as safeguard and anti-dumping actions, as well as the implications of trade remedy measures for textiles and clothing exports of developing countries. Chapter VII provides an overview of developments in safeguard measures against Chinese textiles and clothing. Chapter VIII discusses the necessity for diversifying into dynamic textiles and clothing products in lieu of intensifying competition in the post–ATC phase. Chapter IX provides a list of selected documentation and a bibliography.

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        Training Tools for Multilateral Trade Negotiations: Special and Differential Treatment (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD Division on International Trade in Goods and Services and Commodities, 2000, 38 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: This compilation of training tools on the special and differential treatment is provided for developing countries within the WTO context, and is designed with trainers and researchers in mind. It consists of a table summarising the WTO Special and Differential Treatment provisions as well as the main elements of the proposals tabled by developing countries during the preparatory process for the 3rd Ministerial Conference in 1999 and the current multilateral trade negotiations on services and agriculture; a background paper on Special and Differential Treatment in the context of globalization; selected bibliography for further analysis; and a presentation of an UNCTAD assessment on Special and Differential Treatment Who: For teachers and students specialising multilateral trade negotiations. How: Can be used as a training material.

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        Tropical and Diversification Products: Strategic Options for Developing Countries (English)
        Report by Perry, Santiago/ICTSD, 2008, 81 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This study by Santiago Perry, from the Foundation for Participatory and Sustainable Development of Small Farmers, intends to provide strategic options for developing countries seeking “fullest liberalisation of trade in tropical and diversification products” under the WTO while taking into account the ACP countries that have expressed concerns that a multilateral elimination of tariffs might result in the loss of their preferential access to the markets of developed countries. This paper was produced under an ICTSD dialogue and research project that seeks to address the opportunities and challenges of the full liberalisation of trade in tropical and diversification products, and to explore possible areas of convergence between different groupings and interests in WTO negotiations. The project aims to generate solutions-oriented analyses and possible policy responses from a sustainable development perspective. This paper is reflective of this objective.

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        Turkish Enterprise-level Response to Foreign Trade Liberalization (English)
        Working paper by UNCTAD, 2013, 56 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Trade in textiles and apparel is of special interest among international trade transactions. Removal of the final Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC) quotas in 2005 brought about a division of textile- and apparel-exporting countries into groups of winners and losers. Turkey appeared as a successful country from the former category. Based firm-level data results suggest that while Turkish enterprises were more successful than most in adapting to the post-quota market in textiles and apparel, their performance paled relative to the performance of enterprises in areas not covered by the ATC. Producers that specialized in textiles and apparel during the ATC quotas removal period had ceteris paribus lower sales revenue and employment growth and a lower profit rate on average than those selling other products. The latter category of producers was also significantly more likely to fail during this period.

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        Turning Losses into Gains: SIDS and Multilateral Trade Liberalization in Agriculture - The Indian Ocean Islands Case Study (English)
        Case study by Jean-Michel Salmon, 2002, 44 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: An analysis of the Indian Ocean Islands agriculture (Mauritius, Seychelles and the Comoros) Who: Case study extracted from the report "Turning losses into gains: SIDS and multilateral trade liberalization in agriculture" that could be used in teaching and in activities. How: Detailed analysis with data on the Indian Ocean Islands. The appendices contain useful tables on agricultural production.

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        Unctad Policy Brief: An Early Harvest Not So Early After All (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2010, 2 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This policy brief describes the 'trade' stimulus that can be achieved through the early conclusion of the Doha Round of WTO negotiations at LDC4. More specifically, it advocates an "early harvest" in specific areas, focusing on the accelerated implementation of duty-free quota-free (DFQF) market access, and an immediate resolution to the problem of trade-distorting cotton subsidies.

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        Unpacking the International Technology Transfer Debate: Fifty Years and Beyond (English)
        Report by ICTSD, 2012, 58 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        On the occasion of fifty years of the international technology transfer debates and twenty years since the Rio Summit, this paper attempts to capture the political economy of technology transfer negotiations since the 1960s. It seeks to juxtapose issues of technological capacity, innovation and economic development with international technology transfer negotiations over the past decades. In doing so, the analysis places a particular emphasis on the technology transfer-intellectual property rights (IPRs) nexus which in many ways, has been at the heart of the international discourse on technology transfer. This paper aims to broaden the understanding of two key issues. First, do international negotiations on technology transfer and results achieved thereunder correspond to country level technological needs, and to the growing insights on how technological change takes place? Second, how and through what ways can international discussions on technology transfer be made to reflect both the lessons of different developing countries in building technological capabilities as well as the changing global environment for knowledge and technology globally? The authors conclude by identifying the main issues that remain outstanding in this discourse and propose some thoughts for the way forward. This work, in its current working paper format, is intended to generate constructive dialogue on technology transfer and technology accumulation for development.

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        Use of the WTO Trade Dispute Settlement Mechanism By The Latin American Countries – Dispelling Myths And Breaking Down Barriers (English)
        Working paper by Torres, Raúl/WTO, 2012, 26 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The WTO's Dispute Settlement Mechanism (DSM) has been hailed as a fundamental aspect of the Multilateral Trading System for developing countries. At the same time developing countries face many challenges to ensure their effective participation in the mechanism. This paper presents statistical evidence of how Latin-American countries have been very active in their use of the DSM, especially when their use of the mechanism is compared to their participation in world trade. This paper also analyses why, to a large extent, Latin American countries have overcome the challenges of participating in the DSM; and have done so by coming up with innovative and creative solutions, without deviating from the guidelines established by WTO rules.

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        Using Intellectual Property Rights to Stimulate Pharmaceutical Production in Developing Countries: A Reference Guide (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 204 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Science and Technology, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The objective of this guide is to provide concise and practical information on ways to promote local pharmaceutical production and improve access to medicines through a variety of policy tools, focusing on the flexibilities provided under the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), and the interfaces between IP, investment,drugs regulation and procurement strategies.

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        The Value of Domestic Subsidy Rules in Trade Agreements (English)
        Working paper by Ruta, Michael, Brou, Daniel, Campanella, Edoardo, 2009, 19 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper investigates the efficient design of rules on domestic subsidies in a trade agreement. A clear trade-off emerges from the economic literature. Weak rules may lead Member governments to inefficiently use domestic subsidies for redistributive purposes or to lower market access granted to trading partners once tariffs are bound. On the other hand, excessive rigidity may inhibit tariff negotiations or induce governments to set inefficiently high tariffs, as strict regulations would reduce policy makers' ability to use subsidies to offset domestic market distortions. Efficient subsidy rules are, therefore, the ones that strike the right balance between policy flexibility and rigidity. This economic approach provides a framework to interpret the provisions on domestic subsidies in the WTO.

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        Variable Geometry for the WTO: Concepts and Precedents (English)
        Discussion paper by Andrew Cornford, 2004, 21 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: this discussion paper provides detailed review of the concpet and history of variable geometry at the WTO - that is the WTO as an umbrella framework for different arrangements that wouldn't require the signature of all members.It also takes a preliminary look at what a framework of variable geometry might involve and considers some of the benefits and problems likely to be associated with a multi-tier WTO. Who: of interest to anyone involved in researching (or negotiating) WTO issues and regional integration.

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        World Investment Report 2008: Transnational Corporations and the Infrastructure Challenge (English)
        Report by UNCTAD - CNUCED, 2008, 411 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Investment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The Report explores how TNC participation in infrastructure has increased since the 1990s (although from a low level), and how this investment has helped mobilise further financial resources for investment. It also examines the policy environment and the challenges facing developing countries seeking to attract TNCs to infrastructure sectors, such as transport or electricity supply. As in previous years, the report also contains data on trends in FDI, which show that global inflows peaked in 2007 but appear to have been affected by the credit crisis in 2008, with TNCs cautious about investment commitments.

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        World Tariff Profiles 2016 (English)
        Report by WTO, ITC, UNCTAD, 2016, 232 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        World Tariff Profiles 2016 provides summary tariff statistics for all countries and territories for all products, as well as a breakdown into agricultural and non-agricultural products. It also shows for each country a disaggregation by sectors and duty ranges. The report contains a section on the market on the market access conditions faced in their respective export markets, and a new section on the statistics of the impact on non-tariff measures. This edition also contains a special topic focusing on the 2017 version of the Harmonized System.

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        World Trade Law and Renewable Energy: The Case of Non-tariff Barriers (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2009, 22 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The study is far from an exhaustive examination of these issues. For example, it does not deal with government procurement where plurilateral disciplines exist in the WTO, nor have the Trade Related Investment Measures (TRIMs) or Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) agreements been considered. The omission of these matters should not be interpreted as a judgment that they are peripheral or secondary in importance. In many areas, the analysis is speculative, aimed at raising qquestions and suggesting areas where domestic and international policymakers may need to consider undertaking further analysis. Above all, it should be stressed that the study raises these matters at a very general level. Whether any given governmental measure is consistent with WTO rules is a highly contextual qquestion, that may well depend on the exact design features of that particular measure, and its broader context – regulatory, technological and commercial. Thus, nothing in this study should be considered as a judgment that any actual measure of any particular government violates WTO rules.

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        World Trade Report 2007: Six Decades of Multilateral Trade Cooperation: What have we learnt? (English)
        Report by WTO, 2007, 436 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The Report begins with a brief account of recent trade developments. Turning to its core topic, the Report starts with a summary account of international trade cooperation before the Second World War. It then devotes some space to reviewing what theorists have to say about why governments are motivated to cooperate with one another through an institution like the WTO. The longest section of the Report is an exploration of the history of the multilateral trading system, with particular emphasis on a range of policy issues and challenges that have arisen over the years, and many of which are still with us today. It also focuses on a selection of issues that have arisen over the years and played a dominant role in the evolution of the system. These issues include dispute settlement, developing countries in the trading system, regionalism, decision-making, and the formation of the negotiating agenda.

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        World Trade Report 2008: Trade in a Globalizing World (English)
        Report by World Trade Organization, 2008, 204 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The report explores a range of interlinking questions, starting with a consideration of what constitutes globalization, what drives it, the benefits it brings, the challenges it poses and what role trade plays in a world of ever-growing interdependency. It asks why some countries have managed to take advantage of falling trade costs and greater policy-driven trading opportunities while others have remained largely outside international commercial relations. It considers who the winners and losers are from trade in society and what complementary action policy-makers need to take in order to secure the benefits of trade for society at large. In examining these complex and multi-faceted questions, the report reviews both the theoretical trade literature and empirical evidence that can help to give answers to these questions.

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        World Trade Report 2009: Trade Policy Commitments and Contingency Measures
        Report by WTO, 2010, 196 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The theme of this year’s Report is “Trade policy commitments and contingency measures”. The Report examines the range of contingency measures available in trade agreements and the role that these measures play. Also referred to as escape clauses or safety valves, these measures allow governments a certain degree of flexibility within their trade commitments and can be used to address circumstances that could not have been foreseen when a trade commitment was made. Contingency measures seek to strike a balance between commitments and flexibility. Too much flexibility may undermine the value of commitments, but too little may render the rules unsustainable. The tension between credible commitments and flexibility is often close to the surface during trade negotiations. For example, in the July 2008 mini-ministerial meeting, which sought to agree negotiating modalities — or a final blueprint — for agriculture and non-agricultural market access (NAMA), the question of a “special safeguard mechanism” (the extent to which developing countries would be allowed to protect farmers from import surges) was crucial to the discussions.

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        World Trade Report 2010: Trade in Natural Resources (English)
        Report by WTO, 2010, 256 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        A key question is to what extent countries gain from open trade in natural resources. Some of the issues examined in the Report include the role of trade in providing access to natural resources, the effects of international trade on the sustainability of natural resources, the environmental impact of resources trade, the so-called natural resources curse, and resource price volatility. The Report examines a range of key measures employed in natural resource sectors, such as export taxes, tariffs and subsidies, and provides information on their current use. It analyzes in detail the effects of these policy tools on an economy and on its trading partners. Finally, the Report provides an overview of how natural resources fit within the legal framework of the WTO and discusses other international agreements that regulate trade in natural resources. A number of challenges are addressed, including the regulation of export policy, the treatment of subsidies, trade facilitation, and the relationship between WTO rules and other international agreements.

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        World Trade Report 2012 - Trade and Public Policies: A Closer Look at Non-tariff Measures in the 21st Century (English)
        Report by WTO, 2012, 252 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The 2012 World Trade Report is split into two main parts. The first is a brief summary of the trade situation in 2011. The second part focuses on the special theme of non-tariff measures in the 21st century.Section A of the Report presents an overview of the history of non-tariff measures in the GATT/WTO. Section B examines the reasons why governments use NTMs and services measures and the extent to which public policy interventions may also distort international trade. The phenomenon of offshoring and the crosseffects of services measures on goods trade are also considered. The section analyses choices among alternative policy instruments from a theoretical and empirical perspective. Finally, case studies are presented on the use of NTMs in particular contexts. These include the recent financial crisis, climate change policy and food safety concerns. The case studies consider how far measures adopted may pose a challenge for international trade. Section C of the Report surveys available sources of information on NTMs and services measures and evaluates their relative strengths and weaknesses. It uses this information to establish a number of “stylized facts”, first about NTMs (TBT/SPS measures in particular) and then about services measures. Section D discusses the magnitude and the trade effects of NTMs and services measures in general, before focusing on TBT/SPS measures and domestic regulation in services. It also examines how regulatory harmonization and/or mutual recognition of standards help to reduce the trade-hindering effects of the diversity of TBT and SPS measures and domestic regulation in services. Section E looks at international cooperation on NTMs and services measures. The first part reviews the economic rationale for such cooperation and discusses the efficient design of rules on NTMs in a trade agreement. The second part looks at how cooperation has occurred on TBT/SPS measures and services regulation in the multilateral trading system, and within other international forums and institutions. The third part of the section deals with the legal analysis of the treatment of NTMs in the GATT/WTO dispute system and interpretations of the rules that have emerged in recent international trade disputes. The section concludes with a discussion of outstanding challenges and key policy implications of the Report.

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        World Trade Report 2014 - Trade and development: recent trends and the role of the WTO (English)
        Report by WTO, 2014, 1 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The report examines how four recent major economic trends have changed how developing countries can use trade to facilitate their development. These trends are the economic rise of developing economies, the growing integration of global production through supply chains, the higher prices for agricultural goods and natural resources, and the increasing interdependence of the world economy. The Report also looks into the role that the WTO plays.

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        The World Trade Report 2015 - Speeding Up Trade: Benefits and Challenges of Implementing the Wto Trade Facilitation Agreement (English)
        Also available in French, Spanish
        Report by WTO, 2015, 157 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The World Trade Report 2015 summarizes the trade situation in 2014 and early 2015 and examines the benefits and challenges of implementing the WTO’s Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA). The Report finds that developing countries will benefit significantly from the TFA, capturing a large part of the available gains. In addition, it identifies a range of other benefits from the TFA. These include diversification of exports from developing countries and least-developed countries to include new products and partners, increased involvement of these countries in global value chains, expanded participation of small and medium-sized enterprises in international trade, increased foreign direct investment, greater revenue collection and reduced incidence of corruption.

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        World Trade Report 2016 - Levelling the trading field for SMEs (English)
        Report by Auboin et al/WTO, 2016, 182 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Trade Facilitation, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The report provides a examines the participation of small and medium -sized enterprises (SMEs) in international trade. It examines how the international trade landscape is changing and what the multilateral trading system does and can do to encourage more widespread and inclusive SME participation in global markets.

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        World Trade Statistical Review 2016 (English)
        Report by WTO, 2016, 165 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The 2016 World Trade Statistical Review provides an overview of current trends in world trade and policy developments. This year's publication uses statistics within a global economic context to explain the reasons how and why global trade is changing. It provides comprehensive data with a particular focus on trade policy, the participation of developing economies in world trade and a more detailed look at selected goods and services.

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        WTO Agreement Series: Technical Barriers to Trade (English)
        Book by WTO, 2014, 156 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The WTO’s agreements are the legal foundation for the international trading system that is used by the bulk of the world’s trading nations. This series offers a set of handy reference booklets on selected agreements. Each volume contains the text of one agreement, an explanation designed to help the user understand the text, and in some cases supplementary material. They are intended to be an authoritative aid for understanding the agreements, but because of the legal complexity of the agreements, the introductions cannot be taken as legal interpretations of the agreements.

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        WTO Agreements Series Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (English)
        Book by WTO, 2010, 50 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the “SPS Agreement”) entered into force with the establishment of the World Trade Organization on January 1995. It concerns the application of food safety and animal and plant health regulations. This booklet discusses the text of the SPS Agreement as it appears in the Final Act of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations, signed in Marrakesh on 15 April 1994. This Agreement and others contained in the Final Act, along with the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade as amended (GATT 1994), are part of the treaty which established the World Trade Organization (WTO). The WTO superseded the GATT as the umbrella organization for international trade. The WTO Secretariat has prepared this booklet to assist public understanding of the SPS Agreement. The first section of the booklet presents the basic structure of WTO agreements; the second looks at the key features of the SPS Agreement; the third addresses a number of frequently-asked questions; and the fourth is the legal text of the agreement. The booklet is not intended to provide a legal interpretation of the agreement.

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        WTO Analytical Index: Supplement Covering New Developments in WTO Law and Practice October 2011 – January 2013 (English)
        Book by WTO, 2013, 218 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        As a supplement to the legal research tool "The Analytical Index", this resource covers developments in WTO law and practice after 30 September 2011. The Supplement is divided into two parts: "New Dispute Settlement Reports, Awards and Decisions" covers jurisprudence and "Other Developments in WTO Law and Practice" contains summaries and extracts on decisions and other significant activities of WTO bodies. Its coverage includes the WTO, the GATT 1994, the SPS, the TBT, the TRIMS and the SCM Agreements as well as the Agreements on Anti-Dumping, Safeguards and Government Procurement.

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        WTO Decision-making for the Future (English)
        Working paper by Low, Patrick, 2011, 14 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Decision making in the WTO has become ever more difficult as the number of members increases and the range of issues tackled broadens. This paper looks at reasons why aspects of decision-making might be changed and discusses a number of potential pitfalls that change would have to avoid, such as a dilution of commitments and fragmentation of the multilateral trading system. It then takes a detailed look at the notion of ‘critical mass’ decision-making. It argues for this approach under certain conditions, as it would: i) allow for the emergence of a more progressive and responsive WTO agenda; ii) blunt the diversion of trade cooperation initiatives to RTAs; iii) allow more efficient differentiation in the levels of rights and obligations among a community of highly diverse economies; and iv) promote greater efficiency in multilaterallybased negotiations on trade rules, and perhaps, sectoral market access agreements.

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        WTO Dispute Settlement - One-page Case Summaries (1995-2007) (English)
        Case study by WTO, 2008, 172 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This second edition publication offers case-by-case, single page summaries of panel and Appellate Body reports adopted by the WTO Dispute Settlement Body as of 31 December 2007. Intended to facilitate understanding of WTO dispute settlement cases among WTO Members by providing core facts, substantive findings contained in the adopted panel, summaries of key findings on significant procedural matters and, where applicable, Appellate Body reports for each decided case are documented. Other matters of particular significance raised during the proceedings are listed in accompanying footnotes to each case. Cases are indexed by article and by WTO agreement.

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        WTO Negotiations on Environmental Goods: Selected Technical Issues (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2011, 28 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper highlights some technical issues on the Doha Round of WTO negotiations, focusing on environmental goods, regulations covering environmental markets, the definition and scope of environmental products, and how to negotiate non-tariff concessions.

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        The WTO negotiations on financial services: Current issues and future directions (English)
        Discussion Paper by Andrew Cornford, 2004, 29 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: A descriptive discussion paper that presents main issues of financial services negotiations: special and differential measures, laws and regulations, international capital movements and financial instability. Who: Anyone researching or teaching WTO negotiations or services liberalization. How: This discussion paper gives a historical background on financial services negotiations and contains a list of useful references.

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        Wto Public Forum 2007 - How Can the Wto Help Harness Globalization? (English)
        Report by WTO, 2008, 384 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This publication summarizes the views and concerns expressed during the two-day programme of the WTO Public Forum 'How can the WTO help harness globalization?'. Topics for debate included the challenges presented by globalisation, the need for a coherent multilateral trading system, trade as a vehicle for growth and development, and the interaction of trade and sustainable development.

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        WTO Public Forum 2007 - How Can the WTO Help Harness Globalization? (French)
        Report by WTO, 2008, 410 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This publication summarizes the views and concerns expressed during the two-day programme of the WTO Public Forum 'How can the WTO help harness globalization?'. Topics for debate included the challenges presented by globalisation, the need for a coherent multilateral trading system, trade as a vehicle for growth and development, and the interaction of trade and sustainable development.

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        WTO Public Forum 2007 - How Can the WTO Help Harness Globalization?
        Report by WTO, 2008, 424 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This publication summarizes the views and concerns expressed during the two-day programme of the WTO Public Forum 'How can the WTO help harness globalization?'. Topics for debate included the challenges presented by globalisation, the need for a coherent multilateral trading system, trade as a vehicle for growth and development, and the interaction of trade and sustainable development.

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        Wto Report on G-20 Trade Measures
        Report by WTO, 2011, 45 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Covering the period of May to mid-October 2011, the report concludes that the pace of implementation of new trade restrictions by G-20 countries, particularly in the manufacturing sector, has not decelerated over the past six months. Also confirmed is the upward trend in the imposition of export restrictions affecting mainly food and some minerals.

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        Wto Report on G-20 Trade Measures
        Report by WTO, 2011, 45 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This sixth Report reviews trade and trade-related measures undertaken by G-20 economies in the period from 1 May 2011 to mid-October 2011. Section II of the Report presents a comprehensive description of all trade and trade-related developments during the reviewed period. Government support measures implemented during this period are covered in section III, and developments in Trade Finance in section IV. The final section of the Report provides the context of recent economic and trade trends.

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        The WTO's July 2008 Mini-Ministerial: Agriculture, NAMA, Process Issues and the Road Ahead (English)
        Note by South Centre, 2008, 37 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper outlines the main events which took place during the WTO’s July mini-Ministerial. It goes on to provide a discussion of the key issues that were important in that meeting – agriculture, cotton, the non-agriculture market access negotiations, as well as systemic process concerns. It concludes with some thoughts on the challenges confronting developing countries – high food prices, livelihoods and climate change, and the implications these challenges pose for the WTO.

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        The WTO: Theory And Practice (English)
        Working paper by Bagwell, Kyle, Staiger, Robert W., 2009, 39 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        We consider the purpose and design of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and its predecessor, GATT. We review recent developments in the relevant theoretical and empirical literature. And we describe the GATT/WTO architecture and briefly trace its historical antecedents. We suggest that the existing literature provides a useful framework for understanding and interpreting central features of the design and practice of the GATT/WTO, and we identify key unresolved issues.

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        WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement - A Business Guide for Developing Countries (English)
        Manual by ITC, 2013, 44 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The guide explains the significance of the WTO Agreement on Trade Facilitation and the reasons why it was proposed. It aims at helping business communities in developing countries understand the obligations that these countries have taken on or will do so in the future; gives an overview of the main provisions of the agreement; explains how it is intended to ease border controls for business, and how business can still influence the way that governments implement the obligations and specific commitments they have undertaken in reaching the Agreement.

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        WTO World Trade Report 2011: the WTO and the preferential trade agreements - From co-existence to coherence (English)
        Report by WTO, 2011, 256 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The World Trade Report 2011 describes the historical development of PTAs and the current landscape of agreements. It analyses the reasons behind establishing PTAs, their impact on economy, and also covers the contents of the agreements themselves. Finally identifies areas of synergies and potential conflicts between PTAs and the multilateral trading system and examines ways in which the two "trade systems" can be made more coherent.

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