A partnership with academia

Building knowledge for trade and development

    • Subjects including: the definition and theoretical background of competitiveness at company and national level, quantitative and qualitative approaches to measurement of competitiveness, competitiveness of specific countries and industries, the role of foreign direct investment for competitiveness, and the relationship between competitiveness and development.
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        Assessment Report on Energy Efficiency Institutional Arrangements in Asia (English)
        Report by UNESCAP, 2010, 212 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        Energy security is high on the agendas of ESCAP member States. The dependence of many of these countries on imported energy resources from other regions of the world and the unequal distribution of relatively abundant energy resources in the region punctuate this concern. The volatility of the price of oil due to supply and demand economics is another related issue. Under these circumstances, the technical and economic viability of energy efficiency has come into sharper focus. Promoting energy efficiency has been identified as an effective energy, economic and climate policy aimed at managing demand for energy, increasing economic revenues by decreasing cost, and reaping the rewards for mitigating climate change, respectively. Energy efficiency is a technical term in the energy sector that means using less energy to provide the same level of energy service. The institutional dimension, which has been lagging behind in development and policy debates for many years, is the focus of this publication.

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        Coffee, Cooperation and Competition: A Comparative Study of Colombia and Vietnam (English)
        Study by Adriana Roldán-Pérez, Maria-Alejandra Gonzalez-Perez, Pham Thu Huong, Dao Ngoc Tien, 2009
        Categories: Commodities, Competitiveness, VI Members Research

        This Virtual Institute Joint Project between Vi members EAFIT University and Foreign Trade University identifies links and dynamics in the value chain in both Colombia and Vietnam that have been developed in their respective coffee industries in order to improve competitiveness, increase sustainability and respond to market demands.

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        Competition, Competitiveness and Development: Lessons from Developing Countries, Chapter 1 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 90 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy, Competitiveness

        What: The paper tries to identify, at both the theoretical and applied level, the necessary political, institutional and economic background for developing countries to implement efficient competition policies. It includes in-depth case studies of Nepal or Thailand, or a course on the prerequisites for competition policy in developing countries.

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        Competition, Competitiveness and Development: Lessons from Developing Countries - Introduction (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 21 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy, Competitiveness

        This introduction to the report on competition, competitiveness and development covers the main issues, e.g. the need for competition policy, trade liberalisation, market regulation. Who: Students or teachers concerned with international law, international economics or the relationship between competition and development How: A general introduction on competition policy, including group discussion or group work on the issues raised in the document. A broad bibliography on the subject is also available.

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        Competition Guidelines: Leniency Programmes (English)
        Also available in Arabic, French
        Policy brief by Brusick, Philippe/UNCTAD, 2016, 25 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Hard-core cartels constitute very serious violations of competition rules. However, they are often very difficult to detect and investigate without the cooperation of an insider. Accordingly, leniency programmes are designed to give incentives to cartel members to take the initiative to approach the competition authority, confess their participation in a cartel and cooperate with the competition law enforcers in exchange for total or partial immunity from sanctions. This publication, by the UNCTAD Secretariat, seeks to set specific guidelines for countries of the MENA region which envisage adoption or improvement of leniency programmes on competition. The view is to help them achieve a substantive degree of convergence in this field, as a practical way to increase the overall efficiency of the system in their struggle against hard core cartels. To this end, it draws attention to specific considerations for MENA Project countries, such as limits of leniency in small, less developed markets. It also reflects on how to make leniency programmes attractive for potential whistle-blowers, describes possible procedural guidelines along with cases deserving total or partial immunity, and lists some difficulties encountered in practice.

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        Competitiveness, Restructuring and FDI: an Analytical Framework (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2002, 24 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Investment

        What: This is a study of the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) on industrial restructuring in selected industries in some developing countries. The focus is on how FDI affects the ability of economic actors - directly, foreign affiliates, and indirectly, local firms or the economy at large - to compete better in a globalizing world, primarily by raising, upgrading and diversifying exports. It is about the impact of transnational corporations (TNCs) on the industrial competitiveness of host countries, an issue of growing concern in the developing world. Who: Useful for teachers and students focusing on FDI. How: Can be used as a background reading and/or research work on competitiveness, restructuring and FDI.

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        Competitiveness simulation: IT-related and enabled services (English)
        Simulation by Cora Mezger, Virtual Institute, 2005
        Categories: Competitiveness, Science and Technology

        What: A simulation on competitiveness in the IT-related and enabled services sector that gives students the opportunity to take the positions of different actors (government, educational sector, local business sector, TNCs, labour unions etc.), apply and deepen their knowledge on international competitiveness and development and make them critically think about the limitations of the concept of competitiveness in pure economic terms. Who: University teachers who are interested in teaching competitiveness and their graduate students enrolled in programmes such as International Trade, Economic Policy, International Economics, Development Studies or Regional Economics. How: The simulation refers to the rest of the competitiveness material, it could however also be used independently if the lecturer provides enough background information and depending on the previous knowledge of students.

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        Compétitivité, globalisation et attractivité: Ce que l’on savait (ou pensait savoir) il y a 20 ans - Course on Analysis of International Competitiveness (English)
        Outline by Pierre Berthaud, Université Pierre Mendès France of Grenoble, 2004
        Categories: Competitiveness, Trade Related Capacity Building

        The material of the International Economics course on Analysis of International Competitiveness consists of a Table of Contents (structure) of the course, an Introduction putting competitiveness into the context of today's globalized world and an Assessment document explaining the assignments that the students have to accomplish during the course. The course outline, introduction and the assessment descriptions are in French.

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        Cooperation in Coffee Markets: The Case of Vietnam and Colombia
        Article by Gonzalez-Perez, Maria-Alejandra, and Gutierrez-Viana, Santiago, 2012, 18 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Competitiveness, VI Members Research

        Based on a 2008-2009 joint research project between Universidad EAFIT, Colombia, and Vietnam's Foreign Trade University, this article uses value chain analysis to find that although Colombia and Vietnam produce different types of coffee, and have implemented diverse strategies in order to be more competitive in domestic and foreign markets via product differentiation, there is room for cooperation between these two countries in an international environment where fierce competition persists.

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        Creating a Conducive Environment for Higher Competitiveness and Effective National Innovation Systems. Lessons Learned from the Experiences of UNECE Countries (English)
        Review by UNECE, 2008, 107 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Science and Technology

        This Comparative Review provides an overview of the experiences in UNECE member countries in creating a conducive environment for the generation and diffusion of innovation and for achieving higher economic growth based on enhanced, innovation-driven competitiveness. It addresses various policy issues related to this topic, drawing from national experiences, good practices and lessons learned. It also draws some conclusions on what policymakers and other stakeholders can do more or better in order to facilitate the generation and diffusion of innovation and enhance innovation-based competitiveness.

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        Development Dimensions of Intellectual Property in Uganda: Transfer of Technology, Acces to Medicines and Textbooks (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2009, 105 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, International Economic Law

        Intellectual property rights (IPRs) have never been more economically and politically important or controversial than they are today. Considerable increases in royalty payments and licensing fees in most areas of the world and the inclusion of intellectual property provisions in regional and bilateral trade and investment agreements over the past few years illustrate the fact that IPRs have become a major economic, trade and investment issue. The UNCTAD secretariat is implementing a work programme on the development dimensions of IPRs.

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        Drivers of Industrial Competitiveness in Tanzania: A Capability and Sectoral Approach (English)
        Presentation by Manuel Albaladejo, Queen Elizabeth House University of Oxford , 2004, 23 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: A presentation made in 2003 to an UNCTAD Expert Meeting giving an analysis of the competitiveness of different sectors in Tanzania. It gives an overview of growth in both the manufacturing and other sectors in Tanzania before looking at some of the reasons for underperformance and suggesting possible capacity upgrading strategies. Who: Useful to anyone concerned with economic development in Tanzania but also African LDCs more generally, particularly regarding policy options How: This presentation provides a good example of how to use empirical data to draw out specific policy inclusions and with additional background reading on could be the basis of an excellent country case study.

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        Economic Partnership Agreements and the Export Competitiveness of Africa (English)
        Working paper by Brenton, Paul; Hoppe, Mombert; Newfarmer, Richard / World Bank, 2008, 29 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        Trade can be a key driver of growth for African countries, as it has been for those countries, particularly in East Asia, that have experienced high and sustained rates of growth. Economic partnership agreements with the European Union could be instrumental in a competitiveness framework, but to do so they would have to be designed carefully in a way that supports integration into the global economy and is consistent with national development strategies. Interim agreements have focused on reciprocal tariff removal and less restrictive rules of origin. To be fully effective, economic partnership agreements will have to address constraints to regional integration, including both tariff and non-tariff barriers; improve trade facilitation; and define appropriate most favored nation services liberalization. At the same time, African countries will need to reduce external tariff peak barriers on a most favored nation basis to ensure that when preferences for the European Union are implemented after transitional periods, they do not lead to substantial losses from trade diversion. This entails an ambitious agenda of policy reform that must be backed up by development assistance in the form of "aid for trade".

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        Economic Policy Challenges in an Open Economy: Coherence between Trade and Finance (English)
        Presentation by Heiner Flassbeck, UNCTAD, 2004
        Categories: Competitiveness, Macroeconomic Policy

        What: This paper emphasizes the importance of understanding competitiveness from the perspective of interdependence and analyses its applicability to developing countries. It explores the possibility and policy implications of using currency undervaluation as a general solution to maintaining competitiveness. Who: Can be used for a course on competitiveness. How: For a course on competition and competition policy in developing countries.

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        Enhancing the Role of Domestic Financial Resources in Africa's Development (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2009, 68 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Finance for Development

        Apart from the limited reforms to liberalize the financial sector and some attempts to increase public revenue through the introduction of consumption taxes such as VAT (value added tax), many African countries have not considered domestic resource mobilization as an important vehicle for increasing development finance. This handbook is expected to help fill this lacuna. It has been prepared as part of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) secretariat’s project on “Developing local capacities for the identification of growth opportunities through resource mobilization”, financed by the United Nations Development Account (Fifth Tranche). The objective of the project is to strengthen the capacity of African countries to identify and utilize efficiently non-debt-creating domestic resources in order to meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), especially the first goal of halving poverty rates by 2015.

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        Environmental/Health requirements, Market Access and Export Competitiveness: Trends, Problems and Approaches (English)
        Presentation by Ulrich Hoffmann, UNCTAD, 2004, 5 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Trade and Environment

        What: Presentation defines environmental/health requirements by outlining their nature, range and some important trends. Main part of the presentation analyses then both policy and capacity issues concerning health/environmental requirements at WTO level, international level and national level (with special focus on developing countries). Good summary of key problems, e.g. lack of international standards Who: Anyone who wants a very quick overview about key issues in health/environmental requirements/use it as summary. How: Only bullet points, previous knowledge needed or has to be complemented with additional readings, e.g. corresponding paper "Environmental/Health Requirements, Market Access and Export Competitiveness - What is the Problem for Developing Countries and what can be the Answers?"

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        An Evaluation of Tanzania’s EPZ Programme – Challenges and Prospects (English)
        Case study by Charles T L T Domician, 2009
        Categories: Competitiveness, Investment, VI Members Research

        This study employs OECD-DAC criteria to evaluate the Tanzania Export Processing Zones programme over the 2006 to May 2009 period. It finds that the programme is relevant for the country and global developmental orientations, although some respondents had a misguided opinion. On the other hand, the programme remains largely ineffective and inefficient due to the prevailing risks, including heavy hard and soft infrastructural challenges as well as the existing burden of the fiscal incentive regime. The study notes, however, that if properly handled, the discovery of uranium is potentially key to transforming the country’s energy and industrial sectors for domestic and international competitiveness. It is further suggested that unless necessary socioeconomic interventions are made well in time, the identified weaknesses stand to threaten the programme’s envisaged developmental impact and sustainability. Therefore, it is recommended that the government (through the Export Processing Zones Authority), in collaboration with all relevant EPZ stakeholders, devise an efficient and effective mechanism for financing export-enhancing infrastructures; and that special purpose vehicles in public-private partnership arrangements provide one such option. Other policy measures should include a review for streamlining the incentive regime, addressing inefficiencies at the Dar es Salaam port, financial empowerment for domestic export-oriented SMEs, enhanced stakeholder awareness of EPZ legislation and practices, and regional and global marketing of the programme’s production/exports.

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        Financing an Inclusive and Green Future: A Supportive Financial System and Green Growth for Achieving the Mdgs in Asia and the Pacific (English)
        Report by ESCAP, 2010, 132 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Finance for Development, Globalization and Development Strategies

        The report focuses first on the Millennium Development Goals, warning that the region is off track on many crucial indicators, including child and maternal mortality. But it also shows that the Goals are still within reach, given sufficient determination and financial resources. Just as important, it identifies potential sources for those funds – at the national, regional and international levels including changing spending priorities. It also looks further ahead, showing how Asia and the Pacific can take the lead in developing a new financial architecture that will best support the Millennium Development Goals.

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        Global Supply Chains: Trade And Economic Policies For Developing Countries (English)
        Discussion paper by Nicita, Alessandro, Ognivtsev, Victor and Shirotori, Miho/UNCTAD, 2012, 28 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Enterprise Development

        Although a substantial share of Global Supply Chains (GSCs) production processes is taking place in developing countries, the Least Developed Countries and other low-income countries lack the business supporting national policies to ensure that their participation in GSCs is more than that of providers of low value-added components.

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        Identifying Asian LDCs’ High Potential Export Sectors (English)
        Report by ITC, 2013, 33 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Enterprise Development, Globalization and Development Strategies

        This report aims at identifying at least two sectors that show a high potential for exports in several Asian LDCs vis-à-vis China and vis-à-vis developing countries in Asia in general. Expanding exports by targeting dynamic markets is critical for future development and poverty alleviation in many developing countries and, yet, Asian Least Developed Countries (LDCs) like many other LDCs remain marginal players in the global economy and need technical assistance to fully grasp the benefits from international trade. Governments seek to complement general (“horizontal”) policies that improve the overall business environment by more targeted, sector-specific policies. Identifying sectors on which to put priority is necessary for a sound allocation of limited public resources. Governments, donors and other stakeholders want to make an informed decision on which priority sectors to select, and thus need to assess the export potential of individual sectors. As important as knowing what to export is the question where to export. Given the stagnating demand in many developed economies, emerging regional markets, first and foremost China, may offer export opportunities to Asian LDCs that are yet to be explored.

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        Implications of Global Value Chains for Trade, Investment, Development and Jobs (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD OECD WTO, 2013, 29 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Brief prepared for the G-20 Leaders Summit Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)on the highlights on trade and investment openness. Main points regarding value chains encompassing an emphasis on trade facilitation, non-tariff measures, market efficiency, competitiveness, investment trade policy implications and strategies for development and job creation.

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        The Informal Sector in Francophone Africa: Firm Size, Productivity, and Institutions
        Study by Benjamin, Nancy and Mbaye, Ahmadou Ali with Diop, Ibrahima Thione, Golub, Stephen S., Haughton, Dominique, and Niang, Birahim Bouna, 2012, 264 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Enterprise Development

        The book provides detailed description and analysis of the characteristics and functioning of informal sector firms, the causes of the pervasiveness of these firms, the relations between formal and informal firms, the consequences of informality for economic development, and appropriate policy responses. This study focuses on the urban informal sector in three capital cities: Dakar (Senegal), Cotonou (Benin), and Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso).

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        Infrastructure and Employment Creation in the Middle East and North Africa (English)
        Case study by Antonio Estache, Elena Ianchovichina, Robert Bacon,Ilhem Salamon, 2013, 114 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Trade Facilitation

        The study discusses how infrastructure investments can help to stimulate employment creation in the immediate future while building foundations for sustainable growth and job creation in the MENA region.

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        Investment and technology policies for competitiveness: review of successful country experiences (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD Division on Investment, Technology and Enterprise Development, 2003, 79 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Investment, Science and Technology

        Paper that discusses the role of foreign direct investment in the transfer of technology and policy options for developing countries. The annex provides good examples of FDI and development policies in South East Asia. Of interest for teacher/researcher interested in the issues of investment and technology transfer Gives interesting case studies of development policies through transfer of technology.

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        Las TIC Como Instrumento Para Acceder Al Mercado Mundial (English)
        Policy brief by Osterlof Obregón, Doris, 2011, 6 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Science and Technology

        Las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (TIC) cada vez más se han convertido en un instrumento para facilitar la competitividad de las exportaciones en el comercio mundial. Asimismo, pueden servir para incrementar la productividad de las empresas. Son instrumentos habilitadores del desarrollo de un país y, por lo tanto, su utilización incide en el crecimiento de los diversos sectores productivos. A la vez, son también en sí mismas una oportunidad de negocios.

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        National Trade Policy for Export Success (English)
        Report by ITC, 2011, 176 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Enterprise Development

        This study presents a trade policy framework developed by ITC. It provides the trade policy instruments that governments can use to support the competitiveness of firms at each stage of the supply chain and outlines how trade policy options can influence national export competitiveness. The study also discusses in detail the trade policy instruments corresponding to each of the following objectives: creating competitive infrastructure services; promoting exports and foreign investment; moving goods across borders effectively; addressing export market issues and improving inputs and capital goods. It also considers how to tackle the overriding constraints faced by both public and private sectors, related to every stage of production and distribution of goods and services for export.

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        Outsourcing and development (English)
        Discussion paper by Navdeep Suri, 2005
        Categories: Competitiveness, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: A study of a newly emerging market for outsourcing of services, with a focus on outsourcing to developing countries. Reviews the market, trends and players (wealth of data) and presents different views from both developed and developing countries about the benefits and losses from service outsourcing. Shows the political economy background of this discussion in a broader context of a shifting competitive advantage debate. Short case studies of India, the Philippines, Vietnam, Ghana, South Africa. Examines how outsourcing of services links to the treatment of services in the WTO. Who: University teachers and students, and anybody interested in the very topical issue of service outsourcing to developing countries. How: Chapters presenting different opinions about the benefits or losses of outsourcing for developed and developing countries could serve to stimulate discussion among (groups of) students. Chapter about inter-modal linkages useful for understanding the interrelationship among the different modes of services delivery in the WTO and their evolution. Cases to show how use of IT can benefit developing countries.

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        Pan-african Cotton Road Map: A Continental Strategy to Strengthen Regional Cotton Value Chains for Poverty Reduction and Food Security (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 30 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Competitiveness

        The subject of this report, the Pan-African Road Map, was sketched out at the June, 2011 Pan-African meeting in Cotonou that gave participants the opportunity to outline details and expectations with regards to the cotton sector. The report aims to provide a common framework at the Pan-African level that addresses the three existing strategies (in the areas of productivity, marketing and value-addition) and national and regional policies from a Pan-African perspective.

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        Pathways to African Export Sustainability (English)
        Report by The World Bank, 2012, 140 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Enterprise Development

        African exporters suffer from low survival in international markets.Is this really the case? This report shows that the answer is “no.” When survival performance is controlled for by observable country characteristics such as—among other things—the level of income, Africa is no outlier. African exports have short life expectancies, but not any shorter than comparable countries. Beyond income levels, short export survival is largely explained by the difficult business environment in which African exporters operate. Once measures of this environment are taken into account, African countries are by no means “below the regression line” in terms of export survival. To give an overview of the report: Chapter 1 sets the stage by putting Africa’s export-survival performance into perspective and proposing a framework that will guide the interpretation of empirical evidence throughout the report. Chapter 2 covers country-level determinants of export sustainability at origin and destination, including the exporting country’s business environment. Chapter 3 explores some of the firm-level evidence on what drives export sustainability, including uncertainty, incomplete contracts, learning, and networks. Finally, chapter 4 offers tentative policy implications.

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        Potential Supply Chains in Textiles and Clothing Sector in South Asia. An Exploratory Study (English)
        Case study by Das, Abhijit, Banga, Rashmi, Kumar, Dinesh, Razzaque, M.A., Ratna, R.S., Moitra, Snighda, 2010, 147 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        The main objective of this study is to identify at HS six digit codes the potential supply chains that can be formed in the T&C sector (HS Chapters 50-63) within South Asia, which will enable South Asia to lower its cost of production and improve its global competitiveness. The analysis is undertaken for the four major economies of the region,namely Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The benefits of regional integration in developing potential supply chains in South Asia are also addressed.

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        Promoting the Export Competitiveness of SMEs (English)
        Discussion Paper by UNCTAD, 2004, 17 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Enterprise Development

        What: This paper examines policies and actions that could help improve the export competitiveness of SMEs in developing countries. Linkages with transnational corporations deserve special attention, as these private actors are increasingly playing a leading role in world production, trade and finance. The paper summarizes possible ways for SMEs to gain access to international markets and discusses the rationality of SME export promotion through foreign direct investment and business linkages. Then it suggests policy recommendations for the various private and public stakeholders responsible for enabling SMEs to export successfully. Who: Useful for anyone teaching on export competitiveness of SMEs. How: Can be used for courses on how to strengthen SMEs export competitiveness.

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        Public-private Collaboration for Export Success: Case Studies from Barbados, Ghana, India, Thailand and Malaysia (English)
        Report by ITC, 2011, 116 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Enterprise Development

        This guide demonstrates the value of business advocacy on trade policy issues featuring the Barbadian tourism industry, customs services in Ghana, Thailand’s automotive industry, Penang, Malaysia’s export hub for electronics, and India’s textile parks.

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        The Renaissance of China and India: Implications for the Advanced Economies (English)
        Discussion paper by Rowthorn, Robert, 2006, 32 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation

        Using simple convergence equations, this paper projects that by mid-century per capita incomes in China and India will on average be about half the US level. In terms of total production, both countries should overtake the USA by 2050. Such developments will affect the advanced economies through several channels. The terms of trade of these economies will deteriorate as labour intensive imports, such as clothing or holidays, become more expensive when ultra-cheap supplies from China (and later India) dry up. Resource-based imports may also become more expensive in response to rising demand from China and India. Orders of magnitude suggest that such terms of trade losses may be fairly easy to absorb if they are spread over many years. On the positive side, as China and India develop they will become major innovators in their own right and the advanced countries will benefit by importing technology from them. The development of China and India may also affect the internal distribution of income within the advanced economies. If transnational corporations can earn higher profits by moving production to China and India they may use this as a credible threat to extract concessions from their existing workers in the advanced economies. An appendix to the paper presents a simple mathematical model and some numerical examples that inform the discussion in the text.

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        Rethinking Industrial Policy (English)
        Discussion paper by Ul Haque, Ifran, 2007, 20 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness

        What: The context for the design of industrial policy has profoundly changed as a result of new rules governing international trade, the rise of global value chains and marketing networks, and other aspects of globalization. Traditionally, the case for industrial policy has been framed in terms of “market failures” but the paper argues that that is not a sufficient basis. After addressing the traditional points of criticism, an attempt is made to outline the “domains” of industrial policy in the current circumstances, especially for industrially lagging countries. As country contexts differ widely there are no satisfactory blueprints for policy making that countries can readily adopt. As in production decisions, considerable ingenuity and innovation is needed in designing policies. This is all the more necessary as the WTO rules have become increasingly stringent and the rise of international trading networks has created new barriers for young firms to enter the world market. These developments have changed the context but not the importance of policy in industrial development. The paper identifies areas where government intervention is needed and can still make a positive difference. How: Background reading to get a quick introduction in industrial policies for developing countries. Who: Researchers interested in getting to know the field of industrial policies.

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        Review of Maritime Transport 2010 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 213 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, International Economic Law

        The Review of Maritime Transport is a recurrent publication prepared by the UNCTAD secretariat since 1968 with the aim of fostering the transparency of maritime markets and analysing relevant developments. It is divided into seven chapters. The first chapter "Development in International Seaborne Trade" reviews the overall performance of the global economy in 2009, considers developments in world seaborne trade volumes and highlights some emerging global challenges which are affecting maritime transport. It also looks more closely at developments affecting energy-related bulk cargoes, namely oil, gas and coal. The second chapter "Structure, Ownership and Registration of the World Fleet" presents the supply-side dynamics of the world maritime industry. The third chapter "Productivity of the World Fleet, and Supply and Demand in World Shipping" provides information on the operational productivity of the world fleet and an analysis of the balance between supply and demand for tonnage and container-carrying capacity. Chapter four "Freight Rates" covers freight rates in the tanker market, the major dry bulk cargo markets and the liner shipping market. Each section contains information on recent developments in that area, followed by an analysis of how freight rates have performed over the course of 2009 and into 2010. Chapter five "Port and Multimodal Trasport Developments" covers some of the major port development projects under way in developing countries, container throughput, liner shipping connectivity, improvements in port performance, and multimodal transportation in the areas of road, rail, and inland waterways. The sixth chapter "Legal Issues and Regulatory Developments" provides information on some important legal issues and recent regulatory developments in the fields of transport and trade facilitation, together with information on the status of ratification of some of the main maritime conventions. The last chapter "Review of Regional Developments in Asia and the Pacific" follows up on the developments in international transport and trade in the Asia-Pacific region reported in the Review of Maritime Transport 2007. It examines regional developments from 2007 to 2009, and gives special consideration to landlocked developing countries in the region.

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        Review of Maritime Transport 2013
        Review by UNCTAD, 2013, 204 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Globalization and Development Strategies

        The 2013 edition of the Review of Maritime Transport estimates global seaborne trade to have increased by 4.3 per cent, with the total reaching over 9 billion tons in 2012 for the first time ever. Driven in particular by growing domestic demand in China and increased intra-Asian and South-South trade, seaborne trade nevertheless remains subject to persistent downside risks facing the world economy and trade. Freight rates have remained low and volatile in the various market segments (container, liquid and dry bulk).The Review proposes a new paradigm for transit based on a conveyor-belt concept, which aims at achieving a continuous supply of transit transport services, supported by institutional frameworks and infrastructure. The argument proposed here is that a regular, reliable and secure transit system is the simple, straightforward goal to pursue in order to guarantee access for landlocked developing countries to global shipping networks on the basis of non-penalizing conditions. Given the review of the Almaty Programme of Action that is to take place in 2014, this proposal could be part of the actions within a new agenda for landlocked and transit developing countries

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        Share of Labour Compensation and Aggregate Demand - Discussions Towards a Growth Strategy
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2011, 30 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Globalization and Development Strategies

        Economic growth strategies of developing countries have focused in the last decades on expanding their exports. In that scheme, wage compression seems necessary in order to compensate the observed slow productivity pace achieving, therefore, “competitiveness”. The core of this discussion is, undoubtedly, how the national product is appropriated through wages and surplus, i.e. the factorial income distribution. From that viewpoint, this paper discusses the long-term impoverishment of Argentinean workers through two key aspects of the economic process: on one hand, the way in which labour force is allocated, by analysing the relationship between real wage and productivity. On the other, how income is used in the acquisition of consumer goods and capital formation. In order to fully comprehend those trends, this paper recourses to an international comparison with two types of countries: the developed ones (United States of America, France and Japan) and the largest Latin American economies (Brazil and Mexico). As these processes take place in the long run, this paper’s analysis period will start from the 1950s.

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        SME Competitiveness Outlook 2015: Connect, Compete and Change for Inclusive Growth (English)
        Report by ITC, 2015, 268 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Enterprise Development, Globalization and Development Strategies

        The report highlights the fundamental role SMEs have in addressing global income inequality and presents a new analytical framework to measure, identify and enhance SME competitiveness. It introduces a working definition of firm competitiveness and introduces the SME Competitiveness Grid as a tool to classify determinants of firm competitiveness according to how they affect competitiveness and according to the layer of the economy at which this determinant intervenes. The report provides 25 country profiles containing SME competitiveness pilot assessments. It informs ITC’s work in strengthening SMEs and trade and investment support institutions (TISIs). The case studies illustrate how ITC assistance fits within the wider evidence on SME competitiveness and describe practical steps to strengthen SME competitiveness at the firm level. Includes bibliographical references.

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        Sme Competitiveness Outlook 2016: Meeting the Standard for Trade (English)
        Report by International Trade Centre (ITC), 2016, 354 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Enterprise Development

        The report focuses on the role of standards and regulations in increasing the competitiveness of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The report combines data analysis, academic insights, thought leader opinions and case studies to provide guidance for policymakers, SME managers and standard setters. It discusses standards as different as food safety standards, environmental standards, container size standards, security technology standards for encrypted communication, labour standards, accounting standards and medical and wellness tourism standards; provides both general insights into the impact of standards and regulations on SME competitiveness, and targeted insights into specific channels through which individual standards and regulations affect SMEs. Based on the findings the report provides readers with: strategies for SME managers on how to select and implement standards and regulations, and an action plan for policymakers and TISIs.

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        Supply Chain Perspectives and Issues: A Literature Review (English)
        Book by WTO, FUNG, 2013, 234 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Enterprise Development

        A literature reviw on various topics related to supply chains in the economics literature such as Supply chains in the business literature, offshoring, risk in supply chains, SMEs, services, value-added and sustainability. It also gives an overview on recent business models, trade policy and finance.

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        Supply Chains in Export Agriculture, Competition, and Poverty in Sub-saharan Africa (English)
        Book by Porto, Guido, Depetris Chauvin, Nicolas, Olarreaga, Marcelo / World Bank, 2011, 290 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Competitiveness, Globalization and Development Strategies

        In this book, we study how the internal structure of export markets and the level of competition affect poverty and welfare in remote rural areas in Africa. In sub-Saharan Africa, rural poverty is a widespread phenomenon. While most farmers produce for home consumption, some are engaged in high-value export agriculture. Here, we focus on export crops such as coffee, cotton, cocoa, and tobacco. For many African countries, these crops, which are typically produced by smallholders, are a major source of export revenue. In consequence, changes in export prices and in the conditions faced in export markets (both internally and externally) can play a big role in shaping poverty in the region. Traditionally, the literature has focused on how external conditions affect poverty, for example by addressing whether agricultural subsidies in the developed world affect world prices and how this in turn affects farm-gate prices. Our objective in this book is to explore domestic factors. In particular, we investigate the role played by the structure of competition in export agriculture supply chains.

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        Tales from the Development Frontier : How China and Other Countries Harness Light Manufacturing to Create Jobs and Prosperity (English)
        Book by World Bank, 2013, 555 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Globalization and Development Strategies, Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation

        This work describes how most developing countries have had little success in raising the share of manufacturing in production, employment, or exports. It sheds light on manufacturing clusters in several Asian and African countries and focuses on the six main binding constraints to competitiveness such as availability, cost, and quality of inputs; access to industrial land; access to finance; trade logistics; entrepreneurial capabilities, both technical and managerial; and worker skills. The volume systematically explores potential growth opportunities in industries: agribusiness, apparel, leather goods, wood working, and metal products.

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        Three Essays in Development Economics (English)
        Article by Ersado, Lire, 2001, 118 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Competitiveness, VI Members Research

        Dissertation exploring household risk and savings behavior in Zimbabwe, and agricultural technology adoption, and the impact of public investments on the economy and community health in Ethiopia.

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        Trade and Development Report 2003, Chapter V: Industrialization, Trade and Structural Change (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2003, 37 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: Long-term economic success depends on sustained improvements in productivity; each worker producing more from any given level of effort provides the basis for rising incomes and living standards. In this sense, it is productivity gains, and not simply additional jobs, that characterize a virtuous process of accumulation and growth. This chapter assesses how the main factors associated with building and maintaining industrial capacity, productivity and patterns of trade have changed in developing countries over the past two decades. Particular attention is given to changes in international specialization within the industrial sector through upgrading. The chapter compares and contrasts the performance of economies in East Asia and Latin America and, to a lesser extent, Africa, with respect to structural change, productivity growth, international competitiveness and trade. Who: For teachers, students and researchers focusing on industrialization, productivity and growth. How: Can be used as a background reading or for research work on strategies for sustainable development.

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        Trade Costs in the Developing World: 1995 – 2010 (English)
        Working paper by ARTNET (Arvis, Jean-François, Duval, Yann, Shepherd Ben, and Utoktham, Chorthip), 2012, 40 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The paper uses newly collected data on trade and production in 178 countries to infer estimates of trade costs in agriculture and manufactured goods for the 1995-2010 period. Findings indicate that trade costs are falling noticeably faster in developed countries than in developing ones, increasing the relative isolation of the latter. In particular, Sub-Saharan African countries and low income countries remain subject to very high levels of trade costs.

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        Training Material on Competitiveness and Development, Module 1 - Introduction to Competitiveness (English)
        Manual by Cora Mezger, Virtual Institute, 2005
        Categories: Competitiveness

        What: The module will give a general introduction to the concept of competitiveness (different definitions, historical evolution of the concept, main characteristics). After this module, students should be aware of the fact that competitiveness is an extremely multifaceted concept. The introductory module will also give first insights into the analysis of competitiveness from a developmental perspective. Who: University teachers who are interested in teaching competitiveness and their graduate students enrolled in programmes such as International Trade, Economic Policy, International Economics, Development Studies or Regional Economics. How: The lecturer can use the handbook to get a quick overview about all sections. Activities and discussion questions to enhance the learning process are provided as well as key readings.

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        Training Material on Competitiveness and Development, Module 2 - Approaches to competitiveness (English)
        Manual by Cora Mezger, Virtual Institute, 2005
        Categories: Competitiveness

        What: This module introduces the students to different theoretic models on national competitiveness and the main actors involved in creating and raising a nation's competitiveness. A critical discussion of the models has the objective of making students aware of their limitations. Who: University teachers who are interested in teaching competitiveness and their graduate students enrolled in programmes such as International Trade, Economic Policy, International Economics, Development Studies or Regional Economics. How: The lecturer can use the handbook to get a quick overview about all sections. Activities and discussion questions to enhance the learning process are provided as well as key readings.

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        Training Material on Competitiveness and Development, Module 3 - Assessment and measurement of competitiveness (English)
        Manual by Cora Mezger, Virtual Institute, 2005
        Categories: Competitiveness

        What: This module will give an overview of the different possibilities to measure competitiveness and encourage students to critically examine rankings and indicators. Who: university teachers who are interested in teaching competitiveness and their graduate students enrolled in programmes such as International Trade, Economic Policy, International Economics, Development Studies or Regional Economics. How: The lecturer can use the handbook to get a quick overview about all sections. Activities and discussion questions to enhance the learning process are provided as well as key readings.

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        Training Material on Competitiveness and Development, Module 4 - Determinants of competitiveness (English)
        Manual by Cora Mezger, Virtual Institute, 2005
        Categories: Competitiveness

        What: The fourth module will give an overview about the multitude of determinants of competitiveness on all four levels: Meta, Macro, Meso and Micro. It provides instead of a summary a list of guiding questions that might help the students in their analysis of different determinants' impact on competitiveness. Who: university teachers who are interested in teaching competitiveness and their graduate students enrolled in programmes such as International Trade, Economic Policy, International Economics, Development Studies or Regional Economics. How: The lecturer can use the handbook to get a quick overview about all sections. Activities, such as case studies, and discussion questions to enhance the learning process are provided.

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        Training Material on Competitiveness and Development: Outline (English)
        Outline by Cora Mezger, Virtual Institute, 2005
        Categories: Competitiveness

        What: Part 1 gives a general introduction to the teaching package outlining the context, purpose, potential target audience (although the teaching package might be adapted to different levels), methodology and general learning objectives/outcomes. Part 2 will provide the user of the package with a table of contents (headings of modules and chapters) and short overviews regarding content and learning objective of each module. Who: everyone interested in using the training material on competitiveness or part of it. How:The outline gives an overview about sections and can help lecturers to decide on topics and structure depending on their specific needs.

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        Training material on Competitiveness and Development: Scheme of work (English)
        Manual by Cora Mezger, Virtual Institute, 2005
        Categories: Competitiveness

        What:The scheme of work provides for every module and chapter the learning objectives. Additionally, it suggests (i) when and how activities can be used, (ii) how they contribute to achieving the learning objectives. Depending on the chapter, additional activities e.g. for advanced students, are proposed. The scheme of work contains also additional comments regarding a flexible use of the module or chapter (where else could it fit), required knowledge, emphasis etc. Who: aims at assisting the lecturer in the implementation of the rest of the teaching material on competitiveness and development.

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        Value Chains and Tropical Products in a Changing Global Trade Regime (English)
        Report by Mather, Charles/ICTSD, 2008, 85 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Competitiveness

        In the last decade, the commodity issues have re-emerged as central to development initiatives and poverty alleviation strategies. The objective of this Issue Paper by Charles Mather is to contribute to this debate by providing an analysis of the value chains of four tropical commodities (bananas, sugar, cut flowers and palm oil) in a rapidly changing global trade environment. The author seeks to provide insights on the different ways the significant changes occurring in the structure and governance of commodity chains ultimately affect producers’ income and production sustainability. He also suggests recommendations to improve these two variables. The value chain approach has become an increasingly important framework for examining changes in the global trade of commodities and their implications for primary producers. Rather than describing the broad patterns of global exchange and assessing their consequences for producers and consumers exclusively through market mechanisms and equilibrium price changes, the global value chain (GVC) framework encompasses the production, processing, distribution and marketing of specific globally-traded commodities, and identifies the main stakeholders involved at each stage. It also highlights governance patterns (how these different stages are coordinated) and specifies the role of lead firms in determining market access, defining products and value across the chain (Schmitz, 2005). The commodity studies in this paper focus on four themes: changes in the geography of production, changes in chain governance, new developments in trade agreements and their impacts on primary producers in different developing countries, and initiatives towards sustainable production, ethical trade and worker welfare. With regard to changes in production, the paper provides insights into new developments in the production of bananas, sugar, palm oil and cut flowers, which have been driven by changes in trade agreements and new investment patterns. In several of the commodities concerned, an important development has been the rise of new low cost producers who will play a role in shaping the global market for these commodities. This paper was produced under an ICTSD dialogue and research project which seeks to address the opportunities and challenges of the full liberalisation of trade in tropical and diversification products, and explores possible areas of convergence between different groupings and interests in WTO negotiations. The project seeks to generate solutions-oriented analyses and possible policy responses from a sustainable development perspective.

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        Vi Teaching Material on Competitiveness and Development (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD Virtual Institute, 2005, 167 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness

        This teaching material is designed to support university professors in "unpacking" the idea of "competitiveness” and to enable their students to identify situations of misuse of the concept. This training material is not primarily conceived as a complete course but rather to provide as a set of stimulating resources and activities that could be used either independently or integrated into existing courses offered at the university level.

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        World Investment Report 2002: Transnational Corporations and Export Competitiveness
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2002, 44 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Investment

        Enquiry into the decline of foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows in 2001 in light of a prolonged economic recession and a fall in cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As), which had been the driving force behind FDI flows.· Particularly relevant to social sciences scholars looking at FDI flows and the state of the global economy post-September 11th 2001. · This report introduces two new FDI benchmarking tools - the Inward FDI Performance Index and the Inward FDI Potential Index, which measure performance by standardizing a country’s inflows to the size of its economy, and measure potential by using a set of economic and policy factors of importance to foreign investors.

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