A partnership with academia

Building knowledge for trade and development

    • Resources on globalization, trade and development theories, development paradigms, the historical review and comparison of regional or national development experiences and the concept of policy space.
      • Preview
        20 Years of Biotrade: Connecting People, the Planet and Markets (English)
        Report by Jaramillo Castro, Lorena/UNCTAD, 2016, 96 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This publication gives a brief overview of the work done by UNCTAD on BioTrade and the BioTrade Initiative since 1996. The BioTrade Initiative, which includes over 20 developing countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America, has been promoting trade and investment in biological resources to further sustainable development and aid in poverty alleviation.

      • Preview
        Access To Financial Services As A Driver For The Post-2015 Development Agenda
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2015, 4 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, International Financial System, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This policy brief aims to highlight several components of a best-fit policy mix to expand financial inclusion. New technologies and innovative business models exhibit great potential to overcome access barriers. Governments have an important role in setting up sound regulatory frameworks and conditions to expand the supply and affordability of financial services, to ensure that such services remain supportive of the real economy, and to create an expanded demand for them, such as through financial education and empowerment. Actions towards financial inclusion could contribute to facilitated, speedier, safer and less costly transfer of remittances, the importance of which is also recognized within the sustainable development goals (SDGs).

      • Preview
        Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals in the Least Developed Countries: a Compendium of Policy Options (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 223 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Related Capacity Building

        This Compendium reviews the policy recommendations derived from the analytical reports of UNCTAD’s Division for Africa, Least Developed Countries and Special Programmes over the past 14 years. It is primarily addressed to LDC policymakers, as an easily accessible reference, offering a comprehensive and coherent set of policy options which LDC governments may consider in their challenging undertaking of achieving the SDGs. At the same time, the Compendium also serves as an appeal to their development partners for collaborative support at the international level.

      • Preview
        Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals Through Consumer Protection (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 32 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Related Capacity Building

        The publication Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals through Consumer Protection aims to provide policymakers and enforcers with a basis for reflection on the positive impacts that protecting consumers bears in promoting a more inclusive and sustainable development. This approach will help them improve the consumer protection framework while also devising and implementing development strategies. Equally, it underscores the close link between Agenda 2030 and the United Nations Guidelines for Consumer Protection. This publication begins with a general overview of the contributions made by consumer policies in meeting the Sustainable Development Goals. It then focuses on two issues that are of special relevance to this matter: sustainable consumption related to Goal 12 on Responsible Consumption and Production; and consumer protection in health-care delivery, according to Goal 3 on Good Health and Well-being.

      • Preview
        Africa–BRICs Cooperation: Implications for Growth (English)
        Case study by UNECA, 2013, 48 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation

        This study shows what effect trade with, and investment and aid from, the BRICS (Brazil, Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa) could have on growth, employment and structural transformation in Africa. In addition, it shows how Africa could maximize the benefits of its engagement with the BRICS, and minimize the risks. The study offers policy recommendations based on comparative analysis of BRICS’ practices in their cooperation with Africa.

      • Preview
        Africa Capacity Report 2015: Capacity Imperatives for Domestic Resource Mobilization in Africa (English)
        Report by African Capacity Building Foundation, 2015, 184 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Related Capacity Building

        The objective of the Africa Capacity Report (ACR) is to measure and examine capacity in relation to the development agenda in African countries and this year’s theme focuses on the capacity development challenges in domestic resource mobilization. The report looks at the state of trends in domestic resource mobilization and illicit financial flows across the continent, and it identifies capacity gaps and requirements for countries to mobilize more resources domestically and reduce illicit financial flows abroad.

      • Preview
        Africa Capacity Report 2015: Capacity Imperatives for Domestic Resource Mobilization in Africa - Overview (English)
        Summary by African Capacity Building Foundation, 2015, 8 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Related Capacity Building

        The objective of the Africa Capacity Report (ACR) is to measure and examine capacity in relation to the development agenda in African countries and this year’s theme focuses on the capacity development challenges in domestic resource mobilization. The report looks at the state of trends in domestic resource mobilization and illicit financial flows across the continent, and it identifies capacity gaps and requirements for countries to mobilize more resources domestically and reduce illicit financial flows abroad.

      • Preview
        African Continental Free Trade Area (English)
        Discussion paper by Agatiello, Osvaldo/UNCTAD, 2016, 52 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Facilitation

        The paper, African Continental Free Trade Area, subtitled 'Advancing Pan-African Integration (Some Considerations),' provides an overview of the opportunities and challenges for African continental economic integration through the Continental Free Trade Area (CFTA) initiative. It discusses complementary building blocks for intra-African trade to flourish within Africa when it is stimulated by the adoption and implementation of the CFTA, and provides guiding principles for approaching the CFTA and priority policy measures for adoption by African countries to ensure sustained trade growth and economic integration following the CFTA.

      • Preview
        African Continental Free Trade Area: Developing and Strengthening Regional Value Chains (English)
        Discussion paper by Dairon, Emily/UNCTAD, 2016, 78 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Facilitation

        The paper, African Continental Free Trade Area, subtitled 'Developing and strengthening regional value chains in agricultural commodities and processed food products', comes after the African Union Assembly decided in an assembly in 2012 to boost intra-African trade and to fast track the Continental Free Trade Area (CFTA). The study aims to provide an analysis on requisite policies and measures needed for fostering the development and strengthening of regional supply and value chains in agricultural commodities and processed foods. Its aim is to contribute to the setting up and strengthening of regional agro-foods supply chains.

      • Preview
        African Continental Free Trade Area: Policy and Negotiation Options for Trade in Goods (English)
        Discussion paper by Farahat, M/UNCTAD, 2016, 37 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Facilitation

        This discussion paper is part of the series on the 'African Continental Free Trade Area.' It continues the discussion by presenting an overview of the practical possibilities of an free trade area (FTA) on the African continent. The paper is divided in three main parts. Part I deals with the requirements for establishing FTAs in goods. Part II analyses the harmonization of macro-economic policies, the applicability of non-tariff measures and trade facilitation. Part II considers the negotiation process among key stakeholders and the leaders.

      • Preview
        African Governance Report Ii (English)
        Report by UNECA, 2009, 290 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The report assesses and monitors the progress on governance in Africa, identifies capacity gaps in governance institutions and proposes policy interventions to promote good governance. It combines three research instruments: a national expert opinion panel, a scientific sample household survey and desk research. The report covers 35 countries.

      • Preview
        Africa’s Development And The Global Trading System: Challenges And Options (English)
        Working paper by OSABUOHIEN, Evans S. / Covenant University, Nigeria and EGWAKHE, Johnson A. /Adventist University of Central Africa, Rwanda, 2011, 27 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper empirically explores development in Africa in relation to the global trading system using panel data techniques. It examines the economic development of African economies in relation to the countries’ regional grouping and also assesses Random Effects (RE) and Generalised Method of Moments (GMM) estimates. The results establish, among other things, that sub-regions with higher level of domestic investment had higher values in economic development indicators.

      • Preview
        The Asian Developmental State and the Flying Geese Paradigm
        Discussion paper by Kasahara, Shigehisa / Erasmus University, 2013, 36 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Globalization and Development Strategies

        This paper contemplates an outlook of the developmental state in the light of growing regionalist drive in East Asia. More specifically, it explores the possibility of developmental regionalism. Developmental regionalism, in this framework, upholds a hybrid of limited liberalism at the national level and protectionism at the regional level. It is also a hybrid of North-South and South-South cooperation for achieving agreed specialization. While the discussion is at the exploratory stage with respect to concrete policy implications, developmental regionalism could contribute to bridging the aforementioned two contending concepts.

      • Preview
        Asia -pacific Trade and Investment Report 2015, Supporting Participation in Value Chains
        Report by ESCAP, 2015, 211 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        The Asia-Pacific Trade and Investment Report 2015 published by the Trade and Investment Division of the United Nations, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific analyzes trends and developments in intra- and inter-regional trade in goods and services; foreign direct investment; trade facilitation measures; trade policy measures; and preferential trade policies and agreements in the region.

      • Preview
        Asia-Pacific Trade and Investment Report 2015: Supporting Participation in Value Chains - Executive Summary (English)
        Also available in Russian, Chinese
        Summary by ESCAP, 2015, 26 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        The Asia-Pacific Trade and Investment Report 2015 published by the Trade and Investment Division of the United Nations, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific analyzes trends and developments in intra- and inter-regional trade in goods and services; foreign direct investment; trade facilitation measures; trade policy measures; and preferential trade policies and agreements in the region.

      • Preview
        Assessing Progress in Africa Toward the Millennium Development Goals: Mdg Report 2010
        Report by UNECA, 2010, 122 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        In five years’ time, world leaders will assess the progress that has been made in meeting the Millennium Summit commitment to “spare no effort to free our fellow men, women and children from the abject and dehumanizing conditions of extreme poverty”. That commitment, enunciated in the Millennium Declaration of 2000 and encapsulated in the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs),has been the main impetus to advance international development over the last decade.This year’s report shows that, prior to the onset of the food and fuel crises and the global recession,African countries were making steady progress toward attainment of the MDGs. According to this report, there has been progress achieved in reducing poverty rates and moving toward the targets of several of the MDGs, even though Africa still has the highest proportion of people living in extreme poverty within the developing world. The advances made are attributed, in part, to improvements in the political, economic,and social landscape across much of the continent.

      • Preview
        Assessment of Trade in Services and Development Gains (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2004
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: Liberalization of trade in services has become a main concern of many developing countries as it reaches out to areas previously considered as the exclusive domain of the public sector. The main challenge that developing countries are facing is how to strengthen domestic supply capacity in services and reconcile trade, development, social and equity considerations. The objective of this note is to identify questions and to provide some reflections on the methodology for undertaking assessment of services in their developmental and trade dimensions in developing countries. A purpose of the assessment is to identify the best policies that developing countries could pursue. Who: Useful for anyone teaching and/or studying liberalization of trade in services. How: Can be used as a background reading for courses on liberalization of trade in services in developing countries.

      • Preview
        Assessment Report on Energy Efficiency Institutional Arrangements in Asia (English)
        Report by UNESCAP, 2010, 212 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        Energy security is high on the agendas of ESCAP member States. The dependence of many of these countries on imported energy resources from other regions of the world and the unequal distribution of relatively abundant energy resources in the region punctuate this concern. The volatility of the price of oil due to supply and demand economics is another related issue. Under these circumstances, the technical and economic viability of energy efficiency has come into sharper focus. Promoting energy efficiency has been identified as an effective energy, economic and climate policy aimed at managing demand for energy, increasing economic revenues by decreasing cost, and reaping the rewards for mitigating climate change, respectively. Energy efficiency is a technical term in the energy sector that means using less energy to provide the same level of energy service. The institutional dimension, which has been lagging behind in development and policy debates for many years, is the focus of this publication.

      • Preview
        Assuring Development Gains and Poverty Reduction from Trade: the Labour Mobility and Skills Trade Dimension (English)
        Book by Puri, Lakshmi /UNCTAD, 2008, 129 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Migration and Development

        What: It is becoming increasingly clear that the issue of global labour movement and integration is a key topic at the interface of trade, development and globalization. In 2005 the global labour force numbered 2.8 billion, of which 2.25 billion was developing country labour force. This paper attempts to provide a comprehensive picture of the impact on trade, development and poverty reduction brought about by global labour movement and integration. It attempts to answer the question as to how temporary labour mobility can be better managed so as to contribute to improving people's livelihood and welfare prospects while at the same time moving closer to the achievement of internationally agreed development goals, in particular the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. How: The paper looks at temporary labour mobility and skills trade as it relates to trade and development from the perspectives of both sending and receiving countries. It sets out the problem of labour mobility, the state of play in the global labour market, push-pull factors that cause labour mobility and succinctly, the seven inconsistencies of the labour movement conundrum. A detailed examination of the socio-economic costs and benefits to sending and receiving countries provides a balanced overview of the picture.

      • Preview
        Atlas of Global Development - A Visual Guide to the World’s Greatest Challenges (English)
        Report by The Work Bank, 2013, 147 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This report illustrates the most important development challenges facing our world today. Based upon authoritative data from the World Bank's World Development Indicators, it provides information on critical global topics - from poverty, population growth, and food production to climate change, foreign direct investment, and international trade. In addition, it includes detailed information about targets for the Millennium Development Goals.

      • Preview
        Benchmarking Productive Capacities in Least Developed Countries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 56 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty, Trade Facilitation

        At the thirteenth session of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD XIII), which took place in Doha, Qatar, in April 2012, member States requested UNCTAD to develop quantifiable indicators with a view to providing “an operational methodology and policy guidelines on how to mainstream productive capacities in national development policies and strategies in LDCs” (Doha Mandate, para. 65(e)). The present report, which is part of ongoing work by the secretariat and a response to the above-mentioned request, focuses on measuring and benchmarking productive capacities in least developed countries (LDCs): their current levels; how LDCs have performed in the recent past; and how the productive capacities in LDCs compare with the internationally agreed goals and targets and with other developing countries.

      • Preview
        Best Practices in Investment for Development. How Post-conflict Countries Can Attract and Benefit from Fdi: Lessons from Croatia and Mozambique
        Study by UNCTAD, 2009, 139 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment

        The Investment Advisory Series provides practical advice and casestudies of best policy practice for attracting and benefiting from foreign direct investment (FDI), in line with national development strategies. The series draws on the experiences gained in, and lessons learned through, UNCTAD’s capacity-building and institution-building work in developing countries and countries with economies in transition.

      • Preview
        The Big (Data) Bang: What Will It Mean for Compiling Sdg Indicators? (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 31 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This paper outlines the opportunities, challenges and governance issues involved with big data from the perspective of producing SDG indicators. In particular, the paper will examine some of the challenges surrounding access, and for confidentiality and privacy.

      • Preview
        Bringing Smes onto the E-Commerce Highway (English)
        Report by International Trade Centre, 2016, 120 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty, Trade Facilitation

        This report is a starting point for public-private dialogue to address e-commerce bottlenecks, especially for small firms in developing countries. Small firms face policy challenges in four processes typical to all e-commerce: establishing online business, international e-payment, international delivery and aftersales. To improve competitiveness, challenges must be met within the firm, in the business environment and by governments. The report provides checklists for policy guidance, as well as case studies from e-commerce entrepreneurs in developing countries.

      • Preview
        Cabo Verde’s Creative Economy: Leveraging Culture and Creativity for Sustainable Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 77 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This report presents the potential of Cabo Verde to capitalize on its rich cultural expressions (music, festivals, handicrafts, gastronomy, tourism and cultural events) to achieve a real sustainable development through the small scale production of goods and services that favors fair income distribution systems, improves the quality of life of its population, and supports the desire of the youth to enter the contemporary job market while integrating cultural values and creativity.

      • Preview
        Can Green Growth Really Work and What Are the True (socio-) Economics of Climate Change?
        Discussion paper by Hoffmann, Ulrich /UNCTAD, 2015, 31 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        This paper argues that growth, technological, population-expansion and governance constraints as well as some key systemic issues cast a very long shadow on the "green growth" hopes. Many economists and policymakers advocate a fundamental shift towards "green growth" as the new, qualitatively-different growth paradigm, largely based on enhanced material/resource/energy efficiency, structural changes towards a service-dominated economy and a switch in the energy mix favouring renewable forms of energy. However this paper states that such an evolutionary approach will not be sufficient to cope with the complexities of climate change.

      • Preview
        Capital Flows from South to North: A New Dynamic in Global Economic Relations (English)
        Note by South Centre, 2008, 35 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy

        This Analytical Note looks at the new dynamic of capital flows from the South to the North arising from unprecedented levels of capital reserve accumulation by the South. It looks at some of the reasons for such capital accumulation - pointing to the perceived need by developing countries to self-insure themselves against financial crises. It then looks at various ways in which financial crises could be prevented by developing countries and concludes by stressing the need for this new dynamic to be reflected in both international economic arrangements and in terms of ensuring that developmental gains by developing countries are obtained.

      • Preview
        Central Banking, Financial Institutions and Credit Creation in Developing Countries (English)
        Discussion paper by Dullien, Sebastian/UNCTAD, 2009, 42 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy, VI Members Research

        This paper examines how developing countries can embark on a sustained path of strong investment, capital accumulation and economic growth without capital imports. It is argued that the key lies in the Keynesian-Schumpeterian credit-investment nexus: Given certain preconditions, the central bank can allow a credit expansion which finances new investment and creates the savings necessary to balance the national accounts. It is further argued and confirmed in empirical data that one of the biggest impediments to such a process is formal or informal dollarization which limits the policy scope of the central bank. Moreover, a stable banking system with a broad outreach as well as a low degree of pass-through between the exchange rate and domestic prices seem to be a necessary condition for this process to work.

      • Preview
        Challenges and Opportunities for Developing Countries in Producing Biofuels (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2006, 26 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        What: The increase in oil prices has had the effect of improving the commercial viability of alternatives to oil. One group of energy bearers that has benefited particularly and that is of major potential importance to developing countries is biofuels. This study will present the evolution of international trade of biofuels and feedstock, and current trade regulations (tariffs and non-tariffs measures). It will also briefly detail current incentive policies in the EU and the United States for developing biofuels and look for indications of the policy they will adopt regarding consumption and import of biofuels. The study will then turn to issues relevant for biofuels production in developing countries. It will try to analyze what is at stake about food security, land uses, employment, public finance and environmental concerns. The final section of the study will identify some recent development of prices.

      • Preview
        China’s Development Trajectory: A Strategic Opening for Industrial Policy in the South (English)
        Report by Poon, Daniel /UNCTAD, 2014, 50 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation

        Through the lens of the five key sectors outlined by Arthur Lewis, this paper assess China’s economic trajectory that shows signs of indigenous technological capabilities taking root. A new gap between China’s industrial ambitions and its current capabilities provides a strategic opening for other developing countries to bargain for enhanced opportunities for domestic investment, learning, technical change and structural transformation.

      • Preview
        Closing the Distance - Partnerships for Sustainable and Resilient Transport Systems in Small Island Developing States
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 102 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The report informs about the maritime transport situation in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and underscores the strategic importance of this economic sector for SIDS economies and communities. The overall objective is to help raise awareness about the role of sustainable and resilient maritime transport infrastructure and services for the sustainable development prospects of SIDS. It presents data on relevant aspects, including shipping connectivity levels, direct and indirect shipping services, port issues, as well as trade structure and patterns. The report points to relevant opportunities which could be capitalised upon to support SIDS sustainable development and “blue growth”. Finally, it concludes with a number of suggestions and recommendations for the way forward.

      • Preview
        Combating Poverty and Inequality: Structural Change, Social Policy and Politics (English)
        Report by UNRISD, 2010, 380 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        Combating Poverty and Inequality is published just as global leaders meet to review and recommit themselves to a set of goals for reducing poverty agreed, under vastly different circumstances, a decade ago. The optimism of the new millennium is now overshadowed by the effects of multiple, interrelated crises. Progress in many areas appears threatened and resources are more constrained. This volume provides a timely reminder of the strengths and limitations of various approaches to addressing poverty in the current context.

      • Preview
        Commodities at a Glance. Special Issue on Energy
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 67 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies

        This quarter’s edition of UNCTAD’s Commodities at a Glance describes world energy trade, price, production and consumption trends, with a particular focus on Africa. Over the last three decades, world consumption of primary energy nearly doubled from 280 quadrillion British thermal unit (BTU) in 1980 to 490 quadrillion Btu in 2008 (see Figure 4). A number of factors have been attributed to this dramatic increase in consumption including global economic growth, rapidly industrializing developing countries, increasing world population and urbanization. Over the next two decades, the world population is forecast to grow from approximately 7 billion to 8.32 billion, with the likelihood of rising demand for primary energy resources. International Energy Agency (IEA) projections suggest that between 2008 and 2035 global demand for such resources will increase by 36 per cent or 1.2 per cent per year on average. Most of this projected increase is expected to come from non-OECD countries, particularly India and China, accounting for 18 per cent and 36 per cent respectively of this increase. The Middle East is expected to experience the most rapid demand growth at 2 per cent per year largely due to fast growing energy demand sectors, such as petrochemical industries and power generation. Demand in Africa, particularly sub-Saharan Africa, is also expected to grow as electricity supply needs to increase in response to population growth. However, a lack of infrastructure in the region is expected to limit access to primary energies, and demand growth is projected to match the world average at 1.2 per cent per year. Together, non-OECD countries will account for about 93 per cent of global primary energy demand growth by 2035.

      • Preview
        A Comparative Assessment of How Trade Liberalization and the Economic Crisis Have Impacted India and South Africa (English)
        Note by ICTSD, 2010, 4 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Globalization and Development Strategies

        It is widely accepted that though the financial and economic crisis broke out in the United States and mainly engulfed the developed industrial countries in 2008, its impact was significant across the globe.However, the generalised effect of the crisis neither meant that the extent and nature of the impact was the same across countries, nor that the recovery from the crisis induced recession was simultaneous or similarly robust. This note is concerned with comparing the impact of the crisis on two large countries located in very different contexts, namely India and South Africa.

      • Preview
        Connecting to Global Markets (English)
        Case study by Jansen, Marion; Jallab, Mustapha and Smeets, Maarten., 2014, 236 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Developing countries and emerging economies have played an ever-expanding role in world trade flows in recent decades but they still face a number of constraints in connecting to global markets. In this volume, members of the WTO’s academic network in developing countries — the WTO Chairs Programme — identify major challenges in their respective countries and how to overcome them.

      • Preview
        Coordination Failures in Immigration Policy (English)
        Working paper by Giordani , Paolo E., Ruta, Michele, 2011, 42 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Migration and Development, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        We propose a theoretical framework for analyzing the problems associated to unilateral immigration policy in receiving countries and for evaluating the grounds for reform of international institutions governing immigration. We build a model with multiple destination countries and show that immigration policy in one country is influenced by measures adopted abroad as migrants choose where to locate (in part) in response to differences in immigration policy. This interdependence gives rise to a leakage effect of immigration policy, an international externality well documented in the empirical literature. In this environment, immigration policy becomes strategic and unilateral behavior may lead to coordination failures, where receiving countries are stuck in welfare inferior equilibria. We then study the conditions under which a coordination failure is more likely to emerge and argue that multilateral institutions that help receiving countries make immigration policy commitments would address this inefficiency.

      • Preview
        Costa Rica: Trade Opening, FDI Attraction and Global Production Sharing (English)
        Working paper by WTO, 2011, 38 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        Costa Rica has managed to combine an active agenda in the Multilateral Trade Negotiations (MTNs) at the WTO with the negotiation of several Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs). Such PTAs, most notably those with the US, China and the EU, will boost the share of total exports benefiting from preferential access in the destination markets from 24% to over 83%. Along this path of trade liberalization, the country has placed a strong emphasis on the attraction of FDI in high-tech manufacturing and services activities, producing a substantial transformation in the structure of its exports and inserting a fair share of the economy into Global Value Chains (GVCs) . As a result, about 43% of the country’s total exports are related to GVCs, with an average of 36% of such exported value being added domestically.

      • Preview
        Costing MDG Gaps in the Asia-Pacific (English)
        Policy brief by UNESCAP, 2010, 4 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Poverty

        Although the Asia-Pacific region has made significant progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs),most of its countries are still off-track on one or more indicators. This policy brief examines what would it take for countries in the Asia-Pacific region to meet their MDG targets by 2015. It first focuses on the income-poverty gap which continues to persist despite high rates of growth. It then goes on to provide estimates of the resources needed for closing the MDG gaps in the areas of education, health, nutrition and sanitation. It concludes with a few remarks on policy challenges in the light of the findings.

      • Preview
        Country reports: Science and technology promotion, advice and application for the achievement of the millennium development goals (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD Commission on science and technology for development, 2005
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology

        Country reports on the achievement of the MDGs and the progress made in Science and technology promotion in 11 developing countries (Angola, Cameroon, China, India, Iran, Italy, Jamaica, Romania, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka and Sudan),

      • Preview
        Creative Economy Report 2008: The Challenge of Assessing the Creative Economy Towards Informed Policy-making (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2008, 357 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        What: This report analyses the so called "creative economy" as a way to generate socio-economic growth, job creation and development. It is the first study to present the United Nations' perspective on this new concept related to art, culture, media, business and technology industries that use intellectual capital as a primary input. With the contribution from five UN organizations, the document provides information about the emerging creative economy to enhance policy makers' understanding and action in this field, especially in developing countries. There is also a chapter dedicated to the role of intellectual property and technology. How: The report discusses concepts and the structure of the creative economy, analyses its impact on international trade and gives policies suggestions. A statistical annex provides trade data of creative goods and services. Who: Policy makers as well as lecturers and researches interested in creative economy.

      • Preview
        Creative Economy Report 2010 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 423 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report presents an updated perspective of the United Nations as a whole on creativity, knowledge and access to information as powerful engines driving economic growth and promoting development in a globalizing world. It provides empirical evidence that the creative industries are among the most dynamic emerging sectors in world trade. It also shows that the interface among creativity, culture, economics and technology, as expressed in the ability to create and circulate intellectual capital, has the potential to generate income, jobs and export earnings while at the same time contributing to social inclusion, cultural diversity and human development. This report addresses the challenge of assessing the creative economy with a view to informed policy-making by outlining the conceptual, institutional and policy frameworks in which this economy can flourish.

      • Preview
        Data Protection Regulations and International Data Flows: Implications for Trade and Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 154 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology

        This study is a timely contribution to our understanding of how data protection regulations and international data flows affect international trade. It reviews the experience in different parts of the world and of different stakeholders. The study identifies key concerns that data protection and privacy legislation need to address. It also examines the present patchwork of global, regional and national frameworks to seek common ground and identify areas where different approaches tend to diverge. The last part of the study considers possible future policy options, taking the concerns of all stakeholders into account.

      • Preview
        Developing Business Linkages For Green Affordable Housing In Zambia
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 50 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Enterprise Development, Investment

        This report investigates the potential for building business linkages between micro, small and medium sized enterprises (MSMEs) in the construction industry in Zambia and large domestic and international companies and investors. It adopts a step-by-step methodology, taking international firms and property developers through the full process of doing business in the low and middle income housing sector in Zambia – highlighting opportunities to partner with local MSMEs and others stakeholders.

      • Preview
        Developing Country Interests in Climate Change Action and the Implications for a Post-2012 Climate Change Regime (English)
        Discussion paper by Cosbey, Aaron/IISD, 2009, 52 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        The paper focuses on the cross-cutting objective of advancing development goals in a sustainable way, making the case that there are strategic interests for developing countries in addressing climate change while simultaneously addressing nationally defined development priorities. The paper argues for international support for such efforts, and suggests elements that might feature in an international approach. The paper finishes by speculating on what those sorts of elements might mean for the shape of a post-2012 climate regime and the carbon market that might accompany it.

      • Preview
        Developing Productive Capacities in Least Developed Countries: Issues for Discussion (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2010, 8 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        During the period 2002–2007, least developed countries (LDCs) as a group experienced high gross domestic product (GDP) growth rates, which surpassed the 7 per cent target of the Brussels Programme of Action. However, about a quarter of the LDCs continued to experience very sluggish growth or economic regression. Moreover, growth was associated with a pattern of insertion into the global economy based on commodity exports, low-skill manufactures and tourism, which meant that they were highly vulnerable to external shocks. Many LDCs are now at a critical moment in which they face a double challenge. Firstly, they must find productive jobs and livelihoods for the millions of young people who are entering the labour force each year; secondly the LDCs must deal with the employment challenge in an open-economy context.

      • Preview
        Development and Globalization: Facts and Figures 2016 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 233 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This report presents achievements and prospects on the Sustainable Development Goals adopted by the United Nations in 2015. It organizes the goals into broad themes and targets using statistical graphs and figures. The report describes the evolution of developing countries in the context of globalization and presents economic growth and social indicators for developing countries.

      • Preview
        Development Dimensions of Intellectual Property in Nepal (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 59 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy

        Divided in 5 parts, this report on the development dimension of intellectual property rights (DDIP) was developed in response to a technical assistance request from Nepal. Part 1 outlines the major framework for intellectual property (IP) policy in Nepal. Part 2 recommends a number of legislative, policy and practical steps to facilitate and enable the technological and innovation functions of IP protection. Part 3 examines the access to medicine regime of Nepal and recommends for Nepal to implement the transition period for the protection of pharmaceutical product patents and pharmaceutical test data that lasts until 2033. Part 4 analyses Nepal's access and benefit sharing regime, the interface between IP and biodiversity, and options for defensive and positive protection of genetic resources (GRs) and traditional knowledge (TK). The recommendations of this report have legislative and institutional dimensions that require capacity building, and in some cases, additional studies to develop specific action plans for implementation.

      • Preview
        Development-led Globalization: Towards Sustainable and Inclusive Development Paths (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 106 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This report is presented in three parts. The first sets out some of the main features of FDG and suggests that its outcomes have been much more uneven, unstable and unfair than its proponents had claimed or expected. It also shows that there has been a systemic failure to create the economic environment needed to promote productive investment and employment. However, this raises the question of why some countries have been able to grow strongly over the past two or three decades. This section seeks to account for that, and to draw lessons from their success. The second part outlines a rebalancing agenda which aims to deliver lasting and inclusive development gains. It sketches a three-pronged strategy focusing on (a) building developmental states that are able to mobilize domestic resources, strengthen productive capacities and share the gains in an equitable manner; (b) creating more robust multilateral structures capable of forging collective responses to the challenges that countries will face in the years ahead, including those required to tame finance and to promote investment-led responses to climate change; and (c) strengthening regional ties, including through South–South cooperation, in order to enhance stability and open new growth opportunities. The final section will argue that rebalancing is not a narrow technocratic challenge. A true break with the fundamentalist thinking underlying FDG will involve a change of attitudes, morals and values. Accordingly, this report insists on the importance of a normative agenda as an integral part of the broad-based rebalancing involved in the shift towards DLG.

      • Preview
        Development Strategies: Integrating Governance and Growth
        Working paper by Levy, Brian; Fukuyama, Francis/World Bank, 2010, 46 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        A frontier challenge for development strategy is to move beyond prescribing optimal economic policies, and instead – taking a broad view of the interactions between economic, political and social constraints and dynamics -- to identify entry points capable of breaking a low-growth logjam, and initiating a virtuous spiral of cumulative change. The paper lays out four distinctive sequences via which the different dimensions might interact and evolve over time, and provides country-specific illustrations of each. Each sequence is defined by the principal focus of its initial step: 1) State capacity building provides a platform for accelerated growth via improved public sector performance and enhanced credibility for investors; strengthened political institutions and civil society come onto the agenda only over the longer term; 2) Transformational governance has as its entry point the reshaping of a country’s political institutions. Accelerated growth could follow, insofar as institutional changes enhance accountability, and reduce the potential for arbitrary discretionary action -- and thereby shift expectations in a positive direction; 3) For 'just enough governance', the initial focus is on growth itself, with the aim of addressing specific capacity and institutional constraints as and when they become binding -- not seeking to anticipate and address in advance all possible institutional constraints; 4) Bottom-up development engages civil society as an entry point for seeking stronger state capacity, lower corruption, better public services, improvements in political institutions more broadly -- and a subsequent unlocking of constraints on growth. The sequences should not be viewed as a technocratic toolkit from which a putative reformer is free to choose. Recognizing that choice is constrained by history, the paper concludes by suggesting an approach for exploring what might the scope for identifying practical ways forward in specific country settings.

      • Preview
        Development, Trade and the WTO : A Handbook (English)
        Manual by Hoekman, Bernard; Mattoo, Aaditya; English, Philip/World Bank., 2004, 672 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Developing countries are increasingly confronted with the need to address trade policy related issues in international agreements, most prominently the World Trade Organization (WTO). New WTO negotiations on a broad range of subjects were launched in November 2001. Determining whether and how international trade agreements can support economic development is a major challenge. Stakeholders in developing countries must be informed on the issues and understand how their interests can be pursued through international cooperation. This handbook offers guidance on the design of trade policy reform, surveys key disciplines and the functioning of the World Trade Organization (WTO), and discusses numerous issues and options that confront developing countries in using international cooperation to improve domestic policy and obtain access to export markets. Many of the issues discussed are also relevant in the context of regional integration agreements. Separate sections of the handbook summarize what constitutes sound trade policy; the major aspects of the WTO from a development perspective; policy issues in the area of merchandise trade and the liberalization of international transactions in services; protection of intellectual property rights and economic development; new regulatory subjects that are emerging in the agenda of trade talks; and enhancing participation of developing countries in the global trading system.

      • Preview
        Drivers of Industrial Competitiveness in Tanzania: A Capability and Sectoral Approach (English)
        Presentation by Manuel Albaladejo, Queen Elizabeth House University of Oxford , 2004, 23 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: A presentation made in 2003 to an UNCTAD Expert Meeting giving an analysis of the competitiveness of different sectors in Tanzania. It gives an overview of growth in both the manufacturing and other sectors in Tanzania before looking at some of the reasons for underperformance and suggesting possible capacity upgrading strategies. Who: Useful to anyone concerned with economic development in Tanzania but also African LDCs more generally, particularly regarding policy options How: This presentation provides a good example of how to use empirical data to draw out specific policy inclusions and with additional background reading on could be the basis of an excellent country case study.

      • Preview
        E-Commerce and Tourism: New perspectives and challenges for developing countries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Commission on Enterprise, Business Facilitation and Development, 2000, 20 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology

        What: A cross-sectoral analysis of how ICTs can foster the development of tourism in developing countries. It shows the link between the old and the new economy and the possibility that developing countries have to maximize benefits from the tourism industry. Who: Students or teachers involved in tourism or ICTs applied to development How: This document can be a good background paper for an introduction on e-tourism. The annexes give excellent examples for case studies.

      • Preview
        Economic development in Africa 2002 - From Adjustment to Poverty Reduction: What is New? (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Division on Globalization and Development, 2002, 76 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        Focusing on Africa, this report from 2002 describes how the goal of development policy has shifted away from structural reform and towards poverty reduction however it argues that the emphasis is still on liberalization without a clear analysis of how pro-market policies in trade, finance and agriculture will actually benefit the poor. This could be useful for anyone debating Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers both in Africa and beyond. Raises some interesting, and controversial, discussion points about the benefits of liberalization.

      • Preview
        Economic Development in Africa 2006- Doubling Aid: Making the “Big Push” Work (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2006, 6 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Finance for Development

        What: The 2006 report on Economic Development in Africa addresses the question of how \\"doubling aid to Africa\\" could substantially contribute to economic and social development in the region. It provides readers with a comprehensive historical overview of models of foreign aid and identifies flaws in the current aid system. The report suggests revisiting the \\"big push\\" development strategy first put forward in the 1950\\'s, and highlights the importance of coherence and quality aspects in aid supply on the donor-side, as well as the role of policies pursued by recipients. A new architecture of aid should ensure a stronger focus on developing productive capacities, and respond to local and regional needs instead of imposing conditionalities. A reduction of unnecessary competition among donors and a greater multilateralization can help to make aid more efficient. How: Can be used as an entry reading into the aid literature and contributes one position to the ongoing discussion. Who: Researchers and lecturers in international development economics dealing with aid issues.

      • Preview
        Economic Development in Africa 2007 - Reclaiming Policy Space: Domestic Resource Mobilization and Developmental States (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2007, 123 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: The report urges African countries to rely more on domestic resource mobilization for their financial needs thus claiming ownership of their development processes and addressing their genuine priorities. It is informative in terms of actual and theoretical examples of beneficial macroeconomic state interventions, particularly in the African context and when it comes to development financing. How: The report can be used as background material for macroeconomics classes and may spark research ideas in the area of domestic resources mobilization. Who: Faculty engaged in teaching macroeconomics or in research on domestic resource mobilization.

      • Preview
        Economic Development in Africa 2007: Reclaiming Policy Space: Domestic Resource Mobilization and Developmental States - Overview (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2007, 11 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: The report urges African countries to rely more on domestic resource mobilization for their financial needs thus claiming ownership of their development processes and addressing their genuine priorities. It is informative in terms of actual and theoretical examples of beneficial macroeconomic state interventions, particularly in the African context and when it comes to development financing. How: The report can be used as background material for macroeconomics classes and may spark research ideas in the area of domestic resources mobilization. Who: Faculty engaged in teaching macroeconomics or in research on domestic resource mobilization.

      • Preview
        Economic Development in Africa 2008 Export Performance Following Trade Liberalization: Some Patterns and Policy Perspectives (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2008, 113 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This year's Economic development in Africa report examines Africa's export performance following trade liberalization, with a view to proposing policies to improve export performance. The report shows that the extensive trade liberalization undertaken by African countries has not been followed by a substantial improvement in their export performance. This suggests that there are serious obstacles hampering a supply response to the new incentive structure created by the removal of barriers to trade. The obstacles mainly consist of structural problems related to weak capacity in the production and marketing of exports in both the agricultural and manufacturing sectors. Strong State capacity is required to increase access to factors of production and improve the business environment. In the manufacturing sector, efforts to improve all aspects of productivity and to create efficient export promotion agencies that help firms to identify and seize opportunities in export markets should be at the heart of industrial policy. The agricultural sector would benefit from better research and development, irrigation facilities and extension services. Greater liberalization of agricultural trade in the markets of developed countries is also key to improving Africa's agricultural export performance.

      • Preview
        Economic Development In Africa Report 2011: Fostering industrial development in Africa in the new global environment
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 135 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The Report provides an overview of the stages, performance and lessons learned from previous attempts at promoting industrial development in Africa, and disusses key elements for a new industrial policy for Africa. The report also sets out a framework for the diagnosis of the current situation and the design of a a strategy tailored to the needs of each country and calibrated with the new global environment.

      • Preview
        Economic Development in Africa Report 2012 - Structural Transformation and Sustainable Development in Africa (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 161 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The Economic Development in Africa Report 2012 examines how African countries can promote sustainable development. Chapter 1 is on conceptual issues. It discusses different views of the relationship between the economy and the environment and of how resource use and environmental impacts typically change during the course of a development process. Chapter 2 presents new stylized facts associated with resource use and productivity in Africa. Chapter 3 provides a strategic framework for sustainable structural transformation. Chapter 4 identifies policies for sustainable structural transformation in Africa, with a focus on three key economic sectors: energy, industry and agriculture. The final chapter presents a summary of the main findings and policy recommendations of the Report.

      • Preview
        Economic Development in Africa Report 2013 Intra-african Trade: Unlocking Private Sector Dynamism (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 158 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Globalization and Development Strategies, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        The main message of this year's report is that intra-African trade presents opportunities for sustained growth and development in Africa, but that seizing these opportunitiesrequires private sector dynamism to be unlocked and a development-based approach to integration to be adopted. Chapter 1 provides empirical facts on intra-African trade and investment. Chapter 2 examines the drivers of intra-Africantrade. Chapter 3 focuses on the structure of enterprises in Africa and identifies the distinctive features of the enterprise structures that inhibit trade. Chapter 4 discusses how to boost intra-African trade in the context of developmental regionalism. Chapter 5 provides a summary of the main findings and recommendations of the report.

      • Preview
        Economic Development in Africa Report 2014: Catalysing Investment for Transformative Growth in Africa (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 110 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment

        The report examines how to boost and use investment in support of economic transformation and sustained growth in Africa. The focus of the report on total investment reflects the fact that all components of investment matter for growth and development and so the focus of policy should be on how to exploit the complementarities among the various components, rather than promoting one component at the expense of the other. The report also provides actionable policy recommendations on how African countries could accelerate investment for transformative growth.

      • Preview
        Economic Development in Africa Report 2016 (English)
        Also available in French
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 166 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        The Economic Development in Africa Report 2016, subtitled Debt Dynamics and Development Finance in Africa, examines some of the key policy issues that underlie Africa’s domestic and external debt, and provides policy guidance on the delicate balance required between financing development alternatives and overall debt sustainability. This report analyses Africa’s international debt exposure and how domestic debt is increasingly playing a role in some African countries as a development finance option. It also examines complementary financing options and how they relate to debt. The report makes relevant and actionable policy recommendations which address the roles that African Governments, external partners and the international community can play in ensuring that Africa’s public debt remains sustainable.

      • Preview
        Economic Development in Africa Report 2017 - Tourism for Transformative and Inclusive Growth (English)
        Also available in French
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 206 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        At a time when the continent is building its productive capacities, deepening regional integration and pursuing economic diversification, tourism in Africa continues to grow. The report suggests that to better harness the potential of the tourism sector to contribute to inclusive growth, structural transformation and achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals, Africa should adopt policies that strengthen intersectoral linkages, boost intraregional tourism and promote peace.

      • Preview
        Economic Report on Africa 2005: Meeting the Challenges of Unemployment and Poverty in Africa (English)
        Report by UNECA, 2005, 298 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        What: The Economic Report on Africa (ERA) is the flagship publication of the UN Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The 2005 edition shows that despite record economic growth in Africa, poverty is actually getting worse. The report focuses on four key challenges for Africa in the fight against unemployment and poverty: structural transformation to break away from the under-utilization of rural labour, addressing widespread youth unemployment, harnessing globalization to create decent jobs, and creating an enabling environment for the fast expansion of private sector jobs through increased investments. The report stresses that it is up to governments to transform African economies, particularly by taking advantage of opportunities presented by globalization. How: Background reading on Africa's recent performance and on unemployment and poverty in the African context. Who: Policy makers, researchers and lecturers dealing with African economic development.

      • Preview
        Economic Report on Africa 2007: Accelerating Africa's Development Through Diversification (English)
        Report by UNECA, 2007, 184 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: The Economic Report on Africa (ERA) is the flagship publication of the UN Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The 2007 edition was the first in the series that was published in collaboration with the African Union. In the first part, the ERA always highlights recent economic and social developments in Africa, including global trends that have a major influence on the continent. The second part always focuses on a particular theme, this time "diversification". The report finds that the diversification process in Africa is highly influenced by investment, per capita income, and the degree of openness of trade, macroeconomic policy stance and the institutional framework. Based on these findings the report recommends several strategies to promote diversification in African economies. How: Background reading on Africa's recent performance and on diversification as a development strategy. Who: Policy makers, researchers and lecturers dealing with African economic development.

      • Preview
        Economic Report on Africa 2007: Overview (English)
        Summary by UNECA, 2007, 12 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: The Economic Report on Africa (ERA) is the flagship publication of the UN Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The 2007 edition was the first in the series that was published in collaboration with the African Union. In the first part, the ERA always highlights recent economic and social developments in Africa, including global trends that have a major influence on the continent. The second part always focuses on a particular theme, this time "diversification". The report finds that the diversification process in Africa is highly influenced by investment, per capita income, and the degree of openness of trade, macroeconomic policy stance and the institutional framework. Based on these findings the report recommends several strategies to promote diversification in African economies. How: Background reading on Africa's recent performance and on diversification as a development strategy. Who: Policy makers, researchers and lecturers dealing with African economic development.

      • Preview
        Economic Report on Africa 2010: Promoting high-level sustainable growth to reduce unemployment in Africa (English)
        Report by UNECA, 2010, 235 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This report is organized into two parts. The first part, consisting of chapters 1 to 3,discusses current trends in the global economy and African economies. The second part, covering chapters 4 to 6, is the thematic part and deals with how to use the challenges created by the recent global economic crisis as an opportunity to develop and implement policies that lead to the structural transformation of African economies and result in sustained high growth with a high level of employment creation.

      • Preview
        Economic Report on Africa 2013-Making the Most of Africa’s Commodities: Industrializing for Growth, Jobs and Economic Transformation (English)
        Report by United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, 2013, 260 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies

        The report examines the need for Africa to industrialize, accelerate and sustain growth, as well as create jobs for its youth, and achieve economic transformation. This report also underscores the need for African countries to develop appropriate local policies, boost infrastructure, develop human skills and technological capabilities, and foster regional integration and intra-African trade. This report is based on the studies of nine African countries, which have helped generate evidence-based policy recommendations.

      • Preview
        Economic Report on Africa 2014: Dynamic industrial policy in Africa (English)
        Report by UNECA, 2014, 148 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        Based on commissioned studies of 11 African countries and experiences from the global south, this report identifies the challenges and pitfalls faced in designing and implementing industrial policy and how they have been overcome. And it points to the key institutional features that allow industrial policy to be dynamically and organically connected to the processes and players underlying industrialization.

      • Preview
        Economic Report on Africa 2015: Industrializing Through Trade (English)
        Report by UNECA, 2015, 214 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        This Report examines and provides analysis on the critical elements of effectively fostering industrialization and hence structural transformation based on an extensive review of experience with industrialised countries and Africa’s post-independence attempt at industrialization. Ten country case studies were also conducted to shed light on industrializing through trade. The findings from this exercise informed the policy recommendations contained in this Report.

      • Preview
        Eight Strategies for Development in Comparison (English)
        Article by Jan Priewe, 2015, 42 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy, VI Members Research

        The article provides a broad-based overview on competing development strategies and the economic performance of developing countries, mainly since the year 2000. Four traditional mainstream development strategies are discussed (Washington Consensus, neo-liberalism, “good governance” and MDGs) and three long-debated key strategic issues are reconsidered (inward or outward development with export-led growth, industrialisation or growth with predominant primary goods exports, foreign aid-based development). A heterodox approach to development with a focus on macroeconomic policies and structural change is added and discussed in more detail. Implicitly, this lays the groundwork for a macroeconomic theory of development.

      • Preview
        Electronic Commerce Strategies for Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Commission on Enterprise, Business Facilitation and Development, 2002, 23 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology

        What: A synthetic overview of how developing countries can include the ICT dimension in their development strategies and create an enabling environment, so that the Internet and ICTs can effectively lead to economic and social development. Includes best practices and helpful instances of national e-strategies. Who: Anyone interested in the role of governments in fostering development through ICTs (especially e-commerce) How: Case studies, discussions or simulations based on the national policies outlined in the paper.

      • Preview
        Empowering MDG Strategies Through Inclusive Economic Development (English)
        Outline by UNCTAD, 2010, 28 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        Summing up the recent experience of Least Developed Countries (shock waves of the global financial crisis, fluctuation in commodity prices), particularly the implications of the global ‘Great Recession’, this paper seeks to sketch the general outlines of a post-crisis MDG-related development strategy for Least Developed Countries. While there is obviously great variety among LDCs, they do share some important common structural characteristics. Consequently, they are likely to share some common needs for the kinds of reforms of their development strategies.

      • Preview
        Enabling the Graduation of LDCs: Enhancing the Role of Commodities and Improving Agricultural Productivity (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 84 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies

        The Fourth United Nations Conference on Least Developed Countries (LDC-IV) took place in Istanbul (Turkey) in May 2011 and adopted the Istanbul Programme of Action (IPoA) for LDCs for the Decade 2011–2020. The overall question is how can as many LDCs as possible graduate from the LDC category, given the immense socioeconomic challenges facing them, especially in the face of excessive fragility and vulnerability to shocks of their growth performance? The present publication, argues that the boom-bust cycle of the 2000s showed in stark terms that natural resources play a crucial role in LDCs’ economic growth, poverty reduction and food security. In this regard, the publication articulates the dangers of excessive dependence of LDCs’ exports on a few commodities where some five product groups dominate the export earnings of these countries during the 1995–2010 period. The publication consists of four broad chapters. The first chapter sets an analytical construct (framework) for meeting the graduation objective, with a succinct analysis of the challenges, opportunities and prospects vis-à-vis the established criteria for graduation. The second chapter provides evidence-based analysis on the impact of the recent multiple global crises on commodity-dependent LDCs, including at household level, together with policy responses. Chapter three examines the food security situation in LDCs in the light of the precipitous decline in agricultural productivity and the immense shock which people in LDCs experienced as a result of the recent global surge in food prices. Finally, chapter four provides policy conclusions and recommendations on how LDCs can realize the potential of their commodities sector to become a lever for the development and structural transformation of their economies.

      • Preview
        Enhancing Linkages Between Tourism and the Sustainable Agriculture Sectors in the United Republic of Tanzania
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 58 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The main objective of this report is to enhance the understanding of linkages between tourism and agriculture, as well as propose suggestions for how they could be strengthened with the aim of promoting bottom-up sustainable development in the United Republic of Tanzania. In order to promote sustainable development, this report proposes a set of potential thematic strategies that can be used as stepping-stones for building an institutional framework able to link the tourism and agriculture sectors at multiple levels – country, regional, local and community.

      • Preview
        Estimating the Impact of Trade Specialization and Trade Policy on Poverty in Developing Countries- Trade and Poverty Paper Series No. 6 (English)
        Discussion paper by Santos-Paulino, Amelia and Thornquist, Disa/UNCTAD, 2015, 23 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Poverty

        The paper investigates the impact of trade specialization on reducing poverty in developing countries. It evaluates the contribution of agriculture in low-income economies as a primary source of income. It also examines how developing countries can move out from commodities to agriculture. The paper argues that agriculture has more potential benefits when placed with the right policy approach in relation to improving livelihoods, jobs, productive capacity, and enabling inclusive sustainable development.

      • Preview
        Extractive Industries : Optimizing Value Retention in Host Countries (English)
        Report by Sigam, Claudine, Garcia, Leonardo/ UNCTAD, 2012, 54 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies

        This paper examines ways in which local content in the extractive industries can be addressed.. In this respect, the paper is divided in five parts. Part 1 describes the structure of the oil and gas and mining industries, including a discussion of the margins in the oil value chain as well as the stakeholders. Part 2 explains the positive and negative impacts of natural resources exploitation in host countries. Part 3 identifies the main challenges that developing countries face in optimizing value retention and examines ways in which they can be addressed. Part 4 presents three different country experiences of local industry development strategies in the extractive industries. The paper concludes with some policy implications and conclusions with regards to local content development strategies.

      • Preview
        Farm Support and Trade Rules: Towards a New Paradigm Under the 2030 Agenda (English)
        Report by Musselli, Irene/UNCTAD, 2016, 30 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Facilitation, Trade Related Capacity Building

        There is a need to move beyond existing metrics in agricultural trade governance. This on account of major changes in farm support policies and in the overall policy framework. The way ahead requires a pragmatic and ground-breaking approach. A comprehensive approach is needed to improve coherence between farm support policies and sustainability concerns. The boundaries of the Green Box have to be redefined accordingly. Specifically, Green Box transfers have to be made conditional on the respect of specific agri-environmental practices. Decoupled income support not subject to agrienvironmental “cross-compliance” conditions should only be available to low-income or resource-poor producers. It is also important to acknowledge the fact that different developing countries have different agricultural profiles and different needs for farm support, and to give operational meaning to these differences. Overall, trade policy in agriculture should be re-oriented towards context-specific, circumstantial assessments, informed by equitable considerations and sustainability imperatives.

      • Preview
        FDI-assisted Development in the Light of the Investment Development Path Paradigm: Evidence from Central and Eastern European Countries (English)
        Article by Boudier-Bensebaa, Fabienne, 2008, 32 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment

        This article analyzes the case of the Central and Eastern European countries (CEECs) as an interesting case of FDI-assisted development strategies in transition economies. CEECs saw a surge of inward FDI over the past decade and a recent increase in outward FDI from the region. The analysis is based on the investment development path (IDP) framework. First, a cluster analysis is used to divide the CEECs into more homogeneous groupings. Econometric and statistical analyses are then carried out to delineate the different IDPs followed by the CEECs. The results indicate that (i) the position of the CEECs is at stage one or two (out of five stages) of the IDP; (ii) the CEECs are diverging from EU15 in terms of outward investment position but converging in terms of GDP; (iii) the IDPs within the five sub-groups are converging, and (iv) within the group of the CEECs less developed and more developed countries converge in terms of outward investment position but not in terms of GDP.

      • Preview
        Financing an Inclusive and Green Future: A Supportive Financial System and Green Growth for Achieving the Mdgs in Asia and the Pacific (English)
        Report by ESCAP, 2010, 132 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Finance for Development, Globalization and Development Strategies

        The report focuses first on the Millennium Development Goals, warning that the region is off track on many crucial indicators, including child and maternal mortality. But it also shows that the Goals are still within reach, given sufficient determination and financial resources. Just as important, it identifies potential sources for those funds – at the national, regional and international levels including changing spending priorities. It also looks further ahead, showing how Asia and the Pacific can take the lead in developing a new financial architecture that will best support the Millennium Development Goals.

      • Preview
        Financing Global Climate Change Mitigation (English)
        Report by UNECE, 2010, 193 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        This report is one of the first outputs of the Global Energy Efficiency 21(GEE21) project, launched by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) in December 2008 at COP-14 in Poznan(Poland). The GEE21 project is designed to develop a more systematic exchange of experience on capacity building, policy reforms and investment project finance among countries of the other regionsof the world through their UN Regional Commissions in order to promote self-financing energy efficiency improvements that raise economic productivity, diminish fuel poverty and reduce environmental air pollution such as greenhouse gas emissions.

      • Preview
        Financing Organic Agriculture in Africa (English)
        Report by Kane, Malick and Pacini, Henrique/UNCTAD, 2016, 10 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty, Trade Related Capacity Building

        In recent years, there has been a steady reduction in the proportion of African government expenditure devoted to agriculture1. In view of the needs expressed by African OA stakeholders, UNCTAD sought to identify the needs, challenges and opportunities related to the funding of OA on the continent. Due to limitations in official data, a structured survey was conducted, with support from AfrONet2, among targeted OA stakeholders, including National Organic Agriculture Movements (NOAMs), farmers and exporters from 16 African countries. The results, presented in this technical paper, are in line with existing studies on both conventional and Organic Agriculture in Africa (FAO, 2012; UNCTAD, 2009). They highlight the existence of a persistent funding gap and the need to better address barriers faced by OA stakeholders in securing external capital to finance their activities.

      • Preview
        The Flying Geese Paradigm: a Critical Study of its Application to East Asian Regional Development (English)
        Discussion paper by Shigehisa Kasahara, 2004, 34 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        What: A discussion paper outlining the different versions of the flying gees paradigm of dynamic comparative advantage that try to provide a conceptual underpinning to the process of regional integration through transfer of technology and foreign direct investment in East Asia. The author analyzes the paradigm in the light of current developments in the region and makes some critical conclusions about its applicability. Who: Teachers and students of courses dealing with trade, regional integration, transfer of technology and foreign direct investment. Anyone interested in East Asian experience. How: Can serve as background reading to provide basic knowledge of the theory (good explanation with a graphical presentation), and to stimulate a discussion about its merits and shortcoming, its relevance to the current situation in the region and possibly also other regions.

      • Preview
        Food Security and Agricultural Development in Times of High Commodity Prices
        Report by Herrmann, Michael/UNCTAD, 2009, 40 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies

        The paper provides a new perspective on rising food prices by out mapping the many complex ways in which higher food prices are affecting developing countries, in particular the poorest. The analysis presented herein develops important and differentiated policy implications by distinguishing not only between implications in the shot run and medium run, and challenges on the supply side and demand side, but also between countries with agricultural potential and countries without such potential. Although globally food security is a challenge on both the demand side and the supply side, the paper argues that not all countries can effectively address this challenge from both angles. Furthermore, while higher food prices can provide important stimulus for agricultural development, it should not be expected that agricultural output will automatically rise in response to price changes, as higher prices in international markets are frequently not passed through to producers, and as many producers lack the capacity to respond to positive price signals where they are passed on. Both failures bear important implications for policies to address the dual challenge of food security and agricultural development.

      • Preview
        Foreign Direct Investment in the Ldcs: Lessons Learned from the Decade 2001-2010 and the Way Forward
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 244 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment

        This report provides a broad overview of FDI trends in LDCs over the last decade, focusing on the challenges LDCs face in attracting and benefitting from FDI, and suggests a plan of action to increase FDI and enhance its development impact in the next decade.

      • Preview
        from Regional Economic Communities to a Continental Free Trade Area - Strategic Tools to Assist Negotiators and Agricultural Policy Design in Africa (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 54 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Negotiations, Trade Related Capacity Building

        This report seeks to enhance knowledge among policymakers, experts and private sector stakeholders on essential policies and measures for establishing the CFTA and boost regional supply chains in not only agricultural commodities but also processed food products. This has been done through network analysis, which allows visualizing which country has competitive advantage over others in each trade agreement or regional context, as well as highlight overlapping regional agreements and identify trade hubs within Africa. It then carries out a specific analysis of agricultural products identified in the Abuja declaration and in other literature sources as being of interest. The ultimate purpose of this work is to inform African policy-makers with strategic tools to assist trade negotiations and agricultural policy design. Its focus is on the eight Regional Economic Communities that exist in Africa, as they do not only constitute key building blocks for economic integration, but are also important actors working in collaboration with the AU in ensuring peace and stability in their regions.

      • Preview
        The Future of Trade: The Challenges of Convergence Report of the Panel on Defining the Future of Trade Convened by WTO Director-general Pascal Lamy (English)
        Report by WTO, 2013, 54 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Chapter 1 of the Panel on Defining the Future of Trade Report discusses the contribution that trade opening has made to growth, development prosperity, the challenges of managing jobless growth, high unemployment, poverty, inequality, the environment and sustainable development, and the role of trade as well as investment in this context. Chapter 2 examines certain transformational actors that have shaped trade in recent years and will continue to do so in the future. Finally, chapter 3 contains a number of recommendations for possible action.

      • Preview
        G20 Policies and Export Performance of Least Developed Countries (English)
        Discussion paper by Nicita, Alessandro and Seiermann, Julia/UNCTAD, 2017, 34 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Negotiations

        This volume of the Policy Issues in International Trade and Commodities Research Study Series provides an overview and analysis of G20 trade policies, in particular tariffs and non-tariff measures, and provides suggestions on how they could be improved to increase the export competitiveness of LDCs. It finds that G20 tariffs remain restrictive in several sectors of importance for LDCs. More importantly, the results indicate that the G20 countries’ regulatory frameworks and the corresponding non-tariff measures (NTMs) alter relative competitiveness to the advantage of exporters that are capable of efficient compliance with NTMs, therefore penalizing exports originating in LDCs. The paper concludes with recommendations and suggests progress in Aid for Trade initiatives and increases in technical assistance programmes, both on bilateral and multilateral levels will help minimize LDCs' costs of compliance with NTMs and facilitate the integration of LDCs in the global economy.

      • Preview
        Gender at Work: A Companion to the World Development Report on Jobs (English)
        Report by World Bank, 2013, 91 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Gender

        A companion to the 2013 World Development Report on jobs, Gender at Work finds huge, persistent gender gaps at work around the world. This major new report advances our understanding of key trends, patterns and constraints, and offers innovative, promising approaches to policies and programs that can level the playing field.

      • Preview
        Gendered Dimensions of Development (English)
        Book by UNRISD, 2015, 463 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Gender

        This volume shed light on the multiple challenges of gender equity in an increasingly unequal world and invites reflection on the possibilities and pitfalls of integrating gender into development policy and practice. The collection is divided into two parts. The first part brings together a series of contributions that analyse development institutions, processes and policies from a gender perspective. The second part of the volume is concerned with the diverse manifestations of women’s agency, the strategies that have been deployed to produce gender-egalitarian change, and the complexities of individual and collective empowerment. It draws attention to the multiple sites of struggle as well as to the different facets of feminism as a transformative project.

      • Preview
        Gendered Impacts of Globalization. Employment and Social Protection (English)
        Report by Razavi, Shara, Azra, Camilla, Braunstein Elissa, Cook, Sarah, Goulding, Kristine, 2012, 108 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Gender

        The paper examines how globalization affects gendered access to employment and social protection, with a particular focus on informal employment, and the implications of these connections for policy and practice.

      • Preview
        Global Inequality: From Class to Location, from Proletarians to Migrants (English)
        Working paper by Milanovic, Branko, 2011, 25 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Migration and Development

        Inequality between world citizens in mid-19th century was such that at least a half of it could be explained by income differences between workers and capital-owners in individual countries. Real income of workers in most countries was similar and low. This was the basis on which Marxism built its universal appeal. More than 150 years later, in the early 21st century, the situation has changed fundamentally: more than 80 percent of global income differences is due to large gaps in mean incomes between countries, and unskilled workers’ wages in rich and poor countries often differ by a factor of 10 to 1. This is the basis on which a new global political issue of migration has emerged because income differences between countries make individual gains from migration large. The key coming issue will be how to deal with this challenge while acknowledging that migration is probably the most powerful tool for reducing global poverty and inequality.

      • Preview
        Globalization and economic convergence: An assessment (English)
        Discussion Paper by Robert Rowthorn &Richard Kozul-Wright, 2000, 43 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: This paper offers a critical survey of a strong globalization thesis that predicts a direct link from more open trade and investment regimes to faster economic growth in developing countries and income convergence across the global economy. Its examination of recent experience suggests that while in a more open and integrated world economy both the quantity and the quality of investment are influenced by external factors. Who: For teachers and students of globalization issues. How: As a background reading paper on globalization and economic convergence.

      • Preview
        Globalization for Development: the International Trade Perspective (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, Division on International Trade in Goods and Services, and Commodities, 2008, 105 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This publication provides analyses on some of the emerging trade and development opportunities and challenges for all countries, and developing countries in particular, in the context of rapid globalization, including south-south trade, increased international trade dynamism, increasing commodity prices, trade in services, energy and environment, aid for trade issues.

      • Preview
        Globalization myths: some historical reflections on integration, industrialization and growth (English)
        Discussion paper by Paul Bairoch and Richard Kozul-Wright, 1996, 35 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This interesting discussion paper says that it has become popular to draw parallels between current trends in globalization and the half century of international economic integration before the First World War. This paper assesses this historical parallel. It accepts that many features of today's international economy are not unique. However, it is skeptical of efforts to make a direct parallel with the earlier period and questions whether this earlier period of globalization should be seen as one of rapid growth and convergence rather than as one of uneven economic development, during which a very small group of countries were able to reinforce their domestic growth efforts through links to the international economy. For other countries, these same links did little to alter long-term growth prospects, and in some cases even hindered them.

      • Preview
        Globalization Reloaded: An UNCTAD Perspective (English)
        Discussion paper by Richard Kozul-Wright and Paul Rayment, 2004, 56 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This provocative paper questions the idea of the inevitability of globalization and argues that the form in which it has developed is the result of policy choices. Looking at trade and then finance they argue that for developing countries to remain committed to the international system, the rules and framework governing international economy must be more balanced and just This paper could be used as background reading for any course or presentation on the processes of economic globalization

      • Preview
        Governance and Anti-corruption Reforms in Developing Countries: Policies, Evidence and Ways Forward (English)
        Discussion paper by Khan, Mushtaq H., 2006, 38 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Globalization and Development Strategies

        International institutions and in particular the World Bank and the IMF are rightly giving a great deal of attention to issues of governance in developing countries, and particularly corruption. This paper identifies a number of different structural drivers of corruption that operate because of the poor fiscal capacities and structurally weak property rights of developing countries. These imply that aggregate corruption is likely to be high in all developing countries, but successful countries have institutions and governance capabilities that enable them to “manage” the structural drivers in ways that allow economic development and in turn create the conditions for a sustained improvement in good governance. In contrast, other developing countries lack these institutions and capabilities and suffer from poor economic prospects and political instability to varying extents.

      • Preview
        Green Economy: Why a Green Economy Matters for the Least Developed Countries (English)
        Report by UNEP,UNC TAD,UN-OHRLLS, 2011, 15 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This publication describes the policies and strategies that LDCs need to adopt to achieve successful transition to a green economy and accelerate their development

      • Preview
        Growing Through Manufacturing: Myanmar’s Industrial Transformation
        Working paper by Abe, Masato, 2014, 43 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        Recent reforms in Myanmar have already shown some positive impacts on the manufacturing sector, which must play a key role in the industrial transformation, including increased investment flows domestically and internationally and the development of fundamental infrastructure for the sector. Government promotion of the development of industrial zones and special economic zones is one of the main development activities for further trade and investment promotion in the manufacturing sector. Also presented are the results of the recently completed country-wide business survey with over 1000 manufacturers in Myanmar, particularly concerning the business climate in the manufacturing sector and the crucial issues for the development of the sector.

      • Preview
        Handbook on the Special and Preferential Tariff Scheme of China for Least Developed Countries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 219 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Facilitation

        China started to grant duty-free treatment to LDCs with diplomatic relations with China in 2001. In China’s customs tariff schedules (that is, the Customs Tariff of Import and Export of the People’s Republic of China), “duty-free” is referred to as “special and preferential tariff treatment for least developed countries” (herein after referred to as the “LDC scheme”). In response to the WTO decision on DFQF for LDC exports adopted at the sixth Ministerial Conference in Hong Kong (China) in December 2005, China announced at the United Nations High-Level Event on Millennium Development Goals held in 2008 that it would increase gradually the coverage of its LDC scheme to reach 95 per cent of the country’s total tariff lines. As a further step to help boost LDC exports to China, in March 2013 at the BRICS1 Summit held in South Africa, China announced its decision to increase its duty-free coverage to 97 per cent by 2015. The decision was implemented on 1 January 2015. Thus, China became the first developing country in WTO to fully meet the tariff line coverage requirement set out in the sixth Ministerial Declaration.

      • Preview
        Harnessing the Potential for Trade and Sustainable Growth in Zambia (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 73 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper sets out Zambia’s existing trade policy framework and identifies areas of possible reform and options for maximizing the contribution of trade to inclusive growth and sustainable development. It contains a review of the macroeconomic and trade performance of the economy between 1995 and 2013. It discusses the current trade policies and institutions so as to identify the major opportunities and challenges inherent in the Zambian economy and outlines the options for enhancing Zambia’s trade and sustainable real growth in the economy. Following a review of Zambia’s trade performance and the current tariff structure, the framework recommends a strategic trade policy calibrated to support industrial sector interests. Tariff-setting is an essential component of improving Zambia’s trade performance but is not the sole determinant. Other factors play a critical role in preventing the country from increasing its exports and ultimately the creation of employment, increased incomes and reduction of poverty, such as the cost of doing business and high trade costs.

      • Preview
        Harnessing Trade for Sustainable Development and a Green Economy
        Manual by WTO, 2011, 24 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        In 1992 the United Nations convened a landmark conference in Rio de Janeiro which set the tone and ambition for global policy on development and environment for the years to come. The results of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, popularly known as the Earth Summit, were reaffirmed in Johannesburg in 2002 at the World Summit on Sustainable Development. Global leaders will reconvene in Rio in 2012 at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20). They will consider progress made since the two earlier meetings, assess remaining challenges, and reset the world on a path towards sustainable development. Part II of this brochure offers a set of messages on sustainable development and trade that may be pronounced at the Rio+20 Conference. Part III looks at the workings of the WTO and how the multilateral trading system supports countries’ efforts to realize sustainable development and a green economy. Part IV examines the contribution of trade to sustainable development. Part V refers to green economy measures and discusses how WTO rules and monitoring mechanisms help ensure such measures are not disguised protectionism. Part VI looks at WTO efforts to help developing countries maximize the benefits of participation in international trade. And Part VII discusses the contribution to sustainable development that can be made through a successful completion of the Doha Round.

      • Preview
        The History and Challenges of Latin American Development (English)
        Working paper by José Antonio Ocampo, 2013, 32 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The publication offers rethinking the development agenda. It contains insights on capacity-building, technological progress, job opportunities and access to social benefits and how to include all of these into the interweaving them in society. It discusses employment with rights as a tool to eradicate inequality, close gaps and mainstreaming perspectives of gender, ethnic and racial equity. In essence this short publication suggests structural changes for making qualitative changes in the production structures of the countries in Latin America.

      • Preview
        Human Development Report 2013 – The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World (English)
        Report by UNDP, 2013, 216 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Globalization and Development Strategies

        The report examines the profound shift in global dynamics driven by the fast-rising new powers of the developing world and its long-term implications for human development. It analyzes more than 40 developing countries and specifically looks at the strategies of those which lifted their HDI value substantially between 1990 and 2012. It looks at the results of new trade and technology partnerships within the South itself. The report identifies four specific areas of focus for sustaining development momentum: enhancing equity; enabling greater voice and participation of citizens; confronting environmental pressures; and managing demographic change. With fresh analytical insights and clear proposals for policy reforms, the report calls for a better representation of the South in global governance systems and points to potential new sources of financing within the South.

      • Preview
        Human Development Report 2013 – The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World - Summary (English)
        Summary by UNDP, 2013, 28 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Globalization and Development Strategies

        The Human Development Report examines the profound shift in global dynamics driven by the fast-rising new powers of the developing world and its long-term implications for human development. It identifies more than 40 countries and analyzes the causes and consequences of their achievements and related challenges. The report specifically looks at the strategies of those countries which lifted their HDI value substantially between 1990 and 2012.

      • Preview
        Identifying Asian LDCs’ High Potential Export Sectors (English)
        Report by ITC, 2013, 33 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Enterprise Development, Globalization and Development Strategies

        This report aims at identifying at least two sectors that show a high potential for exports in several Asian LDCs vis-à-vis China and vis-à-vis developing countries in Asia in general. Expanding exports by targeting dynamic markets is critical for future development and poverty alleviation in many developing countries and, yet, Asian Least Developed Countries (LDCs) like many other LDCs remain marginal players in the global economy and need technical assistance to fully grasp the benefits from international trade. Governments seek to complement general (“horizontal”) policies that improve the overall business environment by more targeted, sector-specific policies. Identifying sectors on which to put priority is necessary for a sound allocation of limited public resources. Governments, donors and other stakeholders want to make an informed decision on which priority sectors to select, and thus need to assess the export potential of individual sectors. As important as knowing what to export is the question where to export. Given the stagnating demand in many developed economies, emerging regional markets, first and foremost China, may offer export opportunities to Asian LDCs that are yet to be explored.

      • Preview
        Identifying New Product And Service Export Opportunities For South Africa Using A Decision Support Model
        Working paper by North-West University, 2013
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research

        This paper examines the role of the Decision Support Model (DSM) for products and services. The Decision Support Model (DSM) is an export market selection tool that makes use of a sophisticated filtering process to sift through an extensive range of product-/service- and country-related data to reveal the export opportunities that are the most realistic and sustainable. The paper illustrates how the use of these models can herald the start of a new era in export market selection and promotion in South Africa.

      • Preview
        Improving Market Access for the Least Developed Countries in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2015, 4 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This policy brief proposes a package of actions for attaining the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. In particular it addresses the goals of doubling the share of global exports of the least developed countries (LDCs) by 2020; and providing duty-free and quota-free (DFQF) market access to LDCs as one of the main pillars of international support for export expansion by LDCs.

      • Preview
        Industrialization in developing countries: Some evidence from a new economic geography perspective (English)
        Discussion Paper by Jörg Mayer, 2004, 37 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: This paper shows how the current process of globalization has had a crucial effect on the geographical location of industrial activities and goes on to discuss some of the important empirical questions as to the impact of the current wave of globalization on development. The paper provides a number of reference materials for more in-depth reading. Who: Teachers, students and researchers of new economic geography models in particular or in globalization and industrialization issues in general. How: The paper contains discussions of some of the key data and measurement issues that are invariably involved in this kind of research. This paper could be used as an example of the application of trade analysis techniques.

      • Preview
        The Information Economy Report 2007-2008 Overview (Science and Technology for Development: the New Paradigm of ICT) (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2008, 37 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology

        What: The Report analyses the current and potential contribution of information technology to knowledge creation and diffusion. It explores how ICTs help generate innovations that improve the livelihoods of the poor and support enterprise competitiveness. The report examines how ICTs affect productivity and growth and reflects on the need for a development-oriented approach to intellectual property rights in order to enable effective access to technology. ICT has also given rise to new models for sharing knowledge and collective production of ideas and innovations, known as "open access" models, which often bypass the incentive system provided by intellectual property rights. How: The Report presents a current cross-section of themes and analysis that aim to inform and enable governments to understand the policy challenges and opportunities. The analysis identifies important areas of concern and best practices necessary for the formulation of targeted policy decisions to support and accelerate ICT diffusion.

      • Preview
        Information Economy Report 2015 - Unlocking the Potential of E-commerce for Developing Countries  (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 136 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Enterprise Development, Science and Technology

        The 2015 edition of the Information Economy Report examines electronic commerce, and explores how information and communication technologies can be harnessed to support economic growth and sustainable development.The report demonstrates how some of the greatest dynamism in electronic commerce can be found in developing countries, but that potential is far from fully realized. It examines opportunities and challenges faced by enterprises in developing countries that wish to access and use e-commerce. Finally, the report highlights the latest market trends, benchmarks country performances with the UNCTAD E-commerce Index, reviews examples of e-commerce in rural areas and low-income countries, addresses relevant legal issues and provides policy recommendations.

      • Preview
        Information Economy Report 2015: Unlocking the Potential of E-commerce for Developing Countries - Overview
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2015, 18 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology

        The 2015 edition of the Information Economy Report examines electronic commerce, and explores how information and communication technologies can be harnessed to support economic growth and sustainable development.The report demonstrates how some of the greatest dynamism in electronic commerce can be found in developing countries, but that potential is far from fully realized. It examines opportunities and challenges faced by enterprises in developing countries that wish to access and use e-commerce. Finally, the report highlights the latest market trends, benchmarks country performances with the UNCTAD E-commerce Index, reviews examples of e-commerce in rural areas and low-income countries, addresses relevant legal issues and provides policy recommendations.

      • Preview
        Information Economy Report 2017 - Digitalization, Trade and Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 129 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology

        The analysis contained in the Information Economy Report 2017: Digitalization, Trade and Development proposes ways in which the international community can reduce inequality, enable the benefits of digitalization to reach all people and ensure that no one is left behind by the evolving digital economy.

      • Preview
        Information Economy Report 2017 - Overview (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 17 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology

        The analysis contained in the Information Economy Report 2017: Digitalization, Trade and Development proposes ways in which the international community can reduce inequality, enable the benefits of digitalization to reach all people and ensure that no one is left behind by the evolving digital economy.

      • Preview
        Innovation, Competitiveness and Regional Integration: Assessing Regional Integration in Africa Vii (English)
        Also available in French
        Report by UNECA/AUC/AfDb, 2016, 148 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Science and Technology

        This joint publication 'Assessing Regional Integration in Africa VII' reviews the relationship between regional integration, innovation and competitiveness. It argues that by knitting together networks of institutions, people and markets a loose connection between two or more nations is bound to facilitate innovation and related creative activities. The report presents chapters on innovation and global intellectual property regulations and science, technology and innovation policies, along with case studies from India and the Southeast Asian nations.

      • Preview
        Investment Policy Framework for Sustainable Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 73 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment

        This report takes a fresh look at investment policymaking – focusing on direct private investment in productive assets (i.e. excluding other capital flows which should be addressed by the financial system and policies) – by taking a systemic approach that examines the universe of national and international policies through the lens of today’s key investment policy challenges. It also aims explicitly to strengthen the development dimension of investment policies, and presents a comprehensive Investment Policy Framework for Sustainable Development (IPFSD). The IPFSD consists of a set of Core Principles for investment policymaking, guidelines for national investment policies, and guidance for policymakers on how to engage in the international investment policy regime, in the form of options for the design and use of international investment agreements (IIAs).

      • Preview
        Is South–south Trade a Testing Ground for Structural Transformation?
        Report by Klinger, Bailey/UNCTAD, 2009, 37 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Facilitation

        The purpose of this paper is to analyse the composition of South–South as opposed to South– North trade in recent years, applying emerging methodologies and highly disaggregated trade data to consider whether the South as a market provides developing countries with greater opportunities to transform their productive structures and move to more sophisticated export sectors than the Northern market does. The results show that for a group of developing countries, primarily in Africa, Latin America and Central Asia, exports within the South are more sophisticated and better connected in the product space than exports to the North, whereas the opposite is true for the faster-growing economies of Asia and Eastern Europe (excluding the Commonwealth of Independent States). It is shown that the primary source of cross-country variation in export sophistication and connectedness is between Northbound rather than Southbound export baskets. And yet it is clear that for a large group of developing countries, current export flows to the North are not particularly growth-enhancing, nor do they offer learning opportunities to fuel structural transformation, and for these countries South–South trade flows may indeed be a testing ground for structural transformation. This paper focuses on clearly establishing the facts about export composition by market, and identifying promising avenues for further investigation.

      • Preview
        Jobs for Shared Prosperity : Time for Action in the Middle East and North Africa (English)
        Report by World Bank, 2013, 350 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This report uses jobs as a lens to weave together the complex dynamics of employment creation, skills supply, and the institutional environment of labor markets and goes beyond the traditional links between jobs, productivity, and living standards to include an understanding of how jobs matter for individual dignity and expectations. It aims to provide an in-depth analysis of the labor markets in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and to identify the barriers to the creation of more and better jobs.

      • Preview
        Key Economic Developments and Prospects in the Asia-Pacific Region 2008 (English)
        Report by UNESCAP, 2008, 40 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy

        This report is the third publication in an annual series that reviews the region's economic performance and highlights the strengths and weaknesses of economies in the region. For example, the developing economies in the Asian and Pacific region are estimated to have grown over eight per cent in 2007. The economic powerhouses of China and India continue to drive regional growth,with added impetus coming from the fast-growing Russian Federation. It then identifies the key policy issues and challenges likely to confront Governments in the near term, and provides policy options and recommendations that would help Governments to address these challenges effectively.

      • Preview
        Key Indicators and Trends in Trade Policy 2016 (English)
        Report by Nicita, Alessandro/UNCTAD, 2016, 35 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        This volume of Key Indicators and Trends in Trade Policy 2016, subtitled ‘G20 Policies and Least Developed Countries’ Export Performance’, analysis the outcomes of policies on least developed country growth strategies. It highlights trends in the use of trade policy instruments, movements in exchange rates, the application of sanitary and phytosanitary measures, the use of defensive trade mechanisms, and regional and bilateral economic integration. In describing the measures such as tariffs, antidumping, import restrictions, and preferential trade agreements, the report analysis these by country and region. This report is structured in two parts. The first part presents an overview of the effects of G20 policies on LDCs exports. The second part discusses trends in selected trade policy instruments including illustrative statistics. The second part is divided in five chapters: tariffs, trade agreements, non-tariff measures, trade defense measures, exchange rates and trade costs. Trade trends and statistics are provided at various levels of aggregation illustrating the use of the trade policy measures across economic sectors and geographic regions.

      • Preview
        Key Indicators and Trends in Trade Policy 2016: a Bad Year for World Trade (English)
        Report by UNCTAD/DITC/TAB/2016/3, 2016, 30 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        This edition of Key Indicators and Trends in Trade Policy 2016, subtitled ‘A Bad Year for World Trade’, explains that the deteriorating trends in 2015 of weaker demand, a declined value of international trade, and an economic collapse carried on to 2016. This report is structured in two parts. The first part presents an overview of the trade collapse of 2015. The second part provides illustrative statistics on international trade in goods and services covering the last 10 years. The second part is divided in two sections. Section 1 provides trade statistics at various levels of aggregation illustrating the evolution of trade across economic sectors and geographic regions. Section 2 presents some of the most commonly used trade indicators at the country level, so as to illustrate trade performance across countries.

      • Preview
        Latin America And The Caribbean As Tailwinds Recede: In Search Of Higher Growth (English)
        Report by The World Bank, 2013, 60 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This semiannual report examines the short and medium-term challenges for Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) as the external factors instrumental in the region’s recent performance. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the global economy and its implications for the short and medium-term prospects of the LAC region. Chapter 2 provides a detailed analysis of the general patterns of domestic demand and supply observed in LAC over the last decade.

      • Preview
        The Least Developed Countries Report 2004, Ch. 2: Selected recent social trends: Population growth, human development goals, the HIV/AIDS epidemic (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 23 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: An analysis of recent social trends in LDCs. Includes data tables on population growth, human development goals and HIV/AIDS. Who: Useful background data for anyone studying or researching general social and economic development. How: The data contained in this resource can be used in a number of different ways to support and substantiate research and presentations on economic and social development in LDCs.

      • Preview
        The Least Developed Countries Report 2004, Ch. 7: Improving the Trade-Poverty Relationship through National Development Strategies (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 45 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        What: This chapter examines how trade can be integrated into national development strategies in a way that supports poverty reduction. Who: Anyone teaching or researching the links between trade and poverty as well as anyone interested in the national trade policy processes in LDCs. How: Good, detailed background reading that clearly explains a range of interconnected issues relating to trade and poverty. This report provides well-presented data in the form of tables and charts. It also provides a number of reference materials for more in-depth reading. It is highly recommend that anyone who is in interested in this chapter should also look at the chapter entitled "Improving the Trade-Poverty Relationship through the International Trade Regime".

      • Preview
        The Least Developed Countries Report 2004 - Statistical Annex (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 49 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Basic data on the Least Developed Countries for 2004

      • Preview
        Least Developed Countries Report 2008 - Growth, Poverty and the Terms of Development Partnership (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2008, 197 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        Examining the sustainability of recent economic growth of LDCs, the report finds the type of growth taking place is strongly affected by trends in international markets and, in particular, commodity prices. Coupled with heavy dependence on external sources of finance, and without a positive process of diversification and structural change, LDCs remain particularly vulnerable to trade shocks due to the volatility of commodity prices, affecting both exports and imports. The prevailing development policy paradigm expects that investment in productive sectors would come from the international private sector through access to international capital markets or inflows of foreign direct investment (FDI), but LDCs remain almost entirely marginalized from these sources of finance, and FDI inflows have concentrated on a few LDCs and have often been weakly linked with the rest of the economy. In spite of rapid economic growth, the report found a weak correlation between growth and poverty alleviation, and calls for effective national development strategies, effective development aid and development-friendly international regimes for trade, investment and technology.

      • Preview
        The Least Developed Countries Report 2008: Growth, Poverty and the Terms of Development Partnership - Overview (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2008, 23 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        This Report considers three issues: Firstly, it assesses how sustainable economic growth is in the LDCs and examines how many LDCs are participating in the growth surge. Secondly, it considers the extent to which economic growth is leading to improvements in human well-being, and in particular to accelerated poverty reduction and improved progress towards the Millennium Development Goals. Thirdly, it assesses progress towards country-owned development strategies in LDCs and the role of recipient-led aid management policies at the country level as a practical policy mechanism to strengthen country ownership.

      • Preview
        The Least Developed Countries Report 2009: The State and Development Governance (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2009, 209 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Finance for Development

        This year's report suggests LDCs should focus their macroeconomic policies long-term on boosting the productive capacities of their economies and on establishing the infrastructure -- such as roads, bridges and electricity supply -- that empowers such progress. It adds that they should nurture and steer their fledgling private banking sectors into investing in productive activities instead of government portfolios and real estate.

      • Preview
        The Least Developed Countries Report 2011 - Overview (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 29 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Trade and Poverty

        The Least Developed Countries Report 2011 puts forward a policy framework for enhancing the development impact of South–South cooperation, and proposes ways to leverage South–South financial cooperation for development in the LDCs.

      • Preview
        The Least Developed Countries Report 2011 - The Potential Role of South-South Cooperation for Inclusive and Sustainable Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 194 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation

        The Least Developed Countries Report 2011 puts forward a policy framework for enhancing the development impact of South–South cooperation, and proposes ways to leverage South–South financial cooperation for development in the LDCs.

      • Preview
        The Least Developed Countries Report 2013: Growth with employment for inclusive and sustainable development (English)
        Report by Collardeau-Angleys, Agnès; Davis, Junior; Encontre, Pierre; Paunovic, Igor; Rajalingam, Madasamyraja; Traeger, Rolf and Wicks, Heather/UNCTAD, 2013, 218 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This Report examines the link between investment, growth and employment. More specifically, it considers how LDCs can promote growth that generates an adequate number of quality jobs and that enables them to reach what UNCTAD believes are their most urgent and pivotal goals, both now and in the post-2015 development agenda: poverty reduction, inclusive growth and sustainable development.

      • Preview
        The Least Developed Countries Report 2014 - Growth with structural transformation: A post-2015 development agenda (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 198 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The Least Developed Countries Report 2014 examines the linkages between structural transformation, economic growth and human development. It argues that LDCs cannot, and should not, focus only on aggregate growth; they also need to pay attention to the type of growth pattern and its main drivers. The Report also considers what LDCs can do to transform their economies in order to foster economic growth and achieve the MDGs and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) which are planned to succeed them, and what the international community can do to support LDCs in their structural transformation and in their efforts to achieve the SDGs.

      • Preview
        The Least Developed Countries Report 2014: Growth with structural transformation: A post-2015 development agenda - Overview
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 27 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The Least Developed Countries Report 2014 examines the linkages between structural transformation, economic growth and human development. It argues that LDCs cannot, and should not, focus only on aggregate growth; they also need to pay attention to the type of growth pattern and its main drivers. The Report also considers what LDCs can do to transform their economies in order to foster economic growth and achieve the MDGs and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) which are planned to succeed them, and what the international community can do to support LDCs in their structural transformation and in their efforts to achieve the SDGs.

      • Preview
        The Least Developed Countries Report 2015: Transforming Rural Economies (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 190 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The Least Developed Countries Report 2015 focuses on the transformation of rural economies. It assesses LDCs’ progress in agricultural productivity, the extent and nature of their rural economic diversification as well as gender issues in rural transformation. In order to eradicate poverty in rural areas of LDCs, the report proposes a new approach, articulated around a three-phase increase in infrastructure investment, and the combination of increasing agricultural productivity and promoting non-farm activities. In order to finance this, the report calls for donors to fulfill their commitments on the quality of aid as well as its quantity. Furthermore, it proposes an increase in the target for aid to LDCs to a level reflecting their share of global needs to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.

      • Preview
        The Least Developed Countries Report 2015: Transforming Rural Economies - Overview (English)
        Also available in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian, Spanish
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2015, 26 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The Least Developed Countries Report 2015 focuses on the transformation of rural economies. It assesses LDCs’ progress in agricultural productivity, the extent and nature of their rural economic diversification as well as gender issues in rural transformation. In order to eradicate poverty in rural areas of LDCs, the report proposes a new approach, articulated around a three-phase increase in infrastructure investment, and the combination of increasing agricultural productivity and promoting non-farm activities. In order to finance this, the report calls for donors to fulfill their commitments on the quality of aid as well as its quantity. Furthermore, it proposes an increase in the target for aid to LDCs to a level reflecting their share of global needs to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.

      • Preview
        The Least Developed Countries Report 2016 (Overview) (English)
        Also available in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2016, 29 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        The 2016 Least Developed Countries (LDC) Report overview, subtitled 'The path to graduation and beyond: Making the most of the process' summarizes the key findings in the 2016 report. It outlines the deteriorating economic performance, the first steps to sustainable development, the priorities for graduation, and the need for international cooperation for development.

      • Preview
        The Least Developed Countries Report 2016 - the Path to Graduation and Beyond: Making the Most of the Process (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 219 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        The 2016 Least Developed Countries (LDC) Report, subtitled 'The path to graduation and beyond: Making the most of the process' calls for more action to be taken by the international community on behalf of developing countries. The report argues the proportion of the global poor in the 48 LDCs has more than doubled since 1990, to well over 40 per cent, and the breaks down key priorities for graduation out of LDC status.

      • Preview
        The Least Developed Countries Report 2017: Transformational Energy Access (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 192 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This report focuses on transformational energy access for the LDCs, where 62 per cent of people have no access to electricity, compared with 10 per cent across other developing countries. Today, the majority of people worldwide who lack access to electricity live in LDCs — a proportion that has grown steadily from less than one third in 1990. It finds that “energy for all” in LDCs requires more than access to energy for basic household needs. It requires that access to energy in LDCs also serves productive capacities directly, by powering the structural transformation of LDC economies and the development of more productive, modern activities and sectors with adequate and reliable energy supplies. Structural transformation, in turn, has a role in increasing energy access, by generating sufficient additional demand for electricity for productive uses to make viable the infrastructure investments required for universal access more broadly. Yet strengthening this energy-transformation nexus remains a massive challenge, given that installed generating capacity per person in LDCs is barely one twelfth of that even in other developing countries, and one fiftieth of that in developed countries.

      • Preview
        The Least Developed Countries Report 2017: Transformational Energy Access - Overview (English)
        Also available in Arabic, Chinese, Spanish, French, Russian
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 26 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This report focuses on transformational energy access for the LDCs, where 62 per cent of people have no access to electricity, compared with 10 per cent across other developing countries. Today, the majority of people worldwide who lack access to electricity live in LDCs — a proportion that has grown steadily from less than one third in 1990. It finds that “energy for all” in LDCs requires more than access to energy for basic household needs. It requires that access to energy in LDCs also serves productive capacities directly, by powering the structural transformation of LDC economies and the development of more productive, modern activities and sectors with adequate and reliable energy supplies. Structural transformation, in turn, has a role in increasing energy access, by generating sufficient additional demand for electricity for productive uses to make viable the infrastructure investments required for universal access more broadly. Yet strengthening this energy-transformation nexus remains a massive challenge, given that installed generating capacity per person in LDCs is barely one twelfth of that even in other developing countries, and one fiftieth of that in developed countries.

      • Preview
        The Least Developed Countries Report 2018 - Entrepreneurship for Structural Transformation: Beyond Business as Usual (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 190 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        The Least Developed Countries Report 2018 presents a compelling case for a structural transformation-centred approach to entrepreneurship policy in the least developed countries. The report underscores entrepreneurship policy based on a fundamental recognition of disparities in the contribution of different types of entrepreneurship to structural transformation and wealth creation. It establishes a more active and proactive stance for the State in steering the emergence of dynamic and transformational local entrepreneurship. Importantly, it calls upon the least developed countries not to overlook the pivotal and complementary role played by large enterprises, alongside medium-sized and smaller enterprises, with a view to the least developed countries formulating deliberate strategies to nurture entrepreneurship that has impact. By encouraging least developed country policymakers to avoid policies that might undervalue the benefits of entrepreneurship, this report makes an invaluable contribution to least developed country efforts to add value to their implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

      • Preview
        The Least Developed Countries Report 2018 (Overview) (English)
        Also available in Chinese, Spanish, French, Russian
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 29 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        The Least Developed Countries Report 2018 presents a compelling case for a structural transformation-centred approach to entrepreneurship policy in the least developed countries. The report underscores entrepreneurship policy based on a fundamental recognition of disparities in the contribution of different types of entrepreneurship to structural transformation and wealth creation. It establishes a more active and proactive stance for the State in steering the emergence of dynamic and transformational local entrepreneurship. Importantly, it calls upon the least developed countries not to overlook the pivotal and complementary role played by large enterprises, alongside medium-sized and smaller enterprises, with a view to the least developed countries formulating deliberate strategies to nurture entrepreneurship that has impact. By encouraging least developed country policymakers to avoid policies that might undervalue the benefits of entrepreneurship, this report makes an invaluable contribution to least developed country efforts to add value to their implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

      • Preview
        Local Content Requirements and The Green Economy (English)
        Report by Trade Environment, Climate Change and Sustainable Development Branch, DITC, UNCTAD, 2014, 46 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        The study was prepared at a time when the “green economy” concept moved from theory to practice, with a range of developed and developing countries placing local content at the heart of their green economy strategies, and their green economy plans at the heart of their industrial policies. It reflects developing countries’ increasing emphasis on the “sustainable” element of traditional development objectives, such as rural development, urban planning and industrialization.

      • Preview
        Mainstreaming Trade in Africa: Lessons from Asia and the Way Forward (English)
        Discussion paper by Osakwe, Patrick N. / UNCTAD, 2015, 16 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        This paper examines the experiences of three Asian countries (China, the Republic of Korea and Singapore) that have successfully used trade to engender development and draws lessons from these experiences for Africa.

      • Preview
        Making Globalization Socially Sustainable (English)
        Report by WTO, ILO, 2011, 337 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        "Making Globalization Socially Sustainable" underlines globalization’s potential to stimulate productivity and growth but highlights the importance of pursuing trade, employment and social policies together in order to harness this potential. The book contains contributions from leading academic experts who analyse the various channels through which globalization affects jobs and wages. The publication reasserts the positive role that trade liberalization can play in improving efficiency and thus growth. It emphasizes the important role for governments in investing in public goods and in strengthening the functioning of markets that are crucial for globalization to be growth-enhancing. The key role of social protection is highlighted, as is the need to adjust social protection systems to local conditions.

      • Preview
        Making Globalization Work for the Least Developed Countries (English)
        Report by United Nations Ministerial Conference, 2007, 172 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The United Nations Ministerial Conference of the Least Developed Countries sought to discuss ways of harnessing globalization’s potential for development, to draw attention to LDCs in the global economy and to promote South-South cooperation between LDCs and other developing countries as well as between the LDCs themselves. This paper analyses how LDCs are affected by the current process of globalization, and considers what policies LDCs and the international community can implement to increase the share of benefits they receive in this process, while minimizing the costs and risks they bear.

      • Preview
        Making Trade Work for Least Developed Countries: a Handbook on Mainstreaming Trade (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 106 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        This handbook is the outcome of the workshops and research conducted under the project. It draws lessons from the experiences of the six countries that participated and provides fresh insights on how to design and implement an effective trade strategy in LDCs. It also provides clarity on the concept of mainstreaming trade and identifies criteria on how to measure success in this endeavour. The handbook should be useful to policymakers in developing countries, development analysts, academics, and students of development. In this regard, it is meant to be a guide to policy formulation and implementation in LDCs, with the understanding that its application will vary from country to country because of differences in economic structure, history, and social and political realities.

      • Preview
        Markets, Politics and Globalization: Can the Global Economy be Civilized? (English)
        Presentation by Gerald Karl Helleiner, University of Toronto, 2000, 25 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: This paper looks at the rules and institutions that govern the functioning of the emerging global economy. The paper argues that the new and complex fabric of governance that globalization has created fails to meet the needs of developing countries. The paper examines the way in which global markets work, analyzing the critical role of politics in economic policy and highlighting the imperfections in the current system of global economic governance. The paper concludes with suggestions on changes that are needed for the system of global economic governance to be more equitable. Who: Can be used by a lecturer on a course on governance, globalization and general WTO issues. How: As a background reading material on issues of global economic governance.

      • Preview
        MDG Report 2012: Assessing Progress in Africa Toward the Millennium Development Goals (English)
        Report by AUC, UNECA, AfDB, UNDP, 2012, 184 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        This report looks at the situation in Africa three years to the MDG 2015 deadline. It shows that progress has been made in primary school enrolment, gender parity in primary school enrolment, the proportion of seats held by women in national parliament and HIV and AIDS prevalence rates. It notes a slow decline in child mortality and highlights important gains in the areas of health and education, but these are hindered by poor quality and access. In spite of this progress, Africa still faces the challenges of addressing pervasive income inequalities, creating decent jobs, access to health and sanitation services. The report concludes by presenting the emerging perspectives on the post-2015 agenda.

      • Preview
        Measuring the Impacts of Information and Communication Technology for Development
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 31 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology

        This paper explores why measuring the impacts of information and communication technology (ICT) is important for development – and why it is statistically challenging. Measuring impacts in any field is difficult, but for ICT there are added complications because of its diversity and rapidly changing nature. A number of impact areas are identified in section 1, and their relationships explored, in the context of their place in the social, economic and environmental realms. The result is a complex web of relationships between individual impact areas, such as economic growth and poverty alleviation, and background factors, such as a country’s level of education and government regulation.

      • Preview
        Meeting Trade and Development Challenges in an Era of High and Volatile Energy Prices: Oil and Gas in LDCs and African Countries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2006, 40 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy

        This report is divided into four chapters. Chapter I describes trends in global consumption of oil and Africa’s production and consumption levels. Chapter II discusses the macro- and microeconomic impacts of oil price volatility. It reviews some of the strategies used in dealing with impacts and recommends policy measures to mitigate risks related to the sector. Chapter III examines the challenges facing importers in their procurement of crude oil and its derivatives and also looks at possible import financing methods. The paper concludes with a discussion on possible cooperation strategies aimed at improving access to oil and gas for African countries and ways to ensure that revenue from oil and gas exports meet the development needs of current and future generations.

      • Preview
        Mexico’s Agriculture Development: Perspectives and Outlook (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 209 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies

        This work addresses key issues affecting agricultural production and trade of those commodities identified by the Mexican authorities as being of strategic importance for the country. It encompasses both macro- and micro-economic issues with links to commodities, trade policy and trade agreements, competition and competitiveness, and food and energy security. It also identifies complementary measures and enabling policies, such as infrastructural investment, research and development, and trade facilitation. Furthermore, the study demonstrates a close integration with the national development outlook of Mexico, which ensures an ongoing consistency with overall national development priorities, including enhancing food security, and reducing poverty, consistent with the UN Millennium Development Goal 1.

      • Preview
        Mobilizing Business for Trade in Services (English)
        Book by ITC, 2013, 156 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The book summarizes key arguments on the role of services in development, providing analysis and explanation of the regulatory reforms and trade negotiations needed to foster a vibrant services sector in developing countries. It provides an overview of how policymakers and people working in business can work together to develop specific services sectors, such as tourism; transport and logistics; communications; audiovisual; computer and business process outsourcing; financial services; professional and other business services; construction; distribution; and cultural and recreational services.

      • Preview
        Natural Resource Abundance, Growth, and Diversification in the Middle East and North Africa
        Book by The World Bank, 2012, 228 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies

        Investigates the effect of natural resources dependence and the role of policies in achieving sustained growth and diversification away from oil.

      • Preview
        The Oceans Economy: Opportunities and Challenges for Small Island Developing States (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 38 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        This report is the consequence of a joint effort from a team of experts from UNCTAD and the Commonwealth Secretariat to better understand the implications of the nascent and evolving concept of the oceans economy. This report underlines the importance of sustainable oceanic activities for the development of SIDS and other coastal states.Both opportunities and challenges for SIDS are identified in existing and emerging trade-related sectors such as sustainable fisheries and aquaculture, renewable marine energy, marine bio-prospecting, maritime transport and marine and coastal tourism.It also points at the need to consider the formation of regional economic groupings that combine their "economic exclusive zones" under a common oceans economic space in order to be able to seize, manage and sustainably use joint resources and build common infrastructures.

      • Preview
        The Palestinian Economy in East Jerusalem: Endurin Annexation, Isolation and Disintegration (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 76 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        Overview on the political, physical and economic cghanges caused by segregation since 1967 (armistice line). The document describes the changing demographics, civil rights, industries that affected the occupied Palestinian Territory.Descripcion of the diminished social conditions, impoverishment and restricted access to public services such as education and health.

      • Preview
        Participation Of Non-state Actors In Formulation Of Trade Policy In Vietnam (English)
        Working paper by Dao Ngoc Tien, Nguyen Quynh Huong, Nguyen Thu Hang, Ngo Chi Le, 2013, 70 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, VI Members Research

        Vietnam has laid the initial legal foundation for consultation in trade policy development. The current consultation of trade policy in Vietnam can be divided into 3 layers, based on relationships between the bodies. The core layer with frequent and effective consultation includes those currently working in state sector, including government research institutes. At the centre of this core layer is the operation of MoIT as the main ministry relating to trade policy and NCIEC as the inter-ministries coordinating agency. However, this should not be considered as the consultation as all the actors are government with different policy making authority. Expanding from this core, the second layer will includes those are former governmental officials (head of business associations) and VCCI, which has a “special” relation with government. It is a part of business-focus consultation as it only allows indirect interaction rather than direct between enterprises and government.

      • Preview
        Policy Space: What, for What, and Where?, Discussion Paper No. 191 (English)
        Discussion paper by Mayer, Jörg /UNCTAD, 2008, 30 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The paper examines how developing countries can use existing policy space, and enlarge it, without opting out of international commitments. It argues that: (i) a meaningful context for policy space must extend beyond trade policy and include macroeconomic and exchange-rate policies that will achieve developmental goals more effectively; (ii) policy space depends not only on international rules but also on the impact of international market conditions and policy decisions taken in other countries on the effectiveness of national policy instruments; and (iii) international integration affects policy space through several factors that pull in opposite directions; whether it increases or reduces policy space differs by country and type of integration.

      • Preview
        The Political Economy of Green Growth in India (English)
        Report by Banerjee, Payal, Sood, Atul, 2012, 20 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        This paper analyses how emerging economies like India have responded to the opposing demands of inclusive growth and more equitable development aimed at closing social divides, and explores the politics of green growth with a case study of two seemingly contradictory development trajectories: the Green Mission and the hydroelectric power (HEP) projects and dams on the river Teesta in India’s northeastern Himalayan region.

      • Preview
        Promoting Green Foreign Direct Investment: Practices and Lessons from the Field (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2016, 8 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        Green technologies are becoming increasingly viable in commercial terms, making them bigger and better targets for investment promotion. UNCTAD describes green investment can be comprise of: investment in production processes with a reduced GHG impact; investment in clean energy generation; and investment in research and production facilities to manufacture GHG reducing products and provide related services. These are technology-intensive and often capital-intensive industries with technologies that are quickly evolving. In those developing countries, where green industries and practices are still nascent or non-existent, foreign companies are vital to jump-starting the low-carbon economy and should be more aggressively pursued. This note uses three case studies to extract lessons on how this can be done. It examines IPAs, including investment promotion and business development agencies from developed and emerging economies, in diverse locations and circumstances.

      • Preview
        A re-examination of the architecture of the international economic system in a global setting: issues and proposals (English)
        Discussion paper by Sakbani, Michael / UNCTAD, 2006, 32 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, International Financial System

        The globalization of the world economy poses major challenges to the prevailing international economic system. The recent trade-investment system raises the issues of the marginalization of countries, firms, and agents if they are not capable to compete with large successful entities. The system engenders conflicts of interest in its interfacing with sovereign domains. In numerous cases such as employment and mutual trade benefits, it can produce zero sum outcomes. Consequently, significant segments of public opinion in many countries have mobilized against it. In the monetary and financial area, the system has from 1945 evolved on a piecemeal and ad hoc basis. In recent years, it has not been able to predict, prevent or effectively deal with financial crisis. It demonstrates a lacuna in global financial governance especially with respect to enforcing its rules on the major countries and bringing the private sector therein. The central institution, the IMF, is shown to be in need of basic reforms involving forging a global vision, reconsidering and updating conditionality, further democratization of political governance, and revamping the exchange rates and surveillance functions.

      • Preview
        Renewable Energy Technologies for Rural Development
        Study by Johnson, Oliver; Watson, Jim / University of Sussex; Wu, Dong /UNCTAD, 2010, 41 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology

        The paper provides an overview of some of the issues surrounding the use of renewable energy technologies (RETs) to increase access to modern energy services in rural areas. This paper reviews current international commitments to RET use and rural development and examine the literature connecting RETs with rural development; it looks at RET options and some potential benefits and challenges to deploying them; it investigates, using a number of case studies, how RETs have been used to promote rural development and how innovative project/programme design can help overcome some of the barriers inherent to RET deployment in the market. The last chapter presents conclusions and recommendations.

      • Preview
        Rethinking Development Strategies After the Financial Crisis, Volume I: Making the Case for Policy Space
        Book by Alfredo Calcagno, Sebastian Dullien, Alejandro Márquez-Velázquez, Nicolas Maystre, Jan Priewe (ed), 2015, 118 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy

        The global financial crisis in 2008 marked a starting point for a comprehensive rethinking of economic theories and policies, reinforcing the importance of implementing strategies for development as opposed to leaving the economy to market forces. In this context, this publication explores the nature and consequences of the crisis, as well as the diversity of economic and social development among developing countries, and looks at the reasons behind the recent improvement in developing countries' performances and its potential for continuation after the financial crisis.

      • Preview
        Review of Maritime Transport 2013
        Review by UNCTAD, 2013, 204 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Globalization and Development Strategies

        The 2013 edition of the Review of Maritime Transport estimates global seaborne trade to have increased by 4.3 per cent, with the total reaching over 9 billion tons in 2012 for the first time ever. Driven in particular by growing domestic demand in China and increased intra-Asian and South-South trade, seaborne trade nevertheless remains subject to persistent downside risks facing the world economy and trade. Freight rates have remained low and volatile in the various market segments (container, liquid and dry bulk).The Review proposes a new paradigm for transit based on a conveyor-belt concept, which aims at achieving a continuous supply of transit transport services, supported by institutional frameworks and infrastructure. The argument proposed here is that a regular, reliable and secure transit system is the simple, straightforward goal to pursue in order to guarantee access for landlocked developing countries to global shipping networks on the basis of non-penalizing conditions. Given the review of the Almaty Programme of Action that is to take place in 2014, this proposal could be part of the actions within a new agenda for landlocked and transit developing countries

      • Preview
        Review of Maritime Transport 2015 (English)
        Also available in Russian, Chinese
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 122 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Facilitation

        The Review of Maritime Transport aims to foster the transparency of maritime markets and analyzes relevant developments. The year 2015 is a milestone for sustainable development. The international community has a unique opportunity to strengthen its commitment to sustainable development and consider how best to mainstream sustainability principles across all economic activities and sectors, including maritime transport. In this context, in addition to the review of key economic and legal developments, the present edition of the Review of Maritime Transport highlights some issues that are at the interface of maritime transport and sustainability.

      • Preview
        Revisiting Sustainable Development (English)
        Book by UNRISD, 2015, 412 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        This volume is divided into two sections. The first contains texts related to the integrative nature of development, that is, the connections between economic, social and environmental dimensions. The second deals more specifically with particular sectoral or thematic issues and case studies from developing countries. These address issues related to agricultural modernization, rural development, food policy, forest destruction and protection, biodiversity conservation, urban sustainability and corporate environmental responsibility.

      • Preview
        Road Safety - Considerations in Support of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 55 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The report concentrates on the relevant international regulatory framework, highlights the potential relevance of implementing existing conventions and other international legal instruments in the field of road safety, and overall, underlines the importance of a supportive legal and regulatory framework as a means for improving the achievement of the sustainable development goals. It highlights a number of worldwide international legal instruments that aim to facilitate international road traffic by means of adoption of uniform road traffic rules, documents, signs and signals, construction and technical inspection of vehicles, road infrastructure, driving times and rest periods for professional drivers, and safe transport of dangerous goods and hazardous materials. Their implementation would bring safer mobility and behavior of road users, safer roads and safer vehicles. The report presents an overview of developing countries membership to these worldwide instruments, explains their legally binding nature among States that become Parties to them, and encourages their wide adoption and full application, in order to advance the swift implementation of targets related to road safety.

      • Preview
        Robots and Industrialization in Developing Countries (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2016, 4 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology, Trade Negotiations

        This publication, Robots and Industrialization in Developing Countries, discusses the contribution of advanced technologies on the manufacturing sector. It analysis trends on commodity growth and financial inflows with industrialization, with a primary focus on Africa and Latin America. It further summarizes the move towards the use of robots on developing countries in terms of its impacts and policy implications.

      • Preview
        The Role of Primary Commodities in Economic Development: Sub-Saharan Africa Versus the Rest of the World (English)
        Discussion paper by Carmignani, Fabrizio and Chowdhury, Abdur/ UNECE, 2007, 20 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies

        This paper analyses the impact of the dependence on primary commodities for economic development within the framework of growth regressions. While there is no evidence of a generalized primary commodity curse, reliance on primary commodities does retard growth in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Which factor account for this SSA specificity? Some suggest that SSA specializes in commodities that are not conducive to economic growth and that SSA depends on primaty commodities more deeply than the rest of the world. These explanations are not strongly supported by the data. The key to the SSA specific curse appears to lie in the interaction between institutions and primary commodities.

      • Preview
        The Role of Technology and Human Capital in the EPZ Life-cycle (UNCTAD Transnational Corporations, Vol. 17/No.1) (English)
        Article by Omar, Karima; Stoever, William A., 2008, 26 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment, Science and Technology

        This article proposes an alternative perspective for examining export processing zones (EPZs) by modifying the life-cycle approach. It highlights the two crucial aspects of a successful EPZ development, namely the nature of backward linkages and gradual integration into the rest of the host economy. It argues that successful EPZs can be a catalyst for structural transformation of the wider economy and discusses what policy measures are needed to achieve such outcome. The article concludes by identifying venues for future research.

      • Preview
        Selected Sustainable Development Trends in the Least Developed Countries 2018 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 33 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This document is a contribution to the United Nations system’s efforts to follow up and monitor the implementation of Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development, since it reviews recent progress against selected targets and indicators related explicitly to the 47 least developed countries (LDCs). Its conceptual starting point can be traced to paragraph 27 of the Agenda, and the stated commitment to “build strong economic foundations for all our countries (… and) strengthen the productive capacities of least developed countries in all sectors, including through structural transformation”. In line with the above, the document presents a brief assessment of recent economic trends and progress towards selected Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) targets and indicators in the LDCs. In doing so, it highlights some of LDCs’ key development challenges, which stem from their own domestic conditions, but also from the specific terms of their interdependence within the global economy. Far from providing a full-fledged country-specific assessment, this document emphasises predominantly the latter international dimension, consistently with the view, expressed in paragraph 3 of the Nairobi Maafikiano, that “while each country has primary responsibility for its own economic and social development, the support of an enabling international environment is integral to the success of national efforts”.

      • Preview
        Services and Structural Transformation for Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 102 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This publication reflects the deliberations and results of the fifth session of the multi-year expert meeting on trade, services and development on services, structural transformation and inclusive development. Together with the multi-year expert meeting, this publication is part of UNCTAD’s overall toolbox to assist countries in developing regulatory and institutional frameworks to allow harvesting the benefits of services for economic transformation and development. The Global Services Forum, also a part of this toolbox on services, is another important platform to share best practices and form partnerships in trade in services. UNCTAD has also developed country surveys, case studies and dedicated research. Services Policy Reviews, another central element of this toolbox, provide support to policymakers and regulators in assessing the potential of services productive capacities and trade and the robustness of regulations and institutions. This allows identifying constraints for the development of the services economy and trade and also practical solutions and policy options for best-fit practices to improve services performance. Services Policy Reviews draw on UNCTAD’s longstanding experience of more than 20 years supporting the national assessment of services. This publication also draws from the results of this toolbox with a view to assist developing and least-developed countries to pursue their development objectives by strengthening their services economy and trade.

      • Preview
        Services Liberalization in Transition Economies: the Case of North and Central Asia (English)
        Working paper by Soprana, Mata/ARTNet & UN ESCAP, 2016, 32 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Facilitation

        This paper offers a review, analysis and assessment of the status of services liberalization in North and Central Asia. This study provides an overview of the binding commitments undertaken by transition economies under the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and an evaluation of how they compare to domestic policy reform, with a focus on the three transition economies that most recently acceded to the WTO: Kazakhstan, the Russian Federation and Tajikistan. It proceeds to explore the scope of interest in services liberalization in North and Central Asia, highlighting the reasons behind the relative little attention so far received by the services sector in the region.

      • Preview
        Share of Labour Compensation and Aggregate Demand - Discussions Towards a Growth Strategy
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2011, 30 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Globalization and Development Strategies

        Economic growth strategies of developing countries have focused in the last decades on expanding their exports. In that scheme, wage compression seems necessary in order to compensate the observed slow productivity pace achieving, therefore, “competitiveness”. The core of this discussion is, undoubtedly, how the national product is appropriated through wages and surplus, i.e. the factorial income distribution. From that viewpoint, this paper discusses the long-term impoverishment of Argentinean workers through two key aspects of the economic process: on one hand, the way in which labour force is allocated, by analysing the relationship between real wage and productivity. On the other, how income is used in the acquisition of consumer goods and capital formation. In order to fully comprehend those trends, this paper recourses to an international comparison with two types of countries: the developed ones (United States of America, France and Japan) and the largest Latin American economies (Brazil and Mexico). As these processes take place in the long run, this paper’s analysis period will start from the 1950s.

      • Preview
        SME Competitiveness Outlook 2015: Connect, Compete and Change for Inclusive Growth (English)
        Report by ITC, 2015, 268 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Enterprise Development, Globalization and Development Strategies

        The report highlights the fundamental role SMEs have in addressing global income inequality and presents a new analytical framework to measure, identify and enhance SME competitiveness. It introduces a working definition of firm competitiveness and introduces the SME Competitiveness Grid as a tool to classify determinants of firm competitiveness according to how they affect competitiveness and according to the layer of the economy at which this determinant intervenes. The report provides 25 country profiles containing SME competitiveness pilot assessments. It informs ITC’s work in strengthening SMEs and trade and investment support institutions (TISIs). The case studies illustrate how ITC assistance fits within the wider evidence on SME competitiveness and describe practical steps to strengthen SME competitiveness at the firm level. Includes bibliographical references.

      • Preview
        Social Unrest Paves the Way: A Fresh Start for Economic Growth with Social Equity
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 2 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon has emphasised that the wave of popular revolt that has erupted in the North Africa and West Asia region constitutes a “situation which calls for bold reforms”. Indeed, these momentous events also reflect massive social discontent and crises. The push for political change has been mirrored by equally vocal calls for alleviation of poverty, more and better jobs, better wages and social security, access to basic commodities at affordable prices and equitable distribution of national income. In its economic dimensions the upheaval represents a day of reckoning for the trade and economic policy choices made in the region over past decades. But for policy makers in countries facing similar pressures this is an opportune moment to rebuild neglected public institutions so they can lead the process of reshaping economic and labour governance. This can provide a platform for a re-assignment of macroeconomic policies for sustained growth in ways that trigger a virtuous circle of investment, productivity growth, income growth and employment creation so that the income gains from productivity growth are distributed equitably between labour and capital.

      • Preview
        Some Reflections on Climate Change, Green Growth Illusions and Development Space (English)
        Discussion paper by Hoffmann, Ulrich, 2011, 34 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        Many economists and policy makers advocate a fundamental shift towards “green growth” as the new, qualitatively-different growth paradigm, based on enhanced material/resource/energy efficiency and drastic changes in the energy mix. “Green growth” may work well in creating new growth impulses with reduced environmental load and facilitating related technological and structural change. But can it also mitigate climate change at the required scale (i.e. significant, absolute and permanent decline of GHG emissions at global level) and pace? This paper argues that growth, technological, population-expansion and governance constraints as well as some key systemic issues cast a very long shadow on the “green growth” hopes. One should not deceive oneself into believing that such evolutionary (and often reductionist) approach will be sufficient to cope with the complexities of climate change. It may rather give much false hope and excuses to do nothing really fundamental that can bring about a U-turn of global GHG emissions. The proponents of a resource efficiency revolution and a drastic change in the energy mix need to scrutinize the historical evidence, in particular the arithmetic of economic and population growth. Furthermore, they need to realize that the required transformation goes beyond innovation and structural changes to include democratization of the economy and cultural change. Climate change calls into question the global equality of opportunity for prosperity (i.e. ecological justice and development space) and is thus a huge developmental challenge for the South and a question of life and death for some developing countries (who increasingly resist the framing of climate protection versus equity).

      • Preview
        South Asia Economic Focus, Spring 2013 : Regaining Momentum (English)
        Report by World Bank, 2013, 62 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        South Asia is regaining its economic momentum, but the recovery in the world’s region with the largest number of poor people could falter in the absence of a stronger investment climate. This report displays the region's recent economic developments and gives an outlook of South Asia's economic growth while presenting individual country briefs (Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka).

      • Preview
        The Statistical Tables on the Least Developed Countries 2016 (English)
        Data by UNCTAD, 2016, 33 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        The Statistical Tables on the Least Developed Countries 2016 provides a collection of statistics and indicators relevant to the analysis of development in the least developed countries (LDCs). Reliable statistical information is indispensable for formulating sound economic policies and recommendations. The tables provide policymakers, researchers, academics, officials from national governments or international organizations, journalists, executive managers and members of non-governmental organizations access to cross-comparable sets of data. The tables are available online in document and spreadsheet format.

      • Preview
        Strengthening the Creative Industries for Development - in Mozambique
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 110 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This report was prepared with the purpose to make an analytical assessment and a policy review of the current status of creative industries in Mozambique to identify key issues and formulate policy proposals to assist the government to shape a strategic plan of action aiming at building a solid basis for enhancing its creative economy for employment, trade and development gains.

      • Preview
        Strengthening the Creative Industries for Development - in Zambia
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 116 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The main purpose of this study is to assist the Government of Zambia in articulating a development strategy that can optimize the economic potential of the creative sector for job creation, trade expansion and social inclusion. In addition to reviewing current policy in these areas, the report proposes a plan of action to be conducted with the support of relevant United Nations agencies, and an institutional mechanism to facilitate concerted policy actions and interministerial decisions.

      • Preview
        Structural Change, Global Imbalances, and Employment in the Least Developed Countries
        Policy brief by ICTSD, 2011, 8 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Economic development in the least developed countries (LDCs) is often seen as being constrained by a range of socio-economic and geophysical impediments, which have made this group of countries extremely vulnerable to external shocks. The current global economic crisis is an extreme example of such an external shock. While the group of LDCs experienced a smaller direct adverse impact of the recent financial turmoil than most other developing countries, some LDCs were also exposed to adverse impacts of increased fuel and food price volatility. These adverse effects have been reinforced by the decline in export opportunities caused by the recent weak economic performance in advanced economies.This essay addresses the effects of changes in the level and composition of global demand, and especially of global rebalancing, on trade flows and employment from a demand perspective. It emphasizes that these effects depend on the relative importance of rich and poor countries, as well as of different components of aggregate demand, in global growth. These effects, in turn, affect export opportunities of all countries, including the LDCs, as well as structural change and employment opportunities in their economies.

      • Preview
        Stuck in the Middle: “Dutch Disease” and Energy-driven Diversification in Russia (English)
        Working paper by Olga Garanina/St Petersburg State University of Economics, 2013
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, VI Members Research

        The aim of the present paper is to aliment the debate on the impact of resource richness on economic development through the analysis of the Russian case. The paper identifies the patterns of the “Dutch disease” and provides the foresight on energy-driven diversification. It argues that Russia does not clearly demonstrate all symptoms of the “Dutch disease”, but neither it seems to successfully put in place a strategy of energy-driven industrial modernization.

      • Preview
        Supply Chains in Export Agriculture, Competition, and Poverty in Sub-saharan Africa (English)
        Book by Porto, Guido, Depetris Chauvin, Nicolas, Olarreaga, Marcelo / World Bank, 2011, 290 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Competitiveness, Globalization and Development Strategies

        In this book, we study how the internal structure of export markets and the level of competition affect poverty and welfare in remote rural areas in Africa. In sub-Saharan Africa, rural poverty is a widespread phenomenon. While most farmers produce for home consumption, some are engaged in high-value export agriculture. Here, we focus on export crops such as coffee, cotton, cocoa, and tobacco. For many African countries, these crops, which are typically produced by smallholders, are a major source of export revenue. In consequence, changes in export prices and in the conditions faced in export markets (both internally and externally) can play a big role in shaping poverty in the region. Traditionally, the literature has focused on how external conditions affect poverty, for example by addressing whether agricultural subsidies in the developed world affect world prices and how this in turn affects farm-gate prices. Our objective in this book is to explore domestic factors. In particular, we investigate the role played by the structure of competition in export agriculture supply chains.

      • Preview
        Sustainable Bioenergy Development in Uemoa Member Countries
        Report by ICTSD; the UN Foundation and the Energy and Security Group, 2008, 152 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        This report, led by the UN Foundation, in partnership with the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development and the Energy and Security Group, identifies opportunities, assesses constraints, identifies trade-offs, and outlines key policy issues for promoting sustainable production and use of bioenergy in the eight member countries of UEMOA. It also provides appropriate data to guide governments and international organizations as they consider smallholder production schemes to broaden the use of bioenergy as part of a comprehensive agriculture sector strategy, while reducing poverty and arresting environmental degradation.

      • Preview
        Sustainable Development Through Policy Integration in Latin America. A Comparative Approach
        Report by Rival, Laura, 2012, 24 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Environment

        This paper examines how social and political actors in Brazil and in Ecuador propose to govern natural resource use sustainably, and how they work at building an alternative political economy based on ecosystem protection, biodiversity, renewable energy use and poverty reduction.

      • Preview
        Sustaining Peacebuilding and Post-Conflict Recovery Through Biotrade: Lessons from Indonesia and Colombia (English)
        Report by Castro, Lorena/UNCTAD, 2016, 35 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Biodiversity is life's foundation as it provides resources for basic human needs, environmental services such as protecting water sources, and natural raw materials that enable the development of products and services. Around 1.6 billion people depend on forests and non-timber forest products (NTFPs) for their livelihoods. The importance of biodiversity is also increasingly recognized in business. It is not only seen as a source of natural inputs for development but also a business opportunity for capturing consumer preferences for socially, environmentally and health-friendly products. This study discusses the different approaches being used by the BioTrade Initiative and its partners in the sustainable management of biodiversity, trading its derived products and services, and promoting peaceful and inclusive societies in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The first chapter highlights the linkages between trade, biodiversity and peaceful, inclusive societies which are important goals in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. It is followed by an analysis of the different methodologies used to promote BioTrade in support of peacebuilding efforts. The next two chapters analyse case studies and lessons learned from leveraging BioTrade in peacebuilding in Indonesia and Colombia, respectively. The final chapter concludes with some recommendations on strengthening the contribution BioTrade can make to peacebuilding efforts in post-conflict settings.

      • Preview
        Tales from the Development Frontier : How China and Other Countries Harness Light Manufacturing to Create Jobs and Prosperity (English)
        Book by World Bank, 2013, 555 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Globalization and Development Strategies, Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation

        This work describes how most developing countries have had little success in raising the share of manufacturing in production, employment, or exports. It sheds light on manufacturing clusters in several Asian and African countries and focuses on the six main binding constraints to competitiveness such as availability, cost, and quality of inputs; access to industrial land; access to finance; trade logistics; entrepreneurial capabilities, both technical and managerial; and worker skills. The volume systematically explores potential growth opportunities in industries: agribusiness, apparel, leather goods, wood working, and metal products.

      • Preview
        Towards a Knowledge-based Economy - Europe and Central Asia: Internet Development and Governance (English)
        Report by Kapitsa, Larissa/ UNECE, 2008, 115 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology

        This report represents a brief review of the status and trends in the area of ICT and Internet development in the UNECE region and provides background information on the state of the art in some relevant ICT subsectors in the Member States. The report focuses on the state of the Internet critical resources and, consequently, on the ICT and Internet penetration across countries and social groups. It also looks into existing Internet governance arrangements and makes some recommendations. The report contains three parts and conclusions. The first part, Towards a Knowledge-based Economy: Progress Assessment, highlights the situation in the region with regards to the digital divide, both between and within countries, and national strategies and actions aiming at overcoming barriers to accessing the Internet. The second part, Internet Development: Current State of Critical Internet Resources in the UNECE Region, concentrates on reviewing the physical Internet backbone, interconnection and connectivity within the Internet in the UNECE member States. The third part, Governing the Evolving Internet in the UNECE Region, focuses on the issues of Internet governance in the countries of the region, challenges faced by the countries and participation of key stakeholders in ICT and Internet policy formulation and implementation. The final part contains conclusions and recommendations.

      • Preview
        Towards a new paradigm for development: Strategies, policies, and process (English)
        Presentation by Dr. Joseph E. Stiglitz, 2000, 30 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Finance for Development

        What: This lecture sets out the foundations of an alternative paradigm to the well-documented failures of the Washington consensus, one which is based on a broad conception of development, offering a different perspective on the role of international assistance and the ways in which it should be delivered. It starts by describing this broader vision and then goes on to explain why not only the Washington consensus but also earlier development paradigms failed: they viewed development too narrowly. It identifies some of the key factors including recent events in East Asia and the Russian Federation that helped us to realize the inadequacies of the old approaches. It outlines the key principles and major components of a development strategy based on this broader vision of development. It concludes with some general observations, focusing on the importance of trade and the work of UNCTAD in furthering development based on this new paradigm. Who: For teachers and students of development strategies. How: Can be used as a background reading material on development approaches and issues.

      • Preview
        Towards More Balanced Growth Strategies in Developing Countries: Issues Related to Market Size, Trade Balances and Purchasing Power
        Paper by Jörg Mayer/UNCTAD, 2013, 42 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy

        Concentrating on household consumption, the paper shows that the sales potential in some large emerging economies is approaching that in developed countries but also that imports might meet most new domestic consumption demand. Sustaining a shift towards a more balanced growth path requires changes in the production structure, fostered by product innovation, to make domestic production patterns better correspond to newly emerging demand patterns. The associated new employment and wage opportunities would allow realizing emerging sales potentials through rising incomes, rather than rising household debt.

      • Preview
        Trade and Development Report, 1981-2011: Three Decades of Thinking Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 138 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, International Financial System

        This review traces the key issues relating to the global economy and development strategies that have been addressed in UNCTAD’s Trade and Development Reports (TDRs) over the past three decades. It also intends to show how ideas, opinions and proposals expressed in the TDR, and the analytical approaches used, differed from those of proponents of “the mainstream” and how they evolved in response to new challenges arising from developments in the world economy.

      • Preview
        Trade and Development Report 1996, Chapter VI: Rethinking policies for development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 1999, 20 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy

        What: This chapter argues that development thinking and policies will need a radical review if developing countries are to be assured better growth prospects, narrow the income gap with the advanced industrial countries, and remove the scourge of widespread and persistent poverty. Policies need to be reoriented to regulate capital flows and establish competitive industries that will not only increase exports but also reduce the import content of growth. However, action by developing countries alone cannot provide the whole solution. Serious attention should also be paid to the systemic biases and asymmetries in the workings of the international trading system which limit their growth prospects. The successful pursuit of outward-oriented policies also requires greater openness of markets in industrial countries to their exports, all the more so in view of the current "aid fatigue" and the failure of private financial markets to provide adequate development finance. Who: For teachers, students and researchers focusing on development issues and strategies. How: Can be used as a background reading material or for research work on strategies and policies for development.

      • Preview
        Trade and Development Report 1996: Responding to the new global environment (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 1996, 18 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: In the 1960s and 1970s, East Asian countries achieved an effective transition from poor economies depending on natural resources to economies engaging successfully in labour-intensive manufacturing. This chapter deals with the possibilities for developing countries to replicate the process of export-oriented industrialization achieved by East Asian countries. Due to a new global environment this replication of the East Asian success is considered to be difficult. Nonetheless the importance of outward-oriented industrialization is underlined. Who: Useful for students and teachers that deal with development strategies for developing countries. How: Can serve as a starting point for discussions on the effectiveness of different development strategies for developing countries. Furthermore, with additional background reading case studies for different world regions and their development strategies could be derived.

      • Preview
        Trade and Development Report 1998: International financial instability and the East Asian crisis (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 1998, 59 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, International Financial System

        This chapter of the Trade and Development Report 1998 seeks to explain the East Asian crisis of 1997 in the context of the increase in systemic global financial instability. It examines various elements that have characterized financial crises since 1970, identifying the factors that have created financial vulnerability in East Asia and spread it throughout the region and globally. It argues that there is clear evidence that the policy response to the 1997 crisis contributed to its severity, and sets out the social consequences of the crisis. The chapter concludes with a brief discussion of the general implications of the crisis for the East Asian model of economic development. Who: For lecturers, researchers and/or students of finance. How: A very good reading material on international financial instability. The report provides lots of reference materials.

      • Preview
        Trade and Development Report 1999, Chapter IV - Payment deficits, liberalization, and growth in developing countries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 1999, 20 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: This chapter re-examines the so-called two-gap approach to explain the link between external payments and economic growth in developing countries. Central to this approach is the notion that capital inflows enable developing countries to fill their foreign-exchange gap, allowing imports, investment, income and savings to be raised above the levels otherwise constrained by export earnings. This chapter also examines the evolution of the relationship between economic growth and external trade and payments in developing countries over the past three decades. It focuses its attention focuses on a number of common external factors which are believed to have influenced the trade and growth performance of a large number of developing countries, such as world demand, trends in the terms of trade, and trade and financial liberalization in developing countries. Who: For teachers, students and researchers focusing on payment deficits, liberalization and growth in developing countries. How: Can be used as a background reading material or for research work on payment, deficits, liberalization and development issues.

      • Preview
        Trade and Development Report 2002, Chapter IV: Competition and the fallacy of composition (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2002, 29 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: This chapter identifies the problems that developing countries face when they move to labour-intensive manufacturing exports, particularly of them becoming oversupplied, (the fallacy of composition) and highlights the appropriate policy responses in the design of export-oriented development strategies. This chapter also reviews the empirical evidence concerning the behaviour of manufacturing terms of trade of developing countries vis-à-vis industrial countries over the past two decades. The analysis in this chapter shows that trade barriers in industrial countries discriminate against developing country manufactures, and that their removal could greatly increase the demand for these products. Who: For teachers and/or researchers focusing on problems developing countries encounter in exporting their manufactures to developed economies. How: Can be used as a background reading on developing economies labour-intensive manufactures exports and trade barriers

      • Preview
        Trade and Development Report 2003, Chapter V: Industrialization, Trade and Structural Change (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2003, 37 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: Long-term economic success depends on sustained improvements in productivity; each worker producing more from any given level of effort provides the basis for rising incomes and living standards. In this sense, it is productivity gains, and not simply additional jobs, that characterize a virtuous process of accumulation and growth. This chapter assesses how the main factors associated with building and maintaining industrial capacity, productivity and patterns of trade have changed in developing countries over the past two decades. Particular attention is given to changes in international specialization within the industrial sector through upgrading. The chapter compares and contrasts the performance of economies in East Asia and Latin America and, to a lesser extent, Africa, with respect to structural change, productivity growth, international competitiveness and trade. Who: For teachers, students and researchers focusing on industrialization, productivity and growth. How: Can be used as a background reading or for research work on strategies for sustainable development.

      • Preview
        Trade and Development Report 2004, Chapter II: International Trade and Finance (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 32 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, International Financial System

        What: This chapter analyses international trade and financial and monetary systems. The report asserts that global trade increased significantly in 2003, after sluggish growth in 2002 and a slight contraction in 2001. However, the trade expansion was mainly the result of high export volumes and the growth rate in 2003 was characterized by a surge in the unit value of exports. In addition, the report examines how the international trading relations are affected by the international monetary and financial systems, and shows that monetary and financial instability can have a serious impact on the ability of developing countries to participate successfully in the international trading system and reap the benefits of globalization. Who: or anyone teaching and researching international trade and global monetary and financial systems. How: A chapter that can be used to teach and/or undertake research work on international trade, finance and monetary issues.

      • Preview
        Trade and Development Report 2004, Chapter III: Openness, Integration and National Policy Space, (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 28 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: This chapter deals with the issues of unrestricted cross-border flows of goods, services and capital that has always been one of the principles of globalization. The report states that if improved institutional quality and technology spillover are added, trade and capital openness should automatically allow for catch-up growth in poorer countries and bring about income convergence at the global level. But the empirical evidence supporting this approach has been elusive. In fact, most of the evidence suggests that the impact of trade openness has been highly uneven, and contingent on a variety of institutional factors. Who: An important chapter for anyone teaching and/or researching globalization issues. How: A chapter that can be used to teach and/or undertake research as well as a background reading on integration and national policy issues.

      • Preview
        Trade and Development Report 2004: Conclusions and Policy Challenges (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 10 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, International Financial System

        What: The Trade and Development Report 2004, Part Two, in its concluding remarks, raises a number of policy issues and challenges as to, for instance. how to reinforce coherence between national development strategies and global processes and disciplines, as well as policy coherence among and within the various aspects/sectors of the global economy that impact on development prospects of developing countries. Of particular importance, the report notes, is the interface between the international trading system and the international monetary and financial systems. Who: For teachers focusing on international trading, monetary and financial systems. How: The various issues and proposals can be used to provoke discussions in class.

      • Preview
        Trade and Development Report 2005, Chapter 1: Current issues in the world economy (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005, 47 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, International Financial System

        What: This chapter of UNCTAD's flagship annual Report on Trade and Development 2005 analyses the current trends of the world economy. The report warns that though the world economy is expanding there are serious risks of a relapse. It examines the generally modest growth performance of the developed countries on one hand and conversely the generally good economic growth of the developing countries in general and particularly the two most populous Asian countries. Who: A very useful report for anyone teaching and researching to analyse the current world-wide economic trends and issues. How: A chapter that can be used to teach and/or undertake research work on present-day economic trends and issues.

      • Preview
        Trade and Development Report 2005, Chapter II: Income growth and shifting trade patterns (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005, 52 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, International Financial System

        What: In this chapter, the report deals with how both the sustained rapid growth and rising living standards in a number of Asian countries have been accompanied by a dramatic increase of the region's shares in world exports and raw material consumption. Moreover, combined with their rapid growth, the greater integration of these countries into the world trading system has created new export opportunities for many developed and other developing countries. In addition this growth also signifies an important progress towards achieving the Millennium Development Goal of halving global poverty by 2015. Who: For anyone teaching and researching how the recently fast developing countries income growth and rising living standards is transforming their societies. How: Can be used to teach and/or research on economic development.

      • Preview
        Trade and Development Report 2005, Chapter IV: Towards a new form of global interdependence (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005, 42 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: This chapter looks into the new form of global economic interdependence that is taking shape, primarily as a result of the increasing weight of the rapidly growing Asian developing economies, in particular the large ones of China and India, in the global economy. In the past, developing-country trade relied mainly on primary commodity exports to developed countries in exchange for imports of manufactures. However, the emergence of a number of Asian developing countries that form a new growth pole in the world economy has renewed hopes that South-South trade could provide additional momentum to development. Who: For anyone teaching and researching global interdependence. How: Can be used to teach and/or research on globalization and its new form of global interdependence.

      • Preview
        Trade and Development Report 2005: New feature of global interdependence - Overview (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005, 14 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        Overview of the UNCTAD Trade and Development Report 2005: New feature of global interdependence

      • Preview
        Trade and Development Report 2005: New features of global interdependence (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005, 204 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Globalization and Development Strategies, International Financial System

        What: This year's UNCTAD flagship Trade and Development Report 2005 questions the sustainability of the current global economic expansion and the realization of the MDGs in certain regions of the world. Although the rapid growth in China and India has made these two giants to become the second engine of worldwide growth; the United States record deficit, on the other hand, raises questions about the stability of the global financial system and the sustainability of global growth. The report asserts that a new form of global economic interdependence is taking shape mainly as a result of the increasing weight of the rapidly growing Asian developing economies. Who: A very useful report for anyone teaching and researching current world-wide economic trends and issues. How: An authoritative report that can be used as teaching and/or researching material for courses or research work on trade, investment and development.

      • Preview
        Trade and Development Report 2006 - Global Partnership and National Policies for Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2006, 280 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: The 2006 Trade and Development Report (TDR) looks specifically at the threat to growth from global financial imbalances and at the potential for development from the changing climate on aid flows, migrant remittances, export opportunities and increasing FDI flows. The TDR 2006 offers ideas and general principles for designing macroeconomic, sectoral and trade policies that can help developing countries succeed in today´s global economic environment. Particular attention is given to policies that support the creative forces of markets and the entrepreneurial dimension of investment. The report also argues that a global partnership for development will be incomplete without an effective system of global economic governance that takes into account the specific needs of developing countries. At the same time it should ensure the right balance between sovereignty in national economic policy-making on the one hand, and multilateral disciplines and collective governance on the other. How: The report provides up-to-date information on trends in the world economy as well as in-depth analysis on the above mentioned global financial imbalances. It might thus be used to validate teaching resources in international economics courses and spark ideas about relevant research. Who: Lecturers and researchers as well as policy-makers interested in international economics.

      • Preview
        Trade and Development Report 2006 - Overview (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2006, 26 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: The 2006 Trade and Development Report (TDR) looks specifically at the threat to growth from global financial imbalances and at the potential for development from the changing climate on aid flows, migrant remittances, export opportunities and increasing FDI flows. The TDR 2006 offers ideas and general principles for designing macroeconomic, sectoral and trade policies that can help developing countries succeed in today´s global economic environment. Particular attention is given to policies that support the creative forces of markets and the entrepreneurial dimension of investment. The report also argues that a global partnership for development will be incomplete without an effective system of global economic governance that takes into account the specific needs of developing countries. At the same time it should ensure the right balance between sovereignty in national economic policy-making on the one hand, and multilateral disciplines and collective governance on the other. How: The report provides up-to-date information on trends in the world economy as well as in-depth analysis on the above mentioned global financial imbalances. It might thus be used to validate teaching resources in international economics courses and spark ideas about relevant research. Who: Lecturers and researchers as well as policy-makers interested in international economics.

      • Preview
        Trade and Development Report 2009 - Responding to the Global Crisis. Climate Change Mitigation and Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2009, 218 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, International Financial System, Trade and Environment

        The Trade and Development Report series explores current economic trends and major policy issues of international concern, and makes suggestions for addressing these issues at various levels. This year's report analyses the ongoing global financial and economic crisis. It looks at the channels through which the crisis is spreading from developed countries to developing and transition economies. It examines the short-term policy responses of governments and discusses their respective advantages and disadvantages. By conducting an in-depth analysis of the causes and contributing factors of the current crises it emphasizes the need for a reform of the monetary and financial system both on the national and the international level. Given the pressing preoccupation with global warming, the report also addresses the question of how forward-looking development strategies and rapid growth in developing countries can be reconciled with climate change mitigation.

      • Preview
        Trade and Development Report 2009 - Responding to the Global Crisis. Climate Change Mitigation and Development - Overview English (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2009, 22 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, International Financial System, Trade and Environment

        The Trade and Development Report series explores current economic trends and major policy issues of international concern, and makes suggestions for addressing these issues at various levels. This year's report analyses the ongoing global financial and economic crisis. It looks at the channels through which the crisis is spreading from developed countries to developing and transition economies. It examines the short-term policy responses of governments and discusses their respective advantages and disadvantages. By conducting an in-depth analysis of the causes and contributing factors of the current crises it emphasizes the need for a reform of the monetary and financial system both on the national and the international level. Given the pressing preoccupation with global warming, the report also addresses the question of how forward-looking development strategies and rapid growth in developing countries can be reconciled with climate change mitigation.

      • Preview
        Trade and Development Report, 2010. Employment, Globalization and Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 18 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The Trade and Development Report 2010 focuses on the need to make employment creation a priority in economic policy. Unemployment is the most pressing social and economic problem of our time, especially in developing countries, where it is closely related to poverty. UNCTAD draws attention to the importance of strengthening the macroeconomic policy framework to promote sustainable growth and employment creation in both developed and developing countries. Finally, the report makes recommendations for a reorientation of macroeconomic policies and institution building aimed at strengthening domestic demand.

      • Preview
        Trade and Development Report 2011: Post-crisis policy challenges in the world economy (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 224 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy

        The Trade and Development Report 2011 focuses on the post-crisis policy challenges in the world economy. It concludes that the recovery is slowing down and that the "two-speed recovery" in developed and developing countries is mainly the result of wide differences in domestic demand. It shows that post-crisis reforms are progressing slowly, and addresses the main regulatory reforms that should take place in relation to financial markets. To diminish the effect of fnancialization of commodity markets based on herd behaviour, the TDR proposes measures to increase transparency in physical and derivatives markets. Finally, to decrease the disparity between macroeconomic fundamentals and foreign exchange markets, the report recommends a system of rules based management floating at a multilateral level - this would greatly improve international financial stability.

      • Preview
        Trade and Development Report 2011: Post-crisis policy challenges in the world economy - Overview (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 34 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy

        The Trade and Development Report 2011 focuses on the post-crisis policy challenges in the world economy. It concludes that the recovery is slowing down and that the "two-speed recovery" in developed and developing countries is mainly the result of wide differences in domestic demand. It shows that post-crisis reforms are progressing slowly, and addresses the main regulatory reforms that should take place in relation to financial markets. To diminish the effect of fnancialization of commodity markets based on herd behaviour, the TDR proposes measures to increase transparency in physical and derivatives markets. Finally, to decrease the disparity between macroeconomic fundamentals and foreign exchange markets, the report recommends a system of rules based management floating at a multilateral level - this would greatly improve international financial stability.

      • Preview
        Trade and Development Report 2013 - Adjusting to the Changing Dynamic of the World Economy (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 186 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Globalization and Development Strategies

        Overview of the world economy and financial situation in 2013 by major economic regions. It discusses their financial markets, commodity prices, growth and trade patterns. Discusses expected economic activity for the year which seems to have slowed down and has brought international trade into a halt. It also discusses the economic activity that developed and developing countries have had since the 2008 economic crisis.

      • Preview
        Trade and Development Report 2013: Adjusting to the Changing Dynamic of the World Economy - Overview
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2015, 42 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Globalization and Development Strategies

        Overview of the world economy and financial situation in 2013 by major economic regions. It discusses their financial markets, commodity prices, growth and trade patterns. Discusses expected economic activity for the year which seems to have slowed down and has brought international trade into a halt. It also discusses the economic activity that developed and developing countries have had since the 2008 economic crisis.

      • Preview
        Trade and Development Report 2014: Global Governance and Policy Space for Development
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 242 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This year's Trade and Development report examines recent trends in the global economy, with a focus on growth, trade and commodity prices. The Report highlights that, six years after the onset of the global economic and financial crisis, the world economy has not yet established a new sustainable growth regime. With an expected growth between 2.5 and 3 per cent in 2014, the recovery of global output remains weak. Furthermore, the policies supporting the recovery are frequently inadequate, as they do not address the rise of income inequality, the steady erosion of policy space along with the diminishing economic role of governments and the primacy of the financial sector of the economy, which are the root causes of the crisis of 2008. Putting the world economy on the path of sustainable growth requires strengthening domestic and regional demand, with a reliance on better income distribution rather than new financial bubbles.

      • Preview
        Trade and Development Report 2016 (Overview): Structural Transformation for Inclusive and Sustained Growth (Overview) (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 34 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Facilitation

        The Trade and Development Report 2016: Structural Transformation for Inclusive and Sustained Growth (Overview) provides an introduction to the main Trade and Development Report. It outlines the policy challenges of the 2030 development agenda, and provides a synopsis of global trends and forecasts of the year ahead. The overview also summarizes the antinomies of globalization, the missing linkages, reconnecting trade to structural transformation, an unhealthy investment climate and the industrial policy redux addressed in the report.

      • Preview
        Trade and Development Report 2016: Structural Transformation for Inclusive and Sustained Growth (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 251 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Facilitation

        The Trade and Development Report 2016: Structural Transformation for Inclusive and Sustained Growth, examines one of the big policy challenges at the center of the 2030 development agenda: how to establish strong linkages and complementary policies across the range of productive sectors needed to establish a virtuous circle of rising and shared prosperity. The Report addresses such issues as the "middle income trap", "premature deindustrialization" and the "natural resource curse" through an examination of trade specialization, investment financing and the effective use of industrial policies.

      • Preview
        Trade and Development Report 2017: Beyond Austerity: Towards a Global New Deal (English)
        Also available in Spanish
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 200 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This report argues that now is the ideal time to crowd in private investment with the help of a concerted fiscal push – a global new deal – to get the growth engines revving again, and at the same time help rebalance economies and societies that, after three decades of hyperglobalization, are seriously out of kilter. However, in today’s world of mobile finance and liberalized economic policies, no country can do this on its own without risking capital flight, a currency collapse and the threat of a deflationary spiral. What is needed, therefore, is a globally coordinated strategy of expansion led by increased public expenditures, with all countries being offered the opportunity of benefiting from a simultaneous boost to their domestic and external markets. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) agreed to by all members of the United Nations two years ago provide the political impetus for this much-needed shift towards global macroeconomic policy coordination. The report calls for more exacting and encompassing policy measures to address global and national asymmetries in resource mobilization, technological know-how, market power and political influence caused by hyperglobalization that have generated exclusionary outcomes, and will perpetuate them if no action is taken. It argues that, with the appropriate combination of resources, policies and reforms, the international community has the tools available to galvanize the requisite investment push needed to achieve the ambitions of the SDGs and promote sustainable and inclusive outcomes at both global and national levels.

      • Preview
        Trade and Development Report 2017: Beyond Austerity: Towards a Global New Deal - Overview (English)
        Also available in Russian, French, Spanish, Chinese, Arabic
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 33 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This report argues that now is the ideal time to crowd in private investment with the help of a concerted fiscal push – a global new deal – to get the growth engines revving again, and at the same time help rebalance economies and societies that, after three decades of hyperglobalization, are seriously out of kilter. However, in today’s world of mobile finance and liberalized economic policies, no country can do this on its own without risking capital flight, a currency collapse and the threat of a deflationary spiral. What is needed, therefore, is a globally coordinated strategy of expansion led by increased public expenditures, with all countries being offered the opportunity of benefiting from a simultaneous boost to their domestic and external markets. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) agreed to by all members of the United Nations two years ago provide the political impetus for this much-needed shift towards global macroeconomic policy coordination. The report calls for more exacting and encompassing policy measures to address global and national asymmetries in resource mobilization, technological know-how, market power and political influence caused by hyperglobalization that have generated exclusionary outcomes, and will perpetuate them if no action is taken. It argues that, with the appropriate combination of resources, policies and reforms, the international community has the tools available to galvanize the requisite investment push needed to achieve the ambitions of the SDGs and promote sustainable and inclusive outcomes at both global and national levels.

      • Preview
        Trade and Development Report 2018 - Power, Platforms and the Free Trade Delusion (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 162 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Related Capacity Building

        Managing structural transformation is a big challenge at all levels of development. In part, that is because the mixture of creative and destructive forces accompanying such a transformation do not automatically translate into a virtuous growth circle while the rents that are inevitably created in the process can be captured by a privileged group in ways that clog the economic arteries and increase the dangers of a political stroke. There are already signs of this happening with the digital revolution. However, this is not inevitable and if history is any guide, public policy, including industrial policy, can help to manage more inclusive and sustainable outcomes. This set out some elements of that agenda. It has argued that structural transformation will also need to be accompanied by infrastructure planning. It has suggested that the old debate between balanced and unbalanced growth provides a rich discussion for thinking about those techniques, skills and institutional requirements. The bottom line when it comes to infrastructure spending is that it is too important a development matter to be left to the sole responsibility of finance ministries.

      • Preview
        Trade and Development Report 2018 - Power, Platforms and the Free Trade Delusion - Overview (English)
        Also available in Arabic, Chinese, Spanish, French, Russian
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 31 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Related Capacity Building

        Managing structural transformation is a big challenge at all levels of development. In part, that is because the mixture of creative and destructive forces accompanying such a transformation do not automatically translate into a virtuous growth circle while the rents that are inevitably created in the process can be captured by a privileged group in ways that clog the economic arteries and increase the dangers of a political stroke. There are already signs of this happening with the digital revolution. However, this is not inevitable and if history is any guide, public policy, including industrial policy, can help to manage more inclusive and sustainable outcomes. This set out some elements of that agenda. It has argued that structural transformation will also need to be accompanied by infrastructure planning. It has suggested that the old debate between balanced and unbalanced growth provides a rich discussion for thinking about those techniques, skills and institutional requirements. The bottom line when it comes to infrastructure spending is that it is too important a development matter to be left to the sole responsibility of finance ministries.

      • Preview
        Trade and Employment. From Myths to Facts (English)
        Book by Jansen, Marion, Peters, Ralf, Salazar-Xirinachs, José Manuel, 2011, 318 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This edited volume tries to address this disconnect between the trade and employment linkages in public debates and the relative absence of factual assessments of the employment and distributional implications of trade. The publication is an outcome of a joint project of the European Commission and the International Labour Office on “Assessing and addressing the employment effects of trade”. This publication has three objectives: First, to fill knowledge gaps by taking stock of the existing evidence on trade and employment with a focus on work using recent methodologies and datasets and on work that pays special attention to the functioning of labour markets. Second, to contribute to the design of tools that governments, social partners and experts can use to evaluate the employment effects of trade. And third, to contribute to the design of policy mixes that promote open markets whilst at the same time promoting quality jobs with adequate levels of protection.

      • Preview
        Trade and Environment Review 2016: Fish Trade (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 95 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Facilitation, Trade Related Capacity Building

        The 2016 Trade and Environment Review on fish trade examines issues pertinent to the promotion of sustainable use of living marine resources mainly fish in healthy oceans and seas. It focuses on trade in fish within the context of the oceans economy, often also referred to as the blue economy, in terms of challenges and opportunities for the global community in implementing Agenda 2030 and specifically SDG 14. The report is structured in three parts. Part I focuses on the international and regional (governance and legal) framework for oceans and sustainable fisheries and to future trade trends and prospects, including the potential impact of climate change. Part II of the TER provides a prognosis of international trade in fish and fish products by 2035. And Part III addresses the difficult matter of harmful incentives that facilitate overfishing and leads to fish stock depletion, primarily in terms of IUU fishing and fisheries subsidies.

      • Preview
        Trade, Gender and Development: Advocating Inclusive and Gender-Sensitive Economic Development on a Global Level (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2016, 12 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Gender

        This publication summarizes the role of UNCTAD in mainstreaming the relationship between gender and trade. It highlights the impact of research, workshops, conferences and other activities in promoting gender equality, and presents local perspectives from participants.

      • Preview
        Trading into Sustainable Development: Trade, Market Access and the Sustainable Development Goals (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 86 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Globalization and Development Strategies

        This report examines various interactions between trade policy, with a specific focus on market access conditions, and factors that constitute the basis for achieving sustainable development. Market access conditions vis-à- vis imports are determined by a combination of border measures and “behind the border” measures, both of which add costs to the price of an imported product. By generating significant impact upon consumer welfare and the competitiveness of domestic industries, market access conditions in international trade thus are a key determinant of the effectiveness of trade as a means of implementation.

      • Preview
        Transforming Economies - Making Industrial Policy Work for Growth, Jobs and Development
        Book by Salazar-Xirinachs, José Manuel; Nübler, Irmgard; Kozul-Wright, Richard, 2014, 411 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The book aims to identify the relevance of different traditions in development economics and the contributions of their various frameworks to the analysis and design of industrial policy. Moreover, it emphasizes the need for a coherent set of macroeconomic, trade, investment, sectoral, labor market and financial policies to respond to the challenges of structural transformation faced by countries today. Lastly, it attempts to explore the links between productive transformation, job creation and employment growth. In addition to the overview of the frameworks and challenges, the book provides case studies on industrial strategies and policies of developed and developing countries.

      • Preview
        Trips Flexibilities and Anti-Counterfeit Legislation in Kenya and the East African Community (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2016, 26 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Facilitation

        UNCTAD assists in the implementation of flexibilities in intellectual property (IP) rights available under the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). The full use of TRIPS flexibilities to protect public health, and, in particular, to provide access to medicines for all, is a target under Sustainable Development Goal 3 ("Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages").The availability of TRIPS flexibilities creates the legal space for the production of generic medicines, and may thus provide important incentives for foreign generic firms to invest in a country's domestic pharmaceutical sector. UNCTAD considers the use of TRIPS flexibilities as an important element to promote generic pharmaceutical investment and domestic enterprise development under sustainable investment policy frameworks.2 In order for such frameworks to be coherent and effective, policy makers should avoid discrepancies between the use of TRIPS flexibilities, the enforcement of intellectual property rights (IPRs), and domestic laws and policies on drug regulation. This paper aims to make a contribution to the ongoing debate in Kenya and the East African Community (EAC) about substandard drugs, access to medicines, local pharmaceutical production, and the role of IPRs enforcement and drug regulatory laws.

      • Preview
        Unctad at 50: A Short History (English)
        Book by Toye, John, 2014, 154 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The book provides an overview of UNCTAD's origins and development over the last 50 years. It focuses particularly on the reasons why some of the organization's proposals gained popularity and some did not. It concludes with a forecast of the future role of UNCTAD as an international governance regime.

      • Preview
        UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics (English)
        Data by UNCTAD, 2016, 264 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics provides a collection of statistics and indicators relevant to the analysis of international trade, investment and development. Reliable statistical information is indispensable for formulating sound policies and recommendations that may commit countries for many years as they strive to integrate into the world economy and improve the living standards of their citizens.

      • Preview
        UNCTAD Policy Brief: Building a Development-led Green Economy (no. 23 - June 2011) (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 2 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Environment

        This policy brief describes the challenges faced by governments in transiting to a green economy.It emphasises that a viable transition must take into consideration constraints on growth, competitive disadvantages and unequal benefits, especially for developing countries,and that specific support must be given to green industries to promote this environmentally and socially sustainable economy strategy.

      • Preview
        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 1/2012: The Paradox of Finance-driven Globalization (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2012, 4 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, International Financial System, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Over the past thirty years, many developing countries have experienced spurts of economic growth followed by collapses. In the process, some have fallen further behind the advanced economies, while only a few have enjoyed sustained economic growth. This policy brief explores the reasons for these diverse outcomes. It suggests that the countries with the strongest performance are those that have rejected the dominant economic wisdom of trusting their growth prospects to financial markets, and instead have pursued innovative and heterodox policies, tailored to local conditions. This has allowed them to shift resources to activities that are increasingly productive. Meanwhile, many developing countries that have embraced finance-driven globalization (FDG) have seen their ability to achieve this structural transformation greatly reduced.

      • Preview
        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 1/2013: The Post-2015 Agenda (English)
        Policy brief by Kozul-Wright, Richard/UNCTAD, 2013, 4 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        UNCTAD has a key role in the post-2015 process. Specifically, as the focal point in the United Nations for the integrated treatment of trade and development, and interrelated issues in the areas of finance, technology, investment and sustainable development, it falls to UNCTAD to take a leadership role in integrating economic development and related global economic issues into the United Nations-led post-2015 agenda.

      • Preview
        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 16/2010: A Big Public Investment Push Needed in Least Developed Countries to Meet Millennium Development Goals (English)
        Policy brief by Unctad, 2010, 2 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The MDGs have reinvigorated the case for ODA by tying it to an ambitious strategy to reduce poverty and improve human welfare in the most disadvantaged countries and communities. Looking ahead, as argued in this policy brief, LDCs need to refocus their efforts on measures to better mobilize domestic resources, but this will in turn require a serious rethink by the international community of both its policy advice and its use of ODA.

      • Preview
        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 20A/2011: The LDC IV Conference: An Agenda for Action (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 2 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The UN LDC IV Conference, to be held in Turkey in May 2011, will have three major objectives: to assess the implementation of the Brussels Programme of Action by LDCs and their development partners; to identify new challenges and opportunities for LDCs; and to agree upon the actions required at national and international levels in response to the inadequate economic and social performance of the LDCs over the last decade. This policy brief proposes elements of a broad agenda for action as an input for the Conference.

      • Preview
        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 20D/2012: LDCs' Boom and Bust in the 2000's: the Turbulent Decade (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 2 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This policy brief describes the unsustainable growth of LDCs during the 2000s,and the effect of the global recession on these economies, and advocates structural transformation of the LDC economies to become more resilient to external shocks.

      • Preview
        Unctad Policy Brief No. 20F/2011: Development Challenges Facing LDCs in the Coming Decade (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 2 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This policy brief examines the development challenges faced by LDCs in the following decade, namely the employment challenge, the globalization and climate change challenge and the governance deficit challenge.

      • Preview
        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 20G/2011: Towards a New International Development Architecture for LDCs (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 2 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This policy brief describes the rationale behind establishing a new International Development Architecture (NIDA) for LDCs, the structure of the NIDA, and how it should be implemented.

      • Preview
        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 2/2011: South-south Integration is Key to Rebalancing the Global Economy (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 2 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The world economy is seriously out of kilter. Over the last 30 years finance-led globalization has distorted developments in the real economy, triggered a series of boom-bust cycles and fuelled the most regressive redistribution of income in the modern era. These trends culminated in a financial meltdown spreading out from the advanced countries in late 2008, and producing the most severe worldwide slowdown since 1945. Imbalances continue to haunt the recovery process, which has been slow and erratic especially in the most heavily financialized and indebted economies, and in the most vulnerable countries in the South, where the economic shocks were compounded by food and energy insecurity and climate variability.

      • Preview
        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 2/2013, Growth and Poverty Eradication: Why Addressing Inequality Matters
        Policy brief by Kozul-Wright, Richard/UNCTAD, 2013, 4 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Poverty

        The Millennium Development Goals have centred on social outcomes, primarily in the fields of poverty, health and education. The goal of halving extreme poverty globally has already been met, albeit in large part thanks to the remarkable performance over three decades of the Chinese economy. Greater ambition is expected for a post-2015 agenda, with the eradication of extreme poverty a possible new goal. However, this goal is very unlikely to be reached by 2030 if business as usual is the order of the day. Paradoxically, this partly reflects the lack of ambition in the conventional poverty line of $1.25 per day, which is by any standard extremely low; but it is also because poverty eradication, even at this level of ambition, will not happen without addressing the more challenging issue of global inequality.

      • Preview
        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 9/2009, Climate Change: Turning Costs into Income Opportunities
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2009, 2 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        Concerns about the high costs of climate change mitigation dominate the global debate to be resumed at Copenhagen. The question of who is to pay for the investments that will undoubtedly be needed receives far greater attention than the corollary question of who is to gain from them. From a macroeconomic perspective, one economic agent’s cost is always another agent’s income. But as this policy brief argues, the concept of cost is misleading in the context of climate change mitigation. Once the process of structural change necessitated by climate change mitigation is in full swing, there will be huge new market opportunities. The policy issue is: how will costs and incomes be distributed in this process? UNCTAD believes that developing countries, although they face considerable costs, can also generate new income if they adapt their development strategies to the requirements of climate change mitigation. This policy brief also stresses the role of government in facilitating the process of structural change, not only by fostering “green” consumer preferences, but also by implementing pro-active industrial policies that support the production of climate-friendly equipment and appliances.

      • Preview
        UNCTAD X High-level Round Table on Trade and Development: Directions for the Twenty-first Century: Economic Dependence on Commodities (English)
        Discussion paper by Alfred Maizels, Oxford University, United Kingdom/ UNCTAD, 2000, 20 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: Most of the population in developing countries depends on the production and export of primary commodities. Commodity prices fell sharply in the early 1980s, and have remained at depressed levels since then, leading to a huge trade loss. This has been a major factor in the large rise in the foreign debt of commodity-exporting countries. The paper argues that these problems of developing countries have received little, if any, attention in international forums for the past two decades. It aims to reverse this trend by examining various measures for each type of price problem. Who: For teachers, students and researchers studying developing countries economic dependence on primary commodities exports and price changes. How: Can be used as a background reading on international primary commodity price fluctuations and the effects on developing economies.

      • Preview
        Who is the master? Who is the servant? Market or Government? - An alternative approach: Towards a coordination system (English)
        Discussion Paper by S.M. Shafaeddin, 2004, 35 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: A strongly argued paper that discusses the limitations of the market-based approaches to economic development and the risks of government failure. It presents an alternative approach on coordination of economic activities through the idea of a "coordination system". Who: Teachers, researchers and students of globalization and development economics. How: Could be used as background reading for any course or presentation on the relative roles of the state and the market in economic processes.

      • Preview
        Why Geographical Indications for Least Developed Countries? (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2015, 77 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        Geographical Indications (GIS) are a trade-related intellectual property right under the WTO TRIPS Agreement. The link between the territory and the uniqueness of the product is the distinctive developmental nature of GIs with respect to other forms of TRIPs. Evidence from the market and literature shows that the promotion and protection of products under GIs may results in higher economics gains, fostering quality production and equitable distribution of profits for LDC rural communities. GIs encourage the preservation of biodiversity, traditional know-how and natural resources. Leveraging on biological and cultural diversification, the implementation of GIs may represent a unique opportunity to bring together the various players along the value chain supply, including producers, government authorities and researchers. This study is the result of activities carried out under the UNCTAD project TAAK on market access and trade laws funded by the Italian Government and the Development Account project entitled "Strengthening the capacity of rural communities in least developed countries to utilize the market access opportunities provided by duty-free quota-free and enhancing value added of their traditional products".

      • Preview
        World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography - Overview (English)
        Report by World Bank, 2008, 32 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Places do well when they promote transformations along the dimensions of economic geography: higher densities as cities grow; shorter distances as workers and businesses migrate closer to density; and fewer divisions as nations lower their economic borders and enter world markets to take advantage of scale and trade in specialized products. World Development Report 2009 concludes that the transformations along these three dimensions--density, distance, and division--are essential for development and should be encouraged. The conclusion is controversial. Slum-dwellers now number a billion, but the rush to cities continues. A billion people live in lagging areas of developing nations, remote from globalization's many benefits. And poverty and high mortality persist among the world's "bottom billion," trapped without access to global markets, even as others grow more prosperous and live ever longer lives. Concern for these three intersecting billions often comes with the prescription that growth must be spatially balanced. This report has a different message: economic growth will be unbalanced. To try to spread it out is to discourage it--to fight prosperity, not poverty. But development can still be inclusive, even for people who start their lives distant from dense economic activity. For growth to be rapid and shared, governments must promote economic integration, the pivotal concept, as this report argues, in the policy debates on urbanization, territorial development, and regional integration. Instead, all three debates overemphasize place-based interventions. Reshaping Economic Geography reframes these debates to include all the instruments of integration--spatially blind institutions, spatially connective infrastructure, and spatially targeted interventions. By calibrating the blend of these instruments, today's developers can reshape their economic geography. If they do this well, their growth will still be unbalanced, but their development will be inclusive.

      • Preview
        World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography - Part One (English)
        Report by World Bank, 2008, 149 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Places do well when they promote transformations along the dimensions of economic geography: higher densities as cities grow; shorter distances as workers and businesses migrate closer to density; and fewer divisions as nations lower their economic borders and enter world markets to take advantage of scale and trade in specialized products. World Development Report 2009 concludes that the transformations along these three dimensions--density, distance, and division--are essential for development and should be encouraged. The conclusion is controversial. Slum-dwellers now number a billion, but the rush to cities continues. A billion people live in lagging areas of developing nations, remote from globalization's many benefits. And poverty and high mortality persist among the world's "bottom billion," trapped without access to global markets, even as others grow more prosperous and live ever longer lives. Concern for these three intersecting billions often comes with the prescription that growth must be spatially balanced. This report has a different message: economic growth will be unbalanced. To try to spread it out is to discourage it--to fight prosperity, not poverty. But development can still be inclusive, even for people who start their lives distant from dense economic activity. For growth to be rapid and shared, governments must promote economic integration, the pivotal concept, as this report argues, in the policy debates on urbanization, territorial development, and regional integration. Instead, all three debates overemphasize place-based interventions. Reshaping Economic Geography reframes these debates to include all the instruments of integration--spatially blind institutions, spatially connective infrastructure, and spatially targeted interventions. By calibrating the blend of these instruments, today's developers can reshape their economic geography. If they do this well, their growth will still be unbalanced, but their development will be inclusive.

      • Preview
        World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography - Part Two (English)
        Report by World Bank, 2008, 261 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

      • Preview
        World Development Report 2010: Development and Climate Change
        Report by World Bank, 2010, 444 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        Today's enormous development challenges are complicated by the reality of climate change—the two are inextricably linked and together demand immediate attention. Climate change threatens all countries, but particularly developing ones. Understanding what climate change means for development policy is the central aim of the World Development Report 2010. It explores how public policy can change to better help people cope with new or worsened risks, how land and water management must adapt to better protect a threatened natural environment while feeding an expanding and more prosperous population, and how energy systems will need to be transformed. The report is an urgent call for action, both for developing countries who are striving to ensure policies are adapted to the realities and dangers of a hotter planet, and for high-income countries who need to undertake ambitious mitigation while supporting developing countries efforts. A climate-smart world is within reach if we act now to tackle the substantial inertia in the climate, in infrastructure, and in behaviors and institutions; if we act together to reconcile needed growth with prudent and affordable development choices; and if we act differently by investing in the needed energy revolution and taking the steps required to adapt to a rapidly changing planet. In the crowded field of climate change reports, WDR 2010 uniquely: emphasizes development, takes an integrated look at adaptation and mitigation, highlights opportunities in the changing competitive landscape and how to seize them, proposes policy solutions grounded in analytic work and in the context of the political economy of reform.

      • Preview
        The World Development Report 2013: Jobs (English)
        Report by World Bank, 2012, 422 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The WDR 2013 report analyzes the connection between jobs and economic and social development, and stresses the importance of the private sector in creating jobs. It looks at why some jobs do more for development than others. The Report finds that the jobs with the greatest development payoffs are those that make cities function better, connect the economy to global markets, protect the environment, foster trust and civic engagement, or reduce poverty. The report proposes a three-layered approach to policy which consists of a framework that is conducive to growth, well-designed labor policies and prioritizing jobs that ensure development.

      • Preview
        The World Development Report 2013: Jobs Overview (English)
        Summary by World Bank, 2012, 64 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The WDR 2013 report analyzes the connection between jobs and economic and social development, and stresses the importance of the private sector in creating jobs. It looks at why some jobs do more for development than others. The Report finds that the jobs with the greatest development payoffs are those that make cities function better, connect the economy to global markets, protect the environment, foster trust and civic engagement, or reduce poverty. The report proposes a three-layered approach to policy which consists of a framework that is conducive to growth, well-designed labor policies and prioritizing jobs that ensure development.

      • Preview
        World Economic Situation and Prospects 2010: Full Report
        Report by DESA; UNCTAD; ECA; ECE; ECLAC; ESCAP and ESCWA, 2010, 202 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy

        World Economic Situation and Prospects (WESP) is a joint product of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development and the five United Nations regional commissions. It provides an overview of recent global economic performance and short-term prospects for the world economy and of some key global economic policy and development issues. One of its purposes is to serve as a point of reference for discussions on economic, social and related issues taking place in various United Nations entities during the year.

      • Preview
        World Economic Situation and Prospects 2018 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD; UN-Desa; ECA; ECE; ECLAC; ESCAP; ESCWA, 2018, 207 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The 2008 financial crisis laid bare the inadequacies in the rules we need for a stable and prosperous global economy. After a long period of stagnation, the world economy is finally strengthening. In 2017, global economic growth approached 3 per cent — the highest rate since 2011. As the World Economic Situation and Prospects 2018 demonstrates, current macroeconomic conditions offer policymakers greater scope to address some of the deeprooted systemic issues and short-term thinking that continue to hamper progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals. While acknowledging that many cyclical and longer-term risks and challenges persist, the report notes that, in many parts of the world, conditions have improved to support the significant investment necessary for delivering the goods and services a growing population needs. This paves the way to reorient policy towards longer-term issues, such as rehabilitating and protecting the environment, making economic growth more inclusive and tackling institutional obstacles to development.

      • Preview
        World Investment Report, 2004: The Shift Towards Services - Overview
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2004, 54 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment

        A thorough examination of the global and regional trends in foreign direct investment (FDI) particularly regarding the shifting patterns of FDI towards services and an assessment of the challenges and opportunities that arise for development. : Valuable information to scholars specialized in international finance and investment as well as to those focusing on the service economy.

      • Preview
        World Investment Report 2014 - Investing in the SDGs: An Action Plan (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 265 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment

        This year’s World Investment Report offers a global action plan for galvanizing the role of businesses in achieving future sustainable development goals beyond 2015, and enhancing the private sector’s positive economic, social and environmental impacts. The report reveals an encouraging trend: after a decline in 2012, global foreign direct investment flows rose by 9 per cent in 2013, with growth expected to continue in the years to come. This demonstrates the great potential of international investment, along with other financial resources, to help reach the goals of a post-2015 agenda for sustainable development. The report also identifies the financing gap, especially in vulnerable economies, assesses the primary sources of funds for bridging the gap, and proposes policy options for the future.

      • Preview
        World Investment Report 2014: Investing in the Sdgs: An Action Plan - Overview
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2014, 56 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment

        This year’s World Investment Report offers a global action plan for galvanizing the role of businesses in achieving future sustainable development goals beyond 2015, and enhancing the private sector’s positive economic, social and environmental impacts. The report reveals an encouraging trend: after a decline in 2012, global foreign direct investment flows rose by 9 per cent in 2013, with growth expected to continue in the years to come. This demonstrates the great potential of international investment, along with other financial resources, to help reach the goals of a post-2015 agenda for sustainable development. The report also identifies the financing gap, especially in vulnerable economies, assesses the primary sources of funds for bridging the gap, and proposes policy options for the future.

      • Preview
        World Investment Report 2016: Key Messages and Overview (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2016, 52 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment

        This latest edition of the World Investment Report is being issued as the world embarks on the crucial work of implementing the landmark 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Paris Agreement on climate change. The key findings and policy recommendations of the Report are far reaching and can contribute to our efforts to uphold the promise to leave no one behind and build a world of dignity for all. I therefore commend this Report to a wide global audience.

      • Preview
        World Trade Report 2008: Trade in a Globalizing World (English)
        Report by World Trade Organization, 2008, 204 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The report explores a range of interlinking questions, starting with a consideration of what constitutes globalization, what drives it, the benefits it brings, the challenges it poses and what role trade plays in a world of ever-growing interdependency. It asks why some countries have managed to take advantage of falling trade costs and greater policy-driven trading opportunities while others have remained largely outside international commercial relations. It considers who the winners and losers are from trade in society and what complementary action policy-makers need to take in order to secure the benefits of trade for society at large. In examining these complex and multi-faceted questions, the report reviews both the theoretical trade literature and empirical evidence that can help to give answers to these questions.

      • Preview
        World Trade Report 2014 - Trade and development: recent trends and the role of the WTO (English)
        Report by WTO, 2014, 1 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The report examines how four recent major economic trends have changed how developing countries can use trade to facilitate their development. These trends are the economic rise of developing economies, the growing integration of global production through supply chains, the higher prices for agricultural goods and natural resources, and the increasing interdependence of the world economy. The Report also looks into the role that the WTO plays.

      • Preview
        Wto Public Forum 2007 - How Can the Wto Help Harness Globalization? (English)
        Report by WTO, 2008, 384 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This publication summarizes the views and concerns expressed during the two-day programme of the WTO Public Forum 'How can the WTO help harness globalization?'. Topics for debate included the challenges presented by globalisation, the need for a coherent multilateral trading system, trade as a vehicle for growth and development, and the interaction of trade and sustainable development.

Login