A partnership with academia

Building knowledge for trade and development

    • Resources about the rising of new powers of the developing world. Includes subjects on the BRICS (Brazil, Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa), their structural transformation and their cooperation with Africa.
      • Preview
        Africa–BRICs Cooperation: Implications for Growth (English)
        Case study by UNECA, 2013, 48 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation

        This study shows what effect trade with, and investment and aid from, the BRICS (Brazil, Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa) could have on growth, employment and structural transformation in Africa. In addition, it shows how Africa could maximize the benefits of its engagement with the BRICS, and minimize the risks. The study offers policy recommendations based on comparative analysis of BRICS’ practices in their cooperation with Africa.

      • Preview
        The Asian Developmental State and the Flying Geese Paradigm
        Discussion paper by Kasahara, Shigehisa / Erasmus University, 2013, 36 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Globalization and Development Strategies

        This paper contemplates an outlook of the developmental state in the light of growing regionalist drive in East Asia. More specifically, it explores the possibility of developmental regionalism. Developmental regionalism, in this framework, upholds a hybrid of limited liberalism at the national level and protectionism at the regional level. It is also a hybrid of North-South and South-South cooperation for achieving agreed specialization. While the discussion is at the exploratory stage with respect to concrete policy implications, developmental regionalism could contribute to bridging the aforementioned two contending concepts.

      • Preview
        A BRICS Development Bank: a Dream Coming True? (English)
        Working paper by Griffith-Jones, Stephany, 2014, 28 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Finance for Development

        BRICS leaders have approved creating a new development bank which would fund long-term investment in infrastructure and more sustainable development. This paper documents the scale of unmet needs in these areas in developing and emerging economies and estimates the likely level of loans that this new development bank could make, under different assumptions. The paper also highlights the complementary role that such a bank would play with existing development banks and shows its importance for enhancing the influence of BRICS and other developing countries in the international development architecture.

      • Preview
        China’s Development Trajectory: A Strategic Opening for Industrial Policy in the South (English)
        Report by Poon, Daniel /UNCTAD, 2014, 50 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation

        Through the lens of the five key sectors outlined by Arthur Lewis, this paper assess China’s economic trajectory that shows signs of indigenous technological capabilities taking root. A new gap between China’s industrial ambitions and its current capabilities provides a strategic opening for other developing countries to bargain for enhanced opportunities for domestic investment, learning, technical change and structural transformation.

      • Preview
        Chinese Trade Reforms, Market Access and Foreign Competition - The Patterns of French Exporters (English)
        Working paper by Maria Bas, Pamela Bombarda, 2013, 39 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Using detailed trade and firm-level data from France, the authors investigate how French firms' product scope and export sales changed after Chinese liberalization vis-a-vis Asian liberalization. The findings suggest that lower Chinese import tariffs account on average for 7 percent of the new products exported by French firms, and for 18 percent of additional French export sales.

      • Preview
        A Comparative Assessment of How Trade Liberalization and the Economic Crisis Have Impacted India and South Africa (English)
        Note by ICTSD, 2010, 4 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Globalization and Development Strategies

        It is widely accepted that though the financial and economic crisis broke out in the United States and mainly engulfed the developed industrial countries in 2008, its impact was significant across the globe.However, the generalised effect of the crisis neither meant that the extent and nature of the impact was the same across countries, nor that the recovery from the crisis induced recession was simultaneous or similarly robust. This note is concerned with comparing the impact of the crisis on two large countries located in very different contexts, namely India and South Africa.

      • Preview
        Deep Regional Integration and Non-tariff Measures: A Methodology for Data Analysis (English)
        Discussion paper by Cadot, Olivier; Asprilla, Alan; Gourdon, Julien; Knebel, Christian; Peters, Ralf /UNCTAD, 2015, 37 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper develops tools for policymakers to advance deep regional integration with respect to non-tariff measures (NTMs). First, it develops a regulatory distance indicator to measure the similarity of NTM policies across countries and sectors. Secondly, it employs a price-gap based technique to estimate the price increasing effect of NTMs. The report also looks at the estimation residuals to trace back from AVEs to more concrete and specific cases. Lastly, the paper links AVEs to Kenyan household survey data on consumption patterns in order to evaluate welfare impacts.

      • Preview
        East Asia’s Counterweight Strategy: Asian Financial Cooperation and Evolving International Monetary Order (English)
        Discussion paper by Sohn, Injoo, 2007, 24 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, International Financial System

        In the aftermath of the Asian economic crisis, East Asian countries including ASEAN member states, China, Japan and the Republic of Korea, have increasingly sought to establish a regional system of financial cooperation. The study looks at the main drivers of this process and examines the progress made. The two key initiatives are the 'Chiang Mai initiative', which is designed to provide liquidity to member countries with short-run balance of payments problems and could develop into an Asian Monetary fund, and the 'Asian Bond Fund initiative', a regional bond market aiming to keep foreign reserves in the region and to reduce vulnerability to external financial shocks. The author also discusses the prospects and the challenges faced by the initiatives, such as regional economic diversity, geopolitical rivalry (in particular between Japan and China), and the relation to the IMF, the US and the EU. How: Describing East Asian responses to financial crisis, thus raising awareness about regional options in this area. Who: Policy makers in the field of regional and multilateral financial cooperation.

      • Preview
        Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific 2016: Nurturing Productivity for Inclusive Growth and Sustainable Development (English)
        Report by Akhtar, Shamshad/ ESCAP; Hahm, Hongjoo/ ESCAP; Hasan, Aynul/ ESCAP, 2016, 172 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Trade and Poverty, Trade Facilitation

        The first chapter of the Survey contains an examination of the macroeconomic performance of and outlook for the Asia-Pacific region, analyzing the implications of some of the economic challenges that the region is facing. It also contains a discussion on several policy options, with emphasis on the importance of fiscal policy. The chapter also includes an examination of the impact of the recent economic slowdown in the Asia Pacific region in terms of its effects on poverty, inequality and employment prospects, along with challenges posed by an expanding middle class and rapid urbanization. In the second chapter, the diversity of the region is considered by providing a more disaggregated analysis of economic issues and challenges that each of the five sub regions is facing. In doing so, a distinct issue is the focus for each sub region, which provides an opportunity for increased understanding of a variety of experiences and policy considerations. Finally, the third chapter contains analyses on the importance of productivity in the Asia-Pacific region and a set of policy recommendations on how to strengthen productivity growth.

      • Preview
        Economic Development in Africa Report 2010. South-south Cooperation: Africa and the New Forms of Development Partnership. (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 128 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Finance for Development

        The Economic Development in Africa Report 2010 examines recent trends in the economic relationships of Africa with other developing countries and the new forms of partnership that are animating those relationships.\\n The report discusses the variety of institutional arrangements that are guiding and encouraging these new economic relationships. It provides up-to-date information on African trade with other developing countries outside Africa, as well as on official financial flows and foreign direct investment into Africa from those countries. Finally, it assesses important policy issues that arise from the new relationships in each of these areas.\\n The report places the new relationships and multiplying partnerships within the context of South–South cooperation.

      • Preview
        Enhancing the Role of Regional Development Banks, G-24 Discussion Paper Series No. 50 (English)
        Working paper by Griffith-Jones, Stephany; Griffith-Jones, David and Hertova, Dagmar / UNCTAD, 2008, 38 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, International Financial System

        There are a number of important reasons why lending by regional or sub-regional development banks can and should play an important and valuable complementary role in the international development architecture. We look at the specific strengths of multilateral, regional and sub-regional development banks and drawing on the successful experience of the European Investment Bank and the Andean Development Corporation conclude that the time is now for creating new regional development banks and expanding existing ones. Creating new institutions or expanding existing ones will have very clear benefits, as for instance providing regional public goods which are currently undersupplied, such as regional infrastructure. Very large pools of savings and foreign exchange reserves originate in developing countries these days and therefore the potential for a significant expansion of regional or sub-regional development banks, with only or mainly developing country members has grown significantly. At the same time, it may be desirable to create new regional development banks where gaps exist, however too much duplication of services is not desirable.

      • Preview
        The Financial and Economic Crisis of 2008-2009 and Developing Countries (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2010, 340 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Finance for Development, International Financial System

        Most analyses of the financial and subsequent economic crisis, including those by leading international institutions like the International Monetary Fund, have focused on OECD countries. This can give the (mistaken) impression that the developing world, even sub-Saharan Africa, has been less severely affected by the crisis and is recovering relatively quickly. Most developed countries’ governments are preoccupied with their domestic problems. This collection of papers puts the South on centre stage. It examines how the countries of the South were affected by the global economic and financial crisis and how they responded, what lessons the South could learn and what policy agenda needs to be pushed forward to better support the interests of developing countries, least developed countries as well as emerging-market economies.

      • Preview
        Forging a Path Beyond Borders: the Global South (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 98 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation

        The report prepared by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), Forging a Path Beyond Borders: The Global South, analyses the rising global South – past and present – with an eye to reinvigorating this important and unique source of development cooperation. The report analyses the main challenges and opportunities in South–South trade, investment and finance and emphasizes growing opportunities for South–South cooperation on technology transfers and partnerships for technological innovation, as well as the suitable policies needed, to kick off innovative partnerships in key emerging areas such as “Industry 4.0”. It was informed by an earlier draft version, presented at an informal thematic consultation, held on 5 November 2018 and organized by UNCTAD in cooperation with the Permanent Mission of the Argentine Republic to the United Nations Office and other international organizations in Geneva. The outcome of the consultation and a set of non-binding recommendations are included in this final report.

      • Preview
        Growing Green : The Economic Benefits of Climate Action (English)
        Report by Uwe Deichmann and Fan Zhang, 2013, 423 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Trade and Environment

        With prospects of a global climate agreement uncertain, this report identifies the actions that governments in Eastern Europe and Central Asia can take to reduce the carbon footprints of their economies. It identifies actions in three priority areas: using energy more efficiently, moving to cleaner energy sources, and increasing carbon capture in soils and forests.

      • Preview
        Growing Together - Economic Integration for an Exclusive and Sustainable Asia-pacific Century (English)
        Book by ESCAP, 2012, 196 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        The Asia-Pacific region’s rapid growth since the 1950s has been supported by a favourable external economic environment and opportunities arising from globalization. But in a dramatically altered post-global financial crisis scenario, the region’s dynamism, which is crucial for the elimination of poverty and hunger and the realization of the Asia-Pacific century, will critically depend on its ability to harness the potential of regional economic integration. Chapter one of the study gives an overview of the key issues in the context of regional economic integration in Asia and the Pacific. The following chapters deal with the process of a broader integrated market. Chapter three looks therefore at the aspect of connectivity, while chapter four is focussing on the financial cooperation aspect. The final chapter concludes with looking at the future - towards an inclusive and sustainable Asia-Pacific century.

      • Preview
        Human Development Report 2013 – The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World (English)
        Report by UNDP, 2013, 216 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Globalization and Development Strategies

        The report examines the profound shift in global dynamics driven by the fast-rising new powers of the developing world and its long-term implications for human development. It analyzes more than 40 developing countries and specifically looks at the strategies of those which lifted their HDI value substantially between 1990 and 2012. It looks at the results of new trade and technology partnerships within the South itself. The report identifies four specific areas of focus for sustaining development momentum: enhancing equity; enabling greater voice and participation of citizens; confronting environmental pressures; and managing demographic change. With fresh analytical insights and clear proposals for policy reforms, the report calls for a better representation of the South in global governance systems and points to potential new sources of financing within the South.

      • Preview
        Human Development Report 2013 – The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World - Summary (English)
        Summary by UNDP, 2013, 28 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Globalization and Development Strategies

        The Human Development Report examines the profound shift in global dynamics driven by the fast-rising new powers of the developing world and its long-term implications for human development. It identifies more than 40 countries and analyzes the causes and consequences of their achievements and related challenges. The report specifically looks at the strategies of those countries which lifted their HDI value substantially between 1990 and 2012.

      • Preview
        IMF Policies for Financial Crises Preventions in Emerging Markets (English)
        Discussion paper by Lorenzo, Fernando; Noya, Nelson, 2006, 32 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, International Financial System, Macroeconomic Policy

        In emerging markets, policies for preventing and managing financial crises should be understood following the standard open economy macroeconomics text treatment. This, however, will prevent us from fully comprehending how to deal with these crises. To deal with financial crises in emerging markets, this paper brings about more promising theoretical tools borrowed from the interdisciplinary field of optimal policy design. It also considers the possibility that more than one market failure may occur simultaneously. The theoretical tools discussed here should serve to improve existing prevention and management policies. Admittedly, the interdisciplinary field of optimal policy design is comparatively young, thus offering scarce empirical support for disentangling competing models. Given this inability to decide upon the best possible model, we should consider at least two constraints that policy makers will deal with in the real world of financial crises. First, given that policy makers make crucial choices between parsimonious and innovative measures, this paper recommends parsimony because of the uncertainty about the true model. Second, high political implementation costs will always be present, and these are positively correlated with supranational institutional requirements. Considering issues of both parsimony and political constraints, we argue that any attempt to internationally harmonize rules and codes must be done with caution. With this framework in mind, we review some of the recent proposals about emerging markets crisis prevention. From the point of view of emerging countries and creditor countries taken as a Whole, and benevolent IFIs, we conclude that promoting GDP indexed sovereign bonds is the best available proposal for crises prevention. In this paper, we leave aside the debate of the political economy or governance reform issues of the IFIs.

      • Preview
        Implications for China of the December 2008 Draft Agricultural Modalities (English)
        Report by Zhihong, Tian/ICTSD, 2009, 50 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        With nearly 900 million people dependent on agriculture for income, China produces more wheat and paddy than any other country, yet it is a country dependent upon trade to both employ and feed its people. Moreover, China has some of the lowest agricultural tariffs of any WTO Member and yet subsidies that rival the EU’s in total. The ongoing Doha Round of trade negotiations at the WTO may significantly alter the relationship of Chinese agriculture with the world. This study explores the latest draft WTO agreement on agriculture and what it means for China.

      • Preview
        International R&D Strategies in Companies from Developing Countries – the Case of China (English)
        Case study by Maximilian von Zedtwitz, Research Center for Global R&D Management, Tsinghua University, 2005, 11 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Enterprise Development, Science and Technology

        What: Traditionally, international R&D is a phenomenon of firms originating from advanced countries such as North America, Europe, and Japan. Based on the analysis of 1269 R&D locations, a new research framework is proposed that accounts for the increasing share of R&D toward or from developing countries. Investigating technology-intensive Chinese firms, motivations, strategies, and barriers to R&D internationalization are analyzed. The paper proposes two concepts of international R&D:\\n “innovation capability enhancing” and “innovation capability exploiting”, respectively, denoting superimposed networks that allow the absorption and implementation of new technologies. Who: Can be used by a lecturer on a course on R&D outsourcing to developing countries. How: For a course on R&D and the role of TNCs.

      • Preview
        Is South–South Trade a Testing Ground for Structural Transformation? (English)
        Discussion paper by Klinger, Bailey/UNCTAD, 2009, 37 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        The purpose of this paper is to analyse the composition of South–South as opposed to South– North trade in recent years, applying emerging methodologies and highly disaggregated trade data to consider whether the South as a market provides developing countries with greater opportunities to transform their productive structures and move to more sophisticated export sectors than the Northern market does. The results show that for a group of developing countries, primarily in Africa, Latin America and Central Asia, exports within the South are more sophisticated and better connected in the product space than exports to the North, whereas the opposite is true for the faster-growing economies of Asia and Eastern Europe (excluding the Commonwealth of Independent States). It is shown that the primary source of cross-country variation in export sophistication and connectedness is between Northbound rather than Southbound export baskets. And yet it is clear that for a large group of developing countries, current export flows to the North are not particularly growth-enhancing, nor do they offer learning opportunities to fuel structural transformation, and for these countries South–South trade flows may indeed be a testing ground for structural transformation. This paper focuses on clearly establishing the facts about export composition by market, and identifying promising avenues for further investigation.

      • Preview
        LATN Brief April 2007: Economies of China, Colombia and Peru - Impact on Growth and Income (English)
        Policy brief by Ferrari, César, 2007, 4 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Trade and Poverty, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        China has managed to reduce poverty levels considerably over the past decades, albeit at the cost of increasing inequality. Many Latin American countries in contrast have lived through a period of stagnation and have not been able to reduce poverty and inequality levels. The last brief published by the Latin American Trade Network (LATN) summarizes the results of a study on the factors underlying the different growth, poverty reduction, trade, and investment experiences of China, Colombia and Peru. In addition, the study sets up a dynamic Computable General Equilibrium model to examine the consequences of enhanced trade and investment relationships between Colombia and China. The findings of the study suggest positive effects on the Colombian growth rate and wages, but negative impacts on the levels of employment and inequality. The brief is available in Spanish.

      • Preview
        Learning from the Chinese Miracle: Development Lessons for Sub-saharan Africa
        Report by Zafar, Ali/World Bank, 2010, 38 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation

        A notable contrast in modern economic history has been the rapid economic growth of China and the slower and volatile economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. As the engagement between the two continues to grows, there will be a greater cross-fertilization of experiences. Total factor productivity comparisons suggest that capital accumulation in China coupled with more efficient factor usage explains the differential with Africa. Although the two have similar populations and patterns of inequality, their growth trajectories have been divergent. What can Africa learn from China? Although the lessons vary depending on country location and resource endowment, seven basic lessons are visible. First, the political economy of Chinese reforms and the shared gains between political elites and the private sector can be partially transplanted to the African context. Second, the Chinese used diaspora capital and knowledge in the early reform years. Third, rural reforms in China helped accelerate economic takeoff through a restructuring of property rights and a boost to both savings rates and output. Fourth, Chinese growth has taken place in the context of a competitive exchange rate. Five, port governance in China has been exemplary, and African landlocked economies can benefit significantly from port reform in the coastal countries. Six, China has experimented with a degree of decentralization that could yield benefits for many Sub-Saharan African countries. Seventh, Africa can learn from China's policies toward autonomous areas and ethnic minorities to stave off conflict. Africa can learn from China's experiences and conduct developmental experiments for poverty alleviation goals.

      • Preview
        The Least Developed Countries Report 2011 - Overview (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 29 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Trade and Poverty

        The Least Developed Countries Report 2011 puts forward a policy framework for enhancing the development impact of South–South cooperation, and proposes ways to leverage South–South financial cooperation for development in the LDCs.

      • Preview
        The Least Developed Countries Report 2011 - The Potential Role of South-South Cooperation for Inclusive and Sustainable Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 194 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation

        The Least Developed Countries Report 2011 puts forward a policy framework for enhancing the development impact of South–South cooperation, and proposes ways to leverage South–South financial cooperation for development in the LDCs.

      • Preview
        Medical and Wellness Tourism: Lessons from Asia
        Working paper by ITC, 2014, 44 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation

        This paper reviews current trends in global medical tourism. It draws on the experience of four Asian countries – India, Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines – to extract lessons and the best practices for another Asian country, Sri Lanka that demonstrates considerable potential in medical and wellness tourism given its traditional knowledge of ayurvedic treatments. It concludes by highlighting the role that international organizations can play in helping developing countries grow their domestic capabilities and join the global health tourism industry.

      • Preview
        Os Brics Na OMC: Políticas Comerciais Comparadas De Brasil, Rússia, Índia, China E África Do Sul (English)
        Book by Oliveira, Ivan (IPEA) and Thorstensen, Vera (FGV), 2012, 484 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The result of a research project of the Department of International Studies at IPEA, in partnership with researchers from FGV, the study analyzes the trade policy of the BRICS countries, particularly with respect to their participation in the multilateral trading system.

      • Preview
        Potential Supply Chains in Textiles and Clothing Sector in South Asia. An Exploratory Study (English)
        Case study by Das, Abhijit, Banga, Rashmi, Kumar, Dinesh, Razzaque, M.A., Ratna, R.S., Moitra, Snighda, 2010, 147 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        The main objective of this study is to identify at HS six digit codes the potential supply chains that can be formed in the T&C sector (HS Chapters 50-63) within South Asia, which will enable South Asia to lower its cost of production and improve its global competitiveness. The analysis is undertaken for the four major economies of the region,namely Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The benefits of regional integration in developing potential supply chains in South Asia are also addressed.

      • Preview
        Promoting the Development of the South in the Trade and Climate Regimes (English)
        Note by South Centre, 2008, 13 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Trade and Environment

        This South Centre Analytical Note stresses that addressing the challenges of development and climate change requires an integrated approach. Both the trade and climate regimes have a role to play. In each case, a development perspective must guide discussions to ensure an outcome that advances the needs and aspirations of developing countries and their peoples. The shift to a low-carbon economy requires a range of measures to support developing countries, and sufficient development policy space to allow those countries to tailor approaches to their national contexts. In particular, developed countries must fulfil their existing international obligations in both the trade and climate regimes, and ensure that their development-related rhetoric is matched by the reality of their actions. This paper identifies a number of areas where developed countries are falling short in promoting development-oriented outcomes on trade and climate issues, and where further efforts should be made.

      • Preview
        Regional Approaches in Central Asia to Technical Barriers to Trade (English)
        Case study by UNESCAP, 2008, 55 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The aim of the study is to identify key SPS and TBT issues in the Central Asian Subregion and suggest options for regional approaches to address these issues. Countries included in the study are Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. The study provides a brief overview of the present status of SPS and TBT capacity and identifies key issues for enterprises – including SMEs – and Governments in Central Asia. In the light of good practices at the national and regional level for facilitating effective WTO compliance and taking advantage of WTO rights related to technical barriers to trade both in Central Asia and elsewhere, options are discussed as to how ESCAP can use its comparative advantage to facilitate regional approaches to address the key issues.

      • Preview
        Regional Arrangements To Support Growth And Macro-policy Coordination In Mercosur (English)
        Discussion paper by Fanelli, José María /UNCTAD, 2007, 42 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Macroeconomic Policy, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        The main goal of the paper is to discuss the problem of macroeconomic policy coordination in MERCOSUR and how it could contribute to sustaining growth. In the first part, the paper reviews the macroeconomic situation of MERCOSUR, emphasizing the role of the developments that followed the regime change in Brazil in 1999 and in other member countries afterwards. The second part analyses the characteristics of macroeconomic fluctuations in the region. The last section addresses what member countries can do to support growth, macro-policy coordination, and financial integration.

      • Preview
        Regional Cooperation and Integration in Sub-Saharan Africa (English)
        Discussion paper by Metzger, Martina/UNCTAD, 2008, 42 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        Africa has a long tradition of regional cooperation, its trade and monetary integration schemes being the oldest in the developing world. This paper analyses the state of regional integration with respect to trade and financial relations in selected regional schemes in Central, Southern and West Africa. The paper concludes that in particular regional monetary integration offers advantages in terms of monetary stability, growth, competitiveness, deepening of financial markets and ownership compared with an indiscriminately integration of individual countries into the global economy. Thus, great significance must attached to cooperation between Member States. Although trade and financial integration can be mutually enforcing, a minimum level of regional activities is required to set this process in motion. Until the necessary threshold is achieved, Member States have a vital role in organizing and delivering regional activities, e.g. the development of bond markets or the promotion of production networks.

      • Preview
        Regional Monetary Cooperation and Growth-enhancing Policies: the New Challenges for Latin America and the Caribbean (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2011, 84 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Macroeconomic Policy, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        Using the SUCRE initiative as a starting point, this study aims at raising awareness and building consensus on the issue of regional monetary cooperation and its links to growth and development.

      • Preview
        The Renaissance of China and India: Implications for the Advanced Economies (English)
        Discussion paper by Rowthorn, Robert, 2006, 32 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation

        Using simple convergence equations, this paper projects that by mid-century per capita incomes in China and India will on average be about half the US level. In terms of total production, both countries should overtake the USA by 2050. Such developments will affect the advanced economies through several channels. The terms of trade of these economies will deteriorate as labour intensive imports, such as clothing or holidays, become more expensive when ultra-cheap supplies from China (and later India) dry up. Resource-based imports may also become more expensive in response to rising demand from China and India. Orders of magnitude suggest that such terms of trade losses may be fairly easy to absorb if they are spread over many years. On the positive side, as China and India develop they will become major innovators in their own right and the advanced countries will benefit by importing technology from them. The development of China and India may also affect the internal distribution of income within the advanced economies. If transnational corporations can earn higher profits by moving production to China and India they may use this as a credible threat to extract concessions from their existing workers in the advanced economies. An appendix to the paper presents a simple mathematical model and some numerical examples that inform the discussion in the text.

      • Preview
        The Role of International Trade, Technology and Structural Change in Shifting Labour Demands in South Africa (English)
        Working paper by Haroon Bhorat, et al./ UNCTAD, 2010, 71 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        South Africa’s relatively peaceful transition from minority rule to majority rule in 1994 masked the challenges that lay ahead in terms of dealing with the economic vestiges of the system of racial exclusivity. The post-apartheid labour market challenge is twofold: firstly, South Africa has one of the highest unemployment rates in the world – officially at 26.7 percent and 38.8 percent when discouraged workers are included. Secondly, alongside this excess supply of labour, the economy for a variety of historical reasons has experienced a rapid increase in the demand for educated workers – the upshot of which has been an ongoing and severe skills shortage. The core of the paper is a detailed attempt at outlining the key factors that have shaped the economy’s chronic labour market crisis. In particular, it focuses on the different forces that have shaped labour demand trends in the apartheid and post-1994 period. It seeks to explain the relative contributions of structural shifts in the economy, technology and international trade,respectively, in determining the labour demand trajectory of the economy over the last three and a half decades. Moreover, the paper provides a descriptive analysis of the impact of the global economic and financial crisis on South Africa’s employment performance.

      • Preview
        Some key issues in South-South trade and economic cooperation (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005, 32 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        What: Report and papers from Doha high-level forum on trade and investment that deals with strengthening capacities in trade negotiations through partnerships and networking between developing countries. Special focus is made on the opportunity to increase South South trade and particularly in commodities. Who: For anyone teaching or researching regional trade agreements and How: This paper provides a case study of Costa Rica and presentations of experts at the forum.

      • Preview
        Structural Change and Economic Development: is Brazil Catching Up or Falling Behind? (English)
        Discussion paper by Nassif, André; Feijó, Carmem; Araújo, Eliane, 2013, 36 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper presents a Kaldor-Thirlwall theoretical and empirical framework on the basic driving forces of the behaviour of productivity and economic development in the long-run. By calculating the so- called Thirlwall equation, the main contribution of this research is to examine whether Brazil has been catching up or falling behind. The authors show some empirical evidence based on both descriptive statistics and econometric regressions for Brazil between 1970 and 2010. Some important indicators of descriptive statistics reveal that Brazil has entered into a process of early de-industrialization. In addition, since the econometric estimates also show that there was a dramatic increase in the income elasticity of demand for imports between 1980–1998 and 1999–2010 (from 1.97 to 3.36) and a small decrease in the income elasticity for exports during the same periods (from 1.36 to 1.33), the authors conclude that Brazil not only has already embarked on a trajectory of falling-behind relative to the world economy and the international economic frontier, but also that it might show, in the absence of appropriate policies, lower growth rates in the long run. However, if the opposite occurs, it would face major long-term external constraints to growth.

      • Preview
        Tales from the Development Frontier : How China and Other Countries Harness Light Manufacturing to Create Jobs and Prosperity (English)
        Book by World Bank, 2013, 555 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Globalization and Development Strategies, Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation

        This work describes how most developing countries have had little success in raising the share of manufacturing in production, employment, or exports. It sheds light on manufacturing clusters in several Asian and African countries and focuses on the six main binding constraints to competitiveness such as availability, cost, and quality of inputs; access to industrial land; access to finance; trade logistics; entrepreneurial capabilities, both technical and managerial; and worker skills. The volume systematically explores potential growth opportunities in industries: agribusiness, apparel, leather goods, wood working, and metal products.

      • Preview
        Technology and Innovation Report 2012 - Innovation, Technology and South-South Collaboration (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 164 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Science and Technology

        UNCTAD’s Technology and Innovation Report 2012 focuses on how South-South collaboration can help address key capacity questions faced by developing countries.

      • Preview
        Trade and Development Report 1996: Responding to the new global environment (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 1996, 18 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: In the 1960s and 1970s, East Asian countries achieved an effective transition from poor economies depending on natural resources to economies engaging successfully in labour-intensive manufacturing. This chapter deals with the possibilities for developing countries to replicate the process of export-oriented industrialization achieved by East Asian countries. Due to a new global environment this replication of the East Asian success is considered to be difficult. Nonetheless the importance of outward-oriented industrialization is underlined. Who: Useful for students and teachers that deal with development strategies for developing countries. How: Can serve as a starting point for discussions on the effectiveness of different development strategies for developing countries. Furthermore, with additional background reading case studies for different world regions and their development strategies could be derived.

      • Preview
        Trade and Development Report 2005, Chapter IV: Towards a new form of global interdependence (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005, 42 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: This chapter looks into the new form of global economic interdependence that is taking shape, primarily as a result of the increasing weight of the rapidly growing Asian developing economies, in particular the large ones of China and India, in the global economy. In the past, developing-country trade relied mainly on primary commodity exports to developed countries in exchange for imports of manufactures. However, the emergence of a number of Asian developing countries that form a new growth pole in the world economy has renewed hopes that South-South trade could provide additional momentum to development. Who: For anyone teaching and researching global interdependence. How: Can be used to teach and/or research on globalization and its new form of global interdependence.

      • Preview
        Trade and Development Report 2005: New features of global interdependence (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005, 204 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Globalization and Development Strategies, International Financial System

        What: This year's UNCTAD flagship Trade and Development Report 2005 questions the sustainability of the current global economic expansion and the realization of the MDGs in certain regions of the world. Although the rapid growth in China and India has made these two giants to become the second engine of worldwide growth; the United States record deficit, on the other hand, raises questions about the stability of the global financial system and the sustainability of global growth. The report asserts that a new form of global economic interdependence is taking shape mainly as a result of the increasing weight of the rapidly growing Asian developing economies. Who: A very useful report for anyone teaching and researching current world-wide economic trends and issues. How: An authoritative report that can be used as teaching and/or researching material for courses or research work on trade, investment and development.

      • Preview
        Trade and Development Report 2007 - Regional Cooperation for Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2007, 240 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        What: The first part of the report provides a discussion of global economic trends, which indicate developing countries are likely to continue to benefit from strong demand for primary commodities. In the second part it discusses how regional integration can be useful in reducing the effects of volatile capital flows and under- and over-evaluations on growth and investment. The report analyzes regional cooperation in three dimensions, i.e. trade flows, financial flows and monetary integration, and other aspects (energy, trade logistics, and industrial policy). The report concludes that regional integration can help to strengthen national policies. How: The report provides up-to-date information on trends in the world economy as well as in-depth analysis on the above mentioned dimensions of regional integration. It might thus be used to validate teaching resources in trade-related courses and spark ideas about relevant research. Who: Lecturers and researchers as well as policy-makers interested in trade issues. Overviews available in other UN official languages.

      • Preview
        Trade Facilitation Potential of Asian Transit Agreements in the Context of the WTO (English)
        Working paper by Cousin, Louis and Duval, Yann, 2014, 37 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Trade Facilitation, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper examines how freedom of transit and transit facilitation are addressed in trade, transport as well as transit specific agreements in the ESCAP region, with a view to identifying good practices and the extent to which existing agreements meet the transit facilitation provisions set out in the draft text of the WTO trade facilitation agreement (TFA). Following an overview of the provisions on transit found in 153 preferential trade agreements involving ESCAP countries, the study provides a more detailed analysis of a sample of 19 international transport and transit agreements in Asia in terms of their trade facilitation potential. Although some useful provisions for transit facilitation considered during the WTO negotiations did not find their way into the final TFA, the text agreed in Bali strengthens the basis for implementation of freedom of transit in the Asia-Pacific region. At the same time, the analysis highlights the complexity of the existing legal environment for transit and suggests a need for further enhancing inter-agency coordination and strengthening of multilateral rules in this area, building on the “good practices” found in the many existing bilateral, regional and multilateral instruments.

      • Preview
        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 2/2011: South-south Integration is Key to Rebalancing the Global Economy (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 2 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The world economy is seriously out of kilter. Over the last 30 years finance-led globalization has distorted developments in the real economy, triggered a series of boom-bust cycles and fuelled the most regressive redistribution of income in the modern era. These trends culminated in a financial meltdown spreading out from the advanced countries in late 2008, and producing the most severe worldwide slowdown since 1945. Imbalances continue to haunt the recovery process, which has been slow and erratic especially in the most heavily financialized and indebted economies, and in the most vulnerable countries in the South, where the economic shocks were compounded by food and energy insecurity and climate variability.

      • Preview
        UNCTAD Policy Brief No 4/2012: The Continuing Relevance of Development Banks (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2012, 4 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Finance for Development, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The demand for the mobilization of domestic resources for social inclusion and in support of virtuous circles of investment, productivity increase and income growth has created pressures to direct flows of finance towards priority income groups and strategically important sectors. There is no doubt that commercial financial institutions are part of the required institutional environment. However, the potential contribution of these institutions is limited by widespread financial market failures, and by their procyclical lending patterns and focus on short-term profitability rather than long-term social welfare. National development banks (NDBs) partially or wholly owned by the state can offer an alternative.

      • Preview
        The Way to the Ocean - Transit Corridors Servicing the Trade of Landlocked Developing Countries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 36 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Trade Facilitation

        This report looks at selected East African transit corridors which provide access to seaports as gateways to link landlocked developing countries (LLDCs) with overseas trading partners, and suggests complementary courses of action to improve transit transport efficiency and sustainability.

      • Preview
        Why Geographical Indications for Least Developed Countries? (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2015, 77 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        Geographical Indications (GIS) are a trade-related intellectual property right under the WTO TRIPS Agreement. The link between the territory and the uniqueness of the product is the distinctive developmental nature of GIs with respect to other forms of TRIPs. Evidence from the market and literature shows that the promotion and protection of products under GIs may results in higher economics gains, fostering quality production and equitable distribution of profits for LDC rural communities. GIs encourage the preservation of biodiversity, traditional know-how and natural resources. Leveraging on biological and cultural diversification, the implementation of GIs may represent a unique opportunity to bring together the various players along the value chain supply, including producers, government authorities and researchers. This study is the result of activities carried out under the UNCTAD project TAAK on market access and trade laws funded by the Italian Government and the Development Account project entitled "Strengthening the capacity of rural communities in least developed countries to utilize the market access opportunities provided by duty-free quota-free and enhancing value added of their traditional products".

Login