A partnership with academia

Building knowledge for trade and development

    • Resources discussing policies, initiatives and programs which aim at strenghtening the business sector, in particular SMEs, of developing countries by cooperation (business linkages programs and public private partnerships) or by building productive capacities.
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        Best Practices in Investment for Development - Case Studies in FDI (Malaysia and Singapore) (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2011, 106 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Investment

        This case study outlines the best practices used by Singapore and Malaysia in using Foreign direct investment (FDI) to enhance local SME development, focusing principally on the linkages between foreign affiliates and domestic SMEs.

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        Business Process Analysis Guide to Simplify Trade Procedures
        Paper by UNESCAP and UNECE, 2012, 139 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development

        This paper offers a simple methodology to elicit, document, and analyze the existing “as-is”business processes involved in international trade, as well as aid in developing recommendations for further improvement. It suggests a set of practical steps and activities, from setting the scope of the business process analysis project; planning its implementation; collecting relevant data; and presenting it in an easily understandable manner, to analyzing the captured data in order to identify bottlenecks and developing recommendations for improvement. This recommended set of steps and activities was generalized from the business process analysis exercise conducted in Thailand in preparation for the development of Thailand’s Single Window e-Logistics, which is a national obligation under the ASEAN Single Window initiative.

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        Competition Policy as a Stimulus for Enterprise Development (CCD Report, Ch.3) (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 80 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy, Enterprise Development

        What: A paper dealing with such themes as market concentration, the relation of competition to privatisation, to investment and to SMEs, with many helpful instances. The second and third parts are whole case studies on South Africa and Korea. Who: Teachers in economics, law or development with a special interest in market regulation and competition policy. How: The first part would be relevant to a general course on competition policy and development, and can also lead to class discussions. The two last parts give all the necessary information and data for case studies.

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        Corporate Governance and Public Corruption
        Working paper by Cusolito, Ana/World Bank, 2010, 35 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development

        Corporate governance in the private sector and corruption are important for economic development and private sector development. This paper investigates how corporate governance in private-sector media companies can affect public corruption. The analytical framework, based on models of corporate governance, identifies two channels through which media ownership concentration affects corruption: an owner effect, which discourages corruption and a competition-for-control effect that enhances it. When the ownership structure of a newspaper has a majority shareholder, the first effect dominates and corruption decreases as ownership becomes more concentrated in the hands of majority shareholders. Without majority shareholders, the competition-for-control effect dominates and corruption increases with the concentration of ownership of the media company. Thus, the paper shows that cases of intermediate media-ownership concentration are the worst at promoting public accountability, while extreme situations, where the ownership is completely concentrated or widely held, can result in similar and lower levels of corruption.

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        Corporate Governance Disclosure in Emerging Markets. Statistical Analysis of Legal Requirements and Company Practices (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 58 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development

        While this report finds that disclosure requirements in emerging markets are relatively strong, there are still generally fewer requirements than in more developed markets and compliance gaps tend to be larger. There is a clear need to improve, promote and enforce disclosures and in some instances make them mandatory in order to strengthen reporting regimes and help enterprises improve their communication with shareholders and other stakeholders. There is still much work to do. This report integrates and compares four years of UNCTAD‟s cross country comparative data on corporate governance disclosure in emerging markets. This work will assist policy makers in identifying regulatory gaps, comparative best practices, and priorities for capacity building.

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        Corporate Social Responsibility in Latin America (English)
        Working paper by UNCTAD VIRTUAL INSTITUTE, 2010, 138 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, International Economic Law

        The purpose of this publication is to enhance the understanding of CSR issues in Latin America based on facts, figures, cases and experiences, as well as to review appropriate methods for analyzing the impact of CSR initiatives. The publication covers CSR and labour practices in the agriculture and extractive industries (the mining industry in Chile and banana production in Colombia); CSR practices in Uruguay; and new legal instruments in the area of human rights and labour rights in the Latin American region. The publication was prepared under the supervision of Vlasta Macku, Chief of the Virtual Institute.

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        Data Protection Regulations and International Data Flows: Implications for Trade and Development (Executive Summary) (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2016, 17 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Science and Technology

        The study includes some detailed guidance on the growing consensus around key conditions and limitations on surveillance initiated by governments. Most regional and global initiatives are silent on the issue of surveillance. It is essential that national laws and global and regional initiatives acknowledge the existence of surveillance issues and attempt to address these issues directly. While surveillance issues often have an international or cross-border dimension, the extraterritorial nature of data flows and surveillance, as it relates to state sovereignty, must be specifically addressed. The United Nations statement on digital rights may serve as a platform for considering the connection between data protection and surveillance.

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        Developing Business Linkages For Green Affordable Housing In Zambia
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 50 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Enterprise Development, Investment

        This report investigates the potential for building business linkages between micro, small and medium sized enterprises (MSMEs) in the construction industry in Zambia and large domestic and international companies and investors. It adopts a step-by-step methodology, taking international firms and property developers through the full process of doing business in the low and middle income housing sector in Zambia – highlighting opportunities to partner with local MSMEs and others stakeholders.

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        Development Dimensions of Intellectual Property in Nepal (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 59 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy

        Divided in 5 parts, this report on the development dimension of intellectual property rights (DDIP) was developed in response to a technical assistance request from Nepal. Part 1 outlines the major framework for intellectual property (IP) policy in Nepal. Part 2 recommends a number of legislative, policy and practical steps to facilitate and enable the technological and innovation functions of IP protection. Part 3 examines the access to medicine regime of Nepal and recommends for Nepal to implement the transition period for the protection of pharmaceutical product patents and pharmaceutical test data that lasts until 2033. Part 4 analyses Nepal's access and benefit sharing regime, the interface between IP and biodiversity, and options for defensive and positive protection of genetic resources (GRs) and traditional knowledge (TK). The recommendations of this report have legislative and institutional dimensions that require capacity building, and in some cases, additional studies to develop specific action plans for implementation.

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        Doing Business 2010: Reforming Through Difficult Times (English)
        Report by World Bank; International Finance Corporation., 2009, 231 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Trade Facilitation

        Doing Business 2010 is the seventh in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulations and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 183 economies--from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe--and over time. Regulations affecting 10 stages of a business's life are measured: starting a business, dealing with construction permits, employing workers, registering property, getting credit, protecting investors, paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts and closing a business. Data in Doing Business 2010 are current as of June 1, 2009. The indicators are used to analyze economic outcomes and identify what reforms have worked, where and why.

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        E-commerce in Developing Countries: Opportunities and Challenges for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises
        Report by World Trade Organization, 2013, 16 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Science and Technology

        This publication focuses on how e-commerce and mobile telephony have transformed the lives of many people in developing countries. It examines different ways of using e-commerce, and looks at specific sectors where Small and Medium Entreprises tap into important market information for their business.

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        Economic Development in Africa Report 2013 Intra-african Trade: Unlocking Private Sector Dynamism (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 158 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Globalization and Development Strategies, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        The main message of this year's report is that intra-African trade presents opportunities for sustained growth and development in Africa, but that seizing these opportunitiesrequires private sector dynamism to be unlocked and a development-based approach to integration to be adopted. Chapter 1 provides empirical facts on intra-African trade and investment. Chapter 2 examines the drivers of intra-Africantrade. Chapter 3 focuses on the structure of enterprises in Africa and identifies the distinctive features of the enterprise structures that inhibit trade. Chapter 4 discusses how to boost intra-African trade in the context of developmental regionalism. Chapter 5 provides a summary of the main findings and recommendations of the report.

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        E-Finance and Small and Medium-Size Enterprises (SMEs) in Developing and Transition Economies (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2001, 41 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Science and Technology

        What: A presentation of the emergence of e-finance as well as an analysis of the experience in e-finance and of specific initiatives aiming at the development of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). The final part is an overview of coming challenges in the field. Who: People who teach or research on international finance, on the new economy or on SMEs How: An introductory course to e-finance and development, or case studies based on the experiences mentioned in part 2 and on the list of Websites provided

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        Enterprising Women : Expanding Economic Opportunities in Africa (English)
        Book by Hallward-Driemeier, Mary, World Bank, 2013, 306 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Trade and Gender

        The book looks at the ways to expand women entrepreneurs’ economic opportunities in Sub-Saharan Africa. What explains the gender sorting in the types of enterprises that women and men run? The analysis shows that many Sub-Saharan countries present a challenging environment for women. Four key areas of the agenda for expanding women’s economic opportunities in Africa are analyzed: strengthening women’s property rights and their ability to control assets; improving women’s access to finance; building human capital in business skills and networks; and strengthening women’s voices in business environment reform.

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        Entrepreneurship Policy Framework and Implementation Guidance (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 69 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development

        Private sector development has become an important part of development policy. Until recently, however, policymakers around the globe as well as in international organizations adopted a narrow perspective of the challenges involved, focusing in particular on efficiency gains in existing enterprises. In the face of rapid social and technological change, slow economic recovery and jobless growth, many countries have shifted the focus of their policies to facilitating new firm creation. With the inclusion of entrepreneurship as part of the development policy agenda there is an opportunity to better link private sector development to the goals of inclusive and sustainable development. The Entrepreneurship Policy Framework developed by UNCTAD is, therefore, a timely contribution as it aims to assist policymakers in identifying the key elements of an entrepreneurship policy and formulating actions. It also provides policy options that will help developing countries and countries in transition to stimulate inclusive and sustainable growth. While cautioning that one-size does not fit all, the policy recommendations are clearly stated and are accompanied by practical checklists, an inventory of selected examples and monitoring indicators. The four design principles that underpin the findings in this document are the following: 1. Consensus building: development partners should contribute to a national entrepreneurship strategy that is the result of extensive consultation between the government and representatives of all sectors of business activity, local communities, education and financial institutions. 2. Sustainability: poverty reduction, gender equality and environmental protection are core goals. 3. Implementation: multiple ministries, as well as implementing agencies from the private sector and civil society should be identified and their role clearly defined 4. Monitoring and evaluation: the periodic measurement of policy effectiveness is essential for the management of entrepreneurship policy and should incorporate feedback from lessons learnt on an on-going basis.

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        Facilitating Biotrade in a Challenging Access and Benefit Sharing Environment (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 45 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Macroeconomic Policy

        With the entering into force of the CBD Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization, there is a new opportunity to improve the synergies for access to genetic resources and benefit sharing (ABS) in the context of BioTrade, and in turn contribute to legal certainty on this particularly important matter in regards to sustainable use of biodiversity. Though historically BioTrade has moved in the realm of sustainable biodiversity businesses, particularly with biological resources and certain ecosystem services, questions remain regarding when and how genetic resources become part of BioTrade and most importantly, whether ABS policy and legal frameworks are applicable or not. The Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit Sharing is a new multilateral environmental agreement under the CBD, seeking to clarify definitions, issues of scope and coverage of ABS, and specific actions by user and provider countries of biodiversity resources. The rapid implementation of the Protocol within the European Union and Switzerland is placing considerable pressure on providing countries to adjust, develop and implement effective and efficient ABS frameworks at the national level to be consistent with the Protocol and also benefit from it.

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        Financing Innovative Development - Comparative Review of the Experiences of UNECE Countries in Early-Stage Financing (English)
        Article by UNECE, 2007, 118 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Finance for Development

        The Comparative Review focuses on the provision of early-stage equity financing to innovative technology-based enterprises with a view to identifying policy options and recommendations to facilitate the access of these enterprises to early finance. The UNECE region includes countries at very different levels of their innovative capability, which is reflected in the various degrees of maturity of the venture capital industry and the scope of the policy initiatives adopted in this area. This Comparative Review makes a contribution to transnational learning, that is to say, the transfer of good experiences and best practices across the whole UNECE region. In particular, in accordance with CECI mandate, it aims to facilitate the ongoing policy efforts on financing innovative enterprises in the catch-up economies of the region by promoting a better understanding of the international experiences.

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        Firm Growth and Productivity in Belarus : New Empirical Evidence from the Machine Building Industry (English)
        Working paper by Jesus Crespo Cuaresma, Herald Oberhofer, Gallina A.Vicelette, 2012, 33 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development

        The paper uses a dataset comprising information of 153 firms in the machine building sector in Belarus. It investigates the determinants of firm growth for an economy where state ownership of enterprises is widespread. It uses panel data models based on generalizations of Gibrat’s law, total factor productivity estimates and matching methods to assess the differences in firm growth between private and state-controlled firms. The main finding indicates that labor hoarding and soft budget constraints play a particularly important role in explaining differences in performance between these two groups of firms.

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        The globalisation of R&D by TNCs and implications for developing countries (English)
        Presentation by Anne Miroux, UNCTAD, 2005, 20 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Investment, Science and Technology

        What: The presentation outlines the main actors of the process of R&D outsourcing. TNCs play a key role but public sector research institutions, universities and domestic enterprises should not be neglected. It provides the rationale for the increase in R&D-related FDI activities in developing countries. The impact as well as the benefits, costs and risks and the enabling policies are reviewed. Finally, it offers a few issues for discussion. Who: Can be used by a lecturer on a course on R&D outsourcing to developing countries. How: For a course on R&D and the role of TNCs.

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        The globalisation of R&D: Key features and the role of TNCs (English)
        Presentation by Robert Pearce, University of Reading, United Kingdom, 2005, 13 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Investment, Science and Technology

        What: The aim of this paper is to elaborate on relevant aspects of strategic restructuring in TNCs and then provide some detail on how this becomes operational in terms of the increased decentralisation of their R&D programmes. This paper could also provide a basis for discussion of the implications of these more differentiated and dynamic strategic orientations in TNCs for host countries in which they operate, with particular emphasis on countries at early stages of competitiveness development and on economies in transition. The strategic changes in TNCs now involve them with creative resources (R&D; technology stocks; market research; entrepreneurial management) in national economies in a way not envisaged 40 years ago Who: Relevant for anyone teaching or studying strategic changes in TNCs and their R&D programmes. How: Can be used for a lesson/course on the role of TNCs in the globalization of R&D.

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        Globalization of R&D and TNC Strategies: Siemens (English)
        Presentation by Armin Sorg, 2005, 18 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Investment, Science and Technology

        What: An interesting power point presentation by Siemens chief economist for an UNCTAD expert meeting on Globalization of R&D and TNC strategies. The presentation deals with Siemens globalization of its R&D activities. Who: Relevant for anyone teaching globalization of R&D. How: Can be used for a lesson/course on globalization of R&D and TNC strategies.

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        Global Supply Chains: Trade And Economic Policies For Developing Countries (English)
        Discussion paper by Nicita, Alessandro, Ognivtsev, Victor and Shirotori, Miho/UNCTAD, 2012, 28 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Enterprise Development

        Although a substantial share of Global Supply Chains (GSCs) production processes is taking place in developing countries, the Least Developed Countries and other low-income countries lack the business supporting national policies to ensure that their participation in GSCs is more than that of providers of low value-added components.

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        Growing micro and small enterprises in the LDCs -The "missing middle" in LDCs (English)
        Presentation by UNCTAD, 2001, 106 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development

        What: Dynamic medium-sized enterprises provide a competitive edge in two ways – as leading subcontractors and as venture firms in their own right. However, in many LDCs there is evidence of a “missing middle”: a shortage of middle-sized growth-oriented SMEs. Besides, the lack of a coherent policy for enterprise development, globalization and the opening of domestic markets has had an adverse impact on the enterprise structure in many LDCs. This paper presents a summary of the policy framework for small and medium-sized enterprise development in Burkina Faso, Nepal, Samoa and Zambia. Who: For anyone teaching LDCs' challenges in the expansion of growth-oriented SMEs. How: Can be used as a background reading for lessons on SMEs in developing economies.

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        Guidance on Good Practices in Corporate Governance Disclosure (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2006, 52 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development

        This guidance is a technical aid for regulators and companies, particularly in developing countries and transition economies. The purpose of the guidance is to help those responsible for preparing company reports to produce disclosures on corporate governance that address the major concerns of investors and other stakeholders. The publication is relevant to enterprises eager to attract investment regardless of their legal form or size. It will also serve to promote awareness in countries and companies that do not adhere sufficiently to international good practices and consequently fail to satisfy investor expectations on corporate governance disclosures. The focus is on widely applicable disclosure issues that are relevant to most enterprises: • financial and non-financial corporate governance disclosures • disclosure issues regarding general meetings, timing and means of disclosure and compliance with best practice. UNCTAD draws upon recommendations for corporate governance disclosure contained in documents from other international organizations and national governments, as well as the deliberations of the Intergovernmental Working Group of Experts on International Standards of Accounting and Reporting (ISAR). For reference purposes, the guidance also contains a list of national and international resources on corporate governance disclosure. The publication is expected to serve as a useful tool for drawing attention to good corporate governance disclosure practices that enterprises in different parts of the world might wish to emulate.

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        How to Access Trade Finance: A Guide for Exporting SMEs (English)
        Manual by ITC, 2009, 149 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development

        Guide dealing with the processes involved in obtaining finance for exporting SMEs – explains the credit process of financial institutions from pre-application to loan repayment; examines the SME sector and barriers to finance, as well as the risks in lending to the SME sector as perceived by financial institutions; addresses SMEs’ internal assessment of financial needs, determining the right financing instruments, and finding the appropriate lenders and service providers; discusses how to approach and negotiate with banks; tackles cash flow and risk management issues; includes examples of real-life business plans and loan requests; includes bibliography

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        Identifying Asian LDCs’ High Potential Export Sectors (English)
        Report by ITC, 2013, 33 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Enterprise Development, Globalization and Development Strategies

        This report aims at identifying at least two sectors that show a high potential for exports in several Asian LDCs vis-à-vis China and vis-à-vis developing countries in Asia in general. Expanding exports by targeting dynamic markets is critical for future development and poverty alleviation in many developing countries and, yet, Asian Least Developed Countries (LDCs) like many other LDCs remain marginal players in the global economy and need technical assistance to fully grasp the benefits from international trade. Governments seek to complement general (“horizontal”) policies that improve the overall business environment by more targeted, sector-specific policies. Identifying sectors on which to put priority is necessary for a sound allocation of limited public resources. Governments, donors and other stakeholders want to make an informed decision on which priority sectors to select, and thus need to assess the export potential of individual sectors. As important as knowing what to export is the question where to export. Given the stagnating demand in many developed economies, emerging regional markets, first and foremost China, may offer export opportunities to Asian LDCs that are yet to be explored.

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        The impact of FDI on Development: Globalization of R&D by TNCs (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2004, 16 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Investment, Science and Technology

        What: A note prepared by UNCTAD identifying key issues related to the trends in the globalization of R&D and its implications for developing countries. Who: Relevant for anyone studying or teaching FDI and development, and its impact on processes of globalization. How: Background reading for courses on FDI, globalization. Also offers a lot of relevant reference materials.

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        Improving the competitiveness of SMEs in developing countries (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2002, 156 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Finance for Development

        What: Access to finance has been identified as a key element for SMEs to succeed in their drive to build productive capacity, to compete, to create jobs and to contribute to poverty alleviation in developing countries. Without finance, SMEs cannot acquire or absorb new technologies nor can they expand to compete in global markets or even strike business linkages with larger firms. This publication contains a background study which describes a number of innovations used by leading banks to improve the profitability of lending to SMEs. Who: Useful for teachers and students studying on improving SMEs' competitiveness. How: Can be used as a background reading for courses on access to finance for enterprise development.

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        The Informal Sector in Francophone Africa: Firm Size, Productivity, and Institutions
        Study by Benjamin, Nancy and Mbaye, Ahmadou Ali with Diop, Ibrahima Thione, Golub, Stephen S., Haughton, Dominique, and Niang, Birahim Bouna, 2012, 264 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Enterprise Development

        The book provides detailed description and analysis of the characteristics and functioning of informal sector firms, the causes of the pervasiveness of these firms, the relations between formal and informal firms, the consequences of informality for economic development, and appropriate policy responses. This study focuses on the urban informal sector in three capital cities: Dakar (Senegal), Cotonou (Benin), and Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso).

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        The Information Economy Report 2007-2008 Overview (Science and Technology for Development: the New Paradigm of ICT) (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2008, 37 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology

        What: The Report analyses the current and potential contribution of information technology to knowledge creation and diffusion. It explores how ICTs help generate innovations that improve the livelihoods of the poor and support enterprise competitiveness. The report examines how ICTs affect productivity and growth and reflects on the need for a development-oriented approach to intellectual property rights in order to enable effective access to technology. ICT has also given rise to new models for sharing knowledge and collective production of ideas and innovations, known as "open access" models, which often bypass the incentive system provided by intellectual property rights. How: The Report presents a current cross-section of themes and analysis that aim to inform and enable governments to understand the policy challenges and opportunities. The analysis identifies important areas of concern and best practices necessary for the formulation of targeted policy decisions to support and accelerate ICT diffusion.

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        Information Economy Report 2007-2008: Science and technology for development - the new paradigm of ITC (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2008, 386 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Science and Technology

        What: The Report analyses the current and potential contribution of information technology to knowledge creation and diffusion. It explores how ICTs help generate innovations that improve the livelihoods of the poor and support enterprise competitiveness. The report examines how ICTs affect productivity and growth and reflects on the need for a development-oriented approach to intellectual property rights in order to enable effective access to technology. ICT has also given rise to new models for sharing knowledge and collective production of ideas and innovations, known as "open access" models, which often bypass the incentive system provided by intellectual property rights. How: The Report presents a current cross-section of themes and analysis that aim to inform and enable governments to understand the policy challenges and opportunities. The analysis identifies important areas of concern and best practices necessary for the formulation of targeted policy decisions to support and accelerate ICT diffusion.

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        Information Economy Report 2009: Trends and Outlook in Turbulent Times (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2009, 153 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Science and Technology

        The Information Economy Report 2009 (IER 2009) offers a fresh assessment of the diffusion of key ICT applications between 2003 and 2008. While fixed telephone subscriptions are now in slight decline, mobile and Internet use continues to expand rapidly in most countries and regions. At the same time, there is a widening gap between high-income and low-income countries in broadband connectivity. Broadband penetration is now eight times higher in developed than in developing countries. The report explores policy options for countries seeking to improve broadband connectivity. The IER 2009 includes a chapter on the use of ICTs in the business sector. Drawing on unique data, it examines how ICT use differs both between and within countries, highlighting the rural-urban divide as well as that between large and small companies. The report recommends that governments in developing countries give more attention to ICT uptake and use by small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), as they are lagging behind larger firms. And it discusses those aspects of ICT where government intervention can make a difference. A third chapter is devoted to the impact of the financial crisis on ICT trade. While a growing share of exports of ICT goods and services is accounted for by developing economies, especially in Asia, the crisis has affected goods and services quite differently. ICT goods are among the categories of trade most negatively affected by the recession, while IT and ICT-related services appear to be among the most resilient.

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        The Information Economy Report 2011: ICTs as an Enabler for Private Sector Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 164 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Science and Technology

        Subtitled, ICTs as an Enabler for Private Sector Development (PSD), this is the sixth in the flagship series published by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). The Report shows that the potential of leveraging information and communication technologies (ICTs) to develop the private sector is far from fully exploited. It finds that many national and donor strategies related to PSD currently fail to take adequate account of the ICT potential, which has greatly expanded thanks to changes in the global ICT landscape. The Report then makes policy recommendations on how to remedy this situation.

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        Information Economy Report 2011: ICTs as an Enabler for Private Sector Development - Overview (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 4 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Science and Technology

        Subtitled, ICTs as an Enabler for Private Sector Development (PSD), this is the sixth in the flagship series published by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). The Report shows that the potential of leveraging information and communication technologies (ICTs) to develop the private sector is far from fully exploited. It finds that many national and donor strategies related to PSD currently fail to take adequate account of the ICT potential, which has greatly expanded thanks to changes in the global ICT landscape. The Report then makes policy recommendations on how to remedy this situation.

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        Information Economy Report 2015 - Unlocking the Potential of E-commerce for Developing Countries  (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 136 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Enterprise Development, Science and Technology

        The 2015 edition of the Information Economy Report examines electronic commerce, and explores how information and communication technologies can be harnessed to support economic growth and sustainable development.The report demonstrates how some of the greatest dynamism in electronic commerce can be found in developing countries, but that potential is far from fully realized. It examines opportunities and challenges faced by enterprises in developing countries that wish to access and use e-commerce. Finally, the report highlights the latest market trends, benchmarks country performances with the UNCTAD E-commerce Index, reviews examples of e-commerce in rural areas and low-income countries, addresses relevant legal issues and provides policy recommendations.

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        Information Economy Report 2015: Unlocking the Potential of E-commerce for Developing Countries - Overview
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2015, 18 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology

        The 2015 edition of the Information Economy Report examines electronic commerce, and explores how information and communication technologies can be harnessed to support economic growth and sustainable development.The report demonstrates how some of the greatest dynamism in electronic commerce can be found in developing countries, but that potential is far from fully realized. It examines opportunities and challenges faced by enterprises in developing countries that wish to access and use e-commerce. Finally, the report highlights the latest market trends, benchmarks country performances with the UNCTAD E-commerce Index, reviews examples of e-commerce in rural areas and low-income countries, addresses relevant legal issues and provides policy recommendations.

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        International Accounting and Reporting Issues, 2003 Review (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2004, 271 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development

        What: This volume highlights important topics with respect to corporate governance disclosure, including case studies on Brazil, France, Kenya, the Russian Federation and the United States, as well as current trends and issues in reporting on the impact of corporations on society. Each case study discusses the institutional and legislative framework for disclosure, including stock exchanges; codes of conduct and company practices; assessment of the extent to which best practices are reflected in the disclosure requirements of selected countries and how enterprises generally comply with these requirements; and overview of implementation challenges. Who: Useful for anyone teaching international accounting and reporting issues. How: Some of the case studies can be used for courses on accounting and reporting.

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        International Accounting and Reporting Issues: 2006 Review (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2007, 207 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development

        Through the (ISAR), UNCTAD has provided an intellectual home and an open forum for considering issues of corporate transparency — such as financial reporting, corporate governance and corporate responsibility — that have important implications for the economic development of member States. The twenty-third annual session of the Intergovernmental Working Group of Experts on International Standards of Accounting and Reporting (ISAR) was held in Geneva from 10 to 12 October 2006. This session addressed issues central to current challenges in corporate transparency, including the practical implementation of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), the use of corporate responsibility reporting in annual reports, and the promotion of good practices in corporate governance disclosure. The globalization of the investment community is putting new demands on comparable financial reporting. While the year 2005 saw an unprecedented number of enterprises and countries around the world adopt IFRS as their basis for financial reporting, 2006 witnessed the ongoing practical implementation of these new standards. This presents a number of challenges, including the need to be sensitive to the circumstances of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), while fostering a consistent implementation of the standards. Meanwhile, the same social and economic forces that are shaping global trade and development are also driving changes in the type of information various stakeholders want from companies. Enterprises have begun to recognize the value that environmental, social and governance reporting has in building investor confidence and stakeholder support. Over the longer run, experts agree that the current practice of financial reporting will need to be complemented by more non-financial information, including both corporate responsibility reporting and corporate governance disclosure. Building an appropriate institutional framework and implementing robust corporate reporting requirements are essential to the broader process of economic development. These issues are at the centre of ISAR’s work. It is my hope that policymakers, regulators, members of boards of directors, corporate executives, academics and other readers interested in advancing corporate transparency issues will find this publication to be a timely and useful resource.

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        International Accounting and Reporting Issues 2011 Review
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 121 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development

        This volume contains a review of the main developments in the area of accounting and reporting during 2011. It contains discussion and analysis of a number of corporate reporting issues that policy-makers, regulators, standard-setters, private sector as well as public sector accountants, auditors, academia, and other interested readers will find useful for keeping up-to-date with developments in the corporate reporting arena, including financial and non-financial reporting.

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        International R&D Strategies in Companies from Developing Countries – the Case of China (English)
        Case study by Maximilian von Zedtwitz, Research Center for Global R&D Management, Tsinghua University, 2005, 11 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Enterprise Development, Science and Technology

        What: Traditionally, international R&D is a phenomenon of firms originating from advanced countries such as North America, Europe, and Japan. Based on the analysis of 1269 R&D locations, a new research framework is proposed that accounts for the increasing share of R&D toward or from developing countries. Investigating technology-intensive Chinese firms, motivations, strategies, and barriers to R&D internationalization are analyzed. The paper proposes two concepts of international R&D:\\n “innovation capability enhancing” and “innovation capability exploiting”, respectively, denoting superimposed networks that allow the absorption and implementation of new technologies. Who: Can be used by a lecturer on a course on R&D outsourcing to developing countries. How: For a course on R&D and the role of TNCs.

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        Investment and Enterprise Responsibility Review. Analysis of Investor and Enterprise Policies on Corporate Social Responsibility. (English)
        Report by Unctad, 2010, 95 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Investment

        Transnational corporations (TNCs) play an ever more important role in sustainable development as conduits of capital, technology and management know-how. Increasingly, TNCs are being called upon to address broader environmental, social and governance (ESG) issues. At the same time, large, globally active investment institutions are becoming increasingly aware of the potential impact of a range of non-financial issues (e.g. climate change, human rights, corporate governance practices) of an investment proposition. This review of the current state of practices in the area of corporate social responsibility (CSR)among the world's 100 largest TNCs and responsible investment (RI)among the 100 largest institutional investors reveals a number of important insights.

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        La Gobernanza Versus GlobalizaciÓn: Estudio De Caso Isa
        Article by Carlos Manuel Jiménez Aguilar* Catherine Pereira Villa**, 2011, 21 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research

        This article explores the contemporary debate on globalization and governance, in order to study processes of regional integration from networks of cross-border governance in the region. The processes of privatization of the electric sector in Latin America increased public-private coordination and cross-sector partnerships: this is the case of Colombia’s energy sector and the company of electrical interconnection (ISA). This work suggests that the case of ISA can be characterized as one of interactive governance that has connected three countries of the Andean region and one member of Mercosur through a linear infrastructure of more than 35,000 km. This infrastructure has spatially integrated a region characterized by incomplete integration processes. This study analyses ISA’s model and its contribution to the cross-border governance based on information provided by the company and a series of interviews with ISA’s management.

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        LDC Services Exports: Trends and Success Stories (English)
        Working paper by ITC, 2013, 39 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Paper focuses on recent trends in the Least Developed Countries ( LDCs) exports of commercial services targeted at trade support institutions and the Aid for Trade community. It describes the LDCs current services export performance based on the UNCTAD-WTO Trade in Services Statistics for 2011 and provides a collection of services exporter case stories featuring case studies from Bangladesh, Cambodia, Rwanda, Senegal, Uganda, Vanuatu. The paper discusses lessons learned on the drivers of competitiveness in services and offers initial suggestions for what needs to be done to enhance LDC services enterprises' competitiveness.

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        Les Marches D'informations Et Le E-commerce Au Cameroun /informations Markets And E-commerce In Cameroon
        Case study by kenou Liwuitekong Stephan, 2011
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Science and Technology, Trade Facilitation

        The digital revolution, like all technological revolutions that already transformed several times the economic and social environment is of actuality in our societies were they either developed or under-developed. Besides it could not let us indifferent, so this study were carried, and where we collected a number of information which allowed us to define what is an information market, E-commerce, and all concepts around the question as: the E - economy, the E - management, the new economy etc. So, in the goal to discern the level of information society and ICT impact on the degree of the E – Commerce uses, at the level of Cameroon, we proceeded by the primary and secondary data analysis. This permitted us to understand that the Cameroonian internet user was not sensitized enough about the E - Commerce and that the whole logistics as well as the infrastructure that goes with, was not yet enough developed. To this effect, a certain number of measures or actions have been suggested, as: more of sensitization, reduction of the costs of Internet, development of the infrastructures of telecommunications, etc. Nevertheless, one could hope of the best following days in this domain, seen the efforts that are provided by the Cameroonian government, in the popularization of the NTICS, as well as the slogan “Internet for all”. It is whereas the Cameroonian enterprises of all sizes as well as the consumers will be able to experiment in their way to manage their resources the kindness of the E – Commerce.

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        The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development 2013 (English)
        Book by World Bank, 2013, 246 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development

        The book contains reliable cross-country data on private sector development. It is meant to make informed decisions when formulating responses to economic crises. Specially in the case of downturns which affect exports, investment, and growth negatively. It contains data on the investment climate by regions and by income groups. Data from the World Bank Group’s Doing Business project, Enterprise Surveys, Entrepreneurship Snapshots was also included. Some of the indicators included are on the economic and social context such as the investment climate, private sector investment, finance and banking, and infrastructure.

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        Making Regional Integration Work : Company Perspectives on Non-tariff Measures in Arab States
        Report by ITC, 2015, 74 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report is part of the ITC series of developing-country surveys on non-tariff measures (NTMs). It analyses four business surveys conducted by ITC in Egypt, Morocco, the State of Palestine and Tunisia. The surveys focus on NTMs imposed by governments; procedures that make compliance difficult; and inefficiencies in the trade-related business environment.The publication offers insights into what businesses perceive as their main challenges to trade, within and beyond the region, and suggests how to address these bottlenecks which hamper international and regional trade of the countries covered by the surveys.

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        Mobile Money for Business Development in the East African Community - A Comparative Study of Existing Platforms and Regulations (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 66 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Science and Technology

        This report is a survey of mobile money services across East African Community (EAC), providing an analysis and comparison between the different platforms currently on offer. The report is organized as follows: Section A provides a background to mobile money across EAC. Section B examines the different mobile money service offerings along with their associated fees. Section C looks at some salient features of the services currently on offer across EAC and identifies some usability issues such as access channels, security, registration and transaction limits, agent networks and consumer awareness and support. Section D provides an analysis of regulatory issues structured around the different functions embedded in a mobile money service. Section E draws on lessons across EAC to make policy recommendations to help direct the development of mobile money in a way that is inclusive and that also favours mobile money use amongst small businesses. Country profiles in the Annex provide in-depth detail and comparison across mobile money platforms within each country in EAC.

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        National Trade Policy for Export Success (English)
        Report by ITC, 2011, 176 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Enterprise Development

        This study presents a trade policy framework developed by ITC. It provides the trade policy instruments that governments can use to support the competitiveness of firms at each stage of the supply chain and outlines how trade policy options can influence national export competitiveness. The study also discusses in detail the trade policy instruments corresponding to each of the following objectives: creating competitive infrastructure services; promoting exports and foreign investment; moving goods across borders effectively; addressing export market issues and improving inputs and capital goods. It also considers how to tackle the overriding constraints faced by both public and private sectors, related to every stage of production and distribution of goods and services for export.

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        Pathways to African Export Sustainability (English)
        Report by The World Bank, 2012, 140 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Enterprise Development

        African exporters suffer from low survival in international markets.Is this really the case? This report shows that the answer is “no.” When survival performance is controlled for by observable country characteristics such as—among other things—the level of income, Africa is no outlier. African exports have short life expectancies, but not any shorter than comparable countries. Beyond income levels, short export survival is largely explained by the difficult business environment in which African exporters operate. Once measures of this environment are taken into account, African countries are by no means “below the regression line” in terms of export survival. To give an overview of the report: Chapter 1 sets the stage by putting Africa’s export-survival performance into perspective and proposing a framework that will guide the interpretation of empirical evidence throughout the report. Chapter 2 covers country-level determinants of export sustainability at origin and destination, including the exporting country’s business environment. Chapter 3 explores some of the firm-level evidence on what drives export sustainability, including uncertainty, incomplete contracts, learning, and networks. Finally, chapter 4 offers tentative policy implications.

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        Policy Space in Agricultural Markets: Policy Issues in International Trade and Commodities Research Study Series No. 73 (English)
        Report by Alain McLaren, 2016, 26 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Macroeconomic Policy, Trade and Environment

        As an outcome of the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture, all agricultural products now have a bound tariff rate on their imports. This system of bound tariffs combines the rigidity of an upper limit that is independent of future economic conditions but discretion as governments have a whole array of choices in terms of applied tariffs as long as they are set below the bound rate. One recurring argument is that bound rates may limit countries’ policy flexibility, or policy space, in response to particular economic circumstances. This paper looks at the use and availability of this policy space in agricultural markets. This is first done in a descriptive setting, then by assessing what plays a role in determining this space using an empirical analysis.

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        Practical Implementation of International Financial Reporting Standards: Lessons Learned (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2008, 153 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development

        Since 2005, UNCTAD’s Intergovernmental Working Group of Experts on International Standards of Accounting and Reporting (ISAR) has been deliberating on practical implementation challenges of international financial reporting standards (IFRS). The first chapter of this publication contains details of major practical implementation challenges and lessons learned from the experiences of members States that have embarked on the implementation process of IFRS. The remaining chapters, i.e., II–IX, contain country case studies of Brazil, Germany, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Pakistan, South Africa and Turkey.

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        Practical Solution for Cameroonian SMEs Financing Issue / Solutions Pratiques Au Problème De Financement Des Pme Au Cameroun (English)
        Policy brief by Christian Lambert NGUENA, 2013, 5 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Finance for Development, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Le rôle des petites et moyennes entreprises (PME) dans la lutte contre le chômage et la relance de l’activité économique n’est plus à démontrer. Le Cameroun souffre jusqu’à nos jours d’un secteur privé à plus de 90 % constitué de PME peu viables faute de financement, situation qui tend à s’accentuer avec l’avènement des crises financières. L’essor des PME demande donc la mise en oeuvre d’un mécanisme efficace pour leur financement, pierre angulaire de leur santé et de leur épanouissement. Fort de ce constat, ce policy brief, basé sur une étude, propose différentes actions que les acteurs peuvent engager pour résoudre le problème de déficit de financement dont souffrent les PME camerounaises. Ainsi : • L’État devrait développer et maintenir une politique d’assainissement et de facilitation des mécanismes de financement des PME ; • Les promoteurs des PME et entrepreneurs devraient remettre en cause et corriger leurs comportements préjudiciables à la recherche de financement ; • Et enfin les institutions financières devraient, à l’instar de l’État, faciliter le processus de financement des PME.

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        Principles for TNC-SME cooperation: The experiences of UNILEVER (English)
        Case study by André R. van Heemstra
        Categories: Enterprise Development

        What: Based on the experiences of Unilever, this paper maintains that there are a number of pre-conditions to ensure proper delivery of mutual benefits for both TNCs and SMEs. TNCs should focus on the long-term horizon in order to bring about an appropriate balance between give and take. On the taking side, there are the profits which are often remitted to shareholders far away.. On the giving side, there are the products and services which TNCs provide, employment creation, and the transfer of skills and technology. As far as SMEs are concerned, they should display a hunger for upgrading and should be eager to pick up those activities which TNCs are prepared to shed. Who: Useful for anyone teaching and/or studying synergy between TNCs and SMEs. How: Can be used as a background reading of a TNC's experience.

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        Promoting Green Foreign Direct Investment: Practices and Lessons from the Field (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2016, 8 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        Green technologies are becoming increasingly viable in commercial terms, making them bigger and better targets for investment promotion. UNCTAD describes green investment can be comprise of: investment in production processes with a reduced GHG impact; investment in clean energy generation; and investment in research and production facilities to manufacture GHG reducing products and provide related services. These are technology-intensive and often capital-intensive industries with technologies that are quickly evolving. In those developing countries, where green industries and practices are still nascent or non-existent, foreign companies are vital to jump-starting the low-carbon economy and should be more aggressively pursued. This note uses three case studies to extract lessons on how this can be done. It examines IPAs, including investment promotion and business development agencies from developed and emerging economies, in diverse locations and circumstances.

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        Promoting the Export Competitiveness of SMEs (English)
        Discussion Paper by UNCTAD, 2004, 17 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Enterprise Development

        What: This paper examines policies and actions that could help improve the export competitiveness of SMEs in developing countries. Linkages with transnational corporations deserve special attention, as these private actors are increasingly playing a leading role in world production, trade and finance. The paper summarizes possible ways for SMEs to gain access to international markets and discusses the rationality of SME export promotion through foreign direct investment and business linkages. Then it suggests policy recommendations for the various private and public stakeholders responsible for enabling SMEs to export successfully. Who: Useful for anyone teaching on export competitiveness of SMEs. How: Can be used for courses on how to strengthen SMEs export competitiveness.

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        Public-private Collaboration for Export Success: Case Studies from Barbados, Ghana, India, Thailand and Malaysia (English)
        Report by ITC, 2011, 116 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Enterprise Development

        This guide demonstrates the value of business advocacy on trade policy issues featuring the Barbadian tourism industry, customs services in Ghana, Thailand’s automotive industry, Penang, Malaysia’s export hub for electronics, and India’s textile parks.

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        SME Competitiveness Outlook 2015: Connect, Compete and Change for Inclusive Growth (English)
        Report by ITC, 2015, 268 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Enterprise Development, Globalization and Development Strategies

        The report highlights the fundamental role SMEs have in addressing global income inequality and presents a new analytical framework to measure, identify and enhance SME competitiveness. It introduces a working definition of firm competitiveness and introduces the SME Competitiveness Grid as a tool to classify determinants of firm competitiveness according to how they affect competitiveness and according to the layer of the economy at which this determinant intervenes. The report provides 25 country profiles containing SME competitiveness pilot assessments. It informs ITC’s work in strengthening SMEs and trade and investment support institutions (TISIs). The case studies illustrate how ITC assistance fits within the wider evidence on SME competitiveness and describe practical steps to strengthen SME competitiveness at the firm level. Includes bibliographical references.

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        Sme Competitiveness Outlook 2016: Meeting the Standard for Trade (English)
        Report by International Trade Centre (ITC), 2016, 354 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Enterprise Development

        The report focuses on the role of standards and regulations in increasing the competitiveness of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The report combines data analysis, academic insights, thought leader opinions and case studies to provide guidance for policymakers, SME managers and standard setters. It discusses standards as different as food safety standards, environmental standards, container size standards, security technology standards for encrypted communication, labour standards, accounting standards and medical and wellness tourism standards; provides both general insights into the impact of standards and regulations on SME competitiveness, and targeted insights into specific channels through which individual standards and regulations affect SMEs. Based on the findings the report provides readers with: strategies for SME managers on how to select and implement standards and regulations, and an action plan for policymakers and TISIs.

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        Strengthening The Private Sector To Boost Continental Trade And Integration In Africa
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2015, 4 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Policy Reviews and Briefs, VI Members Research

        Although regional trade has contributed to sustained growth, poverty reduction and inclusive development in Latin America and Asia. In Africa the expected results have been slow to come to the fore. The weakness of the African private sector may be one important factor.

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        Supply Chain Perspectives and Issues: A Literature Review (English)
        Book by WTO, FUNG, 2013, 234 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Enterprise Development

        A literature reviw on various topics related to supply chains in the economics literature such as Supply chains in the business literature, offshoring, risk in supply chains, SMEs, services, value-added and sustainability. It also gives an overview on recent business models, trade policy and finance.

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        Survey of good practice in public-private sector dialogue (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2001, 42 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development

        What: An effective policy for the development of SMEs needs to focus on identifying real constraints and determine how these could be realistically addressed. The most productive and reliable way of identifying such constraints and possible solutions is through public–private sector interaction and dialogue. UNCTAD undertook a survey of good practice and set up a project entitled “Enhancing public–private sector dialogue in LDCs”. This survey aims to distil key principles of effective dialogue that will serve as benchmarks for evaluating the practice of public–private sector dialogue and interaction. Who: Useful for anyone teaching on how to strengthen public–private sector interaction. How: Can be used as by teachers to assign students to conduct surveys using this model.

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        Sustaining Peacebuilding and Post-Conflict Recovery Through Biotrade: Lessons from Indonesia and Colombia (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 35 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Trade and Environment

        This study discusses the different approaches being used by the BioTrade Initiative and its partners in the sustainable management of biodiversity, trading its derived products and services, and promoting peaceful and inclusive societies in Africa, Asia and Latin America. The first chapter highlights the linkages between trade, biodiversity and peaceful, inclusive societies which are important goals in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (Secretariat of the CBD, 2015c). It is followed by an analysis of the different methodologies used to promote BioTrade in support of peacebuilding efforts. The two following chapters analyse case studies and lessons learned from leveraging BioTrade in peacebuilding in Indonesia and Colombia, respectively. The final chapter concludes with some recommendations on strengthening the contribution BioTrade can make to peacebuilding efforts in post-conflict settings.

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        Technology and Innovation Report 2015 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 142 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Science and Technology, Trade Related Capacity Building

        In the 2015 Technology and Innovation Report subtitled ‘Fostering Innovation Policies for Industrial Development’ addresses the urgency of building productive capacities and promoting sustainable industrialization in development. It analyzes the crucial role of technological learning and innovation capacity, and helps to address some of the questions that policymakers face when seeking to forge new paths to secure a prosperous future for their people. The report argues that sustainable industrialization is not solely limited to environmental sustainability, but refers to efforts that are technology-led, productivity enhancing and poverty-reducing. It is based on the understanding that no industrial policy is complete without an accompanying innovation policy.

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        Toyota's strategy towards SME suppliers (English)
        Case study by Yoshiaki Muramatsu, 2000
        Categories: Enterprise Development

        What: This paper analyses Toyota’s co-operation with SME suppliers in Thailand and its selection parameters are quality, cost, technological capabilities and reliability, as well as the entrepreneur’s ability to implement a kaizen strategy, which means the continued improvement and enhancement of products, services and management. Realising that the company’s success depends to a considerable extent on a strong network of quality suppliers, Toyota Thailand has played an active role in this restructuring process. Who: Useful for anyone teaching and/or studying synergies between TNCs and SMEs. How: Can be used as a background reading of a case study on a TNC's experience.

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        Trading into Sustainable Development: Trade, Market Access and the Sustainable Development Goals (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 86 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Globalization and Development Strategies

        This report examines various interactions between trade policy, with a specific focus on market access conditions, and factors that constitute the basis for achieving sustainable development. Market access conditions vis-à- vis imports are determined by a combination of border measures and “behind the border” measures, both of which add costs to the price of an imported product. By generating significant impact upon consumer welfare and the competitiveness of domestic industries, market access conditions in international trade thus are a key determinant of the effectiveness of trade as a means of implementation.

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        World Trade Report 2016 - Levelling the trading field for SMEs (English)
        Report by Auboin et al/WTO, 2016, 182 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Trade Facilitation, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The report provides a examines the participation of small and medium -sized enterprises (SMEs) in international trade. It examines how the international trade landscape is changing and what the multilateral trading system does and can do to encourage more widespread and inclusive SME participation in global markets.

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