A partnership with academia

Building knowledge for trade and development

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        Areas of cooperation for 2005-2006 - Vi work programme (English)
        Outline by Virtual Institute, 2005
        Categories: Vi Meetings

        A short overview of the areas of cooperation for the network over the coming year. Focusing on teaching materials, research, using the website, exchanging resources and providing support and advice, this short proposal outlines - why, what and how we propose to do these things.

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        Bargaining over the Doha Development Agenda: Coalitions in the World Trade Organization (English)
        Working paper by Dr Amrita Narlikar, Centre of International Studies University of Cambridge, 2005, 17 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: Within the last years, developing countries have emerged as major actors within international trade negotiations. For developing countries with small markets and limited diplomatic resources, building coalitions has often proved to be the only instrument they have to improve their bargaining position in these negotiations. This paper provides an analysis of bargaining coalitions in the WTO. The first section examines the reasons behind the formation of coalitions in the WTO, and the problems that countries encounter in this process. The second section analyzes the development of coalitions involving developing countries from the GATT to the WTO. In section three the coalitions that have been active in the negotiations within the Doha Development Round are outlined. Finally, the fourth section examines the influence of these coalitions and their possible implications for the trade negotiation process. Who: For anyone dealing with international trade negotiations and the role of developing countries within these negotiations who is interested in the phenomenon of coalition building. How: Can be used as an excellent and precise additional reading in classes that are dealing with international trade negotiations within the WTO. Also as a very good reading in classes that aim at simulating negotiations since the importance of coalition building is underlined in the paper. A detailed table on coalitions and their memberships that evolved within the last 20 years of international GATT and WTO negotiations is provided. The paper can also serve as a starting point for further research on the main mutual needs and interests of the various coalitions.

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        The Changing Landscape of Regional Trade Agreements (English)
        Discussion Paper by Jo-Ann Crawford, Roberto V. Fiorentino, World Trade Organization, 2005, 39 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: A very informative paper with an up-to-date comprehensive overview of existing RTAs in different regions as notified to the WTO. Useful illustrative maps of regions and agreements within. Reviews recent trends in RTAs and reasons behind their proliferation since the 1990s, and discusses relationship of RTAs and the multilateral trading system/WTO. Who:University teachers/students and anyone interested in comprehensive recent information about RTAs. How: Can be used in trade courses to discuss the background and evolution of RTAs, the merits/demerits of regional vs. multilateral liberalization, and the status of RTAs in the WTO.

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        Une collaboration entre l'université et les décideurs - Linking university with decision makers in Senegal (French)
        Interview by ALD/OF, 2005
        Categories: Trade Related Capacity Building

        Highlights of an interview (in French) given by the Vi coordinator at the University of Dakar, Aly Mbaye, on the occasion of the Days of the Senegalese Economy organized by the Centre for Applied Economic Research (CREA) that he is heading. The interview advocates for a strong relation between university research and the decision-making processes, in particular in the context of increasing globalization of the world economy. Aly Mbaye argues that such cooperation is mutually beneficial - researchers can access empirical information that they can use in their work, and test working hypotheses, and policy makers benefit from research outputs to underpin their policy decisions. CREA intends to strengthen its communication and collaboration with decision makers. To support the government, the University of Dakar plans to open a graduate programme in international negotiations and economic diplomacy.

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        Commodity Dependency (English)
        Article by Oscar Farfan, 2005, 38 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Poverty, VI Members Research

        Prepared for the Investment Climate Unit International Finance Corporation The World Bank Group This paper uses the Global Value Chain (GVC) framework to discuss commodity dependency and options for economic upgrading in small developing countries. GVC analysis differs from comparable approaches in that it looks at the dynamics of firms/countries within global production networks and focuses on productive “systems” as opposed to sectors or industries in isolation. Examining global commodity chains through the GVC lenses leads to the conclusion that inserting small developing countries into global markets through commodity exports is not sufficient to sustain real income growth, and may even prove detrimental to their long-term development prospects. Only by virtue of upgrading export industries – which entails moving towards differentiated products with a higher content of technology, skills and innovation – will developing countries be in a position to seize the opportunities brought about by globalization.

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        Competitiveness simulation: IT-related and enabled services (English)
        Simulation by Cora Mezger, Virtual Institute, 2005
        Categories: Competitiveness, Science and Technology

        What: A simulation on competitiveness in the IT-related and enabled services sector that gives students the opportunity to take the positions of different actors (government, educational sector, local business sector, TNCs, labour unions etc.), apply and deepen their knowledge on international competitiveness and development and make them critically think about the limitations of the concept of competitiveness in pure economic terms. Who: University teachers who are interested in teaching competitiveness and their graduate students enrolled in programmes such as International Trade, Economic Policy, International Economics, Development Studies or Regional Economics. How: The simulation refers to the rest of the competitiveness material, it could however also be used independently if the lecturer provides enough background information and depending on the previous knowledge of students.

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        Coping with Trade Reforms: Implications of the WTO Industrial Tariff Negotiations (English)
        Presentation by Santiago Fernandez de Cordoba, UNCTAD, 2005, 20 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        A presentation for an UNCTAD expert group meeting providing an overview of the methodologies and results of UNCTAD studies on the impact of trade reforms as well as introduction to the NAMA negotiations and an overview of the methodologies and results of UNCTAD studies on the impact of trade reforms.

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        Country reports: Science and technology promotion, advice and application for the achievement of the millennium development goals (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD Commission on science and technology for development, 2005
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology

        Country reports on the achievement of the MDGs and the progress made in Science and technology promotion in 11 developing countries (Angola, Cameroon, China, India, Iran, Italy, Jamaica, Romania, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka and Sudan),

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        Developing Countries in International Trade 2005 - Trade and Development Index (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005, 121 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        What: The report looks at the interelationship between trade performance and development and, in the first chapter, presents the "trade and development index" - an attempt to measure this relationship. Subsequent chapters deal with determinants of export performance and the experience of adjustment, post liberalisation. Who: Interesting for anyone researching the impact of liberalisation on development and the links between trade performance and human welfare. How: The data could be used as the basis for a class activity and discussion, while the case studies provide useful empirical examples.

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        The digital divide: ICT development indices 2004 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Division on Investment, Technology and Enterprise Development, 2005, 73 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: Analysis of the diffusion of ICT in developing countries by using selected indicators. It also presents a review of policy options for developing countries. Who: For anyone interested in the subject of science and technology diffusion in developing countries How: Provides examples and data that could be used as a basis of a course, research, and student's work.

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        Does Openness Promote Competition—A Case Study of Indian Manufacturing (English)
        Discussion paper by Manoj Pant and Manoranjan Pattanayak, 2005
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research

        Technical paper on a test of the hypothesis that openness by itself promotes competition.

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        Do global standards and codes prevent financial crises? Some proposals (English)
        Discussion paper by Benu, Schneider, 2005, 59 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, International Financial System

        What: After the crises in emerging market economies beginning with that of Mexico in the mid-90s, the adoption of internationally recognized standards and codes (S&C) of financial best practices came to be seen as a way to strengthen the international financial system. This paper evaluates the progress made so far and considers some of the basic assumptions of the S&C\\n initiative. In particular it examines how far S&C can be instrumental in preventing financial crises, and focuses on issues raised by the initiative from a developing-country perspective. Who: Can be used by a teacher on financial systems and policies. How: For a course on how to avoid or prevent financial crises in developing economies.

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        Economic Development in Africa: Rethinking the Role of Foreign Direct Investment (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005, 115 pages
        Categories: Investment

        What: In this report UNCTAD affirms that the recent surge of FDI to Africa is largely due to increased demand for fuels and minerals. The traditional FDI attraction to Africa into enclaves of export-oriented primary production with limited linkages to the rest of the economy has not changed much in recent years and has contributed to undermining a self-sustaining and dynamic investment process. UNCTAD says it is time to rethink the one-sided emphasis on attracting FDI and its replacement with a more balanced and more strategic approach tailored to African socio-economic conditions and development challenges. Who: For anyone teaching and researching development challenges in Africa. How: A report that can be used to teach and/or research on approaches to FDI in Africa and the development challenges.

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        Economic Report on Africa 2005: Meeting the Challenges of Unemployment and Poverty in Africa (English)
        Report by UNECA, 2005, 298 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        What: The Economic Report on Africa (ERA) is the flagship publication of the UN Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The 2005 edition shows that despite record economic growth in Africa, poverty is actually getting worse. The report focuses on four key challenges for Africa in the fight against unemployment and poverty: structural transformation to break away from the under-utilization of rural labour, addressing widespread youth unemployment, harnessing globalization to create decent jobs, and creating an enabling environment for the fast expansion of private sector jobs through increased investments. The report stresses that it is up to governments to transform African economies, particularly by taking advantage of opportunities presented by globalization. How: Background reading on Africa's recent performance and on unemployment and poverty in the African context. Who: Policy makers, researchers and lecturers dealing with African economic development.

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        Economic Report on Africa 2005 - Overview: Meeting the Challenges of Unemployment and Poverty in Africa (English)
        Summary by UNECA, 2005, 24 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Trade and Poverty

        What: The Economic Report on Africa (ERA) is the flagship publication of the UN Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The 2005 edition shows that despite record economic growth in Africa, poverty is actually getting worse. The report focuses on four key challenges for Africa in the fight against unemployment and poverty: structural transformation to break away from the under-utilization of rural labour, addressing widespread youth unemployment, harnessing globalization to create decent jobs, and creating an enabling environment for the fast expansion of private sector jobs through increased investments. The report stresses that it is up to governments to transform African economies, particularly by taking advantage of opportunities presented by globalization. How: Background reading on Africa's recent performance and on unemployment and poverty in the African context. Who: Policy makers, researchers and lecturers dealing with African economic development.

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        Effects of the EBA initiative on the sugar industries of the Least Developed Countries (English)
        Report by DITC, UNCTAD, 2005, 72 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        What: An analysis of the effects of the EBA initiative on fourteen developing countries. This paper raises some key issues: Do LDCs benefit from this initiative? Which countries benefit from the EBA initiative? What can be done to improve it? Who: For teachers, researchers in regional/preferential trade. How: A well structured analysis with recent information on LDCs

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        Emergency safeguard measures in the GATS: beyond feasible and desirable (English)
        Discussion Paper by Mario Marconini, 2005, 28 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: An up-to-date resource on the issues arising on the context of WTO negotiations on an Emergency Safeguards Mechanisms (ESM) for services, it argues in favour of an ESM and special and differential treatment (SDT) for developing countries. Who: Could be of interest for anyone interested in current WTO negotiations. How: Detailed analysis on the need for an ESM for services and special and differential measures to implement services liberalization in developing countries.

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        Erosion of preferences for the least developed countries: Assessment of effects and mitigating optionsErosion of preferences for the least developed countries: Assessment of effects and mitigating options (English)
        Note by UNCTAD Secretariat, 2005, 21 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        A background note by the UNCTAD secretariat for the Trade and Development Board, currently meeting in Geneva for its 52nd session, on the erosion of preferences for the Least Developed Countries. The paper highlights the countries and products benefiting from preferential market access initiatives and the scope of those initiatives. It considers the effects of preference erosion and cautions that the global welfare gains from trade liberalisation may be limited for those communities suffering the effects of preference erosion. The paper also briefly examines possible measures that could be taken to mitigate its effects.

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        The globalisation of R&D by TNCs and implications for developing countries (English)
        Presentation by Anne Miroux, UNCTAD, 2005, 20 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Investment, Science and Technology

        What: The presentation outlines the main actors of the process of R&D outsourcing. TNCs play a key role but public sector research institutions, universities and domestic enterprises should not be neglected. It provides the rationale for the increase in R&D-related FDI activities in developing countries. The impact as well as the benefits, costs and risks and the enabling policies are reviewed. Finally, it offers a few issues for discussion. Who: Can be used by a lecturer on a course on R&D outsourcing to developing countries. How: For a course on R&D and the role of TNCs.

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        The globalisation of R&D: Key features and the role of TNCs (English)
        Presentation by Robert Pearce, University of Reading, United Kingdom, 2005, 13 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Investment, Science and Technology

        What: The aim of this paper is to elaborate on relevant aspects of strategic restructuring in TNCs and then provide some detail on how this becomes operational in terms of the increased decentralisation of their R&D programmes. This paper could also provide a basis for discussion of the implications of these more differentiated and dynamic strategic orientations in TNCs for host countries in which they operate, with particular emphasis on countries at early stages of competitiveness development and on economies in transition. The strategic changes in TNCs now involve them with creative resources (R&D; technology stocks; market research; entrepreneurial management) in national economies in a way not envisaged 40 years ago Who: Relevant for anyone teaching or studying strategic changes in TNCs and their R&D programmes. How: Can be used for a lesson/course on the role of TNCs in the globalization of R&D.

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        The globalization of innovation: knowledge creation and why it matters for development (English)
        Presentation by Rajneesh Narula, University of Reading, 2005, 18 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: The presentation points out the links between technology, innovation and knowledge creation. It then analyses the process of internationalization of innovation and the reasons for technology transfer - both between countries and among companies. It outlines the political, economic and technological factors, which influence the globalization of innovation and knowledge. Who: A very good presentation that can be used by a lecturer on a course on globalization of innovation. How: For a course on R&D and knowledge creation.

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        Globalization of R&D and developing countries - Proceedings of the Expert Meeting (English)
        Presentation by United Nations, 2005, 242 pages
        Categories: Investment, Science and Technology

        What: This publication aims to elaborate key issues related to the trends towards globalization of research and development and their implications for developing countries: What is its development potential? How can the establishment of research and development abroad affect the transfer of technology – one of the main potential benefits from foreign direct investment? What types of research and development are the most desirable for development? What benefits and costs are involved and, how can policies in home and host countries influence the allocation of such activities and their economic impact?

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        Globalization of R&D and TNC Strategies: Siemens (English)
        Presentation by Armin Sorg, 2005, 18 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Investment, Science and Technology

        What: An interesting power point presentation by Siemens chief economist for an UNCTAD expert meeting on Globalization of R&D and TNC strategies. The presentation deals with Siemens globalization of its R&D activities. Who: Relevant for anyone teaching globalization of R&D. How: Can be used for a lesson/course on globalization of R&D and TNC strategies.

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        Global R&D activities in India (English)
        Presentation by Prasada Reddy, Research Policy Institute, Lund University, Sweden, 2005, 9 pages
        Categories: Investment, Science and Technology

        What: The presentation explains why India is an interesting location for outsourced R&D and then analyses the impact of such a process within the national economy. The question which sectors are particularly interesting for FDI in R&D is discussed in depth. The role of adequate policies forms the last part of the presentation. Who: Relevant for anyone studying or teaching R&D. How: This presentation can be used as a background reading for a course on R&D.

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        The Hong Kong Ministerial and Beyond (English)
        Other by Virtual Institute, 2005
        Categories: VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: A collection of articles by Virtual Institute members assessing the challenges for the current WTO ministerial in Hong Hong and beyond. These articles look at the development challenge of the current multilateral negotiations from the perspective of developed countries, middle income developing countries and the Least Developed Countries. Who: For anyone interested in WTO issues and the current debates around the outcome of the WTO ministerial in Hong Kong. How: A series of short articles introduce several key issues which could provide a succinct resource for discussion and further research.

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        International R&D Strategies in Companies from Developing Countries – the Case of China (English)
        Case study by Maximilian von Zedtwitz, Research Center for Global R&D Management, Tsinghua University, 2005, 11 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Enterprise Development, Science and Technology

        What: Traditionally, international R&D is a phenomenon of firms originating from advanced countries such as North America, Europe, and Japan. Based on the analysis of 1269 R&D locations, a new research framework is proposed that accounts for the increasing share of R&D toward or from developing countries. Investigating technology-intensive Chinese firms, motivations, strategies, and barriers to R&D internationalization are analyzed. The paper proposes two concepts of international R&D:\\n “innovation capability enhancing” and “innovation capability exploiting”, respectively, denoting superimposed networks that allow the absorption and implementation of new technologies. Who: Can be used by a lecturer on a course on R&D outsourcing to developing countries. How: For a course on R&D and the role of TNCs.

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        International Trade in GMOs and GM Products: National and Multilateral Legal Frameworks (English)
        Report by Simonetta Zarrilli, 2005, 61 pages
        Categories: Commodities, International Economic Law, Science and Technology

        What: The debate about the application of biotechnology to agriculture is one of the most vocal and passionate in recent years. This paper analyses different legal frameworks on agro-biotechnology in selected developed and developing countries. It outlines the complexity of the issue especially for developing countries who have to reconcile trade interests with food safety, environmental protection and international obligations. Who: Students, teachers or researchers interested in the effects of biotechnology on agriculture and trade in developing countries. How: As a key reading in any course dealing with trade and the environment.

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        International trade negotiations, regional integration and South-South trade, especially in commodities (English)
        Note by UNCTAD Division on International Trade in Goods and Services and Commodities, 2005, 19 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        What: Background note on the importance of economic cooperation in South-South trade and in international negotiations. This paper puts the emphasis on the expanding trade between developing countries and elaborates an agenda for South-South trade in the annex. Who: Relevant for students or teachers interested in regional integration and in building capacity for negotiations. How: Good introductory reading to the issue of economic cooperation and regional integration.

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        Investment Policy Review: Kenya (English)
        Review by UNCTAD, 2005, 126 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        While Kenya was a magnet for foreign direct investment in East Africa in the 1960s and 1970s, the country has underperformed significantly in the past couple of decades. A wide array of TNCs are nevertheless present in the country, and FDI has played a key role in some of the dynamic sectors of the economy. The IPR recommended a more pro-active strategy of FDI attraction and proposes policy measures to enhance the impact of FDI on growth and economic development, focusing on: - The manufacturing of basic consumer goods and industrial inputs for the regional market. - The development of Kenya into a regional services hub. - Agri-business activities. - Diversification of activities in export processing zones. The IPR also warned the government on the possible drawbacks of the then recently adopted Investment Promotion Act, which introduced minimum capital requirements for FDI entry. Subsequently, the Government proposed amendments to Parliament to lift these requirements.

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        Knowledge As a Competitive Weapon (English)
        Case study by Parahoo,A, 2005, 13 pages
        Categories: Trade Related Capacity Building, VI Members Research

        This presentation, which is essentially developmental in approach, analyses the contribution of the University of Mauritius as an Institution of Higher Learning in knowledge creation to prepare the nation for the challenges of a Knowledge based society.

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        Le Sénégal et Le Système Commercial Multilatéral: L´impact Des Accords De L´OMC, Négociation et Mise En Oeuvre (French)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005, 63 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        En 1994, les pays africains ont signé les Accords de l’OMC. Puis, tout au long du Cycle d’Uruguay (CU), ils se sont efforcés de les appliquer et de participer activement aux négociations. Pour se faire, les pays africains et singulièrement le Sénégal, ont initié un large processus de réforme, d’un coût social parfois élevé, de leur politique macroéconomique, de leur politique commerciale, de leur dispositif institutionnel, ou encore de leur environnement légal et réglementaire, afin d’être conforme tant à la lettre qu’à l’esprit de ces Accords. Aussi, la présente étude a-t-elle pour objet i) d’évaluer l´impact des règles commerciales multilatérales et régionales sur l´économie et le commerce extérieur du Sénégal, ii) d’évaluer la mesure dans laquelle le Sénégal a été capable de profiter et de bénéficier de sa participation dans l´OMC et d´adapter et d´ajuster sa législation nationale pour mettre en oeuvre ses obligations dans le cadre de l´OMC, iii) d’identifier les stratégies de négociation pour une participation effective du Sénégal aux négociations de Doha et les façonner en fonction des objectifs commerciaux, de développement et de réduction de la pauvreté du pays. La présente étude constitue une synthèse de l’ensemble des travaux d’ores et déjà effectués et des documents d’analyse existants. Elle se réfère aux principaux documents de stratégie de développement dont la mise en oeuvre est en cours (document de stratégie de développement du secteur privé, document de stratégie de réduction de la pauvreté, document de stratégie de croissance accélérée, document de stratégie de développement des exportations). Elle prend également en compte un certain nombre d’études et d’analyses portant sur des aspects spécifiques (par secteur d’activité) du commerce extérieur du Sénégal.

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        Linking International Trade with Poverty Reduction (English)
        Presentation by Charles Gore, UNCTAD, 2005, 8 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty

        What: The presentation is an analytical examination of the relationship between trade and poverty and the national and international policy implications to linking international trade more effectively with poverty reduction in LDCs. Who: Relevant for anyone studying or teaching international trade and poverty reduction. How: A very good presentation that can trigger discussions on international trade and its effects on poverty reduction.

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        List of issues for teaching materials (English)
        Outline by Virtual Institute, UNCTAD, 2005
        Categories: Vi Meetings

        The first draft of the list from the Vi members of subjects of interest to develop joint teaching materials/research.

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        Methodologies, Classifications, Quantification and Development Impacts of Non-Tariff Barriers (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, Trade Analysis Branch, 2005, 22 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        What: Background note on non-tariff barriers (NTBs) as instruments of protection and regulation of trade that gain in importance with the overall decline of tariffs. Reviews recent trends in NTB utilization (shift from core to non-core technical measures), in particular with regard to developing countries' concerns, discusses classification of NTBs and looks into different methods of quantifying the use and impact of NTBs. Who: Relevant for teachers and students of international trade/trade policy courses, both from the policy view and trade data analysis. Also for anyone interested in both analytical and policy aspects of recent trends in the use of trade policy instruments, in particular NTBs. How: Overview of the issue, classification of NTBs, data about trends in the use of NTBs (globally and by regions), brief explanation of approaches (including econometric modelling) towards measuring NTBs and their impact.

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        Multilateralism and Regionalism: The New Interface (English)
        Book by Mashayekhi, Mina and Ito, Taisuke /UNCTAD, 2005, 205 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        There is a resurgence of regionalism in today’s international trading system. Regional trade agreements have multiplied worldwide; almost all countries are members of at least one agreement and many are party to multiple agreements. Existing agreements are re-invigorated and expanded while new ones are being negotiated and formed. What: The volume contains papers delivered at a pre-UNCTAD XI Forum on “Multilateralism and Regionalism: The New Interface” held on 8 June 2004 at the BNDES, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, organized during the Rio Trade Week. The publication starts with some initial perspectives on the new interface between the post-WTO multilateralism, with a view to identifying ways and means of addressing important policy challenges. It further provides more in depth-analysis of RTA issues including Rules of Origin, Notification to the WTO of a RTA, New North-South and South-South Models, Market Access and Competition Policy. How: Ideal background paper for regional trade agreements of for further reading purposes. Who: Trade Policy Classes at a higher level.

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        Negotiating for food security - Glossary of trade negotiation terms (English)
        Manual by Virtual Institute, UNCTAD, 2005, 4 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        An explanation of some key trade negotiation terms, particularly as they apply to the negotiations on agriculture at the WTO. A useful handout for any course dealing with the multinational trading system.

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        Negotiating for food security - Simulation of multilateral trade negotiations on agriculture (English)
        Simulation by Virtual Institute, UNCTAD, 2005, 33 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        A simulation exercise based on WTO agricultural negotiations. The resources for the simulation include a sample negotiating text, suggested agenda, detailed instructions, and background information on the countries involved in the negotiations. Additionally, tips on how to manage the exercise are included for teachers or facilitators. With proper preparation and background information the simulation can be used to give students an introduction to basic negotiating techniques and provides an excellent practical opportunity for them to extend and deepen their knowledge on the WTO Agreement on Agriculture.

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        Negotiating for food security - What makes a successful negotiator: Skills for negotiators (English)
        Note by Virtual Institute, UNCTAD, 2005, 2 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, Trade Related Capacity Building, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        A brief overview of some of the skills and behaviours that a successful negotiator requires. A useful background document for any simulation exercise or wider discussion of the function and role of negotiations.

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        Nondiscrimination in GATT/WTO: Was There Anything to Begin with and is There Anything Left? (English)
        Discussion paper by T.N. Srinivasan, 2005, 27 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: Non-discriminatory treatment is one of the main principles of the World Trade Organization (WTO). Under normal circumstances countries cannot discriminate between their trading partners: they must accord the same preferences to one country as they do to all their trading partners (Most Favoured Nation Principle [MFN]). Under WTO rules foreigners and locals also have to be treated equally in domestic markets (National Treatment [NT]). However, exceptions to non-discriminatory treatment are outlined in the WTO articles relating to customs unions and free trade areas, antidumping and safeguards. In this paper the author argues that these exceptions have become dominant over the past few years causing an erosion of the non-discrimination principle. In Section 2, non-discriminatory treatment, as mandated in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), is outlined. Section 3 summarizes the exceptions to non-discrimination in the WTO. Section 4 examines the role of MFN and reciprocity as a means of self-enforcement of the GATT contract. In section 5 aspects of MFN and NT are analyzed with a simple theoretical model. Section 6 offers a conclusion on the role of non-discrimination in GATT/WTO. Who: For anyone dealing with the non-discrimination principle of the WTO. How: Can serve as an additional reading for anyone dealing with the non-discrimination principle of the WTO. Preliminary knowledge of the principles of non-discrimination and of economic theory would be an asset.

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        Outsourcing and development (English)
        Discussion paper by Navdeep Suri, 2005
        Categories: Competitiveness, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: A study of a newly emerging market for outsourcing of services, with a focus on outsourcing to developing countries. Reviews the market, trends and players (wealth of data) and presents different views from both developed and developing countries about the benefits and losses from service outsourcing. Shows the political economy background of this discussion in a broader context of a shifting competitive advantage debate. Short case studies of India, the Philippines, Vietnam, Ghana, South Africa. Examines how outsourcing of services links to the treatment of services in the WTO. Who: University teachers and students, and anybody interested in the very topical issue of service outsourcing to developing countries. How: Chapters presenting different opinions about the benefits or losses of outsourcing for developed and developing countries could serve to stimulate discussion among (groups of) students. Chapter about inter-modal linkages useful for understanding the interrelationship among the different modes of services delivery in the WTO and their evolution. Cases to show how use of IT can benefit developing countries.

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        Proactive Intellectual Property (IP) Strategies for Local Creation of IP Assets (English)
        Presentation by Olga Spasic, 2005, 19 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Science and Technology

        What: A power point presentation on what Intellectual Property (IP) assets are and why IP assets matter? It then goes to deal with the benefits of IP assets and how it can be developed. Who: Relevant for anyone teaching or learning Intellectual Property strategies. How: Can be used for a lesson on strategies for creation of IP assets.

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        Programme of the First Virtual Institute Meeting 2005 (English)
        Outline by Virtual Institute, 2005, 3 pages
        Categories: Vi Meetings

        A detailed programme of the meeting, including titles and timing for individual sessions, titles of presentations/speeches and names of speakers.

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        Prospects for the WTO Hong Kong Ministerial: An Agenda for Trade and Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        A report from a seminar on July 21 2005 at at the Graduate School for International Studies in Geneva with: Paulo Mesquita Deputy Permanent Representative of Brazil to the WTO; Peter Thompson Deputy Head of Delegation, ECropean Commission, Rufus Yerxa, Deputy Director General, WTO; Tony Miller Permanent Representative of Hong Kong, China to the WTO Good background information on the status of the Doha round useful to students and teachers.

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        Public Consultation and International Trade Policy (English)
        Discussion Paper by Centre for Trade Policy and Law, 2005, 25 pages
        Categories: VI Members Research, Trade Related Capacity Building

        This paper provides an overview of the rationale for public consultation in trade policy formulation and various methods. Canada and United States are presented as models. It is a useful for anyone interested in the relationship between domestic governance and international policy formation.

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        R&D-related FDI in developing countries - Implications for host countries (English)
        Presentation by Prasada Reddy, 2005, 11 pages
        Categories: Investment, Science and Technology

        What: The paper categorizes R&D activities and then outlines the historical evolution of the internationalization of R&D. It describes the implications for host countries in the developing world. Finally it deals with the spill over effects of globalization of R&D. Who: Relevant for anyone studying or teaching FDI and globalization of innovation. How: Can be used as a background reading for a course on FDI and globalization of innovation. The paper also offers a lot of relevant reference materials.

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        Regional Trade Agreements example: the UK and the EU (English)
        Summary by Virtual Institute, UNCTAD, 2005
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        This is a working document giving an example of some of the key issues involved, on a national level, regarding membership in an RTA. The purpose of this example is to provide a "model" for other national examples so that we can compile a series of Factsheets on different RTAs and their relationships with national and international policies.

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        Regional Trade Agreements Template (English)
        Outline by Virtual Institute, UNCTAD, 2005
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        A loose template to use in developing collaborative teaching materials on Regional Trade Agreements. Can be used for compiling information about RTAs that our countries are involved in.

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        Report of the First Virtual Institute Meeting 2005 (English)
        Report by Virtual Institute, 2005
        Categories: Vi Meetings

        An account of the objectives of the meeting and the activities that members undertook during the meeting (networking, knowledge building and action planning). Shows how Vi member universities moved ahead in their understanding of the role of the network, getting to know one another and committing themselves to working together in areas of common interest in the coming year. Contains a number of examples of teaching and research activities in member universities, including the challenges faced in their implementation, and information about topical areas of trade research.

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        Review of developments and issues in the post-Doha work programme of concern to developing countries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005, 18 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: A concise update of the state of WTO negotiations following the July package and in preparation of the Hong Kong ministerial, focusing on the interests of developing countries. An overview of the broader context of negotiations, including the recommendations of the Commission for Africa and the G8 Summit at Gleneagles. Brief discussion of the adjustment support to developing countries to accompany trade liberalization. Explanations of issues at stake and details of negotiated proposals in specific areas, such as agriculture (including cotton), NAMA, services, SDT, commodities, trade facilitation, rules, TRIPS, and dispute settlement. Well documented with figures assessing the impact of different policy measures and options. Argues for the need to realize an equitable and fair deal in negotiations for developing countries. Who: University teachers/researchers and students of advanced trade policy courses. Anyone who follows closely the ongoing WTO negotiations. How: The paper offers a detailed technical explanation of different issues related to the DDR WTO negotiations and pre-supposes that the users have the necessary basic background knowledge of these negotiations and master the terms used in them. Very informative and suitable for users with advanced knowledge of the subject matter.

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        Review of Maritime Transport 2005 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Secretariat, 2005, 144 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation

        What: A report on the main issues in maritime transport: international seaborne trade, world shipping markets, trade and freight markets, port development, trade and transport efficiency. Who: For teacher and researcher interested in the transport facilitation issues particularly maritime transport How: Detailed analysis with up-to-date data and case study on Asia (chapter 7).

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        The role of in economic research and policy analysis for development: how can UNCTAD work with universities? (English)
        Summary by Vi staff, 2005
        Categories: Vi Meetings

        Background notes from Mr Carlos Fortin's, OIC UNCTAD, keynote presentation to the first meeting of the Vi.

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        Science and Technology Promotion, Advice and Application for the Achievement of the MDGs (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Secretariat, 2005, 25 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: An analysis on the use of science and technology in achieving Millennium Development Goals (MGDs) with special focus on building capacity in developing countries and strengthening partnership to make science and technology serve the needs of development. Who: For anyone interested in the subject of access to science and technology in developing countries and how to achieve the Millennium goals. How: This formal document is an essential reading on the link between science and technology and development.

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        Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Review - The Islamic Republic of Iran (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005, 118 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Science and Technology

        A policy review which was discussed during the commission on science and technology.It gives assistance to the country in formulating policies to strengthen the role of science and technology in national capacities and in competitiveness. Can be used by teachers and researchers in science and technology promotion in developing countries. The text contains a lot of information on Iran that can be used as a case study.

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        Some key issues in South-South trade and economic cooperation (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005, 32 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        What: Report and papers from Doha high-level forum on trade and investment that deals with strengthening capacities in trade negotiations through partnerships and networking between developing countries. Special focus is made on the opportunity to increase South South trade and particularly in commodities. Who: For anyone teaching or researching regional trade agreements and How: This paper provides a case study of Costa Rica and presentations of experts at the forum.

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        Strengthening Participation of Developing Countries in Dynamic and New Sectors of World Trade: Trends, Issues and Policies in the Electronics Sector (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD secretariat, 2005, 19 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        What: The electronic sector has developed to be on of the most dynamic sectors in world trade. Developing countries as a whole appear to have become a major player in the expanding global production networks in electronics. This paper gives an overview on trends in world trade in electronics. Furthermore, it assesses recent performances of developing countries in the international trade with electronics. Policy challenges for developing countries are outlined. Who: Teachers and students in development studies that want to focus on dynamic growth sectors for developing countries How: Can be used as a background reading. Various issues can serve as starting points for case studies. Gives interesting up-to-date tables and charts.

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        Trade and Development Report 2005, Chapter 1: Current issues in the world economy (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005, 47 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, International Financial System

        What: This chapter of UNCTAD's flagship annual Report on Trade and Development 2005 analyses the current trends of the world economy. The report warns that though the world economy is expanding there are serious risks of a relapse. It examines the generally modest growth performance of the developed countries on one hand and conversely the generally good economic growth of the developing countries in general and particularly the two most populous Asian countries. Who: A very useful report for anyone teaching and researching to analyse the current world-wide economic trends and issues. How: A chapter that can be used to teach and/or undertake research work on present-day economic trends and issues.

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        Trade and Development Report 2005, Chapter III - Evolution in the terms of trade and its impact on developing countries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005, 52 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        What: This chapter illustrates how recent developments in the world economy, and in particular changes in the direction and product composition of world trade resulting from rapid growth in the large Asian economies, have affected the terms of trade of different groups of developing countries, and the growth of their national income. The chapter revisits the terms-of-trade concept in the context of the declining importance of primary commodities in the total exports of an increasing number of developing countries. Who: Very useful for anyone teaching and researching the evolution in the terms of trade and its impact in the developing countries. How: Can be used to teach and/or research on the evolution in the terms of trade and its impact in the developing countries.

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        Trade and Development Report 2005, Chapter II: Income growth and shifting trade patterns (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005, 52 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, International Financial System

        What: In this chapter, the report deals with how both the sustained rapid growth and rising living standards in a number of Asian countries have been accompanied by a dramatic increase of the region's shares in world exports and raw material consumption. Moreover, combined with their rapid growth, the greater integration of these countries into the world trading system has created new export opportunities for many developed and other developing countries. In addition this growth also signifies an important progress towards achieving the Millennium Development Goal of halving global poverty by 2015. Who: For anyone teaching and researching how the recently fast developing countries income growth and rising living standards is transforming their societies. How: Can be used to teach and/or research on economic development.

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        Trade and Development Report 2005, Chapter IV: Towards a new form of global interdependence (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005, 42 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: This chapter looks into the new form of global economic interdependence that is taking shape, primarily as a result of the increasing weight of the rapidly growing Asian developing economies, in particular the large ones of China and India, in the global economy. In the past, developing-country trade relied mainly on primary commodity exports to developed countries in exchange for imports of manufactures. However, the emergence of a number of Asian developing countries that form a new growth pole in the world economy has renewed hopes that South-South trade could provide additional momentum to development. Who: For anyone teaching and researching global interdependence. How: Can be used to teach and/or research on globalization and its new form of global interdependence.

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        Trade and Development Report 2005: New feature of global interdependence - Overview (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005, 14 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        Overview of the UNCTAD Trade and Development Report 2005: New feature of global interdependence

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        Trade and Development Report 2005: New features of global interdependence (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005, 204 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Globalization and Development Strategies, International Financial System

        What: This year's UNCTAD flagship Trade and Development Report 2005 questions the sustainability of the current global economic expansion and the realization of the MDGs in certain regions of the world. Although the rapid growth in China and India has made these two giants to become the second engine of worldwide growth; the United States record deficit, on the other hand, raises questions about the stability of the global financial system and the sustainability of global growth. The report asserts that a new form of global economic interdependence is taking shape mainly as a result of the increasing weight of the rapidly growing Asian developing economies. Who: A very useful report for anyone teaching and researching current world-wide economic trends and issues. How: An authoritative report that can be used as teaching and/or researching material for courses or research work on trade, investment and development.

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        Training Material on Competitiveness and Development, Module 1 - Introduction to Competitiveness (English)
        Manual by Cora Mezger, Virtual Institute, 2005
        Categories: Competitiveness

        What: The module will give a general introduction to the concept of competitiveness (different definitions, historical evolution of the concept, main characteristics). After this module, students should be aware of the fact that competitiveness is an extremely multifaceted concept. The introductory module will also give first insights into the analysis of competitiveness from a developmental perspective. Who: University teachers who are interested in teaching competitiveness and their graduate students enrolled in programmes such as International Trade, Economic Policy, International Economics, Development Studies or Regional Economics. How: The lecturer can use the handbook to get a quick overview about all sections. Activities and discussion questions to enhance the learning process are provided as well as key readings.

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        Training Material on Competitiveness and Development, Module 2 - Approaches to competitiveness (English)
        Manual by Cora Mezger, Virtual Institute, 2005
        Categories: Competitiveness

        What: This module introduces the students to different theoretic models on national competitiveness and the main actors involved in creating and raising a nation's competitiveness. A critical discussion of the models has the objective of making students aware of their limitations. Who: University teachers who are interested in teaching competitiveness and their graduate students enrolled in programmes such as International Trade, Economic Policy, International Economics, Development Studies or Regional Economics. How: The lecturer can use the handbook to get a quick overview about all sections. Activities and discussion questions to enhance the learning process are provided as well as key readings.

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        Training Material on Competitiveness and Development, Module 3 - Assessment and measurement of competitiveness (English)
        Manual by Cora Mezger, Virtual Institute, 2005
        Categories: Competitiveness

        What: This module will give an overview of the different possibilities to measure competitiveness and encourage students to critically examine rankings and indicators. Who: university teachers who are interested in teaching competitiveness and their graduate students enrolled in programmes such as International Trade, Economic Policy, International Economics, Development Studies or Regional Economics. How: The lecturer can use the handbook to get a quick overview about all sections. Activities and discussion questions to enhance the learning process are provided as well as key readings.

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        Training Material on Competitiveness and Development, Module 4 - Determinants of competitiveness (English)
        Manual by Cora Mezger, Virtual Institute, 2005
        Categories: Competitiveness

        What: The fourth module will give an overview about the multitude of determinants of competitiveness on all four levels: Meta, Macro, Meso and Micro. It provides instead of a summary a list of guiding questions that might help the students in their analysis of different determinants' impact on competitiveness. Who: university teachers who are interested in teaching competitiveness and their graduate students enrolled in programmes such as International Trade, Economic Policy, International Economics, Development Studies or Regional Economics. How: The lecturer can use the handbook to get a quick overview about all sections. Activities, such as case studies, and discussion questions to enhance the learning process are provided.

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        Training Material on Competitiveness and Development: Outline (English)
        Outline by Cora Mezger, Virtual Institute, 2005
        Categories: Competitiveness

        What: Part 1 gives a general introduction to the teaching package outlining the context, purpose, potential target audience (although the teaching package might be adapted to different levels), methodology and general learning objectives/outcomes. Part 2 will provide the user of the package with a table of contents (headings of modules and chapters) and short overviews regarding content and learning objective of each module. Who: everyone interested in using the training material on competitiveness or part of it. How:The outline gives an overview about sections and can help lecturers to decide on topics and structure depending on their specific needs.

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        Training material on Competitiveness and Development: Scheme of work (English)
        Manual by Cora Mezger, Virtual Institute, 2005
        Categories: Competitiveness

        What:The scheme of work provides for every module and chapter the learning objectives. Additionally, it suggests (i) when and how activities can be used, (ii) how they contribute to achieving the learning objectives. Depending on the chapter, additional activities e.g. for advanced students, are proposed. The scheme of work contains also additional comments regarding a flexible use of the module or chapter (where else could it fit), required knowledge, emphasis etc. Who: aims at assisting the lecturer in the implementation of the rest of the teaching material on competitiveness and development.

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        UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics 2005
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2005, 485 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics (On-line version at http://stats.unctad.org/handbook) provides a comprehensive collection of statistical data relevant to the analysis of international trade, investment and development, for individual countries and for economic and trade groupings.

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        UNCTAD Trade and Developoment Report 2005 - Overview (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2005, 28 pages
        Categories: Commodities, International Financial System, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        What: This resource provides a brief summary of the UNCTAD flagship report. This important annual resource analyses current economic trends and major policy issues of international concern, and makes suggestions for addressing these issues at various levels. This year the report looks at, among other things, the effect of rising oil prices on global growth, domestic resources and balance of payments constraints in Asia, trends in the terms of trade and new forms of global interdependence, including the growing importance of developing countries in global markets. Who: Essential background reading for anyone looking at the impact of trade on development.

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        Vi Teaching Material on Competitiveness and Development (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD Virtual Institute, 2005, 167 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness

        This teaching material is designed to support university professors in "unpacking" the idea of "competitiveness” and to enable their students to identify situations of misuse of the concept. This training material is not primarily conceived as a complete course but rather to provide as a set of stimulating resources and activities that could be used either independently or integrated into existing courses offered at the university level.

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        World Investment Report 2005: Transnational Corporations and the Internationalisation of R&D (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005, 366 pages
        Categories: Investment

        What? This years WIR highlights the recovery of FDI and analyses in detail the current trends and patterns in FDI and TNC activity. In particular it exmaines research and development and the role of TNCs in the increased internationalisation of R+D. Who? For anyone interested in current trends in FDI and TNCs and their impact on development How? Contains invaluable source material and data, that can provide the basis for analysis and discussion. There are also useful graphs and charts and many case studies.

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        World Investment Report 2005: Transnational Corporations and the Internationalisation of R&d - Overview
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2005, 50 pages
        Categories: Investment, Science and Technology

        What? This WIR highlights the recovery of FDI and analyses in detail the current trends and patterns in FDI and TNC activity. In particular it exmaines research and development and the role of TNCs in the increased internationalisation of R+D. Who? For anyone interested in current trends in FDI and TNCs and their impact on development How? Contains invaluable source material and data, that can provide the basis for analysis and discussion. There are also useful graphs and charts and many case studies.

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