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        Assessing Regional Integration in Africa Ii: Rationalizing Regional Economic Communities (English)
        Report by UNECA, 2006, 180 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        What: The ARIA II report examines the effectiveness of Africa's regional economic communities (RECs) in pushing forward the regional integration agenda towards a fully functioning African Economic Community, which will remove all barriers to movement of people, goods and services across the continent, thereby creating a single economic space. The report finds that in general the regional economic communities have made commendable achievements. However, a substantial resource gap exists between the mandates of the RECs and their capacity to deliver, based on their financial and human resources. Furthermore, many RECs are pursuing similar mandates, and with countries belonging to numerous RECs, limited resources are spread thinly thereby limiting their effectiveness. There is therefore an urgent need to strengthen the capacity of the RECs and harmonize their programmes. How: Background reading on regional integration in Africa. Who: Policy makers, researchers and lecturers dealing with regional integration in Africa.

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        Assessing Regional Integration in Africa Ii: Rationalizing Regional Economic Communities - Highlights (English)
        Summary by UNECA, 2006, 12 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        What: The ARIA II report examines the effectiveness of Africa's regional economic communities (RECs) in pushing forward the regional integration agenda towards a fully functioning African Economic Community, which will remove all barriers to movement of people, goods and services across the continent, thereby creating a single economic space. The report finds that in general the regional economic communities have made commendable achievements. However, a substantial resource gap exists between the mandates of the RECs and their capacity to deliver, based on their financial and human resources. Furthermore, many RECs are pursuing similar mandates, and with countries belonging to numerous RECs, limited resources are spread thinly thereby limiting their effectiveness. There is therefore an urgent need to strengthen the capacity of the RECs and harmonize their programmes. How: Background reading on regional integration in Africa. Who: Policy makers, researchers and lecturers dealing with regional integration in Africa.

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        Assessing Regional Integration in Africa Ii: Rationalizing Regional Economic Communities - Key Facts (English)
        Report by UNECA, 2006, 3 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        What: The ARIA II report examines the effectiveness of Africa’s regional economic communities (RECs) in pushing forward the regional integration agenda towards a fully functioning African Economic Community, which will remove all barriers to movement of people, goods and services across the continent, thereby creating a single economic space. The report finds that in general the regional economic communities have made commendable achievements. However, a substantial resource gap exists between the mandates of the RECs and their capacity to deliver, based on their financial and human resources. Furthermore, many RECs are pursuing similar mandates, and with countries belonging to numerous RECs, limited resources are spread thinly thereby limiting their effectiveness. There is therefore an urgent need to strengthen the capacity of the RECs and harmonize their programmes. How: Background reading on regional integration in Africa. Who: Policy makers, researchers and lecturers dealing with regional integration in Africa.

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        Basel 2: The new basel capital accord and its impact on commodity financing in developing countries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2006, 39 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        This report explores the link between the new Basel Capital Accord and commodity finance for developing countries. It explains the basic principles of Basel 2, and how various mechanisms have been built into the Accord which can, in principle, help developing countries to mitigate or overcome any a priori negative effects. It then explores mechanisms such as structured finance and collateral management which can isolate certain transactions from high provisioning requirements, highlights the critical steps that developing countries and their banks can take, and discusses what international banks and the international community can do to protect commodity finance flows to developing countries.

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        Blue Book on Best Practive in Investment Promotion and Facilitation: Ghana (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, GIPC and JBIC, 2006, 49 pages
        Categories: Investment

        The Blue Book for Ghana provides concrete measures that will improve the investment climate and can be implemented by the Government within 12 months. These measures are intended to support Ghana´s development goals as articulated in the National Medium Term Private Sector Development Strategy 2004-2008 (PSDS). This Strategy outlines an action plan for revitalizing the private sector and achieving a "Golden Age of Business" in Ghana. Four objectives are presented in the PSDS. 1) An enhanced position for Ghana in regional and global markets 2) Increased efficiency and accessibility of national markets 3) Increased competence and capacity at the firm level and 4) Strengthened government private sector policy formulation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. To achieve these objectives, the PSDS contains actions at the international, national and firm levels. The Blue Book on Ghana proposes measures that support the Strategy.

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        Challenges and Opportunities for Developing Countries in Producing Biofuels (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2006, 26 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        What: The increase in oil prices has had the effect of improving the commercial viability of alternatives to oil. One group of energy bearers that has benefited particularly and that is of major potential importance to developing countries is biofuels. This study will present the evolution of international trade of biofuels and feedstock, and current trade regulations (tariffs and non-tariffs measures). It will also briefly detail current incentive policies in the EU and the United States for developing biofuels and look for indications of the policy they will adopt regarding consumption and import of biofuels. The study will then turn to issues relevant for biofuels production in developing countries. It will try to analyze what is at stake about food security, land uses, employment, public finance and environmental concerns. The final section of the study will identify some recent development of prices.

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        The Digital Divide Report: ICT Diffusion Index, 2005 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2006, 82 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        This index indicates the distribution of information and communication technology (ICT) around the world. The report finds that there is a “digital divide”, between developed and developing countries. A person in a high-income country is over 22 times more likely to be an Internet user than someone in a low-income country. Secure Internet servers, a rough indicator of electronic commerce, are over 100 times more common in high-income than in low-income countries. In high-income countries, mobile phones are 29 times more prevalent and mainline penetration is 21 times that of low-income countries. Relative to income, the cost of Internet access in a low-income country is 150 times the cost of a comparable service in a high-income country. There are similar divides within individual countries. ICT is often non-existent in poor and rural areas of developing countries.

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        Economic Development in Africa 2006- Doubling Aid: Making the “Big Push” Work (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2006, 6 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Finance for Development

        What: The 2006 report on Economic Development in Africa addresses the question of how \\"doubling aid to Africa\\" could substantially contribute to economic and social development in the region. It provides readers with a comprehensive historical overview of models of foreign aid and identifies flaws in the current aid system. The report suggests revisiting the \\"big push\\" development strategy first put forward in the 1950\\'s, and highlights the importance of coherence and quality aspects in aid supply on the donor-side, as well as the role of policies pursued by recipients. A new architecture of aid should ensure a stronger focus on developing productive capacities, and respond to local and regional needs instead of imposing conditionalities. A reduction of unnecessary competition among donors and a greater multilateralization can help to make aid more efficient. How: Can be used as an entry reading into the aid literature and contributes one position to the ongoing discussion. Who: Researchers and lecturers in international development economics dealing with aid issues.

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        Economic Report on Africa 2006: Capital Flows and Development Financing in Africa (English)
        Report by UNECA, 2006, 220 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Macroeconomic Policy

        What: The Economic Report on Africa (ERA) is the flagship publication of the UN Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The 2006 edition of the ERA places capital flows at the centre of the debate on development financing and examines how external capital can help countries accelerate growth and reduce poverty. Main recommendations include: promoting regional financial integration, establishing mechanisms for monitoring and managing capital flows to minimize the risks of financial instability, designing strategies to increase the contribution of the Diaspora to economic development, and development partners should honour their commitments with regard to the Monterrey Consensus. ERA 2006 points out that with appropriate capital management strategies, African economies could absorb higher external capital with minimal adverse effects. How: Background reading on Africa's recent performance and on financing for development in the African context. Who: Policy makers, researchers and lecturers dealing with African economic development.

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        Economic Report on Africa 2006: Capital Flows and Development Financing in Africa - Overview (English)
        Summary by UNECA, 2006, 30 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Macroeconomic Policy

        What: The Economic Report on Africa (ERA) is the flagship publication of the UN Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The 2006 edition of the ERA places capital flows at the centre of the debate on development financing and examines how external capital can help countries accelerate growth and reduce poverty. Main recommendations include: promoting regional financial integration, establishing mechanisms for monitoring and managing capital flows to minimize the risks of financial instability, designing strategies to increase the contribution of the Diaspora to economic development, and development partners should honour their commitments with regard to the Monterrey Consensus. ERA 2006 points out that with appropriate capital management strategies, African economies could absorb higher external capital with minimal adverse effects. How: Background reading on Africa's recent performance and on financing for development in the African context. Who: Policy makers, researchers and lecturers dealing with African economic development

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        EXAMEN COLLÉGIAL VOLONTAIRE DE LA POLITIQUE DE CONCURRENCE: TUNISIE - RAPPORT DE SYNTHÈSE (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2006, 41 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Ce rapport de synthèse résume les principales informations tirées de « l'Examen collégial volontaire de la politique de la concurrence en Tunisie ». Après un bref rappel du contexte politique et économique du pays, le rapport présente la politique de la concurrence (la loi, les organes et le fonctionnement) en Tunisie. Cette synthèse comprend également un examen de l’application de cette politique au cours des dernières années, compte tenu du contexte tunisien (prix contrôlés, politiques sectorielles, etc.), ainsi qu’une série de conclusions et de recommandations.

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        Exceptions to Patent Rights in Developing Countries (English)
        Case study by Garrison, Christopher, 2006, 104 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This Paper examines the principles and practice of “exceptions to patent rights”, especially as regards developing countries. Many WTO Members (“Members”) are convinced of the utility of the patent system in encouraging research and development activity for new inventions. Many other Members are less confident of the benefits of the patent system and indeed are concerned about the dangers that the patent system poses, in terms of, for example, the impact that it and other intellectual property rights syste ms will have on their economic and social welfare. Where the line is drawn between those areas that are the preserve of the patent holder to control, and those areas which the patent holder may not control, is therefore a very important policy question for Members. The subject of this Paper relates to one aspect of this policy question, that is to say, “exceptions to patent rights”, which for present purposes, is taken to mean certain “safe harbour” areas of activity where the rights of a patent holder do not extend. Other limitations of the rights of patent holders and other matters such as the scope of patentability of inventions or the compulsory licensing of patents are outside the scope of this Paper, although they are touched on as and when appropriate.

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        Governance and Anti-corruption Reforms in Developing Countries: Policies, Evidence and Ways Forward (English)
        Discussion paper by Khan, Mushtaq H., 2006, 38 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Globalization and Development Strategies

        International institutions and in particular the World Bank and the IMF are rightly giving a great deal of attention to issues of governance in developing countries, and particularly corruption. This paper identifies a number of different structural drivers of corruption that operate because of the poor fiscal capacities and structurally weak property rights of developing countries. These imply that aggregate corruption is likely to be high in all developing countries, but successful countries have institutions and governance capabilities that enable them to “manage” the structural drivers in ways that allow economic development and in turn create the conditions for a sustained improvement in good governance. In contrast, other developing countries lack these institutions and capabilities and suffer from poor economic prospects and political instability to varying extents.

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        GSP - Handbook on the Scheme of Japan 2006 (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2006, 109 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This handbook has been prepared by the UNCTAD secretariat based on the information provided by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. It provides a general explanation of Japan´s scheme to allow officials and users responsible or involved in GSP issues to gain a better understanding of the scheme. The handbook is based on: • the Temporary Tariff Measures Law, • the Cabinet Order for Enforcement of the Temporary Tariff Measures Law; and • the Administrative Rule for Enforcement of the Temporary Tariff Measures Law. The original Japanese language versions of these texts are the sole authoritative versions in the event of a dispute. The tariff item numbers used in this publication are in accordance with the nomenclature of the International Convention on the Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System (HS number). The product descriptions found in the lists have been reformulated to help understanding. Readers may wish refer to the Customs Tariff Schedules of Japan, published by the Japan Tariff Association, for further information on tariff item numbers and descriptions of Japanese GSP-eligible products and other products. Further information on the Japanese GSP scheme is available on the following Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan website: http://www.mofa.go.jp.

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        Guidance on Good Practices in Corporate Governance Disclosure (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2006, 52 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development

        This guidance is a technical aid for regulators and companies, particularly in developing countries and transition economies. The purpose of the guidance is to help those responsible for preparing company reports to produce disclosures on corporate governance that address the major concerns of investors and other stakeholders. The publication is relevant to enterprises eager to attract investment regardless of their legal form or size. It will also serve to promote awareness in countries and companies that do not adhere sufficiently to international good practices and consequently fail to satisfy investor expectations on corporate governance disclosures. The focus is on widely applicable disclosure issues that are relevant to most enterprises: • financial and non-financial corporate governance disclosures • disclosure issues regarding general meetings, timing and means of disclosure and compliance with best practice. UNCTAD draws upon recommendations for corporate governance disclosure contained in documents from other international organizations and national governments, as well as the deliberations of the Intergovernmental Working Group of Experts on International Standards of Accounting and Reporting (ISAR). For reference purposes, the guidance also contains a list of national and international resources on corporate governance disclosure. The publication is expected to serve as a useful tool for drawing attention to good corporate governance disclosure practices that enterprises in different parts of the world might wish to emulate.

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        ICT Solutions to Facilitate Trade at Border Crossings and in Ports (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2006, 17 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade Facilitation

        What: This note calls on developing countries to improve their ICT usage in transport and customs, in order to keep pace with globalization, liberalization, and the global exigencies for supply chain security. The use of ICT in customs is particularly discussed in the context of the Automated System for Customs Data (ASYCUDA). All in all, the paper advises developing countries to adopt the following measures: capacity building, IT infrastructure development, a regulatory reform, and a cooperative framework. How: An informative reading for courses on trade facilitation. Who: Anyone interested in the use of ICT for trade facilitation.

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        IIA Monitor No. 2/2006: Developments in International Investment Agreements in 2005 (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2006, 15 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law

        The trend from previous years of an expansion and increasing sophistication of international investment rulemaking at the bilateral, regional and interregional level continued in 2005. In 2005 alone, 162 international investment agreements (IIAs)1 were concluded, bringing the total number of IIAs to almost 5,500. The evolving system of international investment rules contributes further to the enabling framework for FDI. At the same time, the increasingly complex multilayered and multifaceted universe of IIAs becomes more demanding, particularly in order to keep it coherent, and ensure its effective functioning and making it conducive for national development objectives.

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        IMF Policies for Financial Crises Preventions in Emerging Markets (English)
        Discussion paper by Lorenzo, Fernando; Noya, Nelson, 2006, 32 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, International Financial System, Macroeconomic Policy

        In emerging markets, policies for preventing and managing financial crises should be understood following the standard open economy macroeconomics text treatment. This, however, will prevent us from fully comprehending how to deal with these crises. To deal with financial crises in emerging markets, this paper brings about more promising theoretical tools borrowed from the interdisciplinary field of optimal policy design. It also considers the possibility that more than one market failure may occur simultaneously. The theoretical tools discussed here should serve to improve existing prevention and management policies. Admittedly, the interdisciplinary field of optimal policy design is comparatively young, thus offering scarce empirical support for disentangling competing models. Given this inability to decide upon the best possible model, we should consider at least two constraints that policy makers will deal with in the real world of financial crises. First, given that policy makers make crucial choices between parsimonious and innovative measures, this paper recommends parsimony because of the uncertainty about the true model. Second, high political implementation costs will always be present, and these are positively correlated with supranational institutional requirements. Considering issues of both parsimony and political constraints, we argue that any attempt to internationally harmonize rules and codes must be done with caution. With this framework in mind, we review some of the recent proposals about emerging markets crisis prevention. From the point of view of emerging countries and creditor countries taken as a Whole, and benevolent IFIs, we conclude that promoting GDP indexed sovereign bonds is the best available proposal for crises prevention. In this paper, we leave aside the debate of the political economy or governance reform issues of the IFIs.

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        Impact Des Accords De L’OMC Sur L’économie De La Mauritanie, Négociation et Mise En Oeuvre, Avril 2006 (French)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2006, 32 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Pays à forte tradition commerciale, la Mauritanie a vu s’installer sur ses côtes dès le 16e siècle des comptoirs hollandais, portugais, anglais et français, comptoirs dont l’installation, a attisé les convoitises et entraîné de fortes rivalités entre les puissances européennes de l’époque. Le principal objet de ce commerce était la gomme arabique, sève d’une espèce d’acacia très répandue en Mauritanie avant la grande sécheresse des années 1970. Puis ce fut autour du minerai de fer et des produits halieutiques de constituer l’essentiel des exportations mauritaniennes. En termes de valeur, la balance commerciale a connu une évolution en dents de scie entre 1990 et 2004 caractérisée par une tendance déficitaire très marquée en 1997 en raison du concours des facteurs suivants : - la baisse des captures et des cours des produits halieutiques, - la crise financière asiatique de la fin des années 1990 qui s’est répercutée sur l’économie et la monnaie du Japon principal acheteur du poisson mauritanien (notamment les céphalopodes à grande valeur marchande). - La baisse continue des cours du minerai de fer. Mais, en dépit de la refonte de l’arsenal juridique régissant l’activité privée et l’entreprise de manière générale, un ensemble de facteurs entravent le développement du secteur du commerce. On citera en particulier l’absence d’orientations clairement définies, la prévalence de la « logique commerçante» dans la gestion des entreprises, la forte présence puis le retrait soudain de l’Etat d’un ensemble de secteurs clés de l’économie dont il détenait le monopôle, l’absence d’unités de production agro-industrielles, le coût élevé du crédit, l’absence de culture du service,le coût élevé des facteurs de production, l’exiguïté du marché domestique….etc.

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        Impact Des Accords De L’OMC Sur L’économie Du Cameroun, Négociation et Mise En Oeuvre (French)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2006, 69 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Le Cameroun est signataire de puis 1960 de plusieurs accords commerciaux bilatéraux et multilatéraux et s’inscrit résolument dans la logique de diversification de ses partenaires. Membre de l’organisation Mondiale du Commerce (OMC) depuis le 1er janvier 1995, il coopère avec l’Union Européenne dans la zone franche sur le plan monétaire et au sein des pays ACP dans le cadre des Accords de Partenariat Economique signés en 2000 à Cotonou (UE/ACP) dont les négociations en cours s’achèvent en 2007. L’issue des négociations du cycle actuel de Doha relative au nouveau Système Commercial Multilatéral et des accords de partenariat économique régionaux conditionne par conséquent le développement économique du pays, tant il est vrai en principe que l’expansion des échanges internationaux dans le contexte du libre échange est un facteur de développement mutuel des partenaires à l’échange. Le besoin d’une stratégie de négociation indispensable à l’optimisation des gains nécessaire à la réalisation de l’option du gouvernement pour la réduction de la pauvreté et l’atteinte des objectifs du millénaire pour le développement s’avère important et urgent. Les contours de cette stratégie se fondent sur l’impact actuel des différents accords de l’OMC et des accords régionaux sur l’économie camerounaise. La présente étude sur l’impact des Accords de l’OMC et positions de négociations à l’initiative de la CNUCED dans le cadre du Projet JITAP II vient opportunément aider à la préparation des négociations d’une part, à l’harmonisation et à l’amélioration de la législation et de la réglementation nationale d’autre part.

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        Implementing Competition-related Provisions in Regional Trade Agreements: Is It Possible to Obtain Development Gains? (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2006, 198 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        What: This publication presents the results of an UNCTAD/IDRC project on Trade and Competition Issues: Experiences at Regional Level. It consists of three chapters written by UNCTAD and academic experts on the topic as well as an annex with reports from the workshops that have been conducted for the project. This publication considers the interrelationship between competition law and policy, economic development and trade. It sHows the constraints faced by developing countries in using existing cooperation mechanisms and suggests ways to foster a culture of competition in developing-country markets. It also stresses the importance of improving the institutional capacities of recently established competition authorities in developing countries to deal with anti-competitive practices in their own markets and help their enterprises deal with them in international markets. How: Raising awareness and enhancing expertise among all stakeholders. Who: Policy makers wanting to understand the negotiation and implementation of regional and bilateral trade agreements with respect to competition policies, but also other stakeholders in the process.

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        Intellectual Property Provisions of Bilateral and Regional Trade Agreements in light of U.S. Federal Law (English)
        Case study by Abbott, Frederick M., 2006, 36 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        What: This paper examines recent regional and bilateral Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) from the perspective of the United States law and policies. It also analyzes crucial and sensitive issues in these agreements in light of the background provided by U.S. regulatory and case law experience. One of the lessons of the paper is that existing differences in the capacity of the United States and many developing countries to create and manage legal infrastructure may lead to a disparity in the way FTA rules are implemented. How: Useful to highlight the intellectual property provisions of bilateral and regional trade agreements in international economics classes. Who: Lecturers and researchers in the area of intellectual property rights, particularly when put into the context of trade agreements

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        Introduction to Negotiation Skills and Strategies - A Brief History of Negotiations (English)
        Summary by Virtual Institute, UNCTAD, 2006
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: This paper offers both a brief summary of the history of diplomacy and international negotiations as well as a review on the history of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the World Trade Organization (WTO). Who: Especially for teachers and students in classes on international relations that deal with international negotiations. How: Can be used as a starting point to get an overview on the history of negotiations. On points of interest, the paper can be complemented by additional reading. The content of the paper could also be used to design a PowerPoint presentation on the topic.

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        An Investment Guide to Rwanda (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, ICC, 2006, 90 pages
        Categories: Investment

        This document is published as part of the UNCTAD–ICC series of investment guides. The publications in this series are intended for the use of foreign investors who are largely unfamiliar with the countries covered. They are thus designed to offer overviews of potential locations for investment, rather than constitute exhaustive works of reference or provide detailed practical instruction. They do, however, offer pointers to sources of further information in the private as well as the public sector. There are two other features of these publications that the reader will find worth noting. One is that they are third-party documents, intended to offer a balanced and objective account of investment conditions. Their principal advantage in drawing the attention of investors to the countries they cover is credibility. The other feature is that both their general structure and some of their specific content are the result of consultations with the private sector.

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        Investment Policy Review: Colombia (English)
        Review by UNCTAD, 2006, 99 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The review proposes ways to strengthen the government's investment promotion arm, Proexport, as well as enhance policies to attract more technology-driven firms to its growing knowledge-based economy. While praising the government for its market reforms, the review notes that investors are concerned by a number of contradictory fiscal measures and the difficulty of resorting to international arbitration in case of disputes. The review urges the government to extend its network of bilateral investment treaties and double taxation agreements to fully tap market opportunities offered by the bilateral trade agreement with the United States. It also encourages the government to begin negotiations with the European Union.

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        Investment Policy Review: Rwanda (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2006, 145 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Rwanda is among the world´s poorest nations, and it faces particular challenges in leveraging FDI for development. Foreign investment flows have been negligible since independence, and Rwanda missed out on the global surge in FDI flows to developing countries in the 1990s. Rwanda has nevertheless achieved remarkable political and social progress since 1994. It has become one of Africa's countries with the highest degree of personal safety and lowest incidence of corruption. It has also started to rebuild its economy, and the Government is fully committed to building a peaceful, stable and prosperous nation through sustainable private sector led development. Much progress in reforming the investment climate has been achieved so far, even though much remains to be done. The Investment Policy Review suggests three policy avenues to promote FDI and ensure that it contributes to achieving the national development goals: • Turn Rwanda into a centre of excellence in soft infrastructure and governance. • Develop a skills attraction and dissemination programme. • Put in place focused strategic initiatives. Since the IPR was published, UNCTAD has, with funding from the Government of Germany (unless otherwise indicated), assisted the government in the following ways: • It sensitized Members of Parliament and the Senate on the findings of the IPR of Rwanda. • It produced an Investment Guide to Rwanda. • It prepared a strategy for the promotion of the industrial mining sector. • It drafted a model mining convention. • It is preparing a client charter for the investment promotion agency. • It is helping the government to set up a skills attraction and dissemination programme, as recommended in the IPR.

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        Le Mali et Le Système Commercial Multilatéral: L’impact Des Accords De L’OMC, Négociation et Mise En Oeuvre (French)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2006, 114 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        La mondialisation des économies, puisqu’il c’est d’elle qu’il s’agit, apparaît désormais comme une fatalité avec ses revers et ses effets pervers, mais aussi, au-delà de ses exigences, ses avantages et ses espoirs d’un lendemain meilleur. Avec ses inconvénients et ses avantages, la mondialisation des économies est acceptée par tous à l’exception de quelques irréductibles et s’avère comme la seule issue possible de l’avenir du genre humain dans sa quête d’un mieux être constant. Dans un tel contexte de rigueur caractérisé par une compétitivité internationale accrue et en poursuivant des objectifs de prospérité généralisée, les pays comme le Mali qui apparaissent comme des acteurs émergeants de la scène mondiale, cherchent à prendre pied sur le marché mondial pour vendre et acheter à meilleur compte. Cette insertion dynamique dans le processus de la mondialisation comporte des défis et des opportunités. C’est dans le cadre de ces défis et la recherche des opportunités offertes par le commerce mondial, que le Mali a adhéré à l’OMC en 1995 et commencé à appliquer les accords de cette institution tout en participant dans toute la mesure du possible aux négociations commerciales multilatérales. Quel a été l’impact de l’application des règles de l’OMC au niveau de l’économie nationale du Mali ? La présente étude tente de répondre à cette question

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        Managing "Request-Offer" Negotiations under the GATS: The Case of Energy Services (English)
        Working paper by UNCTAD, 2006, 33 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: This paper gives, at first, an introduction to the international energy services market, by analyzing its scope, size, major players and trade flows. Then, the treatment of energy services in the GATS is analyzed, including the future negotiation topics. The advantages and drawbacks of liberalizing trade in energy services are investigated, particularly from developing countries' perspective. Conversely, the paper also discusses domestic regulations on energy services. Particular attention is devoted to negotiations on energy services trade. Thus, the author provides a list of recent country-by-country negotiation proposals and a comprehensive negotiating checklist. How: Primarily, useful for training courses on trade negotiations. Besides, the paper can be used as a background reading in international trade courses. Who: The paper should be particularly interesting for trade negotiators and policy-makers, but also for trade researchers and students.

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        Managing the Request-Offer Negotiations Under the GATS: Construction & Related Engineering Services (English)
        Presentation by UNCTAD, 2006, 10 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: This presentation gives, at first, an introduction to the international construction services market, by analyzing its scope, size, major players and trade flows. Then, the treatment of construction and related services in the GATS is analyzed, including the future negotiation topics. The advantages and drawbacks of liberalizing trade in construction services are investigated, particularly from developing countries' perspective. Conversely, the paper also discusses domestic regulations on construction services. Particular attention is devoted to negotiations on construction services trade. Thus, the author provides a list of recent country-by-country negotiation proposals and a comprehensive negotiating checklist. How: Primarily, useful for training courses on trade negotiations. Who: The presentation should be particularly interesting for trade negotiators and policy-makers, but also for trade researchers and students.

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        MANAGING THE REQUEST-OFFER NEGOTIATIONS UNDER THE GATS: LOGISTICS SERVICES (English)
        Working paper by UNCTAD, 2006, 47 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The aim of this paper is to identify issues of relevance to current negotiations on logistics services under the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). The paper also seeks to provide the World Trade Organization (WTO) Members with suggestions on how they can approach the negotiations. Achieving meaningful liberalization, commensurate with their individual level of development, will require informed participation by WTO Members, based on their market access interests and their regulatory, infrastructural and institutional constraints. A precondition to increased participation in world trade will be to ensure the development of the logistics services sector in developing countries and the competitiveness of their exports in this area.

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        Maritime Security: Elements of an Analytical Framework for Compliance Measurement and Risk Assessment (English)
        Working paper by UNCTAD, 2006, 16 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Trade Facilitation

        What: This paper analyzes the impact of new maritime security measures, most notably the International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code, on international trade. In particular, the paper discusses risk assessment and management techniques within the maritime security framework. After identifying drawbacks of the existing framework, the paper introduces an alternative approach. Most notably, it differs from the old framework in not concentrating on the security of facilities but in seeking to ensure supply chain security of maritime transports. How: Can be used in a course on international trade as a reading on transport regulations. Besides, the paper could be used as a reading for a course on international economic law. Who: Researchers, students, and policy-makers interested in maritime transport regulations.

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        Maritime Security: ISPS Code Implementation, Costs and Related Financing (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2006, 51 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation

        On 1 July 2004, the 2002 amendments to the 1974 International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) and the new International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (ISPS Code), entered into force and became mandatory for all SOLAS Member States. The SOLAS amendments and the ISPS Code (hereinafter the ISPS Code) impose wide-ranging obligations on governments, shipping companies, and port facilities. Implementing these obligations entails costs and potential economic implications. Against this background, UNCTAD conducted a global study based on a set of questionnaires designed to obtain first hand information from all affected parties. The main objective was to establish the range and order of magnitude of the ISPS Code-related expenditures made from 2003 through 2005 and to gain insight into the financing mechanisms adopted or envisaged. In addition the study sought to clarify matters relating to the implementation process, level of compliance and other less easily quantifiable impacts. Due to limited responses received from the shipping sector the report presents responses received from ports and governments only.

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        Meeting Trade and Development Challenges in an Era of High and Volatile Energy Prices: Oil and Gas in LDCs and African Countries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2006, 40 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy

        This report is divided into four chapters. Chapter I describes trends in global consumption of oil and Africa’s production and consumption levels. Chapter II discusses the macro- and microeconomic impacts of oil price volatility. It reviews some of the strategies used in dealing with impacts and recommends policy measures to mitigate risks related to the sector. Chapter III examines the challenges facing importers in their procurement of crude oil and its derivatives and also looks at possible import financing methods. The paper concludes with a discussion on possible cooperation strategies aimed at improving access to oil and gas for African countries and ways to ensure that revenue from oil and gas exports meet the development needs of current and future generations.

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        Negotiations on Transport and Logistics Services: Issues to Consider (English)
        Working paper by UNCTAD, 2006, 29 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: This paper analyzes the proposals by a group of WTO members to consider multimodal transports and logistics services in the Doha Round GATS-negotiations. First, the paper discusses current trends in trade and transport. Then, the transport and logistics services regulations under the GATS are examined, hereby particularly considering recent developments. The paper discusses at length which aspects need to be considered by developing countries in GATS-negotiations and how developing countries can contribute to these negotiations in the best possible way. How: The paper is particularly useful for training courses for trade negotiators and policy-makers. Who: Should be very informative for trade negotiators and policy-makers. Could also be a useful reading for students and researchers dealing with trade negotiations.

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        Negotiation theory - An overview (English)
        Summary by Virtual Institute, UNCTAD, 2006
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What:this paper is a brief introduction to the theory of negotiations containing links to more detailed resources on negotiations posted on the Vi site. The paper describes the strategies and tactics used in negotiations and some of the skills required for negotiation. Who: the paper provides an overview for anyone studying negotiations and could be used by teachers to introduce students to the field. How: as a background reading on negotiations defining the scope of the field and linking to more detailed resources for further reading.

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        Overview of the World's Commodity Exchanges 2006 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD and Swiss Futures and Options Association (SFOA), 2006, 38 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        What: This extract from the publication "The World's Commodity Exchanges: Past - Present - Future" was prepared by UNCTAD and the Swiss Futures and Options Association (SFOA) for the International Bürgenstock Conference 2006. At first, the paper analyses the current global commodity futures and options markets relying on a wide set of data and charts. Then, all the major commodity exchanges in the world are presented and their recent development is discussed. An annex comprises data sources on the biggest commodities exchanges and the global trade in futures and options. The paper ends with a list of relevant UNCTAD publications on commodities. How: Particularly useful for an international finance course with an emphasis on commodity trade. Who: Mainly for investors interested in commodities.

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        The Potential Impact of the Aid for Trade Initiative (English)
        Discussion paper by Page, Sheila/UNCTAD, 2006, 54 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Trade Related Capacity Building, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: The paper analyzes the situation of the Aid for Trade initiative and gives recommendations for the actors involved. The initiative marked international acceptance of the limitations of trade as a tool for development for some countries, as they need infrastructure, institutions, technical capacity, and investment in order to trade, and to respond to liberalization. Aid for Trade as an issue in the Doha Round was driven by the need to find benefits for all countries. By the time the Round stalled, it had acquired sufficient support to go forward independently of the Round. When it was part of the negotiations, there was pressure to define a new structure for trade aid, outside normal aid mechanisms and parallel to those for other international concerns such as health or the environment. Without the need to secure developing countries’ support for a trade settlement, there is now a risk that it will be absorbed into normal aid programmes. The paper argues that to ensure that Aid for Trade reflects trade priorities and decisions made in the WTO; countries must require donors and the international financial institutions to accept priority for trade and the obligation of coherence with the WTO. How: Background information for policy-making in the area of multilateral trade. Who: Trade policy-makers, particularly from developing countries.

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        A re-examination of the architecture of the international economic system in a global setting: issues and proposals (English)
        Discussion paper by Sakbani, Michael / UNCTAD, 2006, 32 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, International Financial System

        The globalization of the world economy poses major challenges to the prevailing international economic system. The recent trade-investment system raises the issues of the marginalization of countries, firms, and agents if they are not capable to compete with large successful entities. The system engenders conflicts of interest in its interfacing with sovereign domains. In numerous cases such as employment and mutual trade benefits, it can produce zero sum outcomes. Consequently, significant segments of public opinion in many countries have mobilized against it. In the monetary and financial area, the system has from 1945 evolved on a piecemeal and ad hoc basis. In recent years, it has not been able to predict, prevent or effectively deal with financial crisis. It demonstrates a lacuna in global financial governance especially with respect to enforcing its rules on the major countries and bringing the private sector therein. The central institution, the IMF, is shown to be in need of basic reforms involving forging a global vision, reconsidering and updating conditionality, further democratization of political governance, and revamping the exchange rates and surveillance functions.

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        The Renaissance of China and India: Implications for the Advanced Economies (English)
        Discussion paper by Rowthorn, Robert, 2006, 32 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation

        Using simple convergence equations, this paper projects that by mid-century per capita incomes in China and India will on average be about half the US level. In terms of total production, both countries should overtake the USA by 2050. Such developments will affect the advanced economies through several channels. The terms of trade of these economies will deteriorate as labour intensive imports, such as clothing or holidays, become more expensive when ultra-cheap supplies from China (and later India) dry up. Resource-based imports may also become more expensive in response to rising demand from China and India. Orders of magnitude suggest that such terms of trade losses may be fairly easy to absorb if they are spread over many years. On the positive side, as China and India develop they will become major innovators in their own right and the advanced countries will benefit by importing technology from them. The development of China and India may also affect the internal distribution of income within the advanced economies. If transnational corporations can earn higher profits by moving production to China and India they may use this as a credible threat to extract concessions from their existing workers in the advanced economies. An appendix to the paper presents a simple mathematical model and some numerical examples that inform the discussion in the text.

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        The Role of the IMF in Debt Restructurings: Lending into Arrears, Moral Hazard and Sustainability Concerns (English)
        Discussion paper by Simpson, Lucio /University of Buenos Aires, 2006, 40 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, International Financial System

        This paper will discuss the role that the IMF plays in sovereign debt restructurings and its views regarding the various components of the framework for crisis prevention and resolution, with a special emphasis on LIA policy and the issue of debt sustainability. Because the SDRM was originally intended to be one of the pillars of such framework and because of the consequences of the debate it generated, the first section examines the reasons that explain the failure of the SDRM project to make progress. The second section comments on the recent widespread adoption of CACs, to a large extent as a result of the threat posed by the possible implementation of the SDRM. Sections three to six deal with LIA policy. They explain the objectives and implications of LIA policy as well as its evolution over time, discussing the suitability of the criteria that regulate its implementation, how the policy has been applied in practice and the relevance of the moral hazard problems that it might generate. In section seven, and against the background of the trade-off between investor-friendliness and debt sustainability, the potential positive role that the IMF could play in debt restructurings is discussed and is contrasted with the Fund’s failed experience in Argentina and its bailout of Uruguay, which was clearly inconsistent with its own rules.

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        STRATEGY ON SOLUTIONS FOR HARMONIZING INTERNATIONAL REGULATION OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE (Volume 2 (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2006, 95 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This volume represents a further step in the development of proposals on harmonization of the regulation of production and trade in products from organic agriculture. It was commissioned by the International Task Force on Harmonization and Equivalence in Organic Agriculture (ITF), which was established by IFOAM, FAO and UNCTAD in February 2003. The main paper in this volume aims to summarise: • the current situation • the problems experienced, and • the harmonization tools available and then • establish criteria for assessing potential harmonizing models • perform an initial analysis of likely models • recommend best options where possible • develop an initial work programme to lead towards a final workable harmonized model The volume also contains the reports of the third and fourth meetings of the ITF in November 2004 and February 2005, respectively.

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        Trade and Development Report 2006 - Global Partnership and National Policies for Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2006, 280 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: The 2006 Trade and Development Report (TDR) looks specifically at the threat to growth from global financial imbalances and at the potential for development from the changing climate on aid flows, migrant remittances, export opportunities and increasing FDI flows. The TDR 2006 offers ideas and general principles for designing macroeconomic, sectoral and trade policies that can help developing countries succeed in today´s global economic environment. Particular attention is given to policies that support the creative forces of markets and the entrepreneurial dimension of investment. The report also argues that a global partnership for development will be incomplete without an effective system of global economic governance that takes into account the specific needs of developing countries. At the same time it should ensure the right balance between sovereignty in national economic policy-making on the one hand, and multilateral disciplines and collective governance on the other. How: The report provides up-to-date information on trends in the world economy as well as in-depth analysis on the above mentioned global financial imbalances. It might thus be used to validate teaching resources in international economics courses and spark ideas about relevant research. Who: Lecturers and researchers as well as policy-makers interested in international economics.

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        Trade and Development Report 2006 - Overview (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2006, 26 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: The 2006 Trade and Development Report (TDR) looks specifically at the threat to growth from global financial imbalances and at the potential for development from the changing climate on aid flows, migrant remittances, export opportunities and increasing FDI flows. The TDR 2006 offers ideas and general principles for designing macroeconomic, sectoral and trade policies that can help developing countries succeed in today´s global economic environment. Particular attention is given to policies that support the creative forces of markets and the entrepreneurial dimension of investment. The report also argues that a global partnership for development will be incomplete without an effective system of global economic governance that takes into account the specific needs of developing countries. At the same time it should ensure the right balance between sovereignty in national economic policy-making on the one hand, and multilateral disciplines and collective governance on the other. How: The report provides up-to-date information on trends in the world economy as well as in-depth analysis on the above mentioned global financial imbalances. It might thus be used to validate teaching resources in international economics courses and spark ideas about relevant research. Who: Lecturers and researchers as well as policy-makers interested in international economics.

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        Trade and Environment Review 2006
        Report by UNCTAD, 2006, 296 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The TER 2006 focuses on environmental and related health requirements and their impact on developing countries´ market access. It examines both the opportunities and challenges presented by these requirements, which are increasingly stringent, complex and multi-dimensional. The Review includes both general and sectoral analyses of the issue, and looks at two sectors where environmental requirements are critical to market access: electrical and electronic equipment and organic agricultural products. The evidence presented in the Review supports recommendations for developing countries to adopt a more strategic and proactive approach to coping with environmental and related health requirements in export markets. This requires being involved from the initial stages of standards-setting, both in the context of government regulations and the increasing number of private-sector standards that apply across supply chains. A proactive approach is also needed in order to take full advantage of the trade and development opportunities generated by increased environmental and health requirements, such as expanding markets for organic products and catalytic effects on resource efficiency and occupational safety.

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        Trade Facilitation Handbook, Part II: Technical Notes on Essential Trade Facilitation Measures (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2006, 86 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation

        What: Part II of this Handbook consists of a collation of technical notes on the most important trade facilitation measures countries should consider when reforming their trade, transport and customs operations. Each note discusses the background of the topic, its implications and its efficient implementation, and cost-benefit analyses. Besides, each note provides pertinent references and tools. The topics covered include: Publications of trade regulations and their uniform administration, electronic media in trade-related publications, integrity and ethical conduct of officials, levy of fees and charges, use of customs automation systems, risk management in customs procedures background, freedom of transit and regional transit arrangements, and border cooperation and cooperation amongst agencies, authorities and the private sector in relation to transit. How: A very helpful reference for courses on trade facilitation. Who: Primarily policy-makers working on trade facilitation, but also students and researchers dealing with this topic.

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        Trade Facilitation Handbook Part I - National Facilitation Bodies: Lessons from Experience (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2006, 26 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation

        What: At first, the handbook presents case-studies of the experiences of Albania, Nepal, Pakistan and Thailand with building up PRO committees (trade facilitation bodies, charged with improving customs, cross-border transactions and best practices in trade). By comparing these countries the handbook advances recommendations for establishing PRO committees, hereby emphasizing the cooperation with regional trade facilitation bodies and the needed support by international organizations. Besides, the handbook puts forward the lessons learned from past such cooperation efforts. How: A useful background reading for trade-facilitation training or university courses. Who: Government officials, trade and transport services providers, and transport users.

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        Training Module on the WTO Agreement on Anti-dumping (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2006, 163 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The first chapter of this module contains substantive material related to the Anti-Dumping Agreement (ADA) and current WTO negotiations. The second chapter gives detailed explanations of the dumping margin calculation, including sample calculations.

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        UNCTAD Investment Brief, No. 3, 2006, New Sources of FDI Attracting Attention from IPAs (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2006, 2 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Investment promotion agencies (IPAs) from all parts of the world recognize the emerging role of developing and transition economies as sources of foreign direct investment (FDI). A new UNCTAD survey shows that 74% of IPAs already target FDI from these economies. The interest is particularly pronounced among IPAs in the developing world, in which “South-South” FDI accounts for a large share of total inflows.

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        UNCTAD Investment Brief, No. 4, 2006: Developing Countries Are Beginning to Promote Outward FDI (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2006, 2 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        A number of developing countries are now actively encouraging their firms to invest abroad. This is a growing practice especially in Asia, where several governments have established dedicated bodies that provide different firms of support to outward investors. For some economies such activities can help boost the competitiveness of firms involved. However a certain minimum level of capabilities in the domestic enterprise sector may be needed to secure economic gains from outward FDI promotion.

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        UNCTAD Investment Brief, No. 5, 2006, Top TNCs Present in 40 Host Countries on Average (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2006, 2 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The world's largest transnational corporations (TNCs) are present in 40 foreign countries on average. The geographic coverage of their developing-country counterparts is less extensive as they tend to expand mainly into neighbouring countries. New UNCTAD research shows that some locations host virtually all of the top TNCs.

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        Using Commoditized Revenue Flows to Leverage Access to International Finance; with a Special Focus on Migrant Remittances and Payment Flows (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2006, 25 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Finance for Development, Migration and Development

        The field of finance for developing countries has changed in a revolutionary manner since the international debt crisis of the 1980s. The losses that international banks incurred discouraged them from continuing to lend on an unsecured basis to developing countries governments and private entities. But as demand for credit remained strong and profit margins were high, some of them rapidly developed new techniques for dealing with the risks. Many of these risk mitigation techniques relate to the field of structured finance - discussed extensively in earlier UNCTAD papers. One particular form of structured finance is future flow finance, in which the financier takes some form of control over the future export earnings of the borrower (thus, the financier no longer relies on the borrower´s willingness to reimburse, but rather, on its continuation in business). Most of the future flow finance for developing countries has been for commodity exports: the resulting products are easy to sell, minimum export flows are easily predictable, buyers are often large western companies and export prices are quite transparent. As this remains a rather specialized area in the banking industry (and those involved understandably first go for the easiest transactions), it is perhaps not surprising that many opportunities remain open. This paper focuses on the most recent forms of future flow finance, which are structured on the back of two commoditized revenue streams that have only been identified over the past ten years as providing the potential for underpinning hard currency credits: migrant remittances and trade payment flows. Deals structured around these flows have only been struck in a handful of countries, even though in principle, possibilities exist in most developing countries. It is hoped that this brief paper will help draw the attention of decision makers in governments and the financial sector to the opportunities that exist in this area, and that it provides a good insight in how to structure the related transactions.

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        Utility models and innovation in developing countries (English)
        Case study by Sutherhanen, Uma, 2006, 68 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        With a view to fostering local technological capacity, this study examines one category of intellectual property, namely utility models, and their potential as a tool for spurring innovation, particularly in developing countries. It also explores considerations that policy makers could take into account when implementing or revising their national utility model system. Overall the paper concludes that for successful promotion of small-scale innovation, utility models may be an efficient tool, but alternative options exist.

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        Vi meeting 2006 - Participant list (English)
        by Vi staff, 2006
        Categories: Vi Meetings

        List of participants with institutional affiliations and detailed coordinates (postal address, phone, fax, e-mail).

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        Voluntary Peer Review of Competition Policy: Tunisia - Overview (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2006, 43 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This overview summarizes the most important points of the voluntary peer review of competition policy in Tunisia. After a brief recap of the political and economic context in the country, the report describes competition policy – the law, organizations and practice – in Tunisia. It also includes a review of the implementation of competition policy over the past few years in the Tunisian context (price controls, sectoral policies, etc.), as well as a set of conclusions and recommendations. The full version of the report is published under the title Voluntary Peer Review of Competition Policy: Tunisia, 2006

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        Voluntary Peer Review of Competition Policy: Tunisia - Overview (Chinese)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2006, 33 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy

        This overview summarizes the most important points of the voluntary peer review of competition policy in Tunisia. After a brief recap of the political and economic context in the country, the report describes competition policy – the law, organizations and practice – in Tunisia. It also includes a review of the implementation of competition policy over the past few years in the Tunisian context (price controls, sectoral policies, etc.), as well as a set of conclusions and recommendations.

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        World Investment Report 2006 - FDI from Developing and Transition Economies (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2006, 372 pages
        Categories: Investment, Science and Technology

        This World Investment Report looks specifically at the increase in FDI by developing countries' TNCs. The report examines the magnitude of this phenomenon and investigates its drivers and determinants. In particular, the report analyses its impact on global economic development and discusses policy responses for both home and host developing countries. As in previous years, the report also presents the latest data on FDI and traces its global and regional trends. The main finding is that FDI inflows increased considerably in 2005, including a surge of FDI in developing countries' commodity-producing sectors and maintained a high-level of FDI in developing countries' service sectors. While Asia remained the main magnet for FDI flows, followed by Latin America, FDI in Africa has also increased, albeit from a low level. A substantial Statistical Annex is also included, with data on FDI flows and stock for more than 200 economies. How: Standard source for data on TNC activities and FDI flows; in addition in-depth treatment of the activities of developing countries' TNCs that can be used in international investment courses. Who: Researchers and lecturers in the area of FDI or international economics more broadly.

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        World Investment Report 2006: FDI from Developing and Transition Economies - Overview (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2006, 51 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Investment

        This year's World Investment Report looks specifically at the increase in FDI by developing countries' TNCs. The report examines the magnitude of this phenomenon and investigates its drivers and determinants. In particular, the report analyses its impact on global economic development and discusses policy responses for both home and host developing countries. As in previous years, the report also presents the latest data on FDI and traces its global and regional trends. The main finding is that FDI inflows increased considerably in 2005, including a surge of FDI in developing countries' commodity-producing sectors and maintained a high-level of FDI in developing countries' service sectors. While Asia remained the main magnet for FDI flows, followed by Latin America, FDI in Africa has also increased, albeit from a low level. A substantial Statistical Annex is also included, with data on FDI flows and stock for more than 200 economies. How: Standard source for data on TNC activities and FDI flows; in addition in-depth treatment of the activities of developing countries' TNCs that can be used in international investment courses. Who: Researchers and lecturers in the area of FDI or international economics more broadly.

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