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        Addressing the Global Food Crisis: Key Trade, Investment and Commodity Policies in Ensuring Sustainable Food Security and Alleviating Poverty (English)
        Note by UNCTAD - CNUCED, 2008, 61 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Science and Technology, Trade and Poverty

        UNCTAD publishes this document after a period of price rises and shortages in food commodities - which has led to a "global food crisis" - and in the light of discussions held at UNCTAD XII in Accra on UNCTAD's potential role in ameliorating the crisis. The paper is therefore divided into two sections, addressing the underlying causes of the crisis and the potential policy response to it, including UNCTAD's contribution. The first half of the paper gives a useful summary of the underlying causes of food price rises and shortages: this includes the supply-demand imbalance, the role of speculation and export constraints, the rise in energy costs and the impact of biofuels, low agricultural productivity in developing countries and the lack of investment and aid in agricultural technologies, the multilateral environment and rules governing agriculture, and the role of competition. The second half of the paper looks at the policy responses to these factors and it maybe useful for students to discuss their application to individual country cases.

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        Agricultural Trade Reform and Poverty in the Asia-Pacific: A Survey and Some New Results (English)
        Working paper by Gilbert, John / UNESCAP, 2008, 46 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        We review the literature on the relationship between agricultural trade policy reform and poverty, and the results of recent detailed simulation studies applied to economies in the ESCAP region. We then use the GTAP model to evaluate the possible impacts of the most recently proposed modality for agricultural trade reform under Doha on the economies of the ESCAP region. We compare the results to a benchmark of comprehensive agricultural trade reform. We find that the current proposal does not result in significant cuts to applied tariffs, and has very modest overall effects on welfare. Poverty in the region would decrease overall, but the distribution across countries is uneven. By contrast, comprehensive agricultural trade reform, with developing economies fully engaged, tends to benefit most economies in the region in the aggregate, and to consistently lower poverty.

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        Article XXIV and RTAS: How Much Wiggle Room for Developing Countries? (English)
        Note by South Centre, 2008, 33 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The issue of ‘WTO Compatibility’ of regional trade agreements (RTAs) has been intensely debated ever since the days of the GATT. RTAs are governed by Article XXIV in the GATT. The Article however does not have a development dimension. This paper argues for the need to insert strong Special and Differential Treatment clauses into Article XXIV in order to be legally consistent with GATS V. It also looks at the ways in which some WTO Members, especially developed countries, have protected their markets in their RTAs. These are grounds for developing countries to legitimately open up less fully.

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        Assuring Development Gains and Poverty Reduction from Trade: the Labour Mobility and Skills Trade Dimension (English)
        Book by Puri, Lakshmi /UNCTAD, 2008, 129 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Migration and Development

        What: It is becoming increasingly clear that the issue of global labour movement and integration is a key topic at the interface of trade, development and globalization. In 2005 the global labour force numbered 2.8 billion, of which 2.25 billion was developing country labour force. This paper attempts to provide a comprehensive picture of the impact on trade, development and poverty reduction brought about by global labour movement and integration. It attempts to answer the question as to how temporary labour mobility can be better managed so as to contribute to improving people's livelihood and welfare prospects while at the same time moving closer to the achievement of internationally agreed development goals, in particular the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. How: The paper looks at temporary labour mobility and skills trade as it relates to trade and development from the perspectives of both sending and receiving countries. It sets out the problem of labour mobility, the state of play in the global labour market, push-pull factors that cause labour mobility and succinctly, the seven inconsistencies of the labour movement conundrum. A detailed examination of the socio-economic costs and benefits to sending and receiving countries provides a balanced overview of the picture.

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        Biofuel Production Technologies: Status, Prospects and Implications for Trade and Development (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD Larson, Eric D./ Princeton University, 2008, 49 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Science and Technology, Trade and Environment

        This publication provides information about biofuels for use in helping to understand technology-related implications of biofuels development. It seeks to (a)provide some context for understanding the limitations of first-generation biofuels; (b) provide meaningful descriptions accessible to non-experts of second-generation biofuel technologies; (c) present salient energy, carbon, and economic comparisons between first and second-generation biofuels; and (d) finally, to speculate on the implications for trade and development of future expansion in global production and use of biofuels.

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        Capital Flows from South to North: A New Dynamic in Global Economic Relations (English)
        Note by South Centre, 2008, 35 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy

        This Analytical Note looks at the new dynamic of capital flows from the South to the North arising from unprecedented levels of capital reserve accumulation by the South. It looks at some of the reasons for such capital accumulation - pointing to the perceived need by developing countries to self-insure themselves against financial crises. It then looks at various ways in which financial crises could be prevented by developing countries and concludes by stressing the need for this new dynamic to be reflected in both international economic arrangements and in terms of ensuring that developmental gains by developing countries are obtained.

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        The Changing Structure and Governance of Intellectual Property Enforcement (English)
        Working paper by Biadgleng, Ermias; Munoz, Viviana, 2008, 64 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This research paper provides a broad overview and analysis of the changing multilateral framework for intellectual property enforcement and the challenges that it presents for developing countries. It examines current multilateral obligations and traces developments in the field of intellectual property enforcement in various multilateral fora, including the WCO, WHO, WIPO, WTO and Interpol. Finally, it analyses the approach of the United States and European Union to strengthening intellectual property enforcement in third countries through regional, bilateral and unilateral mechanisms such as regional and bilateral agreements.

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        China and Central and Eastern European Countries: Regional Networks, Global Supply Chain, or International Competitors? (English)
        Working paper by Fung , K.C.; Korhonen, Iikka; Li, Ke; Ng, Francis / World Bank, 2008, 45 pages
        Categories: Investment

        China has emerged as one of the top recipients of foreign direct investment in the world. Meanwhile, the successful transition experience of many Central and Eastern European countries has also allowed them to attract an increasing share of global foreign direct investment. In this paper, the authors use a panel data set to investigate whether foreign direct investment flows to these two regions are complements, substitutes, or independent of each other. Taking into account the role of host country characteristics - such as market size, degree of trade liberalization, and human capital - the authors find no evidence that foreign direct investment flows to one region are at the expense of those to the other. Instead, the results suggest that foreign direct investment flows are driven by distinct regional production networks (and thus are largely independent of each other) and the development of global supply chains (indicating that foreign direct investment flows are complementary).

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        Comments to the Chairman's Revised Draft Modalities for WTO NAMA Negotiations (English)
        Note by South Centre, 2008, 23 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This note reviews the revised Draft modalities for WTO NAMA negotiations prepared by the Chairman of the Negotiating Group on Market Access (TN/MA/W/103). After undertaking an overall assessment of the revised NAMA draft modalities text, this note comments on various specific sections thereof, particularly with respect to developing countries’concerns and interests in these negotiations. A useful table summarises the treatment of WTO Members with respect to tariff reduction modalities

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        Commodity Dependence and Development: Suggestions to Tackle the Commodities Problem (English)
        Report by South Centre; ActionAid, 2008, 33 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Competition Policy, Finance for Development

        This report has the objective to provide solutions for the commodities problem in developing countries. Causes and implications for the commodity problem are analysed such as price volatility and market concentration, followed by a case study on market concentration in the coffee sector and policy recommendations.

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        The Concept of Odious Debt: Some Considerations (English)
        Working paper by Nehru, Vikram; Thomas, Mark /World Bank, 2008, 44 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, International Economic Law

        Despite the popularity of the term among advocates of debt forgiveness, there is little agreement on a workable definition of "odious" debts and there are but few examples where the concept has been invoked in law to justify non-payment of sovereign debts. Most often, these have been cases when a successor state or government has refused to honor certain debts contracted by its predecessor state or government. Repudiating sovereign debts on broader grounds - such as that money may have been misused by the borrower or that results were not as hoped for at the outset of lending - would create real risks not only of reduced financial flows to poorer countries as a result of the danger of ex post challenges to lenders' claims, but also of moral hazard and lack of project ownership. This paper presents a discussion of the extant legal and financial environment facing developing country sovereign borrowers and develops a proposed approach within this environment to address issues of concern underlying the concept of odious or illegitimate debt. The authors make the case for focusing attention on codes of conduct along the lines of the Equator Principles and on refining forward-looking attempts to increase aid effectiveness and recover stolen assets.

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        Controversial Points in the Discussion on Special Safeguard Mechanism (SSM) in the Doha Round (English)
        Note by South Centre, 2008, 14 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The Special Safeguard Mechanism (SSM) is often quoted as one of the main controversial points that lead to the failure to the WTO mini-ministerial process in July 2008. Technical divergences relate to key aspects of the design and operation of the mechanism but also strong political divergences among exporters and importers. The purpose of this note is to explain the rationale and origins of the SSM and the main contentious issues in the current debate.

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        The Costs of Rules of Origin in Apparel: African Preferential Exports to the United States and the European Union (English)
        Report by Portugal-Perez, Alberto/UNCTAD, 2008, 39 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The European Union and the United States offer, simultaneously, preferential market access to exports of a group of African countries. Although similar regarding the extent of preferences for apparel, a key sector for least developed countries, these agreements differ as regards rules of origin (RoO). While the Everything But Arms initiative and the Cotonou Agreement require yarn to be woven into fabric and then made up into apparel in the same country or in a country qualifying for cumulation, the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) grants a special regime to “lesser developed countries”, which allows them to use fabric of any origin and still meet the criteria for preferences, thus making a case for a natural experiment. This paper aims to assess econometrically the impact of different RoO on those African countries' exports. The main finding is that relaxing RoO by allowing the use of fabric of any origin increased exports of apparel by about 300 per cent for the top seven beneficiaries of AGOA’s special regime, and broadened the range of apparel exported by those countries.

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        Creating a Conducive Environment for Higher Competitiveness and Effective National Innovation Systems. Lessons Learned from the Experiences of UNECE Countries (English)
        Review by UNECE, 2008, 107 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Science and Technology

        This Comparative Review provides an overview of the experiences in UNECE member countries in creating a conducive environment for the generation and diffusion of innovation and for achieving higher economic growth based on enhanced, innovation-driven competitiveness. It addresses various policy issues related to this topic, drawing from national experiences, good practices and lessons learned. It also draws some conclusions on what policymakers and other stakeholders can do more or better in order to facilitate the generation and diffusion of innovation and enhance innovation-based competitiveness.

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        Creative Economy Report 2008: The Challenge of Assessing the Creative Economy Towards Informed Policy-making (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2008, 357 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        What: This report analyses the so called "creative economy" as a way to generate socio-economic growth, job creation and development. It is the first study to present the United Nations' perspective on this new concept related to art, culture, media, business and technology industries that use intellectual capital as a primary input. With the contribution from five UN organizations, the document provides information about the emerging creative economy to enhance policy makers' understanding and action in this field, especially in developing countries. There is also a chapter dedicated to the role of intellectual property and technology. How: The report discusses concepts and the structure of the creative economy, analyses its impact on international trade and gives policies suggestions. A statistical annex provides trade data of creative goods and services. Who: Policy makers as well as lecturers and researches interested in creative economy.

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        Development and Globalization: Facts and Figures 2008 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2008, 87 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        What: The second issue of UNCTAD's Development and Globalization: Facts and Figures - the first one was published in 2004 - provides an overview of developing countries' role in the global economy. The report covers 27 topics on global growth and composition of demand, payments balances and determinants, external resources, international trade in merchandise and services and population. How: The document provides data and analysis on major economic trends in developing countries. Who: Policy makers, lecturers and researchers interested in the increasing importance of developing countries in the global economy, trends and prospects.

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        Does Regionalism Affect Trade Liberalization Toward Non-Members? (English)
        Working paper by Estevadeordal, Antoni; Freund, Caroline; Ornelas, Emanuel / World Bank, 2008, 61 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper examines the effect of regionalism on unilateral trade liberalization using industry-level data on applied most-favored nation tariffs and bilateral preferences for ten Latin American countries from 1990 to 2001. The findings show that preferential tariff reduction in a given sector leads to a reduction in the external (most-favored nation) tariff in that sector. External liberalization is greater if preferences are granted to important suppliers. However, these "complementarity effects" of preferential liberalization on external liberalization do not arise in customs unions. Overall, the results suggest that concerns about a negative effect of preferential liberalization on external trade liberalization are unfounded.

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        Does TRIPS Art. 66.2 Encourage Technology Transfer To The LDC’s?: An Analysis Of Country Submissions To The TRIPS Council (1999-2007) (English)
        Policy brief by Suerie Moon /Harvard University, 2008, 12 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Science and Technology

        Developing countries, in general, see technology transfer as part of the bargain in which they agreed to strengthened intellectual property protection under the TRIPS Agreement. The TRIPS Agreement includes a number of specific provisions in this regard. Most notably, Article 66.2 requires developed countries to provide incentives for to enterprises and institutions in their territories for the purpose of promoting and encouraging technology transfer to LDCs in order to enable them to create a sound and viable technological. In this policy brief, Suerie Moon (Harvard University) examines, based on country self-reports to the TRIPS Council from 1999-2007, whether the Article 66.2 obligation led developed countries to increase incentives to enterprises and institutions in their territories for the purpose of promoting and encouraging technology transfer to WTO LDC Members. Her study underlines that the lack of definitional clarity regarding the terms “technology transfer” and “developed country” in these reports makes it unclear which countries are obligated to do what. Furthermore, it points to the fact that many developed countries have never submitted a report, and among countries that did, submissions have largely been irregular. In addition, a majority of the programmes and policies reported do not specifically target LDCs and a significant proportion of programmes for LDCs do not actually target technology transfer. The author highlights that country reports do not provide sufficiently detailed data to determine whether Article 66.2 led to any additional incentives beyond business-as-usual foreign aid. The policy brief includes a number of recommendations to improve the reporting system under Article 66.2. The author suggests, for example, the use of a uniform reporting format that will be comparable across countries and time periods. She also proposes developing a “toolkit” for assessing best practices in both the reporting and functioning of incentives. As the policy brief ultimately shows, significant work remains to be carried out in order to ensure an effective implementation of Article 66.2.

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        The Doha Development Agenda: What's on the Table? (English)
        Working paper by Martin, Will; Mattoo, Aaditya / World Bank, 2008, 37 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The outlines of a potential agreement, emerging after seven years of negotiations, imply that Doha offers three key benefits: reduced uncertainty of market access in goods and services; improved market access in agriculture and manufacturing; and the mobilization of resources to deal with the trade problems of least developed countries. WTO Members have offered to make large reductions in legally bound levels of protection in goods and services. The reductions in currently applied levels of protection are smaller. For the least developed countries, the proposed "duty free and quota free" access will only add significantly to their access under existing preferential access arrangements if industrial and developing country members include vital tariff lines. The initiatives on trade facilitation and aid for trade can play a valuable catalytic role in promoting reform and mobilizing assistance, but substantial effort is still needed to translate notional benefits into actual gain.

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        Domestic and External Public Debt in Developing Countries (English)
        Discussion paper by Panizza, Ugo/UNCTAD, 2008, 26 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development

        Analysis of public debt in developing countries has traditionally focused on external debt. However, in recent years, several developing countries adopted aggressive policies aimed at retiring public external debt and substituting it with domestically issued debt. This paper discusses alternative definitions of external and domestic debt and then introduces a new dataset on domestic and external public debt. It uses this dataset to describe recent trends in the composition of public debt in developing countries and discusses the reasons for these trends. The paper also identifies possible challenges and opportunities arising from the new debt management strategy adopted by several emerging and developing countries and points out that there are conceptual and practical issues with the traditional external/domestic debt dichotomy. In doing so, the paper discusses possible trade-off between domestic and external borrowing and points out that while the switch towards more domestic borrowing can play a positive role in reducing the risks of sovereign finance, policymakers should not be too Complacent.

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        Economic Development in Africa 2008 Export Performance Following Trade Liberalization: Some Patterns and Policy Perspectives (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2008, 113 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This year's Economic development in Africa report examines Africa's export performance following trade liberalization, with a view to proposing policies to improve export performance. The report shows that the extensive trade liberalization undertaken by African countries has not been followed by a substantial improvement in their export performance. This suggests that there are serious obstacles hampering a supply response to the new incentive structure created by the removal of barriers to trade. The obstacles mainly consist of structural problems related to weak capacity in the production and marketing of exports in both the agricultural and manufacturing sectors. Strong State capacity is required to increase access to factors of production and improve the business environment. In the manufacturing sector, efforts to improve all aspects of productivity and to create efficient export promotion agencies that help firms to identify and seize opportunities in export markets should be at the heart of industrial policy. The agricultural sector would benefit from better research and development, irrigation facilities and extension services. Greater liberalization of agricultural trade in the markets of developed countries is also key to improving Africa's agricultural export performance.

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        Economic Partnership Agreements and the Export Competitiveness of Africa (English)
        Working paper by Brenton, Paul; Hoppe, Mombert; Newfarmer, Richard / World Bank, 2008, 29 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        Trade can be a key driver of growth for African countries, as it has been for those countries, particularly in East Asia, that have experienced high and sustained rates of growth. Economic partnership agreements with the European Union could be instrumental in a competitiveness framework, but to do so they would have to be designed carefully in a way that supports integration into the global economy and is consistent with national development strategies. Interim agreements have focused on reciprocal tariff removal and less restrictive rules of origin. To be fully effective, economic partnership agreements will have to address constraints to regional integration, including both tariff and non-tariff barriers; improve trade facilitation; and define appropriate most favored nation services liberalization. At the same time, African countries will need to reduce external tariff peak barriers on a most favored nation basis to ensure that when preferences for the European Union are implemented after transitional periods, they do not lead to substantial losses from trade diversion. This entails an ambitious agenda of policy reform that must be backed up by development assistance in the form of "aid for trade".

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        Economic Report on Africa 2008 : Africa and the Monterrey Consensus (English)
        Report by UNECA, 2008, 202 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development

        The Economic Report on Africa (ERA) is the flagship publication of the UN Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA)based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The 2008 edition is the second in the series that is published in collaboration with the African Union. In the first part, the ERA highlights recent economic and social developments in Africa, including global trends that have a major influence on the continent. The second part focuses on a particular theme, this time The Monterrey Consensus. The report finds that substantial progress has been made in a few areas, especially with regard to debt relief, however, progress is still slow in the areas of social and human development. Based on these findings the report advocates for innovative economic strategies to to broaden the growth base and maximize the impact of growth on poverty reduction.

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        The Effects of Anti-competitive Business Practices on Developing Countries and Their Development Prospects (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2008, 687 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy

        The publication illustrates some of the benefits of competition law enforcement for developing countries, and the intensification of legal frameworks in this area over the last decades. The lengthy (687 pages) publication is a collection of papers by academics and practitioners trying to identify the effects of anti-competitive practices on developing countries. The studies attempt to quantify the effects of anti-competitive practices and to show the benefits of competition policies and their interaction with other areas, such as consumer protection laws and macroeconomic policies. The last part of the collection looks at specific anti-competitive practices, such as cartels, abuse of dominance, and patent policy, and would provide a useful introduction to the issues in a taught course. The report also highlights further areas of research for developing countries, in particular, case studies of competition authorities and quantitative analysis of anti-competitive practices and the lack of competition regimes

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        Emergence of a New South and South-south Trade As a Vehicle for Regional and Interregional Integration for Development (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2008, 17 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        What: This note provides information about the south-south trade expansion in recent years, identifying its drivers, the impact on world investment flows and the increasing number of southern Transnational Corporations (TNCs). Through an overview about south-south trade in goods and services, the document also points the importance of regional and interregional integration, the role of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) and the need for cooperation on trade logistics, competition and energy-related policies. The note concludes with a review of UNCTAD's role to enhance the emergence of a dynamic south. How: Background document on trends of south-south trade, its potential and prospects. Who: Policy makers, researchers and lecturers interested in south-south trade, new investment flows and developing countries' challenges to enhance exchanges.

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        The Emerging of a Multilateral Forum for Debt Restructuring: The Paris Club, Discussion Paper No. 192 (English)
        Discussion paper by Cosio-Pascal, Enrique /UNCTAD, 2008, 40 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, International Financial System

        This paper describes the evolution of intergovernmental relationships on debt rescheduling. It starts describing some experiences that aroused in the 18th Century and which negotiations were carried out, in many occasions, with the help of gunboat diplomacy. The settlement of liabilities that were created at the aftermath of the two 20th Century World Wars, which were – at least for some countries –- not exactly debt but war reparations, gave some insights in how to deal with these problems allowing the debtor country to find its own path to get out of the debt overhang. The settlement of these foreign liabilities may give some guidelines for dealing with debt restructuring in more general cases The creation of the Paris Club – which is a very civilized way to settle debt defaults compared to gunboat diplomacy – is analyzed and described here: first its emergency as an ad hoc transitory institution and later its evolution toward its definitive establishment in the international financial system landscape. It is also suggested that for a combination of events, which included the launch in Evian of the G-8’s so-called Evian Approach for the Paris Club, as well as the lack of support of some major industrialized countries to the implementation of a Sovereign Debt Restructuring Mechanism (SDRM), the Paris Club has become the only feasible international intergovernmental debt restructuring mechanism in spite of numerous shortcomings embodied in it. On this basis, some improvements of the actual mechanism are proposed, without precluding the possibility of the implementation of a more equilibrated SDRM in the future.

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        Enhancing the Role of Regional Development Banks, G-24 Discussion Paper Series No. 50 (English)
        Working paper by Griffith-Jones, Stephany; Griffith-Jones, David and Hertova, Dagmar / UNCTAD, 2008, 38 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, International Financial System

        There are a number of important reasons why lending by regional or sub-regional development banks can and should play an important and valuable complementary role in the international development architecture. We look at the specific strengths of multilateral, regional and sub-regional development banks and drawing on the successful experience of the European Investment Bank and the Andean Development Corporation conclude that the time is now for creating new regional development banks and expanding existing ones. Creating new institutions or expanding existing ones will have very clear benefits, as for instance providing regional public goods which are currently undersupplied, such as regional infrastructure. Very large pools of savings and foreign exchange reserves originate in developing countries these days and therefore the potential for a significant expansion of regional or sub-regional development banks, with only or mainly developing country members has grown significantly. At the same time, it may be desirable to create new regional development banks where gaps exist, however too much duplication of services is not desirable.

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        Expanding Trade Within Africa: the Impact of Trade Facilitation (English)
        Working paper by Njinkeu, Dominique; Wilson, John S.; Fosso, Bruno Powo / World Bank, 2008, 31 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper examines the impact of trade facilitation on intra-African trade. The authors examine the role of trade facilitation reforms, such as increased port efficiency, improved customs, and regulatory environments, and upgrading services infrastructure on trade between African countries. They also consider how regional trade agreements relate to intra-African trade flows. Using trade data from 2003 to 2004, they find that improvement in ports and services infrastructure promise relatively more expansion in intra-African trade than other measures. They also show that, almost all regional trade agreements have a positive effect on trade flows.

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        The External Debt Contentious, Six Years After the Monterrey Consensus (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2008, 44 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development

        This paper has three objectives. It discusses the main developments and new issues that have arisen after the Monterrey Conference. It critically reviews the Monterrey Consensus on external debt. It provides a set of recommendations for reviewing the implementation of the Monterrey Consensus, to take place in Doha, Qatar, in December 2008. In doing so, the paper discusses the shortcomings of standard debt sustainability exercises; it presents new results on the additionality of debt relief; and discusses the need for developing new financial instruments and institutions aimed at reducing the risks of sovereign and external borrowing. The paper also briefly discusses issues related to the definition of external debt and touches on the odious debt debate.

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        FDI-assisted Development in the Light of the Investment Development Path Paradigm: Evidence from Central and Eastern European Countries (English)
        Article by Boudier-Bensebaa, Fabienne, 2008, 32 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment

        This article analyzes the case of the Central and Eastern European countries (CEECs) as an interesting case of FDI-assisted development strategies in transition economies. CEECs saw a surge of inward FDI over the past decade and a recent increase in outward FDI from the region. The analysis is based on the investment development path (IDP) framework. First, a cluster analysis is used to divide the CEECs into more homogeneous groupings. Econometric and statistical analyses are then carried out to delineate the different IDPs followed by the CEECs. The results indicate that (i) the position of the CEECs is at stage one or two (out of five stages) of the IDP; (ii) the CEECs are diverging from EU15 in terms of outward investment position but converging in terms of GDP; (iii) the IDPs within the five sub-groups are converging, and (iv) within the group of the CEECs less developed and more developed countries converge in terms of outward investment position but not in terms of GDP.

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        Financing for Development (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2008, 68 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, International Financial System

        The present publication is part of UNCTAD´s contribution to the Follow-up International Conference on Financing for Development to Review the Implementation of the Monterrey Consensus. The first part of the publication captures the outcome of the deliberations which transpired during the forty-fifth executive session of the Trade and Development Board, held on 13 November 2008. The report of the debate reflects the concerns of member States about the implementation of the Monterrey Consensus, especially the anxiety from the severe setback the global financial crisis was going to have on the development process. The second part of the publication contains an issues note, which reviews from UNCTAD´s development perspective, the six core aspects of the Monterrey Consensus. These range from mobilization of domestic resources for development, to flows of official development assistance, to coherence of the international monetary and financial systems. It may be pointed out that all these issues fell squarely within the domain of the work programme specified under the Accra Accord. The Annex to the note provides analysis of the current global financial crisis, the impact of which is being increasingly felt in the developing world, particularly in its most vulnerable segments.

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        From Declarations to Actions on Commodities: Marking the Turning Point at UNCTAD XII (English)
        Policy brief by South Centre, 2008, 8 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This Policy Brief appeals to UNCTAD’s historical role to address the global development problems, including the commodities problem, and to start taking concrete actions within the framework of UNCTAD XII. After a short overview of the commodities problem and its implications, failures and lessons from previous conferences are pointed out, followed by corresponding policy recommendations how to tackle this problem within the international community.

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        Globalization for Development: the International Trade Perspective (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, Division on International Trade in Goods and Services, and Commodities, 2008, 105 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This publication provides analyses on some of the emerging trade and development opportunities and challenges for all countries, and developing countries in particular, in the context of rapid globalization, including south-south trade, increased international trade dynamism, increasing commodity prices, trade in services, energy and environment, aid for trade issues.

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        Governance, Corruption, and Trade in the Asia Pacific Region (English)
        Working paper by Abe, Kazutomo; Wilson, John S. / World Bank, 2008, 42 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper examines the impact of reducing corruption and improving transparency to lower trade costs in the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation region. The authors find, based on a computable general equilibrium model, significant potential trade and welfare gains for Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation members, with increased transparency and lower levels of corruption. Results suggest that trade in the region would increase by 11 percent and global welfare would expand by $406 billion by raising transparency to the average in the region. Most of the increase in welfare would take place in member economies undertaking reform. Among the reformers, the gross domestic product of Vietnam, Thailand, Russia, and the Philippines would increase approximately 20 percent. The benefits to Malaysia and China would also be substantial with increased transparency and lower levels of corruption.

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        The Harmonized System - Amendments and Their Impact on WTO Members' Schedules (English)
        Manual by Yu, Dayong /WTO, 2008, 25 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        As an internationally standardized product nomenclature, the Harmonized System (HS) is used by WTO Members in their schedules of concessions and in the definitions of product coverage for a number of WTO agreements. This paper starts by providing an overview of the HS amendments and proposing a categorization of those HS changes in the context of transposition. It then looks back at the history of the introduction of the HS and its subsequent amendments into the WTO schedules and assesses the difficulties and problems which have been faced by WTO Members. On the basis of such analysis, it introduces the successful procedures and methodologies used by WTO Members and the WTO Secretariat to deal with the recent HS2002 transposition. The paper also discusses the implications of the HS amendments to three WTO agreements and the possible approaches to transpose their product lists into a new HS nomenclature.

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        Highlights of Recent Trends in Global Infrastructure: New Players and Revised Game Rules (in UNCTAD's Transnational Corporations (Vol. 17, No.1) (English)
        Note by Ryan J. Orr and Jeremy R. Kennedy, 2008, 36 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Investment

        This article highlights recent trends in global infrastructure, focusing on new sources and sponsors of funds and their objectives as they relate to foreign direct investment in developing countries and regions. It also discusses the role of new geopolitical strategic investors such as China and addresses the implications of these developments for research, government policy and company strategy. It concludes by providing an overview of the implications of these developments for project sponsors, construction and engineering firms, pension funds and micro lenders, as well as for the multilateral institutions. The article finally highlights the areas where additional research is needed to ascertain the future characteristics of international infrastructure financing.

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        Identifying Core Elements in Investment Agreements in the APEC Region - UNCTAD Series on International Investment Policies for Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2008, 156 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law

        International investment agreements (IIAs) in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum adopt a range of approaches to addressing the main provisions (the "core elements") of these treaties. This report is based on analysis of a sample of 28 IIAs between and/or involving APEC member economies. These comprise 14 bilateral investment treaties (BITs) and 14 preferential trade and investment agreements (PTIAs). The report provides a means of considering how different IIAs address three possible objectives: investment liberalization, investment protection, and investment promotion. It explains how APEC economies address the legal issues of international investment, the nature and effect of the core elements that appear in IIAs, and how they interact together. It also identifies the purpose of these provisions and where APEC member countries take common and different approaches. Finally, it compares the approaches taken in "APEC IIAs" with three key "APEC investment instruments": the Non-Binding Investment Principles (NBIP), the Menu of Options, and the Transparency Standards on Investment.

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        Implications of the Asian Miracle on Africa: A Comparative Analysis of the Textile/Garment Sector in Senegal and China (English)
        Case study by Mbaye, Ahmadou Aly and Yang Weiyong, 2008, 43 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research

        In this paper, a case study approach is used to further the understanding of trade patterns between Asia and Africa, focusing on textiles in Senegal and China. It presents an analysis of compared trajectories of textile/clothing in Senegal and China which reveals huge differences between both countries. While this sector is booming in China, it is experiencing tremendous difficulties in Senegal, due mainly to decreasing productivity, high unit labor costs and prices of non-tradable inputs. Hence bilateral trade of textile and clothing is almost one way, flowing from China to Senegal, and supported by a growing community of Chinese traders based in Dakar. The paper argues to support Chinese/Senegalese joint ventures in order to further intensify trade flows between both countries and to reap additional benefits for both countries. The paper is interesting to researchers with an interest either in the international textile sector or in Senegalese economic structures. The interviews with Chinese traders in Dakar make it a piece of primary research that did some data collection, besides the analytical part.

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        The Information Economy Report 2007-2008 Overview (Science and Technology for Development: the New Paradigm of ICT) (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2008, 37 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology

        What: The Report analyses the current and potential contribution of information technology to knowledge creation and diffusion. It explores how ICTs help generate innovations that improve the livelihoods of the poor and support enterprise competitiveness. The report examines how ICTs affect productivity and growth and reflects on the need for a development-oriented approach to intellectual property rights in order to enable effective access to technology. ICT has also given rise to new models for sharing knowledge and collective production of ideas and innovations, known as "open access" models, which often bypass the incentive system provided by intellectual property rights. How: The Report presents a current cross-section of themes and analysis that aim to inform and enable governments to understand the policy challenges and opportunities. The analysis identifies important areas of concern and best practices necessary for the formulation of targeted policy decisions to support and accelerate ICT diffusion.

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        Information Economy Report 2007-2008: Science and technology for development - the new paradigm of ITC (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2008, 386 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Science and Technology

        What: The Report analyses the current and potential contribution of information technology to knowledge creation and diffusion. It explores how ICTs help generate innovations that improve the livelihoods of the poor and support enterprise competitiveness. The report examines how ICTs affect productivity and growth and reflects on the need for a development-oriented approach to intellectual property rights in order to enable effective access to technology. ICT has also given rise to new models for sharing knowledge and collective production of ideas and innovations, known as "open access" models, which often bypass the incentive system provided by intellectual property rights. How: The Report presents a current cross-section of themes and analysis that aim to inform and enable governments to understand the policy challenges and opportunities. The analysis identifies important areas of concern and best practices necessary for the formulation of targeted policy decisions to support and accelerate ICT diffusion.

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        Instruments of Monetary Policy In China and Their Effectiveness: 1994-2006 (English)
        Discussion paper by Geiger, Michael/UNCTAD, 2008, 52 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy

        China’s monetary policy applies to two sets of monetary policy instruments: (i) instruments of the Central Bank (CB), the People’s Bank of China (PBC); and (ii) non-central bank (NCB) policy instruments. Additionally, the PBC’s instruments include: (i) price-based indirect; and (ii) quantity-based direct instruments. The simultaneous usage of these instruments leads to various distortions that ultimately prevent the interest rate channel of monetary transmission from functioning. Moreover, the strong influences of quantity-based direct instruments and non-central bank policy instruments bring into question the approach of indirect monetary policy in general.

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        Integration of Markets vs. Integration by Agreements (English)
        Working paper by Aminian, Nathalie; Fung, K.C.; Ng, Francis / World Bank, 2008, 38 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper provides an analysis of the two channels of regional integration: integration via markets and integration via agreements. Given that East Asia and Latin America are two fertile regions where both forms of integrations have taken place, the authors examine the experiences of these two areas. There are four related results. First, East Asia had been integrating via markets long before formal agreements were in vogue in the region. Latin America, by contrast, has primarily used formal regional trade treaties as the main channel of integration. Second, despite the relative lack of formal regional trade treaties until recently, East Asia is more integrated among itself than Latin America. Third, from a purely economic and trade standpoint, the proper sequence of integrations seems to be first integrating via markets and subsequently via formal regional trade agreements. Fourth, regional trade agreements often serve multiple constituents. The reason why integrating via markets first can be helpful is because this can give stronger political bargaining power to the outward-looking economic-oriented forces within the country.

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        International Investment Rule-making: Stocktaking, Challenges and the Way Forward (English)
        Working paper by UNCTAD, 2008, 126 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law

        This paper has a three-fold objective. It reviews sixty years of international investment rule-making and identifies main trends in current treaty practice, as the core characteristics of the existing universe of international investment agreements (IIAs) at the beginning of the 21st century. Based on this analysis, the second part describes the main challenges for policy makers and IIA negotiators deriving from the present IIA system, and makes a number of suggestions on how to deal with them. The third part of this paper presents some considerations concerning the future evolution of the IIA universe.

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        The International Mobility of Highly Educated Workers Among OECD Countries (English)
        Article by Globerman, Steven; Shapiro, Daniel, 2008, 36 pages
        Categories: Migration and Development, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The study, published in the "Transnational Corporations" journal's edition of April 2008, analyzes the determinants of bilateral migration flows of highly educated workers (HEWs) within OECD countries using an augmented gravity model. The results for all migrants irrespective of their level of education confirm the importance of bilateral FDI and trade as stimuli for bilateral migration flows. The level of migration at all levels of education is higher between countries with large populations and lower when geographic, linguistic and religious “distances” are relatively large. All migrants also tend to leave countries where economic conditions are relatively poor (high unemployment; low GDP per capita) and move to areas where conditions are better. With regard to the migration of HEWs in particular, bilateral trade and FDI have an even greater impact. In addition, HEWs are more influenced by the “pull” of economic conditions in host countries, while those with less education are more heavily influenced by the “push” of economic factors in their home countries. The study provides an interesting analytical framework for the modeling of migration and also adds to current literature by using recent OECD data on migrants by level of education (such data, although not used in this study, is also available for migrants from non-OECD countries) and includes measures of bilateral trade and FDI as determinants of bilateral migration.

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        International Trade Statistics 2008 (English)
        Report by WTO, 2008, 255 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        International Trade Statistics is the WTO’s annual compilation of global trade statistics. This Report provides comprehensive statistics on trade in merchandise and commercial services, with an assessment of world trade flows by country, region and main product groups or service categories. Some 250 tables and charts depict trade developments from various perspectives and provide a number of long-term time series. Major trade developments are summarized and discussed in the first part of the report under Overview. Detailed trade statistics are provided in Appendix tables.

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        Investment Policy Review: Viet Nam (English)
        Review by UNCTAD, 2008, 177 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Viet Nam opened its economy to foreign investors in the late 1980s under the Doi Moi policy of renovation and economic reforms. Viet Nam managed to quickly attract significant inflows of FDI and their impact has been very strong. As a result, foreign investors have been a major force in the economic transformation of Viet Nam during the past two decades and in its integration into the world economy. To fully exploit the potential of the country in attracting and benefiting from FDI, the Investment Policy Review (IPR) highlights a number of areas where Viet Nam could focus its attention for further reforms. This includes a policy to ensure that the economy has the skills it needs as it evolves and develops, using foreign workers where necessary. Measures to clearly separate the State´s ownership and regulatory functions are also proposed, together with a rationalization and simplification of fiscal incentives on corporate taxes. It is also suggested to selectively lift certain FDI entry restrictions and to shift the regulatory stance from "steer and control" to "regulate, monitor and enforce". Furthermore, the IPR, on the basis of an analysis of the electricity sector, proposes a number of measures to enable Viet Nam to attract FDI in power generation.

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        Investment Promotion Provisions in International Investment Agreements (English)
        Study by UNCTAD, 2008, 119 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Investment

        International investment agreements (IIAs) are an element of investment promotion strategies as contracting parties seek to encourage foreign investment through the granting of investment protection. The emphasis of IIAs is clearly on investment protection with investment promotion primarily perceived as a side effect. However, this effect - an increase in investment flows - remains often behind the expectations of the contracting parties. A recent UNCTAD survey of IIAs shows that only a minority of IIAs includes explicit investment promotion provisions. Their content varies considerably among treaties. What option contracting parties finally choose depends on various factors. Countries that basically pursue a laisser faire policy with regard to foreign investment might favour promotion strategies aimed at improving the general policy and institutional framework, while governments applying strategic investment policies might have a preference for sector-specific or activity-specific promotion measures, or those aimed at fostering linkages between foreign investors and domestic companies. Financial considerations may also play a role, since many developing countries may not have the means to agree upon expensive promotion programmes, such as investment incentives, in IIAs. Recent developments in the evolution of the IIA universe might be an indication that more countries are ready to explore new approaches in investment rulemaking. From a development perspective, it is worthwhile considering how to strengthen the investment promotion component in IIAs.

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        Key Economic Developments and Prospects in the Asia-Pacific Region 2008 (English)
        Report by UNESCAP, 2008, 40 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy

        This report is the third publication in an annual series that reviews the region's economic performance and highlights the strengths and weaknesses of economies in the region. For example, the developing economies in the Asian and Pacific region are estimated to have grown over eight per cent in 2007. The economic powerhouses of China and India continue to drive regional growth,with added impetus coming from the fast-growing Russian Federation. It then identifies the key policy issues and challenges likely to confront Governments in the near term, and provides policy options and recommendations that would help Governments to address these challenges effectively.

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        Labour Standards and ILO’s Effectiveness in the Governance of Globalization (English)
        Discussion paper by Onida, Fabrizio - Università Bocconi, 2008
        Categories: VI Members Research

        The paper reviews International Labor Office (ILO)’s historical milestones, covering the main Conventions on labour standards. Then the paper focuses on ILO’s main duties as a supervisor of labour markets conditions and as an agent and direct player with local governments: designing appropriate policies for a “decent work” agenda in the world, pushing for the widest possible adoption of the Conventions themselves by member countries, monitoring compliance of those standards, promoting bilateral and multilateral actions with governments aimed at correcting major violations of these standards. Special emphasis is given to possible improvements in the effectiveness of ILO’s procedures and initiatives, under the assumption that actions based on positive incentives are far more plausible and effective than negative sanctions. The final section summarizes major conclusions and recommendations that have been approved by CNEL's (National Council of Economy and Labour) general assembly on June 5, 2008, also in view of the annual meeting of AICESIS (International Association of Economic and Social Councils) held in Rome on June 12, 2008.

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        Least Developed Countries Report 2008 - Growth, Poverty and the Terms of Development Partnership (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2008, 197 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        Examining the sustainability of recent economic growth of LDCs, the report finds the type of growth taking place is strongly affected by trends in international markets and, in particular, commodity prices. Coupled with heavy dependence on external sources of finance, and without a positive process of diversification and structural change, LDCs remain particularly vulnerable to trade shocks due to the volatility of commodity prices, affecting both exports and imports. The prevailing development policy paradigm expects that investment in productive sectors would come from the international private sector through access to international capital markets or inflows of foreign direct investment (FDI), but LDCs remain almost entirely marginalized from these sources of finance, and FDI inflows have concentrated on a few LDCs and have often been weakly linked with the rest of the economy. In spite of rapid economic growth, the report found a weak correlation between growth and poverty alleviation, and calls for effective national development strategies, effective development aid and development-friendly international regimes for trade, investment and technology.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2008: Growth, Poverty and the Terms of Development Partnership - Overview (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2008, 23 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        This Report considers three issues: Firstly, it assesses how sustainable economic growth is in the LDCs and examines how many LDCs are participating in the growth surge. Secondly, it considers the extent to which economic growth is leading to improvements in human well-being, and in particular to accelerated poverty reduction and improved progress towards the Millennium Development Goals. Thirdly, it assesses progress towards country-owned development strategies in LDCs and the role of recipient-led aid management policies at the country level as a practical policy mechanism to strengthen country ownership.

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        Market Access for Trade in Goods in Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) (English)
        Report by South Centre, 2008, 31 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade and Poverty

        This Fact Sheet Nb.7 overviews market access provisions related to the liberalisation of merchandise trade under the Interim Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) that were initialed in the end of 2007 between the EU and 35 countries in Africa, the Caribbean and Pacific (ACP). It is part of a series of Fact Sheets designed to improve stakeholders’ understanding of the legal, economic and developmental implications of specific provisions in the texts agreed to as well as to suggest options for improvement, particularly for the ACP countries and regions which are in the process of finalizing an EPA text.

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        Non-Tariff Barriers in Computable General Equilibrium Modelling (English)
        Report by Fugazza, Marco/UNCTAD, 2008, 25 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        With diminishing tariffs, the focus of trade policy makers and analysts is logically turning towards non-tariff barriers (NTBs), but there much remains to be done. It is well-know that tackling NTBs poses many challenges for the analyst because of their diverse and complex nature, and the lack of available evidence. NTBs pose also particular difficulties to computable/applied general equilibrium (CGE) modelling, traditionally more comfortable with policies whose impact can be interpreted into direct effects on prices. This research provides a quantification of the impact of NTBs at the global level. The model we use is significantly larger than in previous studies, and to our knowledge, the first truly global one. The main focus of this research, however, is to discuss and question the various treatments of NTBs in CGE models with a specific application of the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) standard model, the workhorse of trade policy CGE analysis. We find that serious estimation and modelling efforts remain to be undertaken in order to make CGE modelling a useful policy tool to analyze NTBs. Casual policy inferences from loose specifications may indeed lead to serious analytical mistakes. We show that while using the same robust estimates.

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        On the Complementarity of Regional and Global Trade (English)
        Working paper by Souleymane,Coulibalya/WB, 2008, 16 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper proposes a closer look at the issue using COMTRADE aggregate exports of capital goods, intermediate goods, consumer goods and raw materials for 2002-06 to evaluate the impact of a country import of intermediate goods from its neighbors on its global export performance using a granger-causality test based on an extended-gravity model. For Sub-Saharan African countries particularly, there is a strong positive correlation between countries previous regional import of intermediate goods and their current exports, indicating that developing neighborhoods are also experiencing such complementarity between regional and global trade, the relation being stronger beyond a threshold of global competitiveness.

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        Organic Agriculture and Food Security in Africa (English)
        Report by UNCTAD/UNEP, 2008, 61 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment

        Food security is an issue of great concern in many developing countries. Despite pledges, the number of people suffering from hunger has increased every year. This report is the result of joint efforts between UNCTAD and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) through their joint capacity building task force on trade, environment and development (CBTF). This study examines the relationship between organic agriculture and food security in Africa, particularly East Africa, which is where the CBTF has been implementing a project on organic agriculture since 2004. Organic agriculture is a holistic production system based on active agro-ecosystem management rather than on external inputs, and it utilizes both traditional and scientific knowledge. The evidence presented in this study supports the argument that organic agriculture can be more conducive to food security in Africa than most conventional production systems, and that it is more likely to be sustainable in the long term. Organic agriculture is ideally suited for poor marginalised smallholder farmers in Africa, as they require minimal external input, use locally and natural available materials and encourages farming that is more diverse and resistant to stress. In particular, the recent food price hike and rising fuel prices stress the importance of making agriculture less energy and external input dependant. Case studies have shown that organic agriculture increases agriculture productivity. Transition to integrated organic agriculture has been shown to increase access to food by increasing yields and increasing total on-farm productivity and hence reduce poverty and improve rural livelihoods.

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        An Overview Assessment of the Revised WTO Draft Modalities for Agriculture (English)
        Study by Gifford, Mike and Montemayor, Raul/ICTSD, IFPRI, 2008, 22 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The revised draft modalities text issued by the Chair of the WTO agricultural negotiating group on February 8, 2008, reflects the considerable incremental progress which has been made in elaborating, clarifying and putting into legal language the first draft of July 2007. However, there are still a large number of issues which remain open and which will need to be narrowed down further by senior officials before ministers can be asked to resolve the most politically sensitive. The Chair has suggested half a dozen to a dozen issues are about the maximum ministers could be realistically asked to settle. This paper provides an overview assessment of the implications of the revised modalities text in terms of its ambition and balance as viewed from the perspective of both developed and developing countries, and identifies the key issues that will likely require ministerial decisions. It goes on to examine what additional issues could be added as part of a final deal once there is agreement on modalities and there is an assessment of the ensuing draft schedules. It concludes by venturing some views on the likely trade-offs between agriculture and other parts of the Doha negotiations, particularly the non-agricultural market access (NAMA) negotiations. This assessment draws from and builds on the complementary detailed analysis which has been undertaken on the implications of the new draft modalities text for four major Doha participants - the US, EU, Brazil and India.

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        Policy Coherence and Coordination for Trade Facilitation: Integrated Border Management, Single-Windows and Other Options for Developing Countries (English)
        Working paper by Alburo, Florian / ARTNet, 2008, 22 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation

        There is now increasing recognition of the critical importance of trade facilitation to further international commerce, accelerate growth, and enhance welfare if not alleviate poverty among trading nations. But there is also increasing appreciation that it is not just attention to the barriers and bottlenecks behind-the-border that are involved in trade facilitation (TF), it also calls for coherence between policies and regulations at the border and inside the border. It is argued here that while policy coherence and coordination are important for TF, integrated border management (IBM) and single-windows (SW) are not the only ways for achieving them. Indeed the IBM and SW may actually be the special cases given the limited experiences around. The next section highlights the difference between policy coherence for trade facilitation and the narrower issue of coordination for trade facilitation through a discussion of the relationship between domestic interests and trade. The third section looks at IBM and SW and the extent to which they reflect policy coherence and coordination. A final section considers alternative solutions to policy coherence and coordination in TF than IBM and SW.

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        Policy Space: What, for What, and Where?, Discussion Paper No. 191 (English)
        Discussion paper by Mayer, Jörg /UNCTAD, 2008, 30 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The paper examines how developing countries can use existing policy space, and enlarge it, without opting out of international commitments. It argues that: (i) a meaningful context for policy space must extend beyond trade policy and include macroeconomic and exchange-rate policies that will achieve developmental goals more effectively; (ii) policy space depends not only on international rules but also on the impact of international market conditions and policy decisions taken in other countries on the effectiveness of national policy instruments; and (iii) international integration affects policy space through several factors that pull in opposite directions; whether it increases or reduces policy space differs by country and type of integration.

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        Potential and Prospects for Trade and Investment Between Developing Countries and Transition Economies (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2008
        Categories: Investment, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        What: The note, prepared for the UNCTAD XII, analyses the expansion of trade between transition economies and developing countries, especially in the Commonwealth of Independent States and developing Asia. In the first part, through graphics and tables, the document points the main import and export sectors, tariffs applied and a short prospect. The second part is dedicated to Foreign Direct Investments' expansion in developing countries and transition economies and the role of Transnational Corporations (TNC). The document notes the importance of regional integration schemes and gives a prospect for South-South FDI. How: Background document on trade and FDI between developing countries and transition economies. Who: Policy makers, researchers and lecturers dealing with south-south trade and FDI.

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        Practical Implementation of International Financial Reporting Standards: Lessons Learned (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2008, 153 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development

        Since 2005, UNCTAD’s Intergovernmental Working Group of Experts on International Standards of Accounting and Reporting (ISAR) has been deliberating on practical implementation challenges of international financial reporting standards (IFRS). The first chapter of this publication contains details of major practical implementation challenges and lessons learned from the experiences of members States that have embarked on the implementation process of IFRS. The remaining chapters, i.e., II–IX, contain country case studies of Brazil, Germany, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Pakistan, South Africa and Turkey.

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        Private-Sector Standards and National Schemes for Good Agricultural Practices: Implications for Exports of Fresh Fruit and Vegetables from Sub-Saharan Africa Experiences of Ghana, Kenya, and Uganda (English)
        Working paper by UNCTAD, 2008, 127 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment

        This study synthesizes the main findings of many country-case studies analyzing the challenges and opportunities of the new breed of private-sector standards on environmental, food-safety, health and social standards for producers and exporters of fresh fruit and vegetables of developing countries. In particular, it summarizes the situation in Africa, dwelling on country studies for Ghana, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and Zambia.

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        Promoting the Development of the South in the Trade and Climate Regimes (English)
        Note by South Centre, 2008, 13 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Trade and Environment

        This South Centre Analytical Note stresses that addressing the challenges of development and climate change requires an integrated approach. Both the trade and climate regimes have a role to play. In each case, a development perspective must guide discussions to ensure an outcome that advances the needs and aspirations of developing countries and their peoples. The shift to a low-carbon economy requires a range of measures to support developing countries, and sufficient development policy space to allow those countries to tailor approaches to their national contexts. In particular, developed countries must fulfil their existing international obligations in both the trade and climate regimes, and ensure that their development-related rhetoric is matched by the reality of their actions. This paper identifies a number of areas where developed countries are falling short in promoting development-oriented outcomes on trade and climate issues, and where further efforts should be made.

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        Promotion of Investment into Infrastructure: a Survey of Investment Promotion Agencies (English)
        Note by UNCTAD - CNUCED, 2008, 25 pages
        Categories: Investment

        This note describes the results of a survey of TNCs carried out by UNCTAD and the World Association of Investment Promotion Agencies (WAIPA) to determine the extent to which investment promotion agencies (IPAs) are targeting TNCs in the infrastructure sector. The note was originally used as an input to UNCTAD's 2008 World Investment Report, and concludes that competition for foreign investment means IPAs are increasingly targeting TNCs for investment in infrastructure, especially in the sub-sectors of electricity generation and internet services.

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        R&D in the Network of International Trade: Multilateral Versus Regional Trade Agreements (English)
        Working paper by Teteryatnikova, Mariya / European University Institute, 2008, 34 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Science and Technology

        This paper argues that different types of trade liberalization - multilateral versus regional - may lead to different R&D and productivity levels of firms. Trade agreements between countries are modelled with a network: nodes represent countries and a link between the nodes indicates the existence of a trade agreement. In this framework, the multilateral trade agreement is represented by the complete network while the overlap of regional trade agreements is represented by the hub-and-spoke trade system. Trade liberalization, which increases the network of trade agreements, reinforces the incentives for firms to invest in R&D through the creation of new markets (scale effect) but it may also dampen these incentives through the emergence of new competitors (competition effect). The joint action of these two effects within the multilateral and the regional trade systems gives rise to the result that, for the same number of direct trade partners, the R&D effort of a country in the multilateral agreement is lower than the R&D effort of a hub but higher than the R&D effort of a spoke. This suggests that a “core” country within the regional trade system has higher R&D and productivity level than a country with the same number of trade agreements within the multilateral system whereas the opposite is true for a “periphery” country. Additionally, the paper finds that while multilateral trade liberalization boosts productivity of all countries, regional trade liberalization increases productivity of core economies but may decrease productivity of periphery economies if the level of competition in the new trade partner countries of the periphery economy is “too high”. Furthermore, the aggregate level of R&D activities within the multilateral trade agreement exceeds that in the star - the simplest representative of the hub-and-spoke trade system.

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        Rebalancing the Supply Chain (English)
        Study by South Centre; Traidcraft, 2008, 17 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Competition Policy

        This paper is an attempt to explore the extent to which competition policy can be used to address problems caused by corporate concentration and the exercise of 'buyer power' in agricultural commodity markets. It assesses the conceptual and practical opportunities of current competition policy to tackle this phenomenon and also highlights its limitations.

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        Regional Approaches in Central Asia to Technical Barriers to Trade (English)
        Case study by UNESCAP, 2008, 55 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The aim of the study is to identify key SPS and TBT issues in the Central Asian Subregion and suggest options for regional approaches to address these issues. Countries included in the study are Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. The study provides a brief overview of the present status of SPS and TBT capacity and identifies key issues for enterprises – including SMEs – and Governments in Central Asia. In the light of good practices at the national and regional level for facilitating effective WTO compliance and taking advantage of WTO rights related to technical barriers to trade both in Central Asia and elsewhere, options are discussed as to how ESCAP can use its comparative advantage to facilitate regional approaches to address the key issues.

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        Regional Cooperation and Integration in Sub-Saharan Africa (English)
        Discussion paper by Metzger, Martina/UNCTAD, 2008, 42 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        Africa has a long tradition of regional cooperation, its trade and monetary integration schemes being the oldest in the developing world. This paper analyses the state of regional integration with respect to trade and financial relations in selected regional schemes in Central, Southern and West Africa. The paper concludes that in particular regional monetary integration offers advantages in terms of monetary stability, growth, competitiveness, deepening of financial markets and ownership compared with an indiscriminately integration of individual countries into the global economy. Thus, great significance must attached to cooperation between Member States. Although trade and financial integration can be mutually enforcing, a minimum level of regional activities is required to set this process in motion. Until the necessary threshold is achieved, Member States have a vital role in organizing and delivering regional activities, e.g. the development of bond markets or the promotion of production networks.

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        Regionalism and Trade Facilitation: a Primer (English)
        Working paper by Maur, Jean-Christophe / World Bank, 2008, 40 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Facilitation

        This paper investigates when trade facilitation reform should be undertaken at the regional level. First, looking at both efficiency and implementation considerations, it confirms the perception that the regional dimension matters. Investigating where efficiency gains can be made, this research explains why national markets alone fail to produce the full scale economies and positive externalities of trade facilitation reform. Second, because trade facilitation policies need to address coordination and capacity failures, and because of the operational complexity challenge, the choice of the adequate platform for delivering reform is crucial. The lessons are that regional trade agreements offer good prospects of comprehensive and effective reform and can effectively complement multilateral and national initiatives. However, examples of implementation of trade facilitation reform in regional agreements do not seem to indicate that regional integration approaches have been more successful than trade facilitation through specific cooperation agreements or other efforts, multilateral or unilateral. Customs unions may be an exception here, and the author suggests reasons why this could be the case.

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        Regional Trade Integrations: A Comparative Study - The Cases of GAFTA, COMESA, and SAPTA/SAFTA (English)
        Case study by Awad, Talib; Bakir, Amir; Mehra, Meeta Keswani; Pant, Manoj; Rojid, Sawkut; Sannassee, Vinesh; Seetanah, Boopen; Suraj, Fowdar, 2008, 92 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research

        The study analyzes and compares three regional integration schemes in terms of their impact on intra-regional trade: the Great Arab Free Trade Area (GAFTA), the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), and the South Asia Preferential Trade Agreement (SAPTA). Using revealed comparative advantage and regression analyses, the study finds that there is very limited potential for intra-regional trade within each of the three regions; that there was no substitution effect of the trade agreements between intra-regional trade and trade with the rest of the world; that there was not much trade created by the agreements; and that intra trade was characterized by a high level of geographical concentration, mainly among neighboring countries. A number of obstacles to trade are identified, which are somewhat similar across regions. Finally, policy recommendations are given to tackle these obstacles, which stem from political, economic, administrative, tariff and non-tariff, transportation and external factors. The study will be useful for scholars with an interst in the effectiveness of regional trade agreements, particularly in the three compared regions and might provide useful illustrations for relevant economics classes.

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        The Role of Technology and Human Capital in the EPZ Life-cycle (UNCTAD Transnational Corporations, Vol. 17/No.1) (English)
        Article by Omar, Karima; Stoever, William A., 2008, 26 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment, Science and Technology

        This article proposes an alternative perspective for examining export processing zones (EPZs) by modifying the life-cycle approach. It highlights the two crucial aspects of a successful EPZ development, namely the nature of backward linkages and gradual integration into the rest of the host economy. It argues that successful EPZs can be a catalyst for structural transformation of the wider economy and discusses what policy measures are needed to achieve such outcome. The article concludes by identifying venues for future research.

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        South Centre Comments on the Revised Draft Modalities for Agriculture ((TN/AG/W/4 REV. 1 OF 8TH FEBRUARY 2008) (English)
        Note by South Centre, 2008, 18 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This note comments on various specific sections of the Revised Draft Modalities for Agriculture (TN/AG/W/4 rev. 1 of 8th February 2008). It highlights elements that were revised and pending contentious issues. A useful table summarizing the treatment of WTO Members with respect to tariff reduction modalities is also included.

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        South-South Trade in Asia: The Role of Regional Trade Agreements (English)
        Report by UNCTAD and JETRO (Japan External Trade Organization), 2008, 195 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        What: The report analyses Asia's dominance in south-south trade and the impact of Regional Trade Agreements on developing countries' exchanges. Through an overview about the scope of signed RTAs in the region, statistical tables on south-south exports and RTAs, a case study on India and 15 selected FTAs, the document also indicates these agreements' gaps and presents simulations of trade barriers' impact on export performance. The report finishes with business strategies and utilization of RTAs by the private sector, especially in Japan. How: Background document on trends of south-south trade in Asia and on the role of RTAs as a trade expansion tool. Who: Policy makers, researchers and lecturers dealing with international trade and Regional Trade Agreements.

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        Sustainable Bioenergy Development in Uemoa Member Countries
        Report by ICTSD; the UN Foundation and the Energy and Security Group, 2008, 152 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        This report, led by the UN Foundation, in partnership with the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development and the Energy and Security Group, identifies opportunities, assesses constraints, identifies trade-offs, and outlines key policy issues for promoting sustainable production and use of bioenergy in the eight member countries of UEMOA. It also provides appropriate data to guide governments and international organizations as they consider smallholder production schemes to broaden the use of bioenergy as part of a comprehensive agriculture sector strategy, while reducing poverty and arresting environmental degradation.

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        Synthèse De La CNUCED, No. 2, Comment S'attaquer à La Crise Alimentaire Mondiale (English)
        Policy brief by CNUCED, 2008, 2 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The UNCTAD policy briefs are intended to share the results of UNCTAD research and analysis on new and emerging trade and development issues with policy makers and researchers, especially in developing countries. This policy brief addresses the systemic causes of the crisis and identifies strategic policy measures - such as boosting investment, innovation and productivity growth - for creating a more robust and sustainable framework for global agricultural production and trade.

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        Testing the Convergence of Theory and Empirical Evidence on the Determinants of Export Performance: Lessons from Tanzania (English)
        Study by george gandye, 2008
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research

        What determines export performance in Tanzania is the main thrust of this study. This paper briefly surveys literature on the determinants of export performance in general and within the framework of supply capacity and foreign market access various variables are established and tested. Using gravity model a regression analysis is run for the period of thirty years and the result is as anticipated to depict a positive relationship between dependent and the explanatory variable with exception of macro - economic condition and trade fairs. The former reflects the fact that International trade performance demand economic efficiency to ensure long term gains which can partly be derived from better macro economic management and not necessarily the devaluation of currency and the latter depict minimal strategic implementation of trade fairs to promote export oriented products leading to a “fun fairs” kind of trade fair. However, while the relation for other variables remained positive the level of significance has largely been low an indication that the explanatory variable have not sufficiently influenced the dependent variable. Thus, it is notably to recognize that these pillars essential to address the supply side constraints are so embedded and got to be improved in an integrated manner if at all Tanzania is to perform in the external sector given the potential market access.

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        Towards a Knowledge-based Economy - Europe and Central Asia: Internet Development and Governance (English)
        Report by Kapitsa, Larissa/ UNECE, 2008, 115 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology

        This report represents a brief review of the status and trends in the area of ICT and Internet development in the UNECE region and provides background information on the state of the art in some relevant ICT subsectors in the Member States. The report focuses on the state of the Internet critical resources and, consequently, on the ICT and Internet penetration across countries and social groups. It also looks into existing Internet governance arrangements and makes some recommendations. The report contains three parts and conclusions. The first part, Towards a Knowledge-based Economy: Progress Assessment, highlights the situation in the region with regards to the digital divide, both between and within countries, and national strategies and actions aiming at overcoming barriers to accessing the Internet. The second part, Internet Development: Current State of Critical Internet Resources in the UNECE Region, concentrates on reviewing the physical Internet backbone, interconnection and connectivity within the Internet in the UNECE member States. The third part, Governing the Evolving Internet in the UNECE Region, focuses on the issues of Internet governance in the countries of the region, challenges faced by the countries and participation of key stakeholders in ICT and Internet policy formulation and implementation. The final part contains conclusions and recommendations.

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        Trade and Development Report 2008 - Commodity Prices, Capital Flows and the Financing of Investment (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2008, 234 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Finance for Development

        The Trade and Development Report series analyses current economic trends and major policy issues of international concern, and makes suggestions for addressing these issues at various levels. The 2008 issue, subtitled "Commodity Prices, Capital Flows and the Financing of Investment” highlights the paradox that the “capital poor” developing world is exporting capital to the “capital rich” developed countries. This "puzzle", which defies mainstream economic theory, is all the more intriguing as many capital-exporting developing countries have been achieving higher rates of investment and growth than those that continue to rely on net capital imports. Against this background the Report suggests to shift the focus in financial policies from households "putting more money aside" and imports of "foreign savings", to the reinvestment of profits and credit creation through the domestic banking system. As shown by an increasing number of countries in recent years, dependence on foreign capital inflows can often be avoided by policies aiming at a "competitive" exchange rate. In other cases, however, large increases in official development assistance are indispensable not only to foster the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals by 2015, but also to improve infrastructure and increase productive capacities, a condition for sustained growth, employment generation and poverty reduction beyond that date.

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        Trade and Development Report 2008 - Commodity Prices, Capital Flows and the Financing of Investment - Overview (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2008, 18 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Finance for Development

        The Trade and Development Report series analyses current economic trends and major policy issues of international concern, and makes suggestions for addressing these issues at various levels. The 2008 issue, subtitled "Commodity Prices, Capital Flows and the Financing of Investment” highlights the paradox that the “capital poor” developing world is exporting capital to the “capital rich” developed countries. This "puzzle", which defies mainstream economic theory, is all the more intriguing as many capital-exporting developing countries have been achieving higher rates of investment and growth than those that continue to rely on net capital imports. Against this background the Report suggests to shift the focus in financial policies from households "putting more money aside" and imports of "foreign savings", to the reinvestment of profits and credit creation through the domestic banking system. As shown by an increasing number of countries in recent years, dependence on foreign capital inflows can often be avoided by policies aiming at a "competitive" exchange rate. In other cases, however, large increases in official development assistance are indispensable not only to foster the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals by 2015, but also to improve infrastructure and increase productive capacities, a condition for sustained growth, employment generation and poverty reduction beyond that date.

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        Trade and Investment Linkages and Policy Coordination: Lessons from Case Studies in Asian Developing Countries (English)
        Policy brief by Duval, Yann; Bhattacharya, Debapriya; Jayawardhana, Tilani; Khanal, Dilli; Tahsina, Tazeen; Shreshta, Prakash / ARTNet, 2008, 4 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        ARTNeT launched an exploratory study on trade and investment policy linkages and coordination in 2007, which included small-scale exploratory surveys of private sector stakeholders in three South-Asian countries (Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka). The purpose of the pilot surveys was to identify the needs and priorities for improved trade and investment policy coordination and coherence in these countries. Following a short overview of trade and investment linkages from an Asian perspective, this brief summarizes the key findings from the surveys and draws preliminary policy implications.

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        Trade Barriers Faced by Developing Countries’ Exporters of Tropical and Diversification Products (English)
        Note by ICTSD; FAO, 2008, 16 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This debate outlines how best to treat agricultural products of export interest to developing countries that remains protracted in the multilateral trade system. Tropical and diversification products have been at the heart of this discussion given the extent of long-standing tariffs and non-tariff barriers affecting them, as well as due to their importance as a source of income, employment and rural development. The prospects for liberalisation of trade in these products, particularly opposed in some key markets, remain uncertain in the WTO’s Doha Round of negotiations. While some developing countries, most visibly a group of Latin American economies, have persistently requested trade openness, others such as the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) states have expressed their concerns that a multilateral elimination of tariffs might result in loss of the preferential access to developed country markets they currently enjoy. Asian producers have so far mainly sought resolution through the Round’s core talks on access for agricultural goods. As a\\n contribution to this discussion, the present Information Note provides facts and figures on the reality of trade in tropical and diversification products. It also explores the extent to which there is differential access to key import markets and the implications of this for different groups of countries.

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        Trade Effects of SPS and TBT Measures on Tropical and Diversification Products (English)
        Report by Disdier, Anne-Célia, Fekadu, Belay; Murillo, Carlos; Wong, Sara A./ICTSD, 2008, 140 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The 2004 Framework Agreement reached during the Doha Round notes that the full implementation of the liberalization of trade in tropical agricultural products is “overdue and will be addressed effectively in the market access negotiations.” However, the way in which the commitment is to be implemented, and even the identification of such products, remains far from clear. \\n Multilateral discussions on the full liberalization of trade in tropical and diversification products have focused almost exclusively on the reduction of tariffs, and tariff escalation for those products and the overlap with the mandate on preference erosion. There has been no debate and analysis on NTBs and more specifically on SPS measures and technical barriers to trade (TBTs). This is surprising, since as the following paper reveals, imports of tropical and diversification products from African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries and some Latin American countries are particularly affected by SPS and TBT measures.

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        Trade Facilitation Terms: An English - Russian Glossary
        Manual by United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), 2008, 274 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation

        This English-Russian Glossary of trade facilitation terms is intended as an authoritative international reference for translators and specialists in trade facilitation in the Russian-speaking world.

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        Trade Policy, Trade Costs, and Developing Country Trade (English)
        Working paper by Hoekman, Bernard; Nicita, Alessandro / World Bank, 2008, 23 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper briefly reviews new indices of trade restrictiveness and trade facilitation that have been developed at the World Bank. The paper also compares the trade impact of different types of trade restrictions applied at the border with the effects of domestic policies that affect trade costs. Based on a gravity regression framework, the analysis suggests that tariffs and non-tariff measures continue to be a significant source of trade restrictiveness for low-income countries despite preferential access programs. This is because the value of trade preferences is quite limited: a new measure of the relative preference margin developed in the paper reveals that this is very low for most country-pairs. Most countries with very good (duty-free) access to a market generally have competitors that have the same degree of access. The empirical analysis suggests that measures to improve logistics performance and facilitate trade are likely to have the greatest positive effects in expanding developing country trade, increasing the trade impacts of lowering remaining border barriers by a factor of two or more.

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        Trade Statistics in Policymaking (English)
        Data by Gilbert, John/ Utah State University and Mikic, Mia / UNESCAP, 2008, 128 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This reference material is a compilation of work associated with tracking and analyzing regional trade flows and regionalism processes. It provides comprehensive explanations of most of the indicators featured in the Asia-Pacific Trade and Investment Agreements Database.

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        Training Module on Trade in Textiles and Clothing: the Post-ATC Context (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2008, 114 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Chapter I of this module discusses historical background of trade in textiles and clothing. Chapter II offers a statistical overview of trade in textiles and clothing, with an emphasis on the situation of developing economies in this trade. Chapter III reviews the issues of tariffs and tariff preferences, while chapter IV addresses non-tariff barriers. Chapter V provides an analysis of the impact of origin rules on trade flows in the sector. Chapter VI discusses rules on trade remedy measures such as safeguard and anti-dumping actions, as well as the implications of trade remedy measures for textiles and clothing exports of developing countries. Chapter VII provides an overview of developments in safeguard measures against Chinese textiles and clothing. Chapter VIII discusses the necessity for diversifying into dynamic textiles and clothing products in lieu of intensifying competition in the post–ATC phase. Chapter IX provides a list of selected documentation and a bibliography.

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        Tropical and Diversification Products: Strategic Options for Developing Countries (English)
        Report by Perry, Santiago/ICTSD, 2008, 81 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This study by Santiago Perry, from the Foundation for Participatory and Sustainable Development of Small Farmers, intends to provide strategic options for developing countries seeking “fullest liberalisation of trade in tropical and diversification products” under the WTO while taking into account the ACP countries that have expressed concerns that a multilateral elimination of tariffs might result in the loss of their preferential access to the markets of developed countries. This paper was produced under an ICTSD dialogue and research project that seeks to address the opportunities and challenges of the full liberalisation of trade in tropical and diversification products, and to explore possible areas of convergence between different groupings and interests in WTO negotiations. The project aims to generate solutions-oriented analyses and possible policy responses from a sustainable development perspective. This paper is reflective of this objective.

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        UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics 2008 (Manuel De Statistiques De La CNUCED) (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD - CNUCED, 2008, 512 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics provides essential data for analysing world trade, investment, international financial flows and development. In addition to collecting and checking data and calculating related indicators that facilitate the work of the secretariat's economists, the UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics provides an opportunity to share a rich statistical database with decisionmakers and research specialists – academics, officials from national Governments or international organizations, executive managers or members of NGOs from developing, transition or developed countries. In order to provide maximum benefit to all users, the publication is available in three complementary formats: printed copy, DVD and online (www.unctad.org/statistics/handbook) ------- Le but du Manuel de statistiques de la CNUCED est de fournir les données statistiques essentielles à l’analyse du commerce mondial, de l’investissement, des flux financiers internationaux et du développement. Au-delà de la mobilisation et de la vérification des données, du calcul d’indicateurs dérivés qui alimentent les travaux des économistes du secrétariat, le Manuel de statistiques de la CNUCED est l’occasion de partager une base statistique riche les décideurs et les chercheurs, qu’ils soient universitaires, fonctionnaires d’administrations nationales ou d’organisations internationales, cadres d’entreprises ou membres d’organisations non gouvernementales de pays en développement, en transition ou développés. La publication est disponible dans trois formats complémentaires, l’édition imprimée, le DVD et la version en ligne (www.unctad.org/statistics/handbook), pour que chaque utilisateur, où qu’il soit, puisse en tirer le meilleur avantage.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 2, June 2008 - Tackling the Global Food Crisis (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2008, 2 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The UNCTAD policy briefs are intended to share the results of UNCTAD research and analysis on new and emerging trade and development issues with policy makers and researchers, especially in developing countries. This policy brief addresses the systemic causes of the crisis and identifies strategic policy measures - such as boosting investment, innovation and productivity growth - for creating a more robust and sustainable framework for global agricultural production and trade.

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        Unctad Policy Brief No. 3/2008: The Crisis of a Century (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2008, 2 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        As the financial crisis continues its evolution at dizzying speed, the business model underlying a growing share of financial sector activity has been increasingly discredited. This policy brief suggests that a considerable degree of public intervention is required to avoid greater damage to the financial system and the real economy. It is also imperative to strengthen regulation and increase the transparency of financial instruments and institutions. Overall, macroeconomic policy should aim at avoiding a global recession or even depression.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 4/2008: Rebuilding Financial Multilateralism (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2008, 2 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        With world markets absorbing the first waves of the continuing financial crisis, attention is shifting to ways to collectively manage the unwinding of global imbalances and prevent systemic turmoil. This policy brief argues that global cooperation and global regulation are imperative in both trade and finance, and that the United Nations is the most credible international organization to spearhead the design, discussion and launching of such efforts.

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        Unctad Policy Brief No.5/2008: Will We Never Learn? (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2008, 2 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        As the financial crisis becomes increasingly global, the world economy is caught in a loop of weaknesses and seems headed for a deep and synchronized downturn. Some developing and emerging economies will be particularly affected because of their vulnerability to declining exports, falling commodity prices, and negative wealth effects stemming from currency mismatches. But the world seems not to have learned the lessons from previous financial crises: that traditional adjustment packages can be counter¬productive, and that better global exchange rate arrangements will be critical if we are to achieve and maintain monetary and financial stability. This policy brief contends that all countries whose real economies are exposed will need to adopt countercyclical policies to stimulate domestic demand and compensate for shrinking foreign demand. Contrary to conventional wisdom, this also applies to countries with devaluing currencies. The current IMF approach asking for pro-cyclical policies in crisis countries is inadequate. UNCTAD has long argued that multilateral coordination is the only viable solution.

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        UNCTAD Review of Maritime Transport 2008 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2008, 200 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation

        UNCTAD´s Review of Maritime Transport has been published annually since 1968. With more than 80% of international trade in goods being carried by sea, and an even higher percentage for the trade of most developing countries, the Review of Maritime Transport is an important source of information for a broad audience. While the main focus of the Review is on maritime transport, it also contains some information on developments in multimodal transport covering land based transport systems. The Review provides some analysis of structural and cyclical changes affecting trade and transport, especially in developing economies as well as an extensive collection of statistical information on maritime transport and related services.The 2008 edition of the Review covers developments in 2007 and incorporates initial results for 2008. It also supplements long-term statistical series with new data.

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        Value Chains and Tropical Products in a Changing Global Trade Regime (English)
        Report by Mather, Charles/ICTSD, 2008, 85 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Competitiveness

        In the last decade, the commodity issues have re-emerged as central to development initiatives and poverty alleviation strategies. The objective of this Issue Paper by Charles Mather is to contribute to this debate by providing an analysis of the value chains of four tropical commodities (bananas, sugar, cut flowers and palm oil) in a rapidly changing global trade environment. The author seeks to provide insights on the different ways the significant changes occurring in the structure and governance of commodity chains ultimately affect producers’ income and production sustainability. He also suggests recommendations to improve these two variables. The value chain approach has become an increasingly important framework for examining changes in the global trade of commodities and their implications for primary producers. Rather than describing the broad patterns of global exchange and assessing their consequences for producers and consumers exclusively through market mechanisms and equilibrium price changes, the global value chain (GVC) framework encompasses the production, processing, distribution and marketing of specific globally-traded commodities, and identifies the main stakeholders involved at each stage. It also highlights governance patterns (how these different stages are coordinated) and specifies the role of lead firms in determining market access, defining products and value across the chain (Schmitz, 2005). The commodity studies in this paper focus on four themes: changes in the geography of production, changes in chain governance, new developments in trade agreements and their impacts on primary producers in different developing countries, and initiatives towards sustainable production, ethical trade and worker welfare. With regard to changes in production, the paper provides insights into new developments in the production of bananas, sugar, palm oil and cut flowers, which have been driven by changes in trade agreements and new investment patterns. In several of the commodities concerned, an important development has been the rise of new low cost producers who will play a role in shaping the global market for these commodities. This paper was produced under an ICTSD dialogue and research project which seeks to address the opportunities and challenges of the full liberalisation of trade in tropical and diversification products, and explores possible areas of convergence between different groupings and interests in WTO negotiations. The project seeks to generate solutions-oriented analyses and possible policy responses from a sustainable development perspective.

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        World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography - Overview (English)
        Report by World Bank, 2008, 32 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Places do well when they promote transformations along the dimensions of economic geography: higher densities as cities grow; shorter distances as workers and businesses migrate closer to density; and fewer divisions as nations lower their economic borders and enter world markets to take advantage of scale and trade in specialized products. World Development Report 2009 concludes that the transformations along these three dimensions--density, distance, and division--are essential for development and should be encouraged. The conclusion is controversial. Slum-dwellers now number a billion, but the rush to cities continues. A billion people live in lagging areas of developing nations, remote from globalization's many benefits. And poverty and high mortality persist among the world's "bottom billion," trapped without access to global markets, even as others grow more prosperous and live ever longer lives. Concern for these three intersecting billions often comes with the prescription that growth must be spatially balanced. This report has a different message: economic growth will be unbalanced. To try to spread it out is to discourage it--to fight prosperity, not poverty. But development can still be inclusive, even for people who start their lives distant from dense economic activity. For growth to be rapid and shared, governments must promote economic integration, the pivotal concept, as this report argues, in the policy debates on urbanization, territorial development, and regional integration. Instead, all three debates overemphasize place-based interventions. Reshaping Economic Geography reframes these debates to include all the instruments of integration--spatially blind institutions, spatially connective infrastructure, and spatially targeted interventions. By calibrating the blend of these instruments, today's developers can reshape their economic geography. If they do this well, their growth will still be unbalanced, but their development will be inclusive.

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        World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography - Part One (English)
        Report by World Bank, 2008, 149 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Places do well when they promote transformations along the dimensions of economic geography: higher densities as cities grow; shorter distances as workers and businesses migrate closer to density; and fewer divisions as nations lower their economic borders and enter world markets to take advantage of scale and trade in specialized products. World Development Report 2009 concludes that the transformations along these three dimensions--density, distance, and division--are essential for development and should be encouraged. The conclusion is controversial. Slum-dwellers now number a billion, but the rush to cities continues. A billion people live in lagging areas of developing nations, remote from globalization's many benefits. And poverty and high mortality persist among the world's "bottom billion," trapped without access to global markets, even as others grow more prosperous and live ever longer lives. Concern for these three intersecting billions often comes with the prescription that growth must be spatially balanced. This report has a different message: economic growth will be unbalanced. To try to spread it out is to discourage it--to fight prosperity, not poverty. But development can still be inclusive, even for people who start their lives distant from dense economic activity. For growth to be rapid and shared, governments must promote economic integration, the pivotal concept, as this report argues, in the policy debates on urbanization, territorial development, and regional integration. Instead, all three debates overemphasize place-based interventions. Reshaping Economic Geography reframes these debates to include all the instruments of integration--spatially blind institutions, spatially connective infrastructure, and spatially targeted interventions. By calibrating the blend of these instruments, today's developers can reshape their economic geography. If they do this well, their growth will still be unbalanced, but their development will be inclusive.

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        World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography - Part Two (English)
        Report by World Bank, 2008, 261 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

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        World Economic Outlook: Housing and the Business Cycle (English)
        Report by IMF, 2008, 303 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy

        The World Economic Outlook (WEO) presents the IMF staff's analysis and projections of staff’s view of the economic developments at the global level in spring 2008, in major country groups (classified by region, stage of development, etc.), and in many individual countries It focuses on current conditions and prospects, including the financial problems of the U.S. economy which first emerged in subprime mortgage lending, as well as on the analysis of economic developments and prospects.

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        World Investment Directory, Volume X, Africa 2008 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2008, 726 pages
        Categories: Investment

        What: This report provides an overview of foreign direct investments (FDI) inflows and the activity of Transnational corporations (TNC) in Africa. To introduce the subject, the document analyses the geographical and industrial distribution of FDI, the legal framework in which investments take place, policy measures and prospects. Through tables, figures and statistics on FDI and the operation of TNC, the report covers 53 African economies, giving each country profile. How: The report offers up-to-date information and statistics on FDI and trends as well as in-depth analysis on the activity of TNC in Africa. Who: Policy makers, especially in developing countries, researchers and lecturers interested in better understanding the character and trends of FDI and TNC activities.

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        World Investment Report 2008: Transnational Corporations and the Infrastructure Challenge (English)
        Report by UNCTAD - CNUCED, 2008, 411 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Investment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The Report explores how TNC participation in infrastructure has increased since the 1990s (although from a low level), and how this investment has helped mobilise further financial resources for investment. It also examines the policy environment and the challenges facing developing countries seeking to attract TNCs to infrastructure sectors, such as transport or electricity supply. As in previous years, the report also contains data on trends in FDI, which show that global inflows peaked in 2007 but appear to have been affected by the credit crisis in 2008, with TNCs cautious about investment commitments.

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        World Investment Report 2008: Transnational Corporations and the Infrastructure Challenge - Overview
        Report by UNCTAD, 2008, 43 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Investment

        This report explores how TNC participation in infrastructure has increased since the 1990s (although from a low level), and how this investment has helped mobilise further financial resources for investment. It also examines the policy environment and the challenges facing developing countries seeking to attract TNCs to infrastructure sectors, such as transport or electricity supply. As in previous years, the report also contains data on trends in FDI, which show that global inflows peaked in 2007 but appear to have been affected by the credit crisis in 2008, with TNCs cautious about investment commitments.

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        World Investment Report 2009: Transnational Corporations, Agricultural Production and Development
        Report by UNCTAD, 2008, 314 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Investment

        This year's World Investment Report (WIR) concentrates on the changes in the FDI landscape induced by the current economic and financial crisis. Global FDI flows have been severely affected, and investments to developing and transition economies, which surged in recent years, are expected to suffer from a decline in 2009. This poses challenges for many developing countries, as FDI has become their largest source of external financing. The impact is analysed in detail, and regional trends for developing and developed countries are identified in the first part of the WIR. The second part of the report looks at transnational corporations (TNCs), Agricultural Production and Development. Foreign participation can play a significant role in agricultural production in developing countries. Therefore, the report proposes that governments should formulate an integrated strategic policy and regulatory framework for TNC activities in agricultural production, considering business as well as social and environmental interests.

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        World Tariff Profiles 2008 (English)
        Report by WTO; UNCTAD; ITC, 2008, 235 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The 2008 edition of World Tariff Profiles presents a comprehensive and updated compilation of the main tariff indicators for the WTO's members as well as for other countries and customs territories. The publication is presented in three main parts. The first part shows summary statistics for all countries and territories for all products, as well as a breakdown into agricultural and non-agricultural products. The second part shows one full page for each of these countries and territories, with disaggregation by sectors and duty ranges. It also contains a section on the market access conditions faced in their respective major export markets. The third part looks at the impact of the changes in the HS on WTO members’ schedules and includes a summary table on concessions on other duties and charges (ODCs).

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        World Trade Indicators 2008: Benchmarking Policy and Performance (English)
        Report by Islam, Roumeen; Zanini, Gianni/World Bank, 2008, 150 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This publication summarizes patterns in world trade policy and trade outcomes revealed by the WTI database, focusing mainly on regional and income-level variations and providing the context to help evaluate individual country progress. The trade reform agenda going forward is about rationalizing substantial tariff peaks (particularly in agriculture), reducing overall tariff levels in some groups or countries, reducing tariff escalation aimed at protecting special goods, liberalizing services trade, and improving the other behind-the-border factors that affect trade expansion and the gains from it. Locking in current levels of liberalization through the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) would be a first important step toward a more ambitious reform agenda, especially for low-income countries. Improvements in domestic institutions could boost export performance, particularly in manufacturing and services, and help support new markets and new products. Overcoming inefficiencies in trade facilitation in developing countries would have a high payoff for trade performance, especially as tariffs have been reduced below trade costs in most countries.

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        World Trade Report 2008: Trade in a Globalizing World (English)
        Report by World Trade Organization, 2008, 204 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The report explores a range of interlinking questions, starting with a consideration of what constitutes globalization, what drives it, the benefits it brings, the challenges it poses and what role trade plays in a world of ever-growing interdependency. It asks why some countries have managed to take advantage of falling trade costs and greater policy-driven trading opportunities while others have remained largely outside international commercial relations. It considers who the winners and losers are from trade in society and what complementary action policy-makers need to take in order to secure the benefits of trade for society at large. In examining these complex and multi-faceted questions, the report reviews both the theoretical trade literature and empirical evidence that can help to give answers to these questions.

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        WTO Dispute Settlement - One-page Case Summaries (1995-2007) (English)
        Case study by WTO, 2008, 172 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This second edition publication offers case-by-case, single page summaries of panel and Appellate Body reports adopted by the WTO Dispute Settlement Body as of 31 December 2007. Intended to facilitate understanding of WTO dispute settlement cases among WTO Members by providing core facts, substantive findings contained in the adopted panel, summaries of key findings on significant procedural matters and, where applicable, Appellate Body reports for each decided case are documented. Other matters of particular significance raised during the proceedings are listed in accompanying footnotes to each case. Cases are indexed by article and by WTO agreement.

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        WTO Public Forum 2007 - How Can the WTO Help Harness Globalization? (French)
        Report by WTO, 2008, 410 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This publication summarizes the views and concerns expressed during the two-day programme of the WTO Public Forum 'How can the WTO help harness globalization?'. Topics for debate included the challenges presented by globalisation, the need for a coherent multilateral trading system, trade as a vehicle for growth and development, and the interaction of trade and sustainable development.

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        Wto Public Forum 2007 - How Can the Wto Help Harness Globalization? (English)
        Report by WTO, 2008, 384 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This publication summarizes the views and concerns expressed during the two-day programme of the WTO Public Forum 'How can the WTO help harness globalization?'. Topics for debate included the challenges presented by globalisation, the need for a coherent multilateral trading system, trade as a vehicle for growth and development, and the interaction of trade and sustainable development.

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        WTO Public Forum 2007 - How Can the WTO Help Harness Globalization?
        Report by WTO, 2008, 424 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This publication summarizes the views and concerns expressed during the two-day programme of the WTO Public Forum 'How can the WTO help harness globalization?'. Topics for debate included the challenges presented by globalisation, the need for a coherent multilateral trading system, trade as a vehicle for growth and development, and the interaction of trade and sustainable development.

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        The WTO's July 2008 Mini-Ministerial: Agriculture, NAMA, Process Issues and the Road Ahead (English)
        Note by South Centre, 2008, 37 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper outlines the main events which took place during the WTO’s July mini-Ministerial. It goes on to provide a discussion of the key issues that were important in that meeting – agriculture, cotton, the non-agriculture market access negotiations, as well as systemic process concerns. It concludes with some thoughts on the challenges confronting developing countries – high food prices, livelihoods and climate change, and the implications these challenges pose for the WTO.

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