A partnership with academia

Building knowledge for trade and development

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        Adapting to Climate Change: What Role for the Eu?
        Policy brief by European Policy Centre, 2010, 4 pages
        Categories: VI Members Research

        Although most action on climate-change adaptation will need to be taken at national, regional or local level, there are compelling reasons why the EU should also play a role, says this Policy Brief by Annika Ahtonen.

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        Agricultural Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation in Developing Countries: Policy Options for Innovation and Technology Diffusion. (English)
        Policy brief by Lybbert, Travis; Sumner, Daniel/ ICTSD, 2010, 42 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade and Environment

        Climate Change exacerbates the already daunting challenges facing the agricultural sector, and this is particularly the case in developing countries. Innovations in agriculture have always been important and will be even more vital in the context of climate change. This paper highlights technological and institutional innovations required to meet these challenges, the constraints to their development, transfer and dissemination and importantly suggests ways to overcome such constraints.

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        Aid for Trade, Infrastructure, and the Growth Effects of Trade Reform: Issues and Implications for Caribbean Countries (English)
        Working paper by Moreira, Emmanuel Pinto/World Bank, 2010, 45 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper examines how aid-for-trade programs can help to magnify the growth benefits that developing countries can reap from trade reform and global integration, with a special emphasis on the Caribbean region. The first part discusses various rationales for trade-related aid, viewed both as a compensatory scheme (aimed at cushioning the impact of revenue cuts and adjustment costs) and a promotion scheme (aimed at alleviating supply-side constraints). In the latter case, particular attention is paid to the role of infrastructure as a constraining factor on trade expansion. The second part discusses the relevance of aid-for-trade arguments for Caribbean countries and identifies a number of specific issues for the region. The third part illustrates the potential growth effects of aid-for-trade programs with simulation results for the Dominican Republic -- a country where infrastructure indicators remain relatively weak. The results illustrate the potentially large growth benefits that a temporary and well-targeted aid-for-trade program can provide to countries of the region.

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        Assessing Progress in Africa Toward the Millennium Development Goals: Mdg Report 2010
        Report by UNECA, 2010, 122 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        In five years’ time, world leaders will assess the progress that has been made in meeting the Millennium Summit commitment to “spare no effort to free our fellow men, women and children from the abject and dehumanizing conditions of extreme poverty”. That commitment, enunciated in the Millennium Declaration of 2000 and encapsulated in the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs),has been the main impetus to advance international development over the last decade.This year’s report shows that, prior to the onset of the food and fuel crises and the global recession,African countries were making steady progress toward attainment of the MDGs. According to this report, there has been progress achieved in reducing poverty rates and moving toward the targets of several of the MDGs, even though Africa still has the highest proportion of people living in extreme poverty within the developing world. The advances made are attributed, in part, to improvements in the political, economic,and social landscape across much of the continent.

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        Assessing Regional Integration in Africa IV: Enhancing Intra-African Trade (English)
        Book by UNECA, 2010, 527 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        ARIA IV, which is a joint-publication of the ECA, the AUC and the AfDB, finds on average that over the past decades, only about 10 to 12 per cent of African trade is within the continent which is one of the lowest intra-regional trade levels worldwide. Low intra-African trade implies that many opportunities are lost for benefiting from the gains of trade, promoting growth and accelerating development. Indeed, the empirical research reviewed in ARIA IV suggests that there is a positive correlation between trade openness and economic growth, in particular through the transmission of technological innovation and the creation of enhanced capacity to compete with more advanced economies on the international market.

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        Assessing the Financial Vulnerability to Climate-related Natural Hazards (English)
        Working paper by Mechler, Reinhard; Hochrainer, Stefan; Pflug, Georg; Lotsch, Alexander; Williges, Keith/World Bank, 2010, 35 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development

        National governments are key actors in managing the impacts of extreme weather events, yet many highly exposed developing countries - faced with exhausted tax bases, high levels of indebtedness, and limited donor assistance - have been unable to raise sufficient and timely capital to replace or repair damaged infrastructure and restore livelihoods after major disasters. Such financial vulnerability hampers development and exacerbates poverty. Based on the record of the past 30 years, this paper finds many developing countries, in particular small island states, to be highly financially vulnerable, and experiencing a resource gap (net disaster losses exceed all available financing sources) for events that occur with a probability of 2 percent or higher. This has three main implications. First, efforts to reduce risk need to be ramped-up to lessen the serious human and financial burdens. Second, contrary to the well-known Arrow-Lind theorem, there is a case for country risk aversion implying that disaster risks faced by some governments cannot be absorbed without major difficulty. Risk aversion entails the ex ante financing of losses and relief expenditure through calamity funds, regional insurance pools, or contingent credit arrangements. Third, financially vulnerable (and generally poor) countries are unlikely to be able to implement pre-disaster risk financing instruments themselves, and thus require technical and financial assistance from the donor community. The cost estimates of financial vulnerability - based on today's climate - inform the design of"climate insurance funds"to absorb high levels of sovereign risk and are found to be in the lower billions of dollars annually, which represents a baseline for the incremental costs arising from future climate change.

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        Assessment of the Impact of Trade Policy Reform in Countries Acceding to the World Trade Organization: The Gender Dimension (English)
        Working paper by UNCTAD, 2010, 62 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The following overview sets forth a generalized background into the gendered impacts of trade liberalization. Reflecting findings reported by gender specialists examining such impacts, this paper first indicates policy areas that warrant particular scrutiny by governments concerned with gender equality and disparate impacts of economic liberalization between females and males due to social constructs. Next, a description of the WTO rules on accession highlight areas of trade policy that are the locus of attention in the proceedings leading to WTO membership. A brief depiction of the acceding governments’ extra-WTO legal obligations to pursue gender-equality follows. Finally, the paper sets forth a number of generalizable policy suggestions as to how governments in WTO accession processes could minimize negative aspects of liberalization and how they could maximize the positive potentials held by liberalization.

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        Assessment Report on Energy Efficiency Institutional Arrangements in Asia (English)
        Report by UNESCAP, 2010, 212 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        Energy security is high on the agendas of ESCAP member States. The dependence of many of these countries on imported energy resources from other regions of the world and the unequal distribution of relatively abundant energy resources in the region punctuate this concern. The volatility of the price of oil due to supply and demand economics is another related issue. Under these circumstances, the technical and economic viability of energy efficiency has come into sharper focus. Promoting energy efficiency has been identified as an effective energy, economic and climate policy aimed at managing demand for energy, increasing economic revenues by decreasing cost, and reaping the rewards for mitigating climate change, respectively. Energy efficiency is a technical term in the energy sector that means using less energy to provide the same level of energy service. The institutional dimension, which has been lagging behind in development and policy debates for many years, is the focus of this publication.

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        Biotrade Potential for Growth and Sustainability (English)
        Working paper by UNCTAD, 2010, 71 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        Growth opportunities can be generated by sustainable business practices that enable rich biodiversity-based countries to achieve their development objectives. Current markets for environmentally friendly products and services showed growth rates, despite the economic slowdown. In this scenario, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) suggests that biodiversity-rich countries implement the BioTrade framework to capture this market potential, and transforms it into a sustainable development engine. BioTrade simultaneously generates business opportunities, growth and sustainable livelihoods for rural populations, while allowing the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. The value of biodiversity can be enhanced, and risks associated to business as usual, such as the stresses on biological resources, can be reduced. This paper illustrates the potential for developing Sustainable Environment Management practices in BioTrade in Latin America.

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        Capacity Building for Academia in Trade for Development: A Study on Contributions to the Development of Human Resources and to Policy Support for Developing Countries. (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD Virtual Institute, 2010, 38 pages
        Categories: VI Members Research

        The study "Capacity building for academia in trade for development" sheds light on new forms of capacity building and provides an overview of the initiatives and actors dealing with academic capacity building in the area of trade for development. As opposed to traditional capacity building, understood as technical assistance often focusing on short-term goals and prioritizing the objectives of the donor (mainly developed) countries, novel and distinct forms of capacity building have been emerging that emphasize the continuity and sustainability of programmes according to domestic and regional demands. The study analyzes two initiatives, the Latin American Trade Network and the UNCTAD Virtual Institute.

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        Carbon Concerns: How Standards And Labelling Initiatives Must Not Limit Agricultural Trade From Developing Countries
        Policy brief by MacGregor, James/ ICTSD, 2010, 40 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        The carbon embedded in internationally traded food and agricultural goods – its measurement, as well as different ways of communicating its climate impact – is a rapidly emerging factor in agricultural production, processing and trade. The emerging, mainly non-statutory, private-sector driven carbon labelling schemes raise a number of issues. This paper examines the current status of carbon labelling initiatives in the food industry. It looks at how embedded carbon is likely to be marketed and how this phenomenon may impact agricultural trade from developing countries.

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        Climate Change and China’s Agricultural Sector: An Overview of Impacts, Adaptation and Mitigation (English)
        Policy brief by Wang, Jinxia; Huang, Jikun; Rozelle, Scott/ ICTSD, 2010, 39 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment

        Agriculture accounts for more than 15 percent of China’s total greenhouse gas emissions, nearly 90 percent of nitrous oxide emissions, and 60 percent of methane emissions. Excessive fertilizer use is not only fueling a major portion of the nitrous oxide emissions but also is raising alarm about water pollution from agriculture. At the same time, however, there is opportunity for China’s agriculture sector to play a role in mitigating against climate change through carbon sequestration and adopting production methods that reduce emissions. In addition, the potential impact of climate change on agricultural production and prices in China could have tremendous implications for both domestic and international markets, due to the sheer size of China’s domestic demand for agricultural products.

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        The Coffee Sector in China: an Overview of Production, Trade and Consumption (English)
        Report by ITC, 2010, 31 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        The report comprises information on coffee production, export, import, processing and consumption in China. It covers the mainland of the People’s Republic of China, hereinafter referred to as China, but does not include Hong Kong SAR (Special Administrative Region) and Macao SAR. As the Chinese consumer market for coffee is still in the early stages of maturation, traditional institutions for record keeping and tracking industry trends do not yet exist as they do in more developed coffee markets. This report is based on a combination of primary and secondary data, collected from telephone interviews, news articles, press releases, published market research reports, and government statistical reporting.

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        The Collapse of International Trade During the 2008-2009 Crisis: In Search of the Smoking Gun (English)
        Working paper by Levchenko Logan Andrei A.; Lewis, T.; Tesar, Linda L., 2010, 56 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper uses disaggregated data on U.S. imports and exports to shed light on the anatomy of this collapse. It finds that the recent reduction in trade relative to overall economic activity is far larger than in previous downturns. In a sample of imports and exports disaggregated at the 6-digit NAICS level, findings indicate that sectors used as intermediate inputs experienced significantly higher percentage reductions in both imports and exports. It also finds support for compositional effects: sectors with larger reductions in domestic output had larger drops in trade. By contrast, it does not support the hypothesis that trade credit played a role in the recent trade collapse.

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        Combating Poverty and Inequality: Structural Change, Social Policy and Politics (English)
        Report by UNRISD, 2010, 380 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        Combating Poverty and Inequality is published just as global leaders meet to review and recommit themselves to a set of goals for reducing poverty agreed, under vastly different circumstances, a decade ago. The optimism of the new millennium is now overshadowed by the effects of multiple, interrelated crises. Progress in many areas appears threatened and resources are more constrained. This volume provides a timely reminder of the strengths and limitations of various approaches to addressing poverty in the current context.

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        A Comparative Assessment of How Trade Liberalization and the Economic Crisis Have Impacted India and South Africa (English)
        Note by ICTSD, 2010, 4 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Globalization and Development Strategies

        It is widely accepted that though the financial and economic crisis broke out in the United States and mainly engulfed the developed industrial countries in 2008, its impact was significant across the globe.However, the generalised effect of the crisis neither meant that the extent and nature of the impact was the same across countries, nor that the recovery from the crisis induced recession was simultaneous or similarly robust. This note is concerned with comparing the impact of the crisis on two large countries located in very different contexts, namely India and South Africa.

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        Composite Index of Market Access for the Export of Rice from Uruguay
        Discussion paper by Alfaro, Daniela; Pérez del Castillo, Carlos/ ICTSD, 2010, 37 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade Facilitation

        This study explores the sorts of market access barriers that rice exports from Uruguay face and generates a Composite Index of Market Access for the most significant markets. What stops Uruguayan farmers from selling more rice to other countries? Ambassador Perez del Castillo and Professor Alfaro investigate this question and work out a figure that captures taxes imposed by other countries at the border, payments that overseas governments make to their own growers, the cost of meeting health standards, and other issues. They find that these barriers limit the flow of rice from Uruguay - even when other countries' border taxes are low.

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        Core ICT Indicators 2010 (English)
        Book by ITU, 2010, 94 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        This publication presents the first revision of the core list of ICT indicators, originally published by the Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development in 2005. The main purpose of the core list is to help countries produce high quality and internationally comparable data on information and communication technology. To assist in achieving this goal, the indicators have associated statistical standards and guidance.

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        Corporate Governance and Public Corruption
        Working paper by Cusolito, Ana/World Bank, 2010, 35 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development

        Corporate governance in the private sector and corruption are important for economic development and private sector development. This paper investigates how corporate governance in private-sector media companies can affect public corruption. The analytical framework, based on models of corporate governance, identifies two channels through which media ownership concentration affects corruption: an owner effect, which discourages corruption and a competition-for-control effect that enhances it. When the ownership structure of a newspaper has a majority shareholder, the first effect dominates and corruption decreases as ownership becomes more concentrated in the hands of majority shareholders. Without majority shareholders, the competition-for-control effect dominates and corruption increases with the concentration of ownership of the media company. Thus, the paper shows that cases of intermediate media-ownership concentration are the worst at promoting public accountability, while extreme situations, where the ownership is completely concentrated or widely held, can result in similar and lower levels of corruption.

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        Corporate Governance in the Wake of the Financial Crisis (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 184 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy

        The global financial crisis brought the international financial system to a grinding halt: the sudden withdrawal of global liquidity led to a catastrophic downturn in the global economy, which was only arrested by the swift and coordinated intervention of governments on a giant scale. The impact of the crisis has been colossal. UNCTAD’s analysis of the causes of the global financial crisis points to regulatory weaknesses at the national and international levels, but also to poor corporate governance practices as implicated in the risk management standards prevailing in many large financial institutions. It is increasingly recognized that many of these governance weaknesses also apply to other companies. Consequently, on-going corporate governance reforms in many jurisdictions apply not only to the financial sector but to other companies in general.

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        Corporate Social Responsibility in Latin America (English)
        Working paper by UNCTAD VIRTUAL INSTITUTE, 2010, 138 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, International Economic Law

        The purpose of this publication is to enhance the understanding of CSR issues in Latin America based on facts, figures, cases and experiences, as well as to review appropriate methods for analyzing the impact of CSR initiatives. The publication covers CSR and labour practices in the agriculture and extractive industries (the mining industry in Chile and banana production in Colombia); CSR practices in Uruguay; and new legal instruments in the area of human rights and labour rights in the Latin American region. The publication was prepared under the supervision of Vlasta Macku, Chief of the Virtual Institute.

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        Costing MDG Gaps in the Asia-Pacific (English)
        Policy brief by UNESCAP, 2010, 4 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Poverty

        Although the Asia-Pacific region has made significant progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs),most of its countries are still off-track on one or more indicators. This policy brief examines what would it take for countries in the Asia-Pacific region to meet their MDG targets by 2015. It first focuses on the income-poverty gap which continues to persist despite high rates of growth. It then goes on to provide estimates of the resources needed for closing the MDG gaps in the areas of education, health, nutrition and sanitation. It concludes with a few remarks on policy challenges in the light of the findings.

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        Cotton: What Could a Doha Deal Mean for Trade? (English)
        Note by ICTSD, 2010, 16 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Cuts to developed country cotton subsidies could increase world prices, boosting production and exports in a number of developing countries including some of the poorest producers in Africa. This information note examines how different countries could be affected by greater or smaller reductions in subsidies as part of the WTO’s Doha Round, in addition to looking at what would happen if countries cut subsidies that were deemed unlawful by the WTO’s dispute settlement panel.

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        Creative Economy Report 2010 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 423 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report presents an updated perspective of the United Nations as a whole on creativity, knowledge and access to information as powerful engines driving economic growth and promoting development in a globalizing world. It provides empirical evidence that the creative industries are among the most dynamic emerging sectors in world trade. It also shows that the interface among creativity, culture, economics and technology, as expressed in the ability to create and circulate intellectual capital, has the potential to generate income, jobs and export earnings while at the same time contributing to social inclusion, cultural diversity and human development. This report addresses the challenge of assessing the creative economy with a view to informed policy-making by outlining the conceptual, institutional and policy frameworks in which this economy can flourish.

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        Developing Productive Capacities in Least Developed Countries: Issues for Discussion (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2010, 8 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        During the period 2002–2007, least developed countries (LDCs) as a group experienced high gross domestic product (GDP) growth rates, which surpassed the 7 per cent target of the Brussels Programme of Action. However, about a quarter of the LDCs continued to experience very sluggish growth or economic regression. Moreover, growth was associated with a pattern of insertion into the global economy based on commodity exports, low-skill manufactures and tourism, which meant that they were highly vulnerable to external shocks. Many LDCs are now at a critical moment in which they face a double challenge. Firstly, they must find productive jobs and livelihoods for the millions of young people who are entering the labour force each year; secondly the LDCs must deal with the employment challenge in an open-economy context.

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        Development Dimensions of Intellectual Property in Uganda: Transfer of Technology, Access to Medicines and Textbooks (English)
        Report by Spennemann, Christoph; Adachi, Kiyoshi/ UNCTAD; ICTSD, 2010, 104 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Science and Technology

        This DDIP Report is organized in three chapters, featuring the interface of intellectual property with the issues of technology transfer, access to medicines and access to textbooks, respectively. Each chapter, after describing the factual background in Uganda and the pertinent institutional set-up, provides a detailed analysis of the domestic intellectual property\\nlegal framework, before making recommendations for legislative amendments. The objective of these recommendations is to provide guidance on how to use the country’s domestic intellectual property laws to promote specific development objectives.

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        The Development Impact of Information Technology in Trade Facilitation
        Working paper by Alburo, Florian A., 2010, 65 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade Facilitation

        This chapter, part of an ARTNeT Regional Study on the Impact of Information Technology Based Trade Facilitation Measures on SMEs, provides an overview and context of the country studies on Information Technology (IT) for Trade Facilitation (TF) in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs).

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        Development Strategies: Integrating Governance and Growth
        Working paper by Levy, Brian; Fukuyama, Francis/World Bank, 2010, 46 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        A frontier challenge for development strategy is to move beyond prescribing optimal economic policies, and instead – taking a broad view of the interactions between economic, political and social constraints and dynamics -- to identify entry points capable of breaking a low-growth logjam, and initiating a virtuous spiral of cumulative change. The paper lays out four distinctive sequences via which the different dimensions might interact and evolve over time, and provides country-specific illustrations of each. Each sequence is defined by the principal focus of its initial step: 1) State capacity building provides a platform for accelerated growth via improved public sector performance and enhanced credibility for investors; strengthened political institutions and civil society come onto the agenda only over the longer term; 2) Transformational governance has as its entry point the reshaping of a country’s political institutions. Accelerated growth could follow, insofar as institutional changes enhance accountability, and reduce the potential for arbitrary discretionary action -- and thereby shift expectations in a positive direction; 3) For 'just enough governance', the initial focus is on growth itself, with the aim of addressing specific capacity and institutional constraints as and when they become binding -- not seeking to anticipate and address in advance all possible institutional constraints; 4) Bottom-up development engages civil society as an entry point for seeking stronger state capacity, lower corruption, better public services, improvements in political institutions more broadly -- and a subsequent unlocking of constraints on growth. The sequences should not be viewed as a technocratic toolkit from which a putative reformer is free to choose. Recognizing that choice is constrained by history, the paper concludes by suggesting an approach for exploring what might the scope for identifying practical ways forward in specific country settings.

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        Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific 2010: Sustaining Recovery and Dynamism for Inclusive Development (English)
        Report by ESCAP, 2010, 252 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        The Asia-Pacific region leads the process of recovery from the global financial and economic crisis and emerges as a focus of global growth and stability. However, the recovery of the world economy at large remains fragile. This poses risks for sustained recovery in Asia as well, given its export dependence. A more balanced recovery is needed and this will require more globally concerted policy efforts. In this regard, the 2010 Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific provides a comprehensive analysis of the challenging policy landscape and offers recommendations for the way forward. In the aftermath of the crisis, we see clear momentum for regional economic cooperation.

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        Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific 2010: Year-end Update
        Report by UNESCAP, 2010, 48 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        2010 has seen an impressive recovery of the Asia-Pacific region from the Great Recession of 2008/09. Led by the large economies of China and India, output growth in the region rebounded in 2009 and gathered further strength in 2010. But the region is faced with a weakening of growth in the developed economies which are grappling with a combination of weak household demand and fiscal retrenchment. The Year-end Update of UN-ESCAP’s annual flagship publication, Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific 2010, considers the implications of these challenges for policy-makers in the region. The principal message of the Update is the need for the countries in the region to adopt a cautious approach in ending of fiscal stimulus packages while building in the medium term alternative sources of demand in the region, both domestic and external. For the former, the Update looks to reduce poverty and boost demand combined with more investment in infrastructure. For the latter, it highlights the need to deepen regional integration in the areas of trade and finance and more broadly in policy coordination in order to face the challenges confronting the region in 2011 and beyond. Management of capital flows is another important challenge for the region’s policy makers for maintaining financial stability.

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        Economic Development in Africa Report 2010. South-south Cooperation: Africa and the New Forms of Development Partnership. (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 128 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Finance for Development

        The Economic Development in Africa Report 2010 examines recent trends in the economic relationships of Africa with other developing countries and the new forms of partnership that are animating those relationships.\\n The report discusses the variety of institutional arrangements that are guiding and encouraging these new economic relationships. It provides up-to-date information on African trade with other developing countries outside Africa, as well as on official financial flows and foreign direct investment into Africa from those countries. Finally, it assesses important policy issues that arise from the new relationships in each of these areas.\\n The report places the new relationships and multiplying partnerships within the context of South–South cooperation.

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        Economic Partnership Agreements: Comparative Analysis of the Agricultural Provisions (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2010, 99 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        This study analyses the development implications of the agricultural provisions of the Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) between the European Union (EU) and 36 African,Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries. It is argued that, for most countries, the loss of EU preferences was the decisive factor in signing the EPA, while the additional gains of improved market access have been limited. With respect to ACP countries’ import liberalization commitments, the analysis shows that ACP agricultural markets are not exposed per se to EU products but are affected very differently.

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        Economic Report on Africa 2010: Promoting high-level sustainable growth to reduce unemployment in Africa (English)
        Report by UNECA, 2010, 235 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This report is organized into two parts. The first part, consisting of chapters 1 to 3,discusses current trends in the global economy and African economies. The second part, covering chapters 4 to 6, is the thematic part and deals with how to use the challenges created by the recent global economic crisis as an opportunity to develop and implement policies that lead to the structural transformation of African economies and result in sustained high growth with a high level of employment creation.

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        Economists and Lawyers Working Together. A Multidisciplinary Approach for Policy Orientated Researches in the Fields of Foreign Investments and Economic Development
        Working paper by Michele Barbieri, 2010, 31 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Investment, VI Members Research

        The objective of the paper is to describe a methodology which can be applied in policy orientated researches on the following topic: the impact international investment agreements (IIAs) have on the relation between foreign investments on one side and economic development of the host States on the other side. The researches which adopt such method should provide guidance to policymakers of host States as to the way they can simultaneously achieve the following goals: to attract foreign investments and to fully benefit from them, to preserve their ability to adopt and maintain policies for the promotion of domestic development, to maximise the consistency of such policies with applicable IIAs. The peculiarity of the methodology consists in its multidisciplinary approach, which combines the efforts of economists and legal experts both.

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        Empowering MDG Strategies Through Inclusive Economic Development (English)
        Outline by UNCTAD, 2010, 28 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        Summing up the recent experience of Least Developed Countries (shock waves of the global financial crisis, fluctuation in commodity prices), particularly the implications of the global ‘Great Recession’, this paper seeks to sketch the general outlines of a post-crisis MDG-related development strategy for Least Developed Countries. While there is obviously great variety among LDCs, they do share some important common structural characteristics. Consequently, they are likely to share some common needs for the kinds of reforms of their development strategies.

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        Endowments, Power, And Democracy: Political Economy Of Multilateral Commitments On Trade In Services (English)
        Working paper by Roy, Martin/WTO, 2010, 54 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        In spite of their growing importance in international trade as well as in bilateral and multilateral trade negotiations, services have only attracted limited attention from researchers interested in determinants of trade policies and trade cooperation. This paper seeks to account for countries' varying levels of market access commitments under the multilateral General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). I develop an argument suggesting how levels of democracy and factor endowments are associated with more commitments. The empirical analysis supports these propositions, and also suggests that relative size, as well as regulatory capacity, are positively linked to GATS commitments.

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        EU Financial Market Reform: Status and Prospects (English)
        Case study by Dullien, Sebastian; Herr, Hansjörg/ HTW, 2010, 19 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Macroeconomic Policy, VI Members Research

        The financial and economic crisis has made it clear that the financial markets are in need of far-reaching reform and more effective regulation. Since the most pressing dangers have been averted and the economy in most industrialised countries is clear of recession, however, the topic of financial market regulation has largely disappeared from the public gaze. Having said that, a great deal is happening in the background with regard to financial market regulation, including at the EU level. Against this background, economists Sebastian Dullien and Hansjörg Herr present the current state of the debate in some of the most important areas of EU financial market regulation and ongoing legislative processes and evaluate the most important plans. The authors come to the conclusion that, although the current deliberations on reform are going in the right direction, they are insufficient to ensure the long-term stability of the EU financial system.

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        Examen De Las Políticas De Ciencia, Tecnología E Innovación : Perú
        Report by Sanz, Ángel González, Pérez Cusó, Marta, Rovira, Sebastián, López Martínez, Roberto, Rozenwurcel, Guillermo, Villarán, Fernando, Sol Golup, Romina, 2010, 188 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        El objetivo último del examen de políticas de ciencia, tecnología e innovación del Perú es ofrecer al gobierno peruano un diagnóstico actualizado sobre la efectividad de sus políticas y medidas relacionadas con la ciencia, tecnología e innovación; reforzar dichas políticas y medidas integrándolas al proceso nacional de desarrollo; y, mejorar la capacidad tecnológica, fomentar la innovación, e incorporar mayor valor agregado a la producción.

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        The Financial and Economic Crisis of 2008-2009 and Developing Countries (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2010, 340 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Finance for Development, International Financial System

        Most analyses of the financial and subsequent economic crisis, including those by leading international institutions like the International Monetary Fund, have focused on OECD countries. This can give the (mistaken) impression that the developing world, even sub-Saharan Africa, has been less severely affected by the crisis and is recovering relatively quickly. Most developed countries’ governments are preoccupied with their domestic problems. This collection of papers puts the South on centre stage. It examines how the countries of the South were affected by the global economic and financial crisis and how they responded, what lessons the South could learn and what policy agenda needs to be pushed forward to better support the interests of developing countries, least developed countries as well as emerging-market economies.

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        Financial Transactions Tax: Panacea, Threat, or Damp Squib?
        Working paper by Honohan, Patrick; Yoder, Sean/World Bank, 2010, 37 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development

        Attempts to raise a significant percentage of gross domestic product in revenue from a broad-based financial transactions tax are likely to fail both by raising much less revenue than expected and by generating far-reaching changes in economic behavior. Although the side-effects would include a sizable restructuring of financial sector activity, this would not occur in ways corrective of the particular forms of financial overtrading that were most conspicuous in contributing to the crisis.

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        Financing an Inclusive and Green Future: A Supportive Financial System and Green Growth for Achieving the Mdgs in Asia and the Pacific (English)
        Report by ESCAP, 2010, 132 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Finance for Development, Globalization and Development Strategies

        The report focuses first on the Millennium Development Goals, warning that the region is off track on many crucial indicators, including child and maternal mortality. But it also shows that the Goals are still within reach, given sufficient determination and financial resources. Just as important, it identifies potential sources for those funds – at the national, regional and international levels including changing spending priorities. It also looks further ahead, showing how Asia and the Pacific can take the lead in developing a new financial architecture that will best support the Millennium Development Goals.

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        Financing Global Climate Change Mitigation (English)
        Report by UNECE, 2010, 193 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        This report is one of the first outputs of the Global Energy Efficiency 21(GEE21) project, launched by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) in December 2008 at COP-14 in Poznan(Poland). The GEE21 project is designed to develop a more systematic exchange of experience on capacity building, policy reforms and investment project finance among countries of the other regionsof the world through their UN Regional Commissions in order to promote self-financing energy efficiency improvements that raise economic productivity, diminish fuel poverty and reduce environmental air pollution such as greenhouse gas emissions.

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        Financing Mechanisms for Information and Communication Technologies for Development
        Study by Townsend, David; Yan, Yin; Wu, Dong/ UNCTAD, 2010, 35 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Science and Technology

        This paper presents observations and trends that have occurred in the key areas identified by the Task Force on Financial Mechanisms (TFFM) and Tunis Agenda, in terms of development of ICT opportunities and financing, and then identifies key challenges and opportunities going forward, for addressing continuing gaps and new conditions in ICT development policy and financing.

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        Foreign Investments in Belarus: Recent Developments in Regulatory Issues
        Article by Barbieri, Michele; Petrushkevic, Alena, 2010, 16 pages
        Categories: Investment, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research

        The article examines the policy and legal frameworks governing foreign direct investments (FDI) in Belarus and their consistency with commitments undertaken by the country through bilateral trade agreements.

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        Fourth Report on G20 Investment Measures (English)
        Report by OECD/UNCTAD, 2010, 33 pages
        Categories: Investment

        At the London, Pittsburgh and Toronto Summits, G20 Leaders committed to foregoing protectionism and requested public reports on their adherence to this commitment. Several G20 member countries reiterated this commitment at the UNCTAD World Investment Forum 2010, held on 6-9 September 2010 in Xiamen, China and at the Meeting of the OECD Council at Ministerial Level, held on 27-28 May 2010 in Paris, France. The present document is the fourth report on investment and investment-related measures in response to this mandate.2 It has been prepared jointly by the OECD and UNCTAD Secretariats and covers investment policy and investment-related measures taken between 21 May 2010 and 15 October 2010.

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        Globalization and Trade Flows: What You See is Not What You Get!
        Working paper by Maurer, Andreas, Degain, Christophe, 2010, 29 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The trade collapse that followed the recent financial crisis has led to a renewed interest on the measurement issues affecting international merchandise trade statistics in the new globalized economy. The international fragmentation of industrial production blurs the concept of country of origin and calls for the production of new statistics on the domestic content of exports, with a view of estimating trade in value added. Alongside, the international statistical community has revised in 2010 the concepts and definitions on both, international merchandise trade and trade in services statistics. This paper discusses the various issues related to the concepts of "goods for processing" and "intra-firm trade" in trade statistics, and provides an overview of the method of analysing the impact of the fragmentation of production in international value chains.

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        Global Rebalancing: Effects on Trade Flows and Employment
        Study by UNCTAD, 2010, 48 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The persistently large imbalances in the world economy contributed to the outbreak of the current economic and financial crisis and facilitated its global spread. While global imbalances declined in the immediate aftermath of the crisis, they have been widening again with the ongoing recovery of the world economy. Global current-account imbalances are not necessarily undesirable. However, there is widespread agreement that the current imbalances are unsustainable. This paper examines the effects on trade flows and employment that global rebalancing might entail.

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        How Would a Trade Deal on Cotton Affect Exporting and Importing Countries? (English)
        Working paper by ICTSD, 2010, 59 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper aims to provide policy-makers, negotiators and other stakeholders with a clear and accurate assessment of the likely implications of a trade deal on cotton along the lines of that being discussed in the WTO’s Doha Round. The study also examines the implications of various alternative trade policy scenarios, taking into consideration recent historical trends in cotton prices, production and trade in different countries and geographical regions, and analyses the relevance of internal policy reforms in the EU and the US in particular.

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        The Information Economy Report 2010: ICTs, Enterprises and Poverty Alleviation (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 172 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade and Poverty

        The Information Economy Report 2010: ICT, Enterprises and Poverty Alleviation is the fifth in the flagship series published by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). As one of few annual reports that monitor global trends related to information and communication technologies (ICTs) from a development perspective, the Report is a valuable reference source for policymakers in developing countries. In the 2010 edition, special attention is given to the potential impact of ICTs in enterprises for reducing poverty and improving livelihoods. The evidence presented in this Report suggests that more attention should be given by policymakers and other stakeholders to opportunities in this area.

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        Integración Regional En América Latina: Desafíos Y Oportunidades
        Study by UNCTAD Virtual Institute, 2010, 163 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research

        The publication comprises six papers (written in Spanish with English summaries) dealing with the regional integration process in Latin America. The authors, from Vi member universities of Argentina, Peru, Uruguay, Brazil, Spain, as well as Switzerland, analyze political, economic and legal aspects of regional trade agreements between South American countries and trading partners from both the South and the North.

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        Intellectual Property in the World Trade Organization (English)
        Working paper by UNCTAD, 2010, 87 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The paper examines the development implications of the World Trade Organization(WTO) Agreement on Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and aims to offer suggestions on how to reduce the agreement’s development deficit and increase its development friendliness. The paper provides a historic overview of the TRIPS negotiations, the agreement itself and the development deficits therein. It also presents the broader context surrounding intellectual property (IP) issues, namely, on the one hand, the increasing trend towards higher IP standards and on the other hand, the growing insight on the need to rebalance existing IP rules. It also analyses selected aspects of the TRIPS Agreement,highlighting their development implications.

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        Intellectual Property Rights and the TRIPS Agreement: An Overview of Ethical Problems and Some Proposed Solutions (English)
        Working paper by Sonderholm, Jorn/World Bank, 2010, 48 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights negotiated in 1986 under the auspices of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, the institutional predecessor of the World Trade Organization, incorporated substantial and uniform protections of intellectual property rights into the international trade system. A large body of contemporary academic literature suggests that intellectual property rights on socially valuable goods such as essential medicines give rise to a number of ethical problems. This review paper seeks to give an overview of these problems. Moreover, it offers an outline and discussion of a number of proposals as to how these problems might be alleviated. The paper is primarily descriptive in character. This means that although a personal perspective is sometimes offered, the primary ambition of the paper is not to argue for, and defend, a particular solution to the issues discussed. The aim is rather to highlight, explain and put into perspective a number of important arguments in the debate on the ethical nature of intellectual property rights so that policy-makers and other stakeholders are relatively well-equipped to make up their own mind on the issue.

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        International Government Debt (English)
        Discussion paper by Panizza, Ugo; Sturzenegger Federico; Zettelmeyer Jeromin/ UNCTAD, 2010, 28 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development

        This paper presents a non-technical survey of the modern literature on international government debt. In doing so, it aims to match predictions made by theoretical models with the existing empirical evidence and to identify the models that best explain the real world experience of sovereign debt and sovereign default. The paper starts by describing how the levels and structure of international government debt have evolved during the last 40 years. Next, it reviews economic theories of sovereign debt, whose defining characteristic is the impossibility of enforcing repayment and discusses recent attempts to reconcile the theory with the evidence. Finally, the paper discusses the role of debt structure and presents two alternative views on the relationship between debt structure and crises.

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        International Regulation and Treatment of Trade Finance : What Are The Issues? (English)
        Working paper by Auboin, Marc, 2010, 23 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law

        The paper discusses a number of issues related to the treatment of trade credit internationally, a priori (treatment by banking regulators) and a posteriori (treatment by debtors and creditors in the case of default), which are currently of interest to the trade finance community, in particular the traditional providers of trade credit and guarantees, such as banks, export credit agencies, regional development banks, and multilateral agencies. The paper does not deal with the specific issue of regulation of official insured-export credit, under the OECD Arrangement, which is a specific matter left out of this analysis. Traditionally, trade finance has received preferred treatment on the part of national and international regulators, as well as by international financial agencies in the treatment of trade finance claims, on grounds that trade finance was one of the safest, most collateralized, and selfliquidating forms of trade finance. Preferred treatment of trade finance also reflects the systemic importance of trade, as in sovereign or private defaults a priority is to "treat" expeditiously trade lines of credits to allow for such credit to be restored and trade to flow again. It is not only a matter of urgency for essential imports to be financed, but also a pre-condition for economic recovery, as the resumption of trade is necessary for ailing countries to restore balance of payments equilibrium.

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        International Supply Chains and Trade Elasticity in Times of Global Crisis (English)
        Working paper by Escaith, Hubert, Lindenberg, Nannette, Miroudot, Sébastien, 2010, 42 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The paper investigates the role of global supply chains in explaining the trade collapse of 2008-2009 and the long-term variations observed in trade elasticity. Building on the empirical results obtained from a subset of input-output matrices and the exploratory analysis of a large and diversified sample of countries, a formal model is specified to measure the respective short-term and long-term dynamics of trade elasticity. The model is then used to formally probe the role of vertical integration in explaining changes in trade elasticity. Aggregated results on long-term trade elasticity tend to support the hypothesis that world economy has undertaken in the late 1980s a "traverse" between two underlying economic models. During this transition, the expansion of international supply chains determined an apparent increase in trade elasticity. Two supply chains related effects (the composition and the bullwhip effects) explain also the overshooting of trade elasticity that occurred during the 2008-2009 trade collapse. But vertical specialization is unable to explain the heterogeneity observed on a country and sectoral level, indicating that other contributive factors may also have been at work to explain the diversity of the observed results.

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        International Trade After the Economic Crisis: Challenges and New Opportunities
        Study by UNCTAD, 2010, 158 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The purpose of this year’s UNCTAD-JETRO joint research is to investigate the new economic realities in international trade that are evident particularly after the 2008 financial crisis, and to highlight the issues that are key to the future of pro-trade as well as pro-development international trading system.

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        Investment and Enterprise Responsibility Review. Analysis of Investor and Enterprise Policies on Corporate Social Responsibility. (English)
        Report by Unctad, 2010, 95 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Investment

        Transnational corporations (TNCs) play an ever more important role in sustainable development as conduits of capital, technology and management know-how. Increasingly, TNCs are being called upon to address broader environmental, social and governance (ESG) issues. At the same time, large, globally active investment institutions are becoming increasingly aware of the potential impact of a range of non-financial issues (e.g. climate change, human rights, corporate governance practices) of an investment proposition. This review of the current state of practices in the area of corporate social responsibility (CSR)among the world's 100 largest TNCs and responsible investment (RI)among the 100 largest institutional investors reveals a number of important insights.

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        Investment Policy Monitor (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 13 pages
        Categories: Investment

        This Monitor is the third of a new series launched by the UNCTAD secretariat in order to provide policymakers and the international community with up-to-date information about the latest developments and salient features in foreign investment policies at the national and international level. It covers measures taken in the period between April and the beginning of October 2010. The policy measures mentioned in the Monitor are identified through a systemic review of government and business intelligence sources. Measures are verified, to the fullest extent possible, by referencing government sources.

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        Investment Policy Review - Sierra Leone (English)
        Report by Investment Policy Review team/ UNCTAD, 2010, 126 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The paper presents an overview of the economic structure and the impact of FDI in Sierra Leone; it examines its investment framework and proposes a number of recommendations to deepen the reforms and to position Sierra Leone’s investment framework on more competitive grounds; finally, it proposes an overall strategy to enhance the role of FDI in achieving national development goals.

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        Investor-state Disputes: Prevention and Alternatives to Arbitration (English)
        Working paper by UNCTAD, 2010, 157 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law

        This paper is part of a new Series on International Investment Policies for Development. It builds on, and expands, UNCTAD’s Series on Issues in International Investment Agreements. Like the previous one, this new series is addressed to Government officials, corporate executives,representatives of non-governmental organizations, officials of international agencies and researchers.

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        La Política Comercial En América Latina Durante La Crisis: Algunas Observaciones Preliminares (English)
        Policy brief by Durán Lima, José; Herreros, Sebastián/ LATN, 2010, 5 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs

        En el marco de la coordinación regional de Global Trade Alert, LATN presenta este brief donde se analiza la diversidad de medidas implementadas en materia de política comercial a lo largo América Latina tras el desencadenamiento de la crisis financiera internacional.

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        Learning from the Chinese Miracle: Development Lessons for Sub-saharan Africa
        Report by Zafar, Ali/World Bank, 2010, 38 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation

        A notable contrast in modern economic history has been the rapid economic growth of China and the slower and volatile economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. As the engagement between the two continues to grows, there will be a greater cross-fertilization of experiences. Total factor productivity comparisons suggest that capital accumulation in China coupled with more efficient factor usage explains the differential with Africa. Although the two have similar populations and patterns of inequality, their growth trajectories have been divergent. What can Africa learn from China? Although the lessons vary depending on country location and resource endowment, seven basic lessons are visible. First, the political economy of Chinese reforms and the shared gains between political elites and the private sector can be partially transplanted to the African context. Second, the Chinese used diaspora capital and knowledge in the early reform years. Third, rural reforms in China helped accelerate economic takeoff through a restructuring of property rights and a boost to both savings rates and output. Fourth, Chinese growth has taken place in the context of a competitive exchange rate. Five, port governance in China has been exemplary, and African landlocked economies can benefit significantly from port reform in the coastal countries. Six, China has experimented with a degree of decentralization that could yield benefits for many Sub-Saharan African countries. Seventh, Africa can learn from China's policies toward autonomous areas and ethnic minorities to stave off conflict. Africa can learn from China's experiences and conduct developmental experiments for poverty alleviation goals.

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        The Least Developed Countries 2010: Towards a New International Development Architecture for LDCs (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 298 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development

        As discussed in previous LDC Reports, the LDCs have remained marginal in the world economy owing to their structural weaknesses and the form of their integration into the global economy. Unless both these aspects are directly addressed, they will remain marginal and their vulnerability to external shocks and pressures will persist. The basic message of this Report is that for achieving accelerated development and poverty reduction in LDCs, there is need not only for improved international support mechanisms (ISMs) which are specifically targeted at the LDCs but also for a new international development architecture (NIDA) for the LDCs. The Report proposes five major pillars for the NIDA: finance, trade, commodities, technology, and climate change adaptation and mitigation.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2010: Towards a New International Development Architecture for Ldcs (overview) (English)
        Outline by UNCTAD, 2010, 52 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Trade and Poverty

        As discussed in previous LDC Reports, the LDCs have remained marginal in the world economy owing to their structural weaknesses and the form of their integration into the global economy. Unless both these aspects are directly addressed, they will remain marginal and their vulnerability to external shocks and pressures will persist. The basic message of this Report is that for achieving accelerated development and poverty reduction in LDCs, there is need not only for improved international support mechanisms (ISMs) which are specifically targeted at the LDCs but also for a new international development architecture (NIDA) for the LDCs.

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        Lessons From The First Two Decades Of Trade Policy Reviews In The Americas (English)
        Working paper by Valdés, Raymundo, 2010, 59 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The Trade Policy Reviews conducted in the Western Hemisphere over 1989-2009 contain a wealth of information that puts in clear evidence the considerable improvements achieved in most American countries during the first two decades of operation of the Trade Policy Review Mechanism. Those Reviews show that trade liberalization came hand-in-hand with internal reforms, and was generally of an autonomous nature and an intrinsic component of improved economic management. Trade liberalization slowed down during the second decade under review, with tariffs having come down mostly during the earlier years. The use of non-tariff barriers also fell over time although at a slow pace in some of the smallest Members, which found it difficult to implement the more complex trade policy instrument applied by larger countries. Export and other government assistance schemes proliferated throughout the continent but were often characterized by a lack of unity in the criteria used to assign and apply them. The review period also witnessed enormous changes in the services sectors, where reforms usually proved more complex than in the goods area. The multilateral and other international trade agreements contributed to the stability of trade policies and the general rejection of protectionism, although backtracking did occur in a number of cases. Because the commitments made during the Uruguay Round negotiation now fall short of the more liberal trade regimes that came to be over the review period, most Members in the Americas could presently raise trade and investment barriers without violating multilateral rules. Thus, the pressing need to conclude the Doha Development Agenda in order to lock in the considerable trade policy liberalization achieved during past years, and to strengthen the multilateral trading system.

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        Making Climate Change and Trade Mutually Supportive
        Policy brief by Messerlin, Patrick/ ARTNeT, 2010, 4 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        A few years ago, the relations between the climate and trade communities were marked by mutual ignorance at best, and more often by deep hostility. Now things are changing. The trade community is realizing that climate change concerns will be high on the political agenda for a long time to come. The climate community is realizing that climate policies will face fierce opposition from four-fifths of human kind if it costs too much in terms of growth and of trade, its main channel. However, many fears and doubts still abound. This policy brief reviews what the trade community and the climate community have in common, and what the possibilities offered to them are, but also the challenges they will have to face.

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        Managing Risk and Creating Value with Microfinance (English)
        Report by Goldberg, Mike, Palladini, Eric, 2010, 147 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development

        This report presents issues directly related to microfinance institutional sustainability. The first part includes chapters on risk management systems, good governance, interest rates, and micro-insurance. The second part is devoted to topics in new product development and efficient delivery methodologies such as housing microfinance, micro-leasing, disaster preparedness products and systems as well as new technologies. The objectives of the report is to strengthen microfinance institutions (MFIs) by disseminating innovative approaches in risk management; to promote a South-South exchange of experiences and greater ties between MFIs and government regulators, and to highlight the Bank's ability to mobilize international technical expertise in microfinance.

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        Market Access, Trasparency and Fairness in Global Trade: Export Impact for Good 2010 (English)
        Report by ITC, 2010, 160 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Improving market access and market entry for developing countries will improve fairness in global trade because it will contribute to reducing global poverty. Developing countries need to export more in order to boost growth and reduce poverty and provide opportunities for wealth creation in their domestic markets, which are typically small.Moreover, across developing countries a large share of the growth will be needed for investments in infrastructure in order to build up competitive advantages. Hence, developing countries will typically only realize slow domestic consumption growth in the short and medium term – but export development can boost growth prospects. This report discusses trade transparency and fairness in the context of global trade;highlights key market access issues for developing countries; examines the relationship between export development and poverty reduction, and outlines implications for both developing country policies as well as international measures to improve markets.

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        Measuring Financial Access Around the World (English)
        Working paper by Kendall, Jake; Mylenko, Nataliya; Ponce, Alejandro/World Bank, 2010, 67 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development

        This paper introduces a new set of financial access indicators for 139 countries across the globe and describes the results of a preliminary analysis of this data set. The new data set builds on previous work using a similar methodology. The new data set features broader country coverage and greater disaggregation by type of financial product and by type of institution supplying the product -- commercial banks, specialized state run savings and development banks, banks with mutual ownership structure (such as cooperatives), and microfinance institutions. The authors use the data set to conduct a rough estimation of the number of bank accounts in the world (6.2 billion) as well as the number of banked and unbanked individuals. In developed countries, they estimate 3.2 accounts per adult and 81 percent of adults banked. By contrast, in developing countries, they estimate only 0.9 accounts per adult and 28 percent banked. In regression analysis, they find that measures of development and physical infrastructure are positively associated with the indicators of deposit account, loan, and branch penetration.

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        Measuring Monetary Policy in Open Economies
        Working paper by Cerdeiro, Diego A., 2010, 35 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy

        The paper extends Bernanke and Mihov's [6] closed-economy strategy for identification of monetary policy shocks to open-economy settings, accounting for the simultaneity between interest-rate and exchange-rate innovations. The methodology allows a separate treatment of two distinct monetary policy shocks, one that operates through open market operations, and another one that takes place through interventions in the foreign exchange market. Implementation of this strategy to the case of Argentina provides the stylized facts necessary to choose among competing theoretical models of this economy. In addition to studying the effects of monetary policy innovations, the present study sheds light on the endogenous component of monetary policy. In this regard, the paper finds that, notwithstanding the relative stability of the exchange rate and the accumulation of large amounts of international reserves, the central bank in Argentina has been far from absorbing balance of payments shocks in a currency-board fashion. The growing level of international reserves can be rationalized, instead, as the monetary authority's response to terms of trade, supply and domestic currency demand shocks.

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        Mercosur in South-south Agreements: In the Middle of Two Models of Regionalism
        Study by Celli, Umberto; Salles, Marcus; Tussie, Diana; Peixoto, Juliana, 2010, 72 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research

        The objective of this paper is to analyse the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) as the case of a regional integration process in transition between different moments: the 1990s neoliberal moment (which concentrated solely on trade liberalization) and the present neo-developmental phase, which now includes structural policies as a new pillar for integration. The pull of each contrasting mindset leads to tensions in both the internal and external agendas. In this analysis, we focus on three specific issues: asymmetries, trade in services and investments. All three have loomed large in the North-South agenda, but as regional agreements make progress and a new mindset emerges they now cast a shadow on South-South relations.

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        Model Contracts for Small Firms: Legal Guidance for Doing International Business
        Book by ITC, 2010, 162 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law

        This book contains the main international commercial contracts that small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) will need in their trade transactions. All contracts are harmonized in structure as well as in content through the insertion in each of identical boilerplate or recurring clauses. The nine model forms and the boilerplate clauses were selected on the basis of a worldwide survey of representative institutions of SMEs.

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        Model Law on Competition (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2010, 114 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy

        The Intergovernmental Group of Experts on Competition Law and Policy, at its tenth session (7–9 July 2009),requested the UNCTAD secretariat to prepare a further revised and updated version of the Model Law on Competition, on the basis of submissions to be received from member States no later than 30 May 2010. In addition, the secretariat was asked to redesign the format of the presentation and its updates. The design of the Model Law 2010 has been made more “reader-friendly” in that recent developments in legislation, case law and commentaries are contained in comparative tables indicating the types of laws or solutions adopted by countries for different aspects of the competition issues.

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        More Stringent BITs, Less Ambiguous Effects on FDI? Not a Bit! (English)
        Working paper by Berger, Axel, Busse, Matthias, Nunnenkamp, Peter, Roy, Martin, 2010, 14 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Investment

        In this paper, we focus on investor-state dispute settlement provisions contained in various, though far from all, bilateral investment treaties as a possible determinant of BIT-related effects on bilateral FDI flows. Our estimation results prove to be sensitive to the specification of these provisions as well as the inclusion of transition countries in the sample. Stricter dispute settlement provisions do not necessarily result in higher FDI inflows so that the effectiveness of BITs as a credible commitment device remains elusive.

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        Most-favoured Nation Treatment (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 157 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law

        The inclusion of most-favoured-nation (MFN) treatment provisions in international investment agreements (IIAs) followed its use in the context of international trade and was meant to address commitments made by States in free trade agreements (FTA) to grant preferential treatment to goods and services regarding market access. However, in the context of international investment that takes place behind borders, MFN clauses work differently. In early BITs, as national treatment (NT) was not granted systematically, the inclusion of MFN treatment clauses was generalized in order to ensure that the host States, while not granting NT, would accord a covered foreign investor a treatment that is no less favourable than that it accords to a third foreign investor and would benefit from NT as soon as the country would grant it. Nowadays the overwhelming majority of IIAs have a MFN provision that goes alongside NT, mostly in a single provision.

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        Negociación De Un Acuerdo Comercial Con La Ue: Impactos Estimados De Pobreza En Ecuador (English)
        Policy brief by Wong, Sara/ LATN, 2010, 4 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade and Poverty

        En este brief se analizan los posibles resultados de un acuerdo comercial entre la Unión Europea y Ecuador recurriendo a un modelo de micro-simulaciones y considerando los impactos potenciales sobre los índices de pobreza.

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        Non-tariff Measures: Evidence from Selected Developing Countries and Future Research Agenda
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 166 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The severe contraction of world trade volume during the current global economic and financial crisis – the steepest since the Great Depression – put pressure on the trade policies of many importing and exporting countries around the world. One result of the crisis in developed and developing countries has been the contemplation or use of trade policy instruments, mainly taking the form of non-tariff measures (NTMs), to protect domestic producers.The present publication brings to a culmination a four-year multi-agency effort to better understand NTMs. It will provide practical help to UNCTAD member States, particularly developing countries. Such help can strengthen their capacity to understand non-tariff measures and the potentially negative spill-over eff ects of NTMs in trade, as well as support countries in formulating and implementing sound trade and development policies and strategies.

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        Oil Prices and Maritime Freight Rates: An Empirical Investigation (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 40 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade Facilitation

        The study assesses the effect of oil prices on maritime freight rates for containerized goods and two particular commodities, iron ore and crude oil. Results also indicate that, since 2004, the elasticity of container freight rates to oil prices is larger; this suggests that the effect of oil prices\\non container freight rates increases in periods of sharply rising and more volatile oil prices. The results are of particular interest in view of increasing oil supply constraints expected over the coming decades which may lead to significant increases in oil prices, possibly to levels which have not yet been reached.

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        Opportunities in the Southern Pattern of Trade Specialization: Identifying Potentialities in Natural Resource Activities (English)
        Case study by Bianchi, Eduardo; Uzquiza, Laura; Fairlie, Alan, 2010
        Categories: Commodities, VI Members Research

        This Vi joint research project between Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales (FLACSO) and Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú (PUCP) analyzes the evolution of natural resource activities in Latin America and the impact of trade liberalization and the Southern pattern on growth, labour, poverty and income distribution. The analysis looks at two case studies in Peru (mining) and Argentina (natural resources) and describes several challenges for public institutions in ensuring export development along the lines of the Southern pattern.

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        Patents and Clean Energy: Bridging the Gap Between Evidence and Policy (English)
        Report by UNEP/EPO/ICTSD, 2010, 50 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Trade and Environment

        Technology development and its rapid diffusion are considered crucial for tackling the climate change challenge. In particular, enhancing technology transfer towards developing countries has been an integral part of the global climate change regime since the inception of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The role of intellectual property rights (IPRs) in the transfer of climate change technologies has emerged as a particularly contentious issue in the past two years. Against this background, the United Nations Environment Programme(UNEP), the European Patent Office (EPO) and the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development(ICTSD) joined forces to undertake an empirical study on the role of patents in the transfer of clean energy technologies(CETs).

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        Paths to 2015: MDG Priorities in Asia and the Pacific (English)
        Report by ESCAP, ADB and UNDP, 2010, 70 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development

        Impending deadlines tend to focus the mind. Back in 2000 the year 2015, which is the target date for the Millennium Development Goals, seemed some way off. Now two thirds of the way towards the finishing line, it is beginning to look uncomfortably close. The year 2010 is therefore an appropriate point to take stock – to assess some of the likely outcomes on present trends, identify some of the weakest areas of performance,and identify priorities for action.This 2010/11 report refreshes the signals to reflect the latest information from the United Nations MDG database to assess which countries and subregions are likely to miss or achieve the Goals. But rather than addressing a new theme, this more concise report attempts to encapsulate and update the discussions and recommendations of the earlier reports. The report Paths to 2015 emphasises the inter relationships between MDGs by identifying some overall priorities and opportunities that countries can consider for achieving all the goals. Then it focuses specifically on three areas: hunger and food security; health and basic services – areas where the Asia-Pacific region as a whole appears to be falling short; and on improvement of basic infrastructure which is often neglected but is critical if the region is to achieve the MDGs.

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        Policy Space to Prevent and Mitigate Financial Crises in Trade and Investment Agreements (English)
        Discussion paper by Gallagher, Kevin P., 2010, 34 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Macroeconomic Policy

        Do nations have the policy space to deploy capital controls in order to prevent and mitigate financial crises? This paper examines the extent to which measures to mitigate this crisis and prevent future crises are permissible under a variety of bilateral, regional and multilateral trade and investment agreements. It is found that the United States trade and investment agreements, and to a lesser extent the WTO, leave little room to manoeuvre when it comes to capital controls. This is the case despite the increasing economic evidence showing that certain capital controls can be useful in preventing or mitigating financial crises. It also stands in contrast with investment rules under the IMF, OECD and the treaties of most capital exporting nations which allow for at least the temporary use of capital controls as a safeguard measure. Drawing on the comparative analysis conducted in the paper, the author offers a range of policies that could be deployed to make the United States investment rules more consistent with the rules of its peers and the economic realities of the 21st century.

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        Potential Supply Chains in Textiles and Clothing Sector in South Asia. An Exploratory Study (English)
        Case study by Das, Abhijit, Banga, Rashmi, Kumar, Dinesh, Razzaque, M.A., Ratna, R.S., Moitra, Snighda, 2010, 147 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        The main objective of this study is to identify at HS six digit codes the potential supply chains that can be formed in the T&C sector (HS Chapters 50-63) within South Asia, which will enable South Asia to lower its cost of production and improve its global competitiveness. The analysis is undertaken for the four major economies of the region,namely Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The benefits of regional integration in developing potential supply chains in South Asia are also addressed.

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        Price Levels and Economic Growth: Making Sense of the PPP Changes Between ICP Rounds (English)
        Working paper by Ravallion, Martin/World Bank, 2010, 25 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy

        To the surprise of many observers, the 2005 International Comparison Program (ICP) found substantially higher purchasing power parity (PPP) rates, relative to market exchange rates, in most developing countries. For example, China’s price level index -- the ratio of its PPP to its exchange rate -- doubled between the 1993 and 2005 rounds of the ICP. The paper tries to explain the observed changes in PPPs. Consistently with the Balassa-Samuelson model, evidence is found of a "dynamic Penn effect," whereby more rapidly growing economies experience steeper increases in their price level index. This effect has been even stronger for initially poorer countries. Thus the widely-observed static (cross-sectional) Penn effect has been attenuated over time. On also taking account of exchange rate changes and prior participation in the ICP’s price surveys, 99 percent of the variance in the observed changes in PPPs is explicable. Using a nested test, the World Bank’s longstanding method of extrapolating PPPs between ICP rounds using inflation rates alone is out performed by the model proposed in this paper.

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        Promoting Foreign Investment in Tourism
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 78 pages
        Categories: Investment

        Tourism is a key sector for economic development: it is a fast-growing and labour-intensive industry that involves many economic activities. Available data indicate that FDI in tourism is still quite limited, and that non-equity forms of investment are more frequently used as a mode of entry for transnational corporations (TNCs). Furthermore, tourism-related FDI is concentrated in a few activities, mostly accommodation, restaurants and car rentals. There is little FDI in high-profile activities such as tour operations, reservations systems and airlines. Investment promotion agencies (IPAs) can play an important role in the development of a country’s tourism industry.

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        Renewable Energy Technologies for Rural Development
        Study by Johnson, Oliver; Watson, Jim / University of Sussex; Wu, Dong /UNCTAD, 2010, 41 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology

        The paper provides an overview of some of the issues surrounding the use of renewable energy technologies (RETs) to increase access to modern energy services in rural areas. This paper reviews current international commitments to RET use and rural development and examine the literature connecting RETs with rural development; it looks at RET options and some potential benefits and challenges to deploying them; it investigates, using a number of case studies, how RETs have been used to promote rural development and how innovative project/programme design can help overcome some of the barriers inherent to RET deployment in the market. The last chapter presents conclusions and recommendations.

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        Responding to the Challenges Posed by the Global Economic Crisis to Debt and Development Finance
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 120 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, International Financial System

        This report is submitted to the General Assembly in accordance with paragraph 4 of Assembly resolution. It includes a comprehensive analysis of the external debt situation and debt-servicing problems of developing countries and transition economies. It aims to describe new developments and key trends in external debt and related areas of development finance and to provide a basis for deliberation of related policy issues.

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        Responsible Sovereign Lending and Borrowing (English)
        Discussion paper by Buchheit, Lee C., Gulati, G. Mitu/ UNCTAD, 2010, 32 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development

        There are three reasons for attempting to reach a common understanding of the responsibilities of sovereign borrowers and their lenders. First, the flow of capital to sovereign debtors is exceptionally important to the world economy. Second, sovereign finance is uniquely unforgiving of mistakes. Third, the human cost of prodigal sovereign borrowing, reckless sovereign lending or incompetent sovereign debt restructuring is incalculable. This paper shows that a consensus about the responsibilities of sovereign borrowers and lenders, together with improvements in the way in which sovereign loans are planned, executed, documented and, when necessary, restructured, will directly affect the lives of most of the people that live on this planet.

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        Revealed Factor Intensity Indices at the Product Level
        Study by UNCTAD, 2010, 59 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The process of export diversification has long been a major research issue in international economics. In recent years, there has been renewed interest in the nature and the process of export diversification. This study aims to provide a tool to fill the gap between traditional, theory-based approaches and newer eclectic ones by developing a time-series database of the indices of revealed factor intensity (RFI) of export products, using a wealth of raw data accumulated in the last two decades.

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        Review of Analytical Tools for Assessing Trade and Climate Change Linkages
        Working paper by Truong, Truong P./ ARTNeT, 2010, 35 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        This paper briefly refers to the essential elements underlying the theoretical linkages between trade, economic development, and climate change, and reviews the analytical tools which are used to describe these linkages. The author looks specifically at a particular type of analytical tool called computable general equilibrium (CGE) models, and considers their strengths and limitations when used as a tool for the analysis of these trade and climate change linkages. The paper finds that the tool have been more useful than ‘misused’, and this explains for the popularity of its use in the past.

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        Review of Maritime Transport 2010 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 213 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, International Economic Law

        The Review of Maritime Transport is a recurrent publication prepared by the UNCTAD secretariat since 1968 with the aim of fostering the transparency of maritime markets and analysing relevant developments. It is divided into seven chapters. The first chapter "Development in International Seaborne Trade" reviews the overall performance of the global economy in 2009, considers developments in world seaborne trade volumes and highlights some emerging global challenges which are affecting maritime transport. It also looks more closely at developments affecting energy-related bulk cargoes, namely oil, gas and coal. The second chapter "Structure, Ownership and Registration of the World Fleet" presents the supply-side dynamics of the world maritime industry. The third chapter "Productivity of the World Fleet, and Supply and Demand in World Shipping" provides information on the operational productivity of the world fleet and an analysis of the balance between supply and demand for tonnage and container-carrying capacity. Chapter four "Freight Rates" covers freight rates in the tanker market, the major dry bulk cargo markets and the liner shipping market. Each section contains information on recent developments in that area, followed by an analysis of how freight rates have performed over the course of 2009 and into 2010. Chapter five "Port and Multimodal Trasport Developments" covers some of the major port development projects under way in developing countries, container throughput, liner shipping connectivity, improvements in port performance, and multimodal transportation in the areas of road, rail, and inland waterways. The sixth chapter "Legal Issues and Regulatory Developments" provides information on some important legal issues and recent regulatory developments in the fields of transport and trade facilitation, together with information on the status of ratification of some of the main maritime conventions. The last chapter "Review of Regional Developments in Asia and the Pacific" follows up on the developments in international transport and trade in the Asia-Pacific region reported in the Review of Maritime Transport 2007. It examines regional developments from 2007 to 2009, and gives special consideration to landlocked developing countries in the region.

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        Risk Factors in International Financial Crises: Early Lessons from the 2008-2009 Turmoil
        Working paper by Dullien, Sebastian/ HTW, 2010, 21 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy

        This paper analyses the global transmission of the recent economic and financial crisis as a function of macroeconomic factors such as per capita gross domestic product, current-account positions prior to the crisis, exchange-rate regimes, inflation prior to the crisis and financial openness. It finds that large current-account imbalances (both surpluses and deficits) were a risk factor in the current global economic turmoil. It also finds that countries that use currency boards have suffered much more from the crisis than countries with other exchange-rate regimes. Financial openness appears to have increased the risk of experiencing a deep recession, while higher inflation prior to the crisis seems to have mitigated its impact.

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        The Role of International Trade, Technology and Structural Change in Shifting Labour Demands in South Africa (English)
        Working paper by Haroon Bhorat, et al./ UNCTAD, 2010, 71 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        South Africa’s relatively peaceful transition from minority rule to majority rule in 1994 masked the challenges that lay ahead in terms of dealing with the economic vestiges of the system of racial exclusivity. The post-apartheid labour market challenge is twofold: firstly, South Africa has one of the highest unemployment rates in the world – officially at 26.7 percent and 38.8 percent when discouraged workers are included. Secondly, alongside this excess supply of labour, the economy for a variety of historical reasons has experienced a rapid increase in the demand for educated workers – the upshot of which has been an ongoing and severe skills shortage. The core of the paper is a detailed attempt at outlining the key factors that have shaped the economy’s chronic labour market crisis. In particular, it focuses on the different forces that have shaped labour demand trends in the apartheid and post-1994 period. It seeks to explain the relative contributions of structural shifts in the economy, technology and international trade,respectively, in determining the labour demand trajectory of the economy over the last three and a half decades. Moreover, the paper provides a descriptive analysis of the impact of the global economic and financial crisis on South Africa’s employment performance.

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        Science, Technology and Innovation Policy - Review of Mauritania (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2010, 147 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Science and Technology

        This Science Technology and Innovation Policy (STIP) Review provides an outline and assessment of the country’s current science, technology and innovation (STI) capabilities, their STI policies and the effectiveness of their national systems of innovation (NSIs) and knowledge systems in improving the productivity of enterprises and national economic performance, as well as in helping the country to address various economic, social and environmental challenges. It seeks to analyse how these have evolved in recent years, to provide an independent evaluation of whether these capabilities and the NSI need to be strengthened, how they might fit into the country’s development strategy, and suggest how policymakers in Mauritania might go about doing this. It also compares the progress made in upgrading these capabilities in relation to progress made in strengthening the other main elements that contribute to promoting economic growth and development in the country. The main finding of the Review is that STI capabilities, and the ability of enterprises and the public sector to effectively harness them for innovation, are currently inadequate to address the challenges that the country faces.

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        Simulations on the Special Safeguard Mechanism. A Look at the December 2008 Draft Agriculture Modalities. (English)
        Working paper by Montemayor, Raul/ICTSD, 2010, 58 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper aims to provide policy-makers, negotiators and other stakeholders with a clear technical assessment of how the December 2008 draft modalities (TN/AG/W/4/Rev.4) and the accompanying working document (TN/AG/W/7) could affect the functioning of the proposed special safeguard mechanism, and, in particular, accessibility of the mechanism and its effectiveness.

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        Sovereign Wealth Funds and the Principle of State Immunity from Taxation. Which Implications for Economic Development? (English)
        Article by Michele Barbieri, 2010, 32 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, VI Members Research

        Taxes levied by host States on transnational investments undertaken in their territory by Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs) owned by other countries have a relevant impact on the financial performance of SWFs and, finally, on the amount of wealth available to the States owning SWFs. As most owners of SWFs are developing countries and economies in transition and as SWFs are tools such States can use to promote sustainable economic development, the taxation of SWFs by host countries often has an impact on the developmental policies of the States which own SWFs. Starting from the analysis of the principle of State immunity, the paper will try to elaborate a theory on the taxation of SWFs which at the same time takes into consideration the role that SWFs play in the promotion of economic development.

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        Speculative Influences on Commodity Futures Prices 2006-2008 (English)
        Discussion paper by Gilbert, Christopher L. / UNCTAD, 2010, 40 pages
        Categories: Commodities, International Financial System

        This paper examines the possible price impact of speculative bubbles and index-based investment activity on commodity futures prices over 2006–2008. Emphasis is put on crude oil, three nonferrous metals (aluminium, copper and nickel) and three agricultural commodities (wheat, corn and soybeans). There is significant evidence for periods of explosive bubble behaviour in the copper market where three separate bubbles are identified (plus a bubble in the soybeans market), whereas the evidence for bubble behaviour is weaker for crude oil and nickel. Aluminium, corn and wheat appear to have been bubble-free. The author also examines the effects of index-based investment on the same markets, and finds strong evidence that index-based investment did contribute to the rises in oil and metals prices over 2006–2008 but weaker evidence for similar effects on grains prices.

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        Study on Prospects for Harmonizing Cyberlegislation in Latin America (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2010, 73 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy

        The development of e-commerce and the increasing interaction between enterprises and government agencies via electronic means call for a regulatory framework that promotes secure online transactions and provides legal security for those opting to use electronic means rather than conventional means of communication. Since 2003, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) has been active in providing cooperation and technical assistance to governments of developing countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America, for the purpose of developing legal frameworks to regulate ICT use. One of the principal objectives of UNCTAD is to provide technical assistance to those countries for developing public policy and regulation, based on international best practices that encourage the development of e-commerce and e-government services.

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        Sustainable Development in International Intellectual Property Law (English)
        Working paper by UNCTAD, 2010, 47 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law

        In international law, the concept of sustainable development has an ambiguous meaning and several distinct connotations. Among these, the principle of integration and reconciliation of economic, social and environmental interests functions as a core element. The relevant literature states that institutions, economic policy and geography are the three most important determinants of a country’s economic performance. The purpose of this paper is to further investigate the institutions hypothesis.

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        Technology and Innovation Report 2010: Enhancing food security in Africa through science, technology and innovation (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 124 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Science and Technology

        UNCTAD’s Technology and Innovation Report 2010 focuses on the technological challenges that small-holder farmers in developing countries, especially sub-Saharan Africa, face in increasing agricultural productivity. It outlines the agricultural sector’s challenges and the roles of technology and innovation in raising production and the income of small-holder farmers. It also describes readily available technologies that can be applied now to improve soils, manage water shortages and resist drought.

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        Third Report on G20 Investment Measures
        Report by OECD; UNCTAD, 2010, 35 pages
        Categories: Investment

        At the London and Pittsburgh Summits, G20 Leaders have committed to forego protectionism and have requested public reports on their adherence to this commitment. The document is the third report on investment and investment-related measures in response to this mandate. It has been prepared jointly by the OECD and UNCTAD Secretariats and covers investment and investment-related measures taken between November 2009 and May 2010.

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        Timeliness and Contract Enforceability in Intermediate Goods Trade (English)
        Working paper by Gamberoni, Elisa, Lanz, Rainer, Piermartini, Roberta,, 2010, 26 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper shows that the institutional environment and the ability to export on time are sources of comparative advantage as important as factors of production. In particular, the ability to export on time is crucial to explain comparative advantage in intermediate goods. These findings underscore the importance of investing in infrastructure and fostering trade facilitation to boost a country's participation in production networks. Furthermore, we contribute to the so-called "distance puzzle" by showing that the increasing importance of distance over time is in part driven by trade in intermediate goods.

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        Trade and Development Report, 2010. Employment, Globalization and Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 18 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The Trade and Development Report 2010 focuses on the need to make employment creation a priority in economic policy. Unemployment is the most pressing social and economic problem of our time, especially in developing countries, where it is closely related to poverty. UNCTAD draws attention to the importance of strengthening the macroeconomic policy framework to promote sustainable growth and employment creation in both developed and developing countries. Finally, the report makes recommendations for a reorientation of macroeconomic policies and institution building aimed at strengthening domestic demand.

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        Trade and Environment Review 2009/2010
        Review by UNCTAD, 2010, 230 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        While several rapidly industrializing developing countries have not seen a major slump in their growth by the recent economic and financial crises, UNCTAD´s Trade and Environment Review 2009/2010 (TER 09/10) focuses on the 140 plus low-income and least developed countries, which have not caused the economic, financial, climate and food crises (they account, for instance, for less than 10% of energy-related GHG emissions of all developing countries), but have to bear the full brunt of these crises. How can they effectively mitigate these inter-related crises while transiting to a qualitatively and structurally different growth and development model? The TER 09/10 singles out three areas of sustainable, "green" growth that are of particular and strategic importance for the low-income and least developed countries: 1) Enhancing energy efficiency, often implemented in combination with material and resource efficiency; 2) Mainstreaming sustainable agriculture, including organic agriculture; and 3) Harnessing the use of off-grid renewable energy technologies for sustainable rural development.

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        Trade and Market Access Data for Policy Makers
        Summary by WTO, 2010, 40 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This brochure has been prepared from a compilation of documents received from agencies and panellists who participated at the "Data Day at the WTO" on 18-19 May. It focuses on databases maintained by international agencies. For the most part, databases maintained by regional and national entities are not included. The brochure is divided into six main sections: services, tariffs and trade, non-tariff measures, agriculture-specific issues, trade facilitation, and indicators and modelling. Each section contains an introduction to the subject as well as a list of the main datasets and tools prepared by international organizations in order to support trade policy analysis and decision making.

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        Trade Profiles 2010 (English)
        Report by WTO, 2010, 198 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Trade Profiles provides the latest information on the trade flows and trade policy measures of WTO members, observers and other selected economies. With information for each country provided in a standardized format, the publication is an invaluable quick reference tool for anyone looking for essential trade statistics. The data provided for each country include basic economic indicators(such as GDP), trade policy indicators (such as tariffs, import duties,number of disputes, notifications outstanding and contingency measures in force), merchandise trade flows (broken down by broad product categories and major origins and destinations), services trade flows (with a breakdown by major components) and industrial property indicators. With one page devoted to each country, Trade Profiles offers a concise overview of global trade.

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        Trade-related Capacity Building for Academia in African Least Developed Countries: Development of Human Resources and Policy Support (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD Virtual Institute, 2010, 47 pages
        Categories: Trade Related Capacity Building

        The study is a contribution to the reflection on trade-related capacity building in the specific context of least developed countries in Africa, with a focus on the role of academia in building a critical mass of trade experts and engaging in policy advocacy. It analyzes the trade-related capacity-building needs in African LDCs and outlines various initiatives and actors – including the UNCTAD Virtual Institute – that are providers and beneficiaries of academic capacity-building services.

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        Training Module on the WTO Agreement on Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (trips) (English)
        Manual by Correa, Carlos/ UNCTAD, 2010, 60 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This module commences by providing background – including a historical perspective – on IPRs and the TRIPS Agreement. Then, chapter II offers a brief overview of different IPRs followed by chapter III, which discusses the interlinkages between IPRs and development. In so doing, chapter III looks at key aspects, including sector-specific impacts of IPRs, the impact of IPRs on gross domestic product (GDP) and the impact of IPRs on the private sector and on key public policy issues. Chapter IV provides a short description of the TRIPS Agreements and its main cross-cutting and IPR-specific provisions. Finally, chapter VI sketches out how the TRIPS Agreement evolves, most importantly through dispute settlement and the built-in agenda.

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        UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics 2010 (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2010, 551 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics provides essential data for analyzing and measuring world trade, investment, international financial flows and development. In addition to facilitating the work of the secretariat’s economists, the UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics alsoenables other users, such as policy-makers, research specialists, academics, officials from national governments or international organizations, executive managers or members of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) from developing,transition or developed countries to have access to this rich statistical information. The Handbook further offers journalists comprehensive information in a presentation that meets their needs. This handbook consists of eight parts: International merchandise trade, International merchandise trade by region, International merchandise trade by product, International merchandise trade indicators, International trade in services, Commodities, International finance and Development indicators.

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        Unctad Policy Brief: An Early Harvest Not So Early After All (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2010, 2 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This policy brief describes the 'trade' stimulus that can be achieved through the early conclusion of the Doha Round of WTO negotiations at LDC4. More specifically, it advocates an "early harvest" in specific areas, focusing on the accelerated implementation of duty-free quota-free (DFQF) market access, and an immediate resolution to the problem of trade-distorting cotton subsidies.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 12/2010: Global Monetary Chaos: Systemic Failures Need Bold Multilateral Responses (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2010, 2 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Amidst continued financial crisis, the question of the global trade imbalances is back high on the international agenda. A procession of prominent economists, editorialists and politicians have taken it upon themselves to “remind” the surplus countries, and in particular the country with the biggest surplus, China, of their responsibility for a sound and balanced global recovery. The generally shared view is that this means permitting the value of the renminbi to be set freely by the “markets”, so that the country will export less and import and consume more, hence allowing the rest of the world to do the opposite. But is it reasonable to put the burden of rebalancing the global economy on a single country and its currency? This policy brief contends that the decision to leave currencies to the vagaries of the market will not help rebalance the global economy. It argues that the problem lies in systemic failures, and as such, requires comprehensive and inclusive multilateral action.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 16/2010: A Big Public Investment Push Needed in Least Developed Countries to Meet Millennium Development Goals (English)
        Policy brief by Unctad, 2010, 2 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The MDGs have reinvigorated the case for ODA by tying it to an ambitious strategy to reduce poverty and improve human welfare in the most disadvantaged countries and communities. Looking ahead, as argued in this policy brief, LDCs need to refocus their efforts on measures to better mobilize domestic resources, but this will in turn require a serious rethink by the international community of both its policy advice and its use of ODA.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 17/2010: Building a global monetary system, the door opens for new ideas (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2010, 2 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Proposals to avert exchange rate chaos and to reshape the international monetary system have received new impetus recently. For the first time since the end of the Bretton Woods system, a proposal has been tabled to resolve unsustainable global trade imbalances through a multilateral solution. The initiatives under discussion by the G-20 to ensure greater order in international monetary affairs are an implicit recognition that the market cannot solve a major problem that has been blocking the smooth integration of all countries into the globalized economy. UNCTAD research supports this view. Indeed, UNCTAD has consistently shown that without a multilateral approach, it will neither be possible to reap the benefits of an intensified global division of labour, nor to avoid devastating international financial crises of the kind that have been seen in the last two decades.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 18 - Agriculture at the crossroads (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2010, 2 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Environment

        For a large number of developing countries, agriculture remains the single most important sector. Climate change has the potential to damage irreversibly the natural resource base on which agriculture depends, with grave consequences for food security in developing countries. However,agriculture is the sector that has the potential to transcend from being a problem to becoming an essential part of the solution to climate change provided there is a more holistic vision of food security, climate-change adaptation and mitigation as well as agriculture’s pro-poor development contribution. What is required is a rapid and significant shift from conventional, industrial,monoculture-based and high-external-input dependent production towards mosaics of sustainable production systems that also considerably improve the productivity of small-scale farmers. The required transformation is however much more fundamental than simply tweaking the existing industrial agricultural systems.

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        Virtual Institute Teaching Material on Economic and Legal Aspects of Foreign Direct Investment (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD Virtual Institute, 2010, 331 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Investment

        The Virtual Institute teaching material on "Economic and Legal Aspects of Foreign Direct Investment" has been updated. The publication is divided into four modules that cover: (1) the economic aspects of FDI in general; (2) policy aspects of FDI in developing countries; (3) key issues in International Investment Agreements; and (4) the interaction between investment and other areas, such as services, technology transfer, employment, etc.

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        Virtual Institute Teaching Material on Regional Trade Agreements (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2010, 192 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        The teaching material gives a theoretical and practical overview of the different aspects concerning regional Trade Agreements (RTAs). It consists of five modules which focus on the historical and current relevance of regional integration for developing countries (Module 1); RTAs in economic theory (Module 2); the correlation between RTA rules and the WTO legal framework (Module 3); negotiating issues (Module 4); and regional trade analysis using international databases (Module 5).

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        Virtual Institute Teaching Material on Trade and Poverty (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD Virtual Institute, 2010, 144 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty

        The focus and analysis of the Trade and Poverty teaching material reflect the work of UNCTAD on the least developed countries, and in particular the UNCTAD LDC Reports. Rather than looking specifically at trade openness or liberalization and its relationship with poverty reduction, the material adopts the more general UNCTAD LDC Report view, which examines trade and its relationship with poverty. Module 1 introduces the different concepts and definitions of poverty, and outlines the mechanisms between trade, growth and poverty through three country cases. The links between trade and growth and growth and poverty are examined closer in Module 2. Module 3 provides examples of research that capture in more detail how the trade and poverty relationship works, and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of research methodologies. Module 4 deals with development strategies and presents useful tools to place concepts and empirical research results into a policy context.

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        What Constrains Africa's Exports? (English)
        Working paper by Freund, Caroline, Rocha, Nadia, 2010, 22 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation

        We examine the effects of transit, documentation, and ports and customs delays on Africa’s exports. We find that transit delays have the most economically and statically significant effect on exports. A one day reduction in inland travel times leads to a 7 percent increase in exports. Put another way, a one day reduction in inland travel times translates into 1.5 percentage point decrease in all importing-country tariffs. In contrast, longer delays in the other areas have a far smaller impact on trade. We control for the possibility that greater trade leads to shorter delays in three ways. First, we examine the effect of trade times on exports of new products. Second, we evaluate the effect of delays in a transit country on the exports of landlocked countries. Third, we examine whether delays affect time-sensitive goods relatively more. We show that large transit delays are relatively more harmful because of high within-country variation..

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        What Went Wrong? Alternative Interpretations of the Global Financial Crisis
        Working paper by Priewe, Jan/ HTW, 2010, 39 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Macroeconomic Policy

        This paper first reviews different interpretations of the global financial crisis of 2008-2009 (and its aftermath), focusing on the proximate causes in the financial sector of the United States. However, behind the immediate causes lie ultimate causes without which the crisis cannot be properly understood. These were mainly the global imbalances in trade and in cross-border capital flows, the systemic root of which lies in what the paper refers to as a “new Triffin dilemma”. This dilemma relates to the shortcomings of the present global currency system that uses the United States dollar as the key reserve currency, which has to serve both national and global objectives. Other ultimate causes are the trend towards a finance-driven capitalism in many OECD countries, most pronounced in the United States, and the trend towards greater income inequality, which dampens aggregate demand and contributes to financial instability as well as global imbalances. The confluence of the proximate and ultimate causes paved the way for the crisis.

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        World Development Report 2010: Development and Climate Change
        Report by World Bank, 2010, 444 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        Today's enormous development challenges are complicated by the reality of climate change—the two are inextricably linked and together demand immediate attention. Climate change threatens all countries, but particularly developing ones. Understanding what climate change means for development policy is the central aim of the World Development Report 2010. It explores how public policy can change to better help people cope with new or worsened risks, how land and water management must adapt to better protect a threatened natural environment while feeding an expanding and more prosperous population, and how energy systems will need to be transformed. The report is an urgent call for action, both for developing countries who are striving to ensure policies are adapted to the realities and dangers of a hotter planet, and for high-income countries who need to undertake ambitious mitigation while supporting developing countries efforts. A climate-smart world is within reach if we act now to tackle the substantial inertia in the climate, in infrastructure, and in behaviors and institutions; if we act together to reconcile needed growth with prudent and affordable development choices; and if we act differently by investing in the needed energy revolution and taking the steps required to adapt to a rapidly changing planet. In the crowded field of climate change reports, WDR 2010 uniquely: emphasizes development, takes an integrated look at adaptation and mitigation, highlights opportunities in the changing competitive landscape and how to seize them, proposes policy solutions grounded in analytic work and in the context of the political economy of reform.

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        World Economic Situation and Prospects 2010: Full Report
        Report by DESA; UNCTAD; ECA; ECE; ECLAC; ESCAP and ESCWA, 2010, 202 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy

        World Economic Situation and Prospects (WESP) is a joint product of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development and the five United Nations regional commissions. It provides an overview of recent global economic performance and short-term prospects for the world economy and of some key global economic policy and development issues. One of its purposes is to serve as a point of reference for discussions on economic, social and related issues taking place in various United Nations entities during the year.

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        World Investment Prospects Survey 2010-2012 (English)
        Note by Unctad, 2010, 35 pages
        Categories: Investment

        UNCTAD’s World Investment Prospects Survey 2010–2012 provides an outlook on future trends in foreign direct investment (FDI) by the largest transnational corporations (TNCs). The present publication is the most recent in a series of similar surveys that have been conducted regularly by UNCTAD since 1995 as part of the background work for its annual World Investment Report.

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        World Investment Report 2010: Investing in a Low-carbon Economy
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 221 pages
        Categories: Investment, Trade and Environment

        The World Investment Report 2010 highlights a promising outlook: after a significant global FDI downturn in 2009, flows worldwide are expected to recover slightly this year, with a stronger recovery in 2011 and 2012. The Report focuses on climate change, and in particular the role of transnational corporations. As enterprises with formidable knowledge, cutting-edge technology, and global reach, TNCs are necessarily among the primary actors in the global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and shift towards a low-carbon economy. The Report stresses that with the right policy initiatives, incentives and regulatory framework, TNCs can and must contribute significantly to both mitigation and adaptation. It also proposes a global partnership to galvanize low-carbon investment and advocates concrete initiatives such as a new technical assistance centre to support policy formulation and implementation in developing countries.

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        World Investment Report 2010: Investing in a Low-carbon Economy - Overview
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2010, 54 pages
        Categories: Investment, Trade and Environment

        The World Investment Report 2010 highlights a promising outlook: after a significant global FDI downturn in 2009, flows worldwide are expected to recover slightly this year, with a stronger recovery in 2011 and 2012. The Report focuses on climate change, and in particular the role of transnational corporations. As enterprises with formidable knowledge, cutting-edge technology, and global reach, TNCs are necessarily among the primary actors in the global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and shift towards a low-carbon economy. The Report stresses that with the right policy initiatives, incentives and regulatory framework, TNCs can and must contribute significantly to both mitigation and adaptation. It also proposes a global partnership to galvanize low-carbon investment and advocates concrete initiatives such as a new technical assistance centre to support policy formulation and implementation in developing countries.

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        World Investment Report 2010: Investing in a Low-carbon Economy - Overview (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 54 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment

        A key question is to what extent countries gain from open trade in natural resources. Some of the issues examined in the Report include the role of trade in providing access to natural resources, the effects of international trade on the sustainability of natural resources, the environmental impact of resources trade, the so-called natural resources curse, and resource price volatility. The Report examines a range of key measures employed in natural resource sectors, such as export taxes, tariffs and subsidies, and provides information on their current use. It analyzes in detail the effects of these policy tools on an economy and on its trading partners. Finally, the Report provides an overview of how natural resources fit within the legal framework of the WTO and discusses other international agreements that regulate trade in natural resources. A number of challenges are addressed, including the regulation of export policy, the treatment of subsidies, trade facilitation, and the relationship between WTO rules and other international agreements.

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        World Tariff Profiles 2010 (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD/WTO, 2010, 205 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The publication provides a comprehensive picture of tariffs. Presented in a handy format, it offers both summary tables and country-by-country breakdowns, with one page devoted to each country. The standardized presentation allows for analyses and comparisons between countries and sectors and between bound and applied duties for WTO members.

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        World Trade Report 2009: Trade Policy Commitments and Contingency Measures
        Report by WTO, 2010, 196 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The theme of this year’s Report is “Trade policy commitments and contingency measures”. The Report examines the range of contingency measures available in trade agreements and the role that these measures play. Also referred to as escape clauses or safety valves, these measures allow governments a certain degree of flexibility within their trade commitments and can be used to address circumstances that could not have been foreseen when a trade commitment was made. Contingency measures seek to strike a balance between commitments and flexibility. Too much flexibility may undermine the value of commitments, but too little may render the rules unsustainable. The tension between credible commitments and flexibility is often close to the surface during trade negotiations. For example, in the July 2008 mini-ministerial meeting, which sought to agree negotiating modalities — or a final blueprint — for agriculture and non-agricultural market access (NAMA), the question of a “special safeguard mechanism” (the extent to which developing countries would be allowed to protect farmers from import surges) was crucial to the discussions.

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        World Trade Report 2010: Trade in Natural Resources (English)
        Report by WTO, 2010, 256 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        A key question is to what extent countries gain from open trade in natural resources. Some of the issues examined in the Report include the role of trade in providing access to natural resources, the effects of international trade on the sustainability of natural resources, the environmental impact of resources trade, the so-called natural resources curse, and resource price volatility. The Report examines a range of key measures employed in natural resource sectors, such as export taxes, tariffs and subsidies, and provides information on their current use. It analyzes in detail the effects of these policy tools on an economy and on its trading partners. Finally, the Report provides an overview of how natural resources fit within the legal framework of the WTO and discusses other international agreements that regulate trade in natural resources. A number of challenges are addressed, including the regulation of export policy, the treatment of subsidies, trade facilitation, and the relationship between WTO rules and other international agreements.

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        WTO Agreements Series Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (English)
        Book by WTO, 2010, 50 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the “SPS Agreement”) entered into force with the establishment of the World Trade Organization on January 1995. It concerns the application of food safety and animal and plant health regulations. This booklet discusses the text of the SPS Agreement as it appears in the Final Act of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations, signed in Marrakesh on 15 April 1994. This Agreement and others contained in the Final Act, along with the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade as amended (GATT 1994), are part of the treaty which established the World Trade Organization (WTO). The WTO superseded the GATT as the umbrella organization for international trade. The WTO Secretariat has prepared this booklet to assist public understanding of the SPS Agreement. The first section of the booklet presents the basic structure of WTO agreements; the second looks at the key features of the SPS Agreement; the third addresses a number of frequently-asked questions; and the fourth is the legal text of the agreement. The booklet is not intended to provide a legal interpretation of the agreement.

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