A partnership with academia

Building knowledge for trade and development

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        Africa’s Development And The Global Trading System: Challenges And Options (English)
        Working paper by OSABUOHIEN, Evans S. / Covenant University, Nigeria and EGWAKHE, Johnson A. /Adventist University of Central Africa, Rwanda, 2011, 27 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper empirically explores development in Africa in relation to the global trading system using panel data techniques. It examines the economic development of African economies in relation to the countries’ regional grouping and also assesses Random Effects (RE) and Generalised Method of Moments (GMM) estimates. The results establish, among other things, that sub-regions with higher level of domestic investment had higher values in economic development indicators.

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        Applying a Gender Lens to Science, Technology and Innovation (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 73 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade and Gender

        Prepared by UNCTAD for the 55th UN Commission on the Status of Women, this Report emphasizes the need of integrating a gender perspective into science, technology and innovation (STI) policies. It illustrates the contribution of women to STI (women in science, women in innovation) -- and how STI can contribute to women’s livelihoods and development activities (science for women).  Examples of good practices, as well as key recommendations for gender-sensitive STI policymaking are provided that support women’s development in key sectors, gender equality in science and technology related education, employment and entrepreneurship.

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        The Arab Spring, the Changing Mediterranean, and the Eu: Tools As a Substitute for Strategy?
        Policy brief by European Policy Centre, 2011, 4 pages
        Categories: VI Members Research

        What is missing, argues Rosa Balfour in this Policy Brief, is a guiding vision to make EU foreign policy more than the sum of its parts.

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        Are You Experienced? Survival And Recovery Of Trade Relations After Banking Crises (English)
        Working paper by Beverelli, Cosimo, Kukenova, Madina, Rocha, Nadia, 2011, 28 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        We examine the impact of banking crises on the duration of trade relations. We also investigate the effect of product-level characteristics, such as the size of exports and exporting experience, and of sector-level financial dependence variables, on the time to recover after a banking crisis. Using highly disaggregated US import data from 157 countries between 1996 and 2009, we first provide evidence that banking crises negatively affect the survival of trade relations. On average, the occurrence of a banking crisis decreases the rate of survival of trade relations by 13 percent. Moreover, we find that both the size of exports and exporting experience matter for recovery of trade relations after banking crises. Sectoral financial dependence has an experience-specific effect. Relations with more experience recover faster in financially dependent sectors. There is instead no clear evidence indicating effects of size heterogeneity, neither in financially dependent sectors nor in non-financially dependent ones. The results are robust and consistent across alternative econometric models.

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        Assuring Food Security In Developing Countries Under The Challenges Of Climate Change (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2011, 50 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment

        For a large number of developing countries, agriculture remains the single most important sector. Climate change has the potential to damage irreversibly the natural resource base on which agriculture depends, with grave consequences for food security. However, agriculture is the sector that has the potential to transcend from being a problem to becoming an essential part of the solution to climate change provided there is a more holistic vision of food security, agricultural mitigation, climate-change adaptation and agriculture’s pro-poor development contribution. What is required is a rapid and significant shift from conventional, industrial, monoculture-based and high-external-input dependent production towards mosaics of sustainable production systems that also considerably improve the productivity of small-scale farmers. The required transformation is much more profound than simply tweaking the existing industrial agricultural systems. However, the sheer scale at which modified production methods would have to be adopted, the significant governance and market-structure challenges at national and international level and the considerable difficulties involved in measuring, reporting and verifying reductions in GHG emissions pose considerable challenges.

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        Azerbaijan - The Key to EU Energy Security (English)
        Article by European Policy Centre, 2011, 2 pages
        Categories: VI Members Research

        This commentary by Amanda Paul and Gulmira Rzayeva analyses the state of play regarding the Shah Deniz II gas decision and the remaining difficulties ahead.

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        Best Practices in Investment for Development - Case Studies in FDI (Canada and Singapore) (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2011, 82 pages
        Categories: Investment

        This report, addressing principally policymakers in the field of investment, analyses practices adopted in selected countries in which investment has contributed to development,with the aim of disseminating best practice experiences to developing countries and countries with economies in transition. More specifically, it analyses the policies set in place by two countries, Canada and Singapore to use Foreign Direct Investment to improve the national skill set.

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        Best Practices in Investment for Development - Case Studies in FDI (Estonia and Jamaica) (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2011, 112 pages
        Categories: Investment

        The objectives of this study are to compare and contrast: first, Estonia’s and Jamaica’s approach to setting objectives relating to inward FDI; second, the methods in the form of policy instruments used to achieve these objectives; and third, the results and impact. This study draws out the characteristics of policies that illustrate best practices, and identifies policies that were not as effective, with the aim of distilling policy lessons for small countries in attracting and benefiting from FDI. Estonia and Jamaica are interesting cases to compare because of their different policy approaches. Jamaica’s emphasis on State planning contrasts with Estonia’s pro-market reform strategy. Thus, this study does not seek to identify which approach is best for small countries in all circumstances, but more about how to adapt general policy lessons to unique national contexts.

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        Best Practices in Investment for Development - Case Studies in FDI (Malaysia and Singapore) (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2011, 106 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Investment

        This case study outlines the best practices used by Singapore and Malaysia in using Foreign direct investment (FDI) to enhance local SME development, focusing principally on the linkages between foreign affiliates and domestic SMEs.

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        Best Practices in Investment for Development: How to Attract and Benefit from FDI in Mining: Lessons from Canada and Chile (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 141 pages
        Categories: Investment

        The purpose of this report is to identify best practice policies that successfully attract foreign direct investment (FDI) in mining, while optimizing its economic, environmental and social impacts. The report focuses on two cases, Canada and Chile, relying on primary and secondary research, including interviews with some 20 stakeholders in both countries.1 The first chapter provides an overview of mining as an economic activity and the challenges facing host governments in balancing the interests of foreign investors and those of the host country. The following two chapters look at how Canada and Chile, respectively, have addressed these challenges. The final chapter compares the two cases, and draws out lessons for policymakers in mineral-rich developing countries.

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        Compendium of Teaching Materials on the International Trading System (2011) (English)
        Article by St. Petersburg State University, 2011, 216 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The main purpose of the compendium is to support implementation of new teaching technologies that are used in the educational process. It is developed especially for the students of MA programme International Trading System that was designed to train well qualified specialists in international trade and trade policy analysis. The book can also be helpful for other academic and business-oriented programmes devoted to international trade, international business and international economics. It includes two types of teaching materials: discussion papers and cases. Both can be used in class as well as for students’ self-study. Analysis of papers might be followed by discussions, and some cases require team work. All cases are based on real situations.

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        Consequences of Agricultural Trade Liberalization: a Food Insecure Country’s Perspective (English)
        Working paper by Martha B. Hailu, 2011, 26 pages
        Categories: VI Members Research

        This paper describes how international trade policy adversely affects food security in Ethiopia. It details hows Ethiopia’s accession to the WTO involved reforms in the tariff, export subsidies and domestic support measures as part of the Agreement on Agriculture (AoA) - reforms which impacted negatively on food security. Finally, the chapter outlines the challenges and options Ethiopia may resort to address its food security concerns.

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        Coordination Failures in Immigration Policy (English)
        Working paper by Giordani , Paolo E., Ruta, Michele, 2011, 42 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Migration and Development, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        We propose a theoretical framework for analyzing the problems associated to unilateral immigration policy in receiving countries and for evaluating the grounds for reform of international institutions governing immigration. We build a model with multiple destination countries and show that immigration policy in one country is influenced by measures adopted abroad as migrants choose where to locate (in part) in response to differences in immigration policy. This interdependence gives rise to a leakage effect of immigration policy, an international externality well documented in the empirical literature. In this environment, immigration policy becomes strategic and unilateral behavior may lead to coordination failures, where receiving countries are stuck in welfare inferior equilibria. We then study the conditions under which a coordination failure is more likely to emerge and argue that multilateral institutions that help receiving countries make immigration policy commitments would address this inefficiency.

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        Corporate Governance Disclosure in Emerging Markets. Statistical Analysis of Legal Requirements and Company Practices (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 58 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development

        While this report finds that disclosure requirements in emerging markets are relatively strong, there are still generally fewer requirements than in more developed markets and compliance gaps tend to be larger. There is a clear need to improve, promote and enforce disclosures and in some instances make them mandatory in order to strengthen reporting regimes and help enterprises improve their communication with shareholders and other stakeholders. There is still much work to do. This report integrates and compares four years of UNCTAD‟s cross country comparative data on corporate governance disclosure in emerging markets. This work will assist policy makers in identifying regulatory gaps, comparative best practices, and priorities for capacity building.

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        Costa Rica: Trade Opening, FDI Attraction and Global Production Sharing (English)
        Working paper by WTO, 2011, 38 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        Costa Rica has managed to combine an active agenda in the Multilateral Trade Negotiations (MTNs) at the WTO with the negotiation of several Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs). Such PTAs, most notably those with the US, China and the EU, will boost the share of total exports benefiting from preferential access in the destination markets from 24% to over 83%. Along this path of trade liberalization, the country has placed a strong emphasis on the attraction of FDI in high-tech manufacturing and services activities, producing a substantial transformation in the structure of its exports and inserting a fair share of the economy into Global Value Chains (GVCs) . As a result, about 43% of the country’s total exports are related to GVCs, with an average of 36% of such exported value being added domestically.

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        Deep Integration and Production Networks: an Empirical Analysis (English)
        Working paper by WTO, 2011, 35 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This working paper describes the two-way relationship between deep integration and production networks trade.The results show that on average, signing deeper agreements increases production networks trade between member countries by almost 35%, integration being more prominent in trade in automobile parts and information technology products.The study also shows that a 10% increase in the share of production network trade increases the depth of an agreement by approximately 6%.In addition, the probability of signing deeper agreements is higher for country pairs involved in North-South production sharing and for countries belonging to the Asia region.

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        The Design of Preferential Trade Agreements: A New Dataset in the Making (English)
        Working paper by WTO, 2011, 47 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Since 1990 the number of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) has increased very rapidly. This paper aims to contribute to this literature by presenting a new database on PTAs called Design of Trade Agreements (DESTA). Starting from 690 negotiated trade agreements between 1945 and 2009, 404 agreements were coded. The aim is to have a database for about 550 agreements by 2012. The agreements cover a number of sectors, namely market access, services, investments, intellectual property rights, competition, public procurement, standards, trade remedies, non-trade issues, and dispute settlement. This working paper describes the DESTA data set and provides selected descriptive statistics.

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        Development-led Globalization: Towards Sustainable and Inclusive Development Paths (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 106 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This report is presented in three parts. The first sets out some of the main features of FDG and suggests that its outcomes have been much more uneven, unstable and unfair than its proponents had claimed or expected. It also shows that there has been a systemic failure to create the economic environment needed to promote productive investment and employment. However, this raises the question of why some countries have been able to grow strongly over the past two or three decades. This section seeks to account for that, and to draw lessons from their success. The second part outlines a rebalancing agenda which aims to deliver lasting and inclusive development gains. It sketches a three-pronged strategy focusing on (a) building developmental states that are able to mobilize domestic resources, strengthen productive capacities and share the gains in an equitable manner; (b) creating more robust multilateral structures capable of forging collective responses to the challenges that countries will face in the years ahead, including those required to tame finance and to promote investment-led responses to climate change; and (c) strengthening regional ties, including through South–South cooperation, in order to enhance stability and open new growth opportunities. The final section will argue that rebalancing is not a narrow technocratic challenge. A true break with the fundamentalist thinking underlying FDG will involve a change of attitudes, morals and values. Accordingly, this report insists on the importance of a normative agenda as an integral part of the broad-based rebalancing involved in the shift towards DLG.

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        Domestic Preparedness for Trade in Services Liberalization: Are East African Countries Prepared for Further Trade Liberalization? (English)
        Discussion paper by E.P Bagumhe, 2011, 24 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Over the past decades East African Countries have witnessed even faster growing rates of the share of trade services in their GDPs. This paper argues that although the importance of services as a share of overall GDP, increase with growth on FDI and employment. Its growth can be driven by number of factors, such as final demand factors and basic structural changes in production, linked to development. Weak domestic preparedness before opening up is likely to be associated with unsatisfactory and undesirable outcomes of Services Trade liberalization. This paper tries to expound issues that are essential on domestic preparedness for Service Trade Liberalization and analyses the associated concerns. The purpose of this paper is not to provide answers but to shed some light on how services Trade liberalization is currently operationalized in the East African Countries, in particular, that is, to open up the “black box,” and indicate the operational design elements around which variance is the highest.

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        Do Remittances Reduce Vulnerability to Climate Variability in West African Countries? Evidence from Panel Vector Autoregression (English)
        Discussion paper by Couharde, Cécile, Davis, Junior, Generoso, Rémi, 2011, 31 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Macroeconomic Policy, Migration and Development

        In this paper, we empirically examine the role of remittances in smoothing the GDP fluctuations induced by precipitation variability and both meteorological and natural shocks. To this end, we use a panel VAR to empirically study six West African countries from 1983 to 2009. Our evidence suggests that remittances are an important element of macroeconomic stability especially for those countries most vulnerable to precipitation variability. The estimated orthogonalized impulse responses show on one hand, that meteorological shocks and declining precipitation have both adverse consequences on GDP per capita. On the other hand, remittances are characterized by counter-cyclical patterns in cases of precipitation variability and climate shocks. Remittances inflows in the selected countries (countries of emigration) are also heavily dependent on economic shocks in host countries.

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        Do Sensitive Products Undermine Ambition? (English)
        Report by Vanzetti, David, Peters, Ralf, 2011, 22 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The long-running WTO negotiations remain unresolved. Agriculture is a main stumbling block. Members have agreed to linear tariff reductions within bands, but proposed exemptions for sensitive products, while providing for much needed flexibility, threaten to undermine the ambition. A detailed partial equilibrium global agricultural trade model is used to analyse the likely impact of exemptions from the formula tariff reductions. Applying one third of the formula cuts to the 5 per cent of lines with the highest tariffs increases the final developed country average agricultural tariff from 16 to 24 per cent but the negative impacts on trade and welfare are less dramatic.

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        Economic Development In Africa Report 2011: Fostering industrial development in Africa in the new global environment
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 135 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The Report provides an overview of the stages, performance and lessons learned from previous attempts at promoting industrial development in Africa, and disusses key elements for a new industrial policy for Africa. The report also sets out a framework for the diagnosis of the current situation and the design of a a strategy tailored to the needs of each country and calibrated with the new global environment.

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        Employment Dimension Of Trade Liberalization With China: Analysis Of The Case Of Indonesia With Dynamic Social Accounting Matrix (English)
        Case study by Ernst, Christoph, Peters, Ralf, 2011, 42 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The ASEAN – China FTA raises concerns regarding its employment impact in Indonesia. The loss of millions of jobs has been predicted as a consequence of the final liberalization round, though few studies on ACFTA consider employment explicitly. This paper has two objectives. First, the employment effects of ACFTA in Indonesia on different groups of the labour market such as rural and youth employment are assessed. Second, a relatively simple methodology is developed that can be used by government officials, employers, trade unions and civil society organizations to assess and quantify the impact of trade policy changes on employment and to deepen their understanding of the complex relationship between trade and employment. The methodology combines two analytical models. Trade shocks are assessed using SMART that calculates import changes resulting from tariff reductions. The resulting effects on employment are evaluated using a multiplier analysis based on the 2008 Social Accounting Matrix component of a Dynamic Social Accounting Matrix. The impact of the final step of ACFTA is likely to be limited for Indonesia in terms of employment. Our analysis shows a small net loss of employment in Indonesia in the short run with some losses for certain groups, including female and young workers, and gains for other groups, for example agriculture employment.

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        The 'emulator Effect' of the Uruguay Round on United States Regionalism (English)
        Case study by Fugazza, Marco, Robert-Nicoud, Frédéric, 2011, 46 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Using a detailed data set at the tariff line level, we find an emulator effect of multilateralism on subsequent regional trade agreements (RTAs) involving the United States. We exploit the variation in the frequency with which the United States grants immediate duty free access (IDA) to its RTA partners across tariff lines. A key finding is that the United States grants IDA status especially on goods for which it has cut the multilateral most favoured nation (MFN) tariff during the Uruguay Round the most. Thus, the Uruguay Round (multilateral) “concessions” have emulated subsequent (preferential) trade liberalization. We conclude from this that past liberalization may sow the seeds of future liberalization.

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        Exports, Equity, and Empowerment : The Effects Of Readymade Garments Manufacturing Employment On Gender Equality In Bangladesh (English)
        Working paper by Hossain, Naomi, 2011, 40 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Bangladesh has become known as something of a success in advancing gender equity since the 1990s. There have been rapid gains in a number of social and economic domains, yet by most objective standards the current condition and status of women and girls within Bangladeshi society remain low. Rapid progress has come about under conditions of mass poverty and interlocking forms of social disadvantage, political instability and under-development, overlain with prsistent 'classic' forms of patriarchy. This paper assesses the effects of the readymade garments (RMG) employment on women’s empowerment in Bangladesh.

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        Export Structure and Economic Performance in Developing Countries: Evidence from Nonparametric Methodology
        Discussion paper by Sudip Ranjan Basu, Monica Das, 2011, 59 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper offers a closer look of the impact on institutional quality, human capital on GDP per capita for various country-groups in the core model. It provides evidence that a flow of credit and well function financial markets are essential to support higher level of economic performance.The results of the shown nonparametric model support the higher level of skill and technology intensive manufactures and the positive impact they have on GDP per capita in developing countries.

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        Fog in GATS Commitments – Boon Or Bane? (English)
        Working paper by Adlung, Rudolf, Morrison, Peter, Roy, Martin, Zhang, Weiwei, 2011, 23 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The creation of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), in the Uruguay Round, and its entry into force in 1995 marked a new stage in the history of the multilateral system. It was motivated essentially by the rapid expansion of international services trade within an increasingly open environment in many countries. Given the peculiarities of services trade, including the intangible nature of the products concerned and the need for direct contact between supplier and user in many cases, the Agreement contains a variety of conceptual innovations, including its extension to modes of supply beyond conventional cross-border trade (consumption abroad, commercial presence, and presence of natural persons) and its coverage, and legitimization, of various types of non-tariff restrictions. In turn, the new concepts needed time to be absorbed by the ministries and agencies involved in services trade. Further, the positive-list, or bottom-up, approach to scheduling trade commitments under the GATS meant that great flexibility was given to Members in selecting the sectors concerned and specifying the levels of access provided under individual modes. Thus, not surprisingly, the schedules that emerged from the Uruguay Round, which still account for the majority of current commitments, contain a variety of unclear or superfluous entries that may cause interpretation problems. Their solution could contribute significantly to the clarity and comparability of access obligations across sectors and WTO Members. The scheduling conventions agreed for the Doha Round thus provide specifically for the possibility of technical refinements that leave the substance of commitments unchanged. However, not only was this possibility used more sparingly to date than might have been expected, but additional flaws would be introduced if some current offers were to enter into effect. The following discussion, with a focus on a particular group of entries (market access via commercial presence), tries to explain the scope for such refinement and develop a clearer picture of the areas where further action might be needed.

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        Food Reserves in Developing Countries: Trade Policy Options for Improved Food Security (English)
        Report by ITCSD, 2011, 41 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        The last few years (from 2006 to 2011) has seen the rise and volatility in prices of primary commodities, including agricultural products.Whereas the rise in food prices is fairly general, the increase in volatility is confined to grains and some vegetable oils.These developments impact particularly acutely on poor and other vulnerable non-farm households who devote a high proportion of their incomes to the purchase of food. The report encourages countries need to achieve a balanced food security policy, through the establishment of complementary strategies to address trade and stocks.It also discusses international and national policies to address high and volatile food prices. Finally, it considers the role of humanitarian stocks in the light of the P.R.E.P.A.R.E proposal by the FAO.

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        Foreign Direct Investment in the Ldcs: Lessons Learned from the Decade 2001-2010 and the Way Forward
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 244 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment

        This report provides a broad overview of FDI trends in LDCs over the last decade, focusing on the challenges LDCs face in attracting and benefitting from FDI, and suggests a plan of action to increase FDI and enhance its development impact in the next decade.

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        Generalized System of Preferences. Handbook on the Scheme of Switzerland (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2011, 124 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This handbook provides a general explanation of the Swiss Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) to allow officials and users responsible or involved in GSP issues to gain a better understanding of the scheme. It is meant to serve as general guide to the Swiss GSP and not intended to provide legal advice.

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        Global and Regional FDI Trends in 2010 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 8 pages
        Categories: Investment

        Global FDI inflows remained stagnant in 2010 at an estimated $1,122 billion, compared to $1,114 billion in the previous year. However, they showed an uneven pattern among regions, components and modes of FDI. While FDI inflows to developed countries contracted further in 2010, those to developing and transition economies recovered, surpassing the 50% mark of global FDI flows. The improvement of economic conditions in 2010 drove up reinvested earnings, while equity capital and intra-company loans remained relatively subdued. Cross-border M&A volume rebounded in 2010, whereas greenfield investments continued to decline. The quarterly fluctuations during 2010, as reported in previous Global Trends Monitors, indicate that the worldwide FDI recovery is still hesitant, although after an unexpectedly weak second quarter, global FDI flows registered an increase in the third quarter of 2010. UNCTAD’s FDI Global Quarterly Index jumped upwards, reaching 121 for the quarter, its highest reading in 2010.

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        Global Imbalances: The Choice of the Exchange Rate-indicator is Key (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 2 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The path towards a more stable, balanced and equitable global economy received an important boost in recent days. In December 2010 in Seoul, the G-20 leaders acknowledged the need for a co-ordinated multilateral response to global trade imbalances and asked for “indicative guidelines composed of a range of indicators” which “would serve as a mechanism to facilitate timely identification of large imbalances that require preventive and corrective action to be taken”(paragraph 9 of the Seoul Summit Declaration). This is very much in line with UNCTAD's recent proposals (see, for example, Policy Brief No 17, published prior to the summit). UNCTAD recommended the use of the Real Effective Exchange Rate (REER) as a practical and effective indicator to differentiate between sustainable and unsustainable trade imbalances. This policy brief argues that a REER based on unit labour costs (the premium of nominal wages over productivity for the economy as a whole) is better suited to grasp changes in competitiveness than one based on consumer price inflation. The latter misses out important elements of the catching-up process of developing countries and may result in significant misinterpretation for some important emerging economies like China.

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        Global Inequality: From Class to Location, from Proletarians to Migrants (English)
        Working paper by Milanovic, Branko, 2011, 25 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Migration and Development

        Inequality between world citizens in mid-19th century was such that at least a half of it could be explained by income differences between workers and capital-owners in individual countries. Real income of workers in most countries was similar and low. This was the basis on which Marxism built its universal appeal. More than 150 years later, in the early 21st century, the situation has changed fundamentally: more than 80 percent of global income differences is due to large gaps in mean incomes between countries, and unskilled workers’ wages in rich and poor countries often differ by a factor of 10 to 1. This is the basis on which a new global political issue of migration has emerged because income differences between countries make individual gains from migration large. The key coming issue will be how to deal with this challenge while acknowledging that migration is probably the most powerful tool for reducing global poverty and inequality.

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        Green Economy: Why a Green Economy Matters for the Least Developed Countries (English)
        Report by UNEP,UNC TAD,UN-OHRLLS, 2011, 15 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This publication describes the policies and strategies that LDCs need to adopt to achieve successful transition to a green economy and accelerate their development

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        Harnessing Trade for Sustainable Development and a Green Economy
        Manual by WTO, 2011, 24 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        In 1992 the United Nations convened a landmark conference in Rio de Janeiro which set the tone and ambition for global policy on development and environment for the years to come. The results of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, popularly known as the Earth Summit, were reaffirmed in Johannesburg in 2002 at the World Summit on Sustainable Development. Global leaders will reconvene in Rio in 2012 at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20). They will consider progress made since the two earlier meetings, assess remaining challenges, and reset the world on a path towards sustainable development. Part II of this brochure offers a set of messages on sustainable development and trade that may be pronounced at the Rio+20 Conference. Part III looks at the workings of the WTO and how the multilateral trading system supports countries’ efforts to realize sustainable development and a green economy. Part IV examines the contribution of trade to sustainable development. Part V refers to green economy measures and discusses how WTO rules and monitoring mechanisms help ensure such measures are not disguised protectionism. Part VI looks at WTO efforts to help developing countries maximize the benefits of participation in international trade. And Part VII discusses the contribution to sustainable development that can be made through a successful completion of the Doha Round.

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        ¿Hay Vida Después del SGP? Implicancias de la Posible Exclusión de Argentina de los Sistemas Generalizados de Preferencias de Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea (English)
        Policy brief by Dalle, Demián, Lavopa, Federico, 2011, 12 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        El Sistema Generalizado de Preferencias (“SGP”) es una de las manifestaciones centrales del principio del “Trato Especial y Diferenciado” que los países desarrollados accedieron a otorgar a aquellos en vías de desarrollo en el ámbito de Acuerdo General sobre Aranceles y Comercio (“GATT”) y su sucesora, la Organización Mundial del Comercio (“OMC”). Este principio deriva de uno de los aspectos más elementales de cualquier noción de justicia: la igualdad entre desiguales no es igualdad. Traducido a la jerga de la OMC, este imperativo implica que los países desarrollados miembros de la OMC están autorizados a realizar concesiones unilaterales a países en desarrollo sin la obligación de extender automática e incondicionalmente dichas preferencias a todos los países miembros de la OMC. Funciona, por lo tanto, como una excepción a uno de los pilares de dicho organismo: el principio de no discriminación y, en particular, la Cláusula de la Nación Más Favorecida.

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        How to Prevent and Manage Investor-state Disputes - Lessons from Peru (English)
        Working paper by UNCTAD, 2011, 86 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Investment

        This study examines the case of Peru which designed a dispute prevention policy (DPP) and implemented a dispute prevention mechanism (DPM), which foresees the promotion of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) mechanisms and the implementation of prevention policies. This is an example of a case of good practice in the prevention and management of investor-State disputes.

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        How To Utilize FDI To Improve Transport Infrastructure - Ports: Lessons From Nigeria (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2011, 87 pages
        Categories: Investment, Trade Facilitation

        The international trading system relies on the fast, low-cost movement of goods through global value chains. Maritime transportation systems are the most cost-effective way to ship freight over long-distances.Despite their importance, ports in many developing countries are characterized by underinvestment, low productivity, inefficient use of resources, high user prices, long delays, and ineffective services. In response to these problems, a rising number of developing countries have reformed governance models and introduced private investment and management in formerly State-dominated ports. Nigeria has been selected as a case study of a developing country that has exhibited best policy practices in attracting and benefiting from FDI in port terminals. This report reviews the reforms and concession process to identify lessons for other developing countries.

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        Iia Issues Notes No.2 - Sovereign Debt Restructuring and International Investment Agreements - July 2011 (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2011, 10 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law

        This Note examines the extent to which international investment agreements (IIAs)may affect the ability of States to implementsovereign debt restructurings when a debtor nation has defaulted or is close to default on its debt.

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        The Impact of Bioethics and Consumer Demand on Process and Production Methods (ppms) in the Wto: Considerations for Colombian Biotrade (English)
        Working paper by Calle-Saldarriaga, María Alejandra / Universidad EAFIT, 2011, 50 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, VI Members Research

        This paper aims to contribute to the existing legal studies on Process and Production Methods and their connection to consumer preferences for bioethical and environmentally friendly systems of production, in particular by identifying the case of Colombian biotrade.

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        India: A New Player in Asian Production Networks (English)
        Case study by ESCAP, 2011, 181 pages
        Categories: Investment

        While the IPN phenomenon has accelerated trade and investment linkages between countries in East and South-East Asia, the remainder of the region has not matched those countries in this process. The objective of the study is to explore the reasons for this by using India's performance in the Asian IPNs as a case study for other countries that are trailing behind in this area. The study seeks to identify the reason why India has performed below its potential in this new form of international division of labour, even though that country possess several supportive factors including: (a) the sheer size of the economy and population; (b) a large pool of engineers; (c) relatively sound intellectual property protection; and (d) an increasingly open trade and investment climate resulting from progressive economic reforms.

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        The Influence of Preferential Trade Agreements on the Implementation of Intellectual Property Rights in Developing Countries - A First Look (English)
        Report by Tekeste Biadgleng, Ermias, Maur, Jean-Christophe, 2011, 52 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        Preferential trade agreements (PTAs) are gaining prominence among trade liberalization efforts. Yet little remains known about the extent to which the intellectual property (IP) provisions of PTAs translate into actual changes in domestic institutions and laws. This paper investigates one important dimension of this question by looking at disciplines covering intellectual property rights (IPRs) and surveying the implementation of agreements negotiated by the European Union and the United States with developing countries. The EU and United States are the two chief proponents of stronger standards and enforcement of IPRs. This work is among the first to look at implementation issues related to IPRs in the PTA context.

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        The Information Economy Report 2011: ICTs as an Enabler for Private Sector Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 164 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Science and Technology

        Subtitled, ICTs as an Enabler for Private Sector Development (PSD), this is the sixth in the flagship series published by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). The Report shows that the potential of leveraging information and communication technologies (ICTs) to develop the private sector is far from fully exploited. It finds that many national and donor strategies related to PSD currently fail to take adequate account of the ICT potential, which has greatly expanded thanks to changes in the global ICT landscape. The Report then makes policy recommendations on how to remedy this situation.

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        Information Economy Report 2011: ICTs as an Enabler for Private Sector Development - Overview (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 4 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Science and Technology

        Subtitled, ICTs as an Enabler for Private Sector Development (PSD), this is the sixth in the flagship series published by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). The Report shows that the potential of leveraging information and communication technologies (ICTs) to develop the private sector is far from fully exploited. It finds that many national and donor strategies related to PSD currently fail to take adequate account of the ICT potential, which has greatly expanded thanks to changes in the global ICT landscape. The Report then makes policy recommendations on how to remedy this situation.

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        The Interface Between The Trade And Climate Change Regimes : Scoping The Issues
        Working paper by Low, Patrick, Marceau, Gabrielle, Reinaud, Julia, 2011, 45 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        As governments increasingly adopt policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, concern has grown on two fronts. First, carbon leakage can occur when mitigation policies are not the same across countries and producers seek to locate in jurisdictions where production costs are least affected by emission constraints. The risk of carbon leakage raises questions about the efficacy of climate change policies in a global sense. Secondly, it is precisely the cost-related consequences of differential mitigation policies that feed industry concerns about competitiveness. We thus have a link between environmental and competitiveness perspectives that fuses climate change and trade regimes in potentially problematic ways as governments contemplate trade actions to manage the environmental and/or competitiveness consequences of differential climate change policies. On the trade side of this relationship, we have the reality that the GATT/WTO rules were not originally drafted to accommodate climate change policies and concerns. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relevance of certain WTO rules to the interface between climate change and trade, focusing in particular on border measures, technical regulations on trade, standards and labelling, and subsidies and countervailing duties. It concludes that in the absence of clear international understandings on how to manage the climate change and trade interface, we run the risk of a clash that compromises the effectiveness of climate change policies as well as the potential gains from specialization through trade.

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        International Trade and Carbon Leakage: An Analytical Framework for India and Russia (English)
        Study by Mehra Keswani, Meeta; Sawhney, Aparna; Rastogi, Rashmi; Piskulova, Natalia; Abramova, Anna, 2011
        Categories: Trade and Environment, VI Members Research

        The paper, the result of a Japan-funded Vi joint research project, explores the linkages between international trade and carbon leakage, and formulates recommendations for national and international policies to reduce future emissions and facilitate the negotiating process for signing a new international climate agreement.

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        Interpretation of IIAs: What States Can Do ? (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 17 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law

        This note is divided into three parts. Part one describes the shared authority of States and tribunals in the interpretive process, and sketches some of the current deficiencies in investment arbitration. It advocates a greater involvement of States in the interpretive process, but also considers limitations to a more proactive role of the contracting parties. Part two presents international law principles of interpretation and explains how they can guide States in their actions towards fostering a “better” (i.e. more rigorous, consistent and coherent) interpretation of IIAs. Finally, part three sets out different tools States may employ to guide arbitral tribunals in the interpretation of IIAs.

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        Investment in Pharmaceutical Production in the Least Developed Countries - A Guide for Policy Makers and Investment Promotion Agencies (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2011, 59 pages
        Categories: Investment, Science and Technology

        An overview of important trends affecting the local pharmaceutical production in developing countries, intended as a guide for policymakers, investment promotion agencies and investment negotiators in their efforts to encourage the expansion of local pharmaceutical production capacity.

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        Investment Policy Monitor (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 13 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Seventy-five percent of the observed national policy measures were in the direction of investment liberalization and promotion. In particular many countries from Asia and Europe introduced new investment promotion policies such as simplifying investment procedures, enhancing the protection of foreign investors and easing foreign exchange regulations. In addition, some countries in these regions introduced new promotion programmes for outward foreign direct investment (FDI). Although the recent deepening of the financial and economic crisis in parts of the world has yet to impact national investment policies, signs are visible that major economies are becoming more and more concerned about the impact of inward and outward investment on their economies. Recent fears about possible macroeconomic shocks and a reoccurrence of the recession could increase the risk of new protectionist measures vis-á-vis foreign investors. The number of investment restrictions accumulated over the recent years and the tightening of administrative procedures, point in this direction.

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        Investment Promotion Handbook For Diplomats
        Manual by Wessendorp, Paul, Whiteway, Paul, Wigren, Andreas, 2011, 78 pages
        Categories: Investment

        This handbook is aimed at diplomats who may be new to investment promotion. It deals with the role of diplomats posted abroad, seen from the perspective of the host country (i.e. the country receiving FDI). The handbook explains what FDI is, provides an insight into the process through which companies go when they are making investment decisions, and describes the parallel activity which governments undertake in order to persuade firms to locate in their economy. The intention is both to equip diplomats with the tools needed in the promotion of FDI and to give them confidence that many of their existing skills are directly relevant to the process.

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        La Gobernanza Versus GlobalizaciÓn: Estudio De Caso Isa
        Article by Carlos Manuel Jiménez Aguilar* Catherine Pereira Villa**, 2011, 21 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research

        This article explores the contemporary debate on globalization and governance, in order to study processes of regional integration from networks of cross-border governance in the region. The processes of privatization of the electric sector in Latin America increased public-private coordination and cross-sector partnerships: this is the case of Colombia’s energy sector and the company of electrical interconnection (ISA). This work suggests that the case of ISA can be characterized as one of interactive governance that has connected three countries of the Andean region and one member of Mercosur through a linear infrastructure of more than 35,000 km. This infrastructure has spatially integrated a region characterized by incomplete integration processes. This study analyses ISA’s model and its contribution to the cross-border governance based on information provided by the company and a series of interviews with ISA’s management.

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        Las Políticas Para La Seguridad Alimentaria Ante Un Escenario Global Más Complejo (English)
        Working paper by Pomareda, Carlos, 2011, 18 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        La inseguridad alimentaria tiene múltiples dimensiones, y tanto los gobiernos como las agencias de cooperación (ONGs y organismos internacionales) la abordan en diferente forma. El resultado de tal abordaje es un gran desorden en los esfuerzos de los gobiernos y de las agencias, poniendo en tela de juicio la efectividad de las medidas que se toman. La situación tiende a complicarse a medida que pasa el tiempo y no se resuelven problemas estructurales y a raíz de nuevos elementos que hacen más difícil que la seguridad alimentaria, como objetivo de desarrollo, sea alcanzada. De no tenerse en cuenta el agravante contexto, continuará el desperdicio de recursos y la profundización de los problemas. Estas notas tienen el propósito de contribuir a identificar vacíos en los que se requiere profundizar el conocimiento y por lo tanto reconsiderar los factores que influencian las condiciones de inseguridad alimentaria y las alternativas para superar la situación, a raíz de un escenario cambiante que tiene influencia en la inseguridad alimentaria global, aunque con implicaciones particulares para los diferentes países. El documento toma en cuenta los diferentes niveles en los que se manifiesta la inseguridad alimentaria y sus vínculos con otros temas como la pobreza, el hambre y la desnutrición. Plantea la necesidad de revisar los enfoques a la luz de las complicaciones en el escenario global de inestabilidad; y los compromisos y oportunidades en el comercio internacional. El documento ofrece una revisión de estos aspectos para motivar el diálogo en un tema amplio y complejo.

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        Las TIC Como Instrumento Para Acceder Al Mercado Mundial (English)
        Policy brief by Osterlof Obregón, Doris, 2011, 6 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Science and Technology

        Las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (TIC) cada vez más se han convertido en un instrumento para facilitar la competitividad de las exportaciones en el comercio mundial. Asimismo, pueden servir para incrementar la productividad de las empresas. Son instrumentos habilitadores del desarrollo de un país y, por lo tanto, su utilización incide en el crecimiento de los diversos sectores productivos. A la vez, son también en sí mismas una oportunidad de negocios.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2011 - Overview (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 29 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Trade and Poverty

        The Least Developed Countries Report 2011 puts forward a policy framework for enhancing the development impact of South–South cooperation, and proposes ways to leverage South–South financial cooperation for development in the LDCs.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2011 - The Potential Role of South-South Cooperation for Inclusive and Sustainable Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 194 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation

        The Least Developed Countries Report 2011 puts forward a policy framework for enhancing the development impact of South–South cooperation, and proposes ways to leverage South–South financial cooperation for development in the LDCs.

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        Legitimidad Empresarial, Conflicto De Tierras Y Producción Palmera En Colombia* (English)
        Article by Pereira-Villa, Catherine, 2011, 20 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment, VI Members Research

        This article analyzes the land conflict that took place in 2009 in the south of Bolivar (Colombia), between the Daabon Group – world leader in the production of organic palm oil – and 123 peasant families who were evicted. Specifically, this paper analyzes the ways in which the Group responded to the incident, to vindicate its legitimacy, internationally challenged as a result of the conflict. Once the profile of Daabon Group and the local context in which it operates are described, some thoughts are formulated on that business group’s handling of issues associated with forced displacement, legal uncertainty and biodiversity. This study argues that in a Colombian context, a company under international scrutiny should manage its legitimacy not only on legal considerations but also on social and political aspects.

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        Les Marches D'informations Et Le E-commerce Au Cameroun /informations Markets And E-commerce In Cameroon
        Case study by kenou Liwuitekong Stephan, 2011
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Science and Technology, Trade Facilitation

        The digital revolution, like all technological revolutions that already transformed several times the economic and social environment is of actuality in our societies were they either developed or under-developed. Besides it could not let us indifferent, so this study were carried, and where we collected a number of information which allowed us to define what is an information market, E-commerce, and all concepts around the question as: the E - economy, the E - management, the new economy etc. So, in the goal to discern the level of information society and ICT impact on the degree of the E – Commerce uses, at the level of Cameroon, we proceeded by the primary and secondary data analysis. This permitted us to understand that the Cameroonian internet user was not sensitized enough about the E - Commerce and that the whole logistics as well as the infrastructure that goes with, was not yet enough developed. To this effect, a certain number of measures or actions have been suggested, as: more of sensitization, reduction of the costs of Internet, development of the infrastructures of telecommunications, etc. Nevertheless, one could hope of the best following days in this domain, seen the efforts that are provided by the Cameroonian government, in the popularization of the NTICS, as well as the slogan “Internet for all”. It is whereas the Cameroonian enterprises of all sizes as well as the consumers will be able to experiment in their way to manage their resources the kindness of the E – Commerce.

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        Liberalizing Agriculture by OECD Countries : Welfare, Growth and Distributional Impact in Developing Countries (English)
        Report by Hossain, Sharif M., 2011, 10 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research

        Although it is often argued that liberalization provides opportunities for growth and development in all over the world, there are divergent views about the effects of agricultural trade liberalization on growth and income distribution in developing countries. The developing countries’ main complaint in this regard is that trade distorting activities in agriculture by developed countries adversely affecting their exports and consequently growth, and income and employment of the people therein. There is a general perception among the policymakers and academia that the developing countries would gain much from the removal of existing distortion in the agricultural market because of the tremendous importance of the agricultural sector in their economies. The current paper has analyzed the effect of trade liberalization in agriculture on welfare, growth and income distribution in developing countries, using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model and indicates that the effect is not similar for all the developing countries.

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        The Long-term (English)
        Discussion paper by Nassif, André; Feijó, Carmem; Araújo, Eliane, 2011, 34 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy

        Using the structuralist-Keynesian theoretical approach, the paper affirms that, instead of macroeconomic fundamentals, the long-term trend of the real exchange rate level should not only be determined by structural forces and long-term economic policies, but also short-term macroeconomic policies and their indirect effects on other short-term economic variables. It also proposes an original concept of a long-term “optimal” real exchange rate for open emerging economies.

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        Making Globalization Socially Sustainable (English)
        Report by WTO, ILO, 2011, 337 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        "Making Globalization Socially Sustainable" underlines globalization’s potential to stimulate productivity and growth but highlights the importance of pursuing trade, employment and social policies together in order to harness this potential. The book contains contributions from leading academic experts who analyse the various channels through which globalization affects jobs and wages. The publication reasserts the positive role that trade liberalization can play in improving efficiency and thus growth. It emphasizes the important role for governments in investing in public goods and in strengthening the functioning of markets that are crucial for globalization to be growth-enhancing. The key role of social protection is highlighted, as is the need to adjust social protection systems to local conditions.

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        Measuring the Impacts of Information and Communication Technology for Development
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 31 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology

        This paper explores why measuring the impacts of information and communication technology (ICT) is important for development – and why it is statistically challenging. Measuring impacts in any field is difficult, but for ICT there are added complications because of its diversity and rapidly changing nature. A number of impact areas are identified in section 1, and their relationships explored, in the context of their place in the social, economic and environmental realms. The result is a complex web of relationships between individual impact areas, such as economic growth and poverty alleviation, and background factors, such as a country’s level of education and government regulation.

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        Measuring the Relative Strenght of Preferential Market Access (English)
        Discussion paper by Alessandro Nicita, 2011, 29 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper provides two new indices aimed to assessing the value of preferential margin to calculate the strength of existing or future trade agreements and the preference erosion that third parties trade agreements may cause. The first index is the Relative Preferential Margin (RPM) and measures the relative value of preferential regimes on actual exports flows. The second index is the Potential Preferential Margin (PPM) and measures the potential value of the preferential regime. Finally, it also provides changes in these indices both for members and non-members consequent to the implementation of an FTA among East Asian countries. The results point to a large variance of benefit and losses.

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        Measuring the Relative Strength of Preferential Market Access (English)
        Report by Nicita, Alessandro / UNCTAD, 2011, 29 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        In the past 20 years, tariffs imposed on international trade have been decreasing both in virtue of multilateral agreements under the auspices of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and of the proliferation of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) at the regional and bilateral level. The consequence of the large number of PTAs is that an increasing share of international trade is not subject to the most favoured nation tariffs, but enters markets through preferential access. Preferential access can be thought of as a policy given comparative advantage where countries discriminate across trading partners by providing some countries with a relative advantage. As the number of PTAs increases, it becomes more difficult to assess the tariff advantage originating from an existing or future trade agreement. This paper proposes two new indices aimed at assessing the value of the preferential margin. The first index measures the relative value of preferential regimes on actual exports flows. It provides the tariff advan age to the exports originating from a given country relative to similar exports originating elsewhere. The second index measures the potential value of the preferential regime and it is calculated not on observed but on “potential” export flows. These indices are useful for calculating both the strength of existing or future trade agreements as well as the preference erosion that a third-parties trade agreement may cause.

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        National Services Policy Review - Uganda (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2011, 107 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This publication presents the results of the National Services Policy Review (NSPR) undertaken by the Government of Uganda in cooperation with UNCTAD

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        National Trade Policy for Export Success (English)
        Report by ITC, 2011, 176 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Enterprise Development

        This study presents a trade policy framework developed by ITC. It provides the trade policy instruments that governments can use to support the competitiveness of firms at each stage of the supply chain and outlines how trade policy options can influence national export competitiveness. The study also discusses in detail the trade policy instruments corresponding to each of the following objectives: creating competitive infrastructure services; promoting exports and foreign investment; moving goods across borders effectively; addressing export market issues and improving inputs and capital goods. It also considers how to tackle the overriding constraints faced by both public and private sectors, related to every stage of production and distribution of goods and services for export.

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        Natural Resources and Non-cooperative Trade Policy (English)
        Working paper by Latina, Joelle, Piermartini, Roberta, Ruta, Michele / WTO, 2011, 29 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        When looking at the conditions of trade in natural resources the world appears upside down: tariff protection in natural resources sectors is generally lower than for overall merchandise trade, while export restrictions are twice as likely as in other sectors. On the other hand, tariff escalation is significant in natural resources sectors, where materials in their raw state face, on average, lower duties than in their processed form. In this paper, we discuss how export taxes and tariff escalation may be the result of an uncooperative trade policy. Specifically, tariff escalation and export taxes can be "beggar-thy-neighbor" policies because governments may be tempted to use them to alter the relative price of exports to their advantage (terms-of-trade effect) or to expand the domestic processing industry at the expenses of foreign production (production relocation effect). In equilibrium, these policies offset each other in a Prisoners' Dilemma situation, where trade is inefficiently low.

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        New and Traditional Trade Flows and the Economic Crisis (English)
        Report by Nicita, Alessandro, Tumurchudur-Klok, Bolormaa, 2011, 24 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        In terms of economic development, it makes a difference whether export increases at the extensive (new trade flows) or intensive margin (traditional, well-established trade flows). Similarly, a decline in international trade may affect new flows relatively more than traditional ones. A more severe impact on new trade flows could impose additional obstacles to recovery for those countries relying on export diversification for their economic development. This paper seeks to determine whether the recent decline in international trade has affected relatively more trade at the extensive margin or at the intensive margin. The overall results indicate that the economic crisis of 2008 and 2009 has had more severe implications for those bilateral trade flows that did not exist before 2006. New bilateral flows have a lower probability of surviving the fall in demand and relatively higher negative effects on their volumes of trade. Consequently, the economic crisis may also affect the global economy by producing delays in the international product cycle, with traditional and larger exporters holding ground in a relatively better way than new entrants.

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        New Thinking Surrounding Remittances and Development (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2011, 193 pages
        Categories: Migration and Development

        The present publication seeks to gather main experiences and proposals made by policy makers, delegates, experts, intergovernmental organisation and civil society representatives during the 2011 UNCTAD Single Year Expert meeting on “Maximizing the development impact of remittances”. It is also a tool for consolidating state of the art knowledge on remittances trends, providing new thinking on the role that remittances play on development, and enabling stakeholders in better designing comprehensive policy and institutional frameworks in the intersection between migration, remittances, financial services and labour mobility issues.

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        Non-tariff Measures and the Fight Against Malaria - Obstacles to Trade in Anti-malarial Commodities (English)
        Review by ITC, 2011, 34 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper focuses on specific non-tariff measures (NTMs) that could negatively affect the affordability and accessibility of anti-malarial commodities - it introduces non-tariff measures and other obstacles to trade. It presents the results of a business-perception survey, conducted by ITC, on NTMs faced by importers and exporters of anti-malarial commodities (medicines for treating/preventing of malaria, diagnostic tests, mosquito nets, insecticides for indoor residual spraying, and pumps for spraying indoor insecticides). The paper is structured as follows: Section 1 introduces non-tariff measures and other obstacles to trade. In addition it presents the NTM classification and methodology underlying this paper. Furthermore section 2 and 3 provide the survey results and section 4 presents the conclusions.

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        On the Determinants of Exports Survival (English)
        Discussion paper by Marco Fugazza, Cristina Molina, 2011, 43 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This study series paper examines the exporter's survival in foreign markets through an empirical investigation of possible determinants of exports survival rates such as fixed and sunk cost to export. It contains descriptive statistics of stylized facts that qualifies trade duration across groups of countries. The results are shown by region. The final part contains the results showing that the overall trade relationships with either higher average or initial trade values face lower hazard rate which have important policy implications.

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        On the Importance of Market Access for Trade (English)
        Working paper by Fugazza, Marco, Nicita, Alessandro, 2011, 36 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        One of the consequences of the proliferation of preferential trade agreements is that an increasing share of international trade is not subject to the most favoured nation (MFN) tariff, but enters markets through preferential access. Preferential access affects trade because, by providing some countries with a relative advantage, it is essentially a discriminatory practice. This paper examines the extent to which preferential access affects bilateral trade flows. The empirical approach consists first in providing two indices: one summarizing direct market access conditions (the overall tariff faced by exports) and one measuring relative market access conditions (the overall tariff faced by exports relative to that faced by competitors). Then, the indices are used in a gravity model in order to estimate how changes in market access conditions affect international trade. Although those conditions are generally more important, the results indicate that the relative advantage provided by the structure of preferences also affects the magnitude of bilateral trade flows. That is, bilateral trade flows depend on the advantage provided by the system of preferences over other competitors.

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        O Papel Dos Sistemas Gerais De Preferências (English)
        Policy brief by Barral, Welber, Pancotto Bohrer, Carolina, 2011, 12 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        O trabalho abordará o papel dos SGPs no comércio exterior brasileiro, specialmente no que tange às exportações para EUA e UE. O Brasil é usuário de ambos os sistemas, que passam por momento de transformação. Nos últimos anos, o país tem empreendido considerável esforço para manter as vantagens tarifárias no âmbito do SGP norte-americano, o que constitui elemento importante nas relações comerciais entre Brasil e EUA. No entanto, existem questionamentos tanto internos quanto externos relativos à participação do Brasil no SGP daquele país. No caso do SGP europeu, existe também bastante preocupação, especialmente em função do recente anúncio de que o bloco vai rever seu SGP, o que provavelmente terá como resultado a exclusão de países médios como o Brasil. Esta pode ser, inclusive, uma estratégia européia para forçar um acordo com o MERCOSUL e os impactos para o comércio exterior brasileiro podem ser relevantes.

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        An Overview of Major Sources of Data and Analyses Relating to Physical Fundamentals in International Commodity Markets
        Working paper by Fajarnes, Pilar / UNCTAD, 2011, 32 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper, written by Pilar Fajarnes, of UNCTAD's Division on Globalization and Development Strategies, assesses the current situation with regard to the availability of information on physical commodity markets, pointing to some of the existing information gaps and areas for improvement. It also provides a comprehensive overview of the various information sources covering agricultural commodity markets (food, tropical beverages, agricultural raw materials), energy commodities, and metals and minerals markets. A wealth of website links contained in the paper facilitates the access to relevant information.

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        The Petroleum Industry in Zambia. A Study on Market Structure and Competition (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2011, 119 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Competition Policy

        The objective of this study is to evaluate the context, the structure and the functioning of the sector from the competition point of view. The energy sector is one of the key sectors of the Zambian economy, in particular the petroleum industry. Petroleum is the only energy source that is 100 per cent imported in Zambia. Hence, in agreement with the Competition and Consumer Protection Commission, the petroleum sector has been identified as a special sector which requires analysis.

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        Price Formation in Financialized Commodity Markets - The Role of Information (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 80 pages
        Categories: Commodities, International Financial System

        This study asserts that the role of information is crucial for price developments in commodity derivative markets. It demonstrates that the traditional approach of efficient market hypothesis (EMH)does not apply for present commodity futures markets. Trading decisions are taken in an environment of considerable uncertainty, where traders engage in "intentional herding" and do not base their transactions on information about fundamentals. This analysis also advocates several policy responses to improve market functioning such as increased transparency with respect to fundamentals, increased transparency in the exchanges and OTC markets, tighter regulation of financial players and the introduction of a transaction tax system.

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        Price Volatility in Food and Agricultural Markets: Policy Responses (English)
        Report by FAO, IFAD, IMF,OECD, UNCTAD, WFP, World Bank, the WTO, IFPRI, UN HLTF, 2011, 66 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        This joint report, prepared as a result of the November 2010 G20 summit in , aims at providing options for G20 consideration on how to better mitigate and manage the risks associated with the price volatility of food and other agriculture commodities, without distorting market behaviour, ultimately to protect the most vulnerable.

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        Production Methods in the WTO: Considerations for Colombian Biotrade (English)
        Working paper by Calle-Saldarriaga, Maria Alejandra, 2011, 50 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper aims to identify the role of consumers as catalysts of trade policy actions and regulations when implementing bioethical concerns embedded in process and production methods (PPMs), traditionally considered as Non Tariff Barriers and incompatible with the purpose of WTO member states obligations, especially taking the Colombian biotrade initiatives as an example.

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        Public-private Collaboration for Export Success: Case Studies from Barbados, Ghana, India, Thailand and Malaysia (English)
        Report by ITC, 2011, 116 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Enterprise Development

        This guide demonstrates the value of business advocacy on trade policy issues featuring the Barbadian tourism industry, customs services in Ghana, Thailand’s automotive industry, Penang, Malaysia’s export hub for electronics, and India’s textile parks.

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        Regional Monetary Cooperation and Growth-enhancing Policies: the New Challenges for Latin America and the Caribbean (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2011, 84 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Macroeconomic Policy, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        Using the SUCRE initiative as a starting point, this study aims at raising awareness and building consensus on the issue of regional monetary cooperation and its links to growth and development.

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        A Regulação Do Comércio Internacional Agrícola: Histórico E Perspectivas
        Discussion paper by Machado Oliveira, Ivan Tiago, 2011, 36 pages
        Categories: VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper analyzes the multilateral regulation of international trade in agriculture from the GATT/1947 to the Doha Round, under the auspices of the WTO. From a historical-analytical perspective, the international context in which the multilateral system has been built is presented taking into account how the agricultural agenda has been introduced in the system. Furthermore, the conflicts and negotiations among developing and developed countries are analyzed in order to observe the relationship between international agricultural trade and economic development. Finally, we discuss the current round of multilateral negotiations, the Doha Round, and its relevance for developing countries, focusing on agricultural negotiations, considered the center of the multilateral negotiating process. Este texto analisa a regulação multilateral do comércio internacional agrícola desde o GATT/1947 até a Rodada Doha, já sob os auspícios da OMC. Sob uma ótica históricoanalítica, faz-se uma apresentação do contexto internacional no qual o sistema multilateral foi construído e identificam-se as interações entre a formação do sistema e a inserção da temática agrícola nas regras multilaterais no pós-Segunda Guerra Mundial. Ademais, uma análise das lógicas de conflitos e negociação entre os países em desenvolvimento e os desenvolvidos é apresentada no sentido de se observar a relação entre o comércio internacional agrícola e o desenvolvimento econômico. Por fim, são realizadas análises sobre a atual rodada de negociações multilaterais, a Rodada Doha, e sua relevância na ótica dos países em desenvolvimento, tendo em vista as negociações agrícolas, colocadas no centro do processo negociador multilateral.

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        Report on the Implementation of the Investment Policy Review - United Republic of Tanzania (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 58 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This report is a review of the progress made in implementing the Investment Policy Review of the United Republic of Tanzania (IPR), published in 2002. The report notes that there has been a great deal of activity related to improving the investment climate in the United Republic of Tanzania since the completion of the IPR. However, progress implementing the recommendations has ben mixed.

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        The Review of Maritime Transport 2011
        Review by UNCTAD, 2011, 233 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation

        This annual report closely monitors developments affecting world seaborne trade, freight rates, ports, surface transport and logistics services, as well as trends in ship ownership and control and fleet age, tonnage supply and productivity. In addition, the RMT contains a chapter on legal and regulatory developments and a special chapter analysing the participation of developing countries in different maritime businesses.

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        The Road to Rio+20 - For a Development-led Green Economy: Volume 1 (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2011, 108 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        This volume of essays provides a series of real world references for governments, businesses and civil society on approaches to the Green Economy. This issue also addresses gaps in implementation with one essay providing a 'historical perspective' tracing four decades of high and low points in the environment and development debate.

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        The Road to Rio+20 - For a Development-led Green Economy: Volume 2 (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2011, 100 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        The green economy, within the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication, is one of the two themes of the 2012 Conference on Sustainable Development, to be held in Rio de Janeiro. It encompasses some of the most important challenges we face today: eradicating poverty, improving our relationship with the environment, addressing the potential negative impacts of global climate change, and creating a new path for sustainable development.

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        Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Review: Ghana (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 169 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Science and Technology

        The Science, Technology and Innovation Policy (STIP) Review of Ghana was prepared at the request of the Government of Ghana. The Review is meant to offer an objective and critical look at the country’s STI capacities and assess how these capacities are being translated into innovations that help meet the country’s socioeconomic development objectives, including supporting economic growth and poverty reduction as well as structural transformation of the economy. It sets out specific recommendations for practical actions and policy reforms to build STI capacity and to create a more dynamic economy that will move more quickly towards middle-income levels. The Review argues that policy action to promote STI development is required if Ghana is to achieve faster, more sustainable growth and development.

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        Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Review - Peru (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 184 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Science and Technology

        The ultimate objective of the science, technology and innovation policy review of Peru is to provide the Peruvian Government with an up-to-date diagnostic analysis of the effectiveness of its science, technology and innovation-related policies and measures, and strengthen these policies and measures by integrating them in the national development process, and improve technological capacity, encourage innovation and incorporate greater added value into production

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        Science, Technology & Innovation Policy Review : El Salvador (English)
        Report by Miroux, Anne, Hamdi, Mongi, Pérez Cusó, Marta, Hernández, René, López Martínez, Roberto, Huidobro, Eduardo, 2011, 181 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Science and Technology

        This review is intended to be a tool for learning and reflection, not a rating mechanism but an analytical tool that examines a series of proposals from a neutral external viewpoint. The ultimate objective of the science, technology and innovation policy review of El Salvador is to provide the Salvadorian Government with an up-to-date diagnostic analysis of the effectiveness of its science, technology and innovation-related policies and measures, and strengthen these policies and measures by integrating them in the national development process. It also seeks to improve technological capacity, encourage innovation and incorporate greater added value into production processes.

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        Scope And Definition (English)
        Article by UNCTAD, 2011, 163 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law

        This paper analyses the scope and definitions of international investment agreements (IIAs). IIAs must specify not only their geographical and temporal coverage, but, most importantly, their subject-matter coverage. This is done primarily through the definitions of the terms “investment” and “investor”, which form the main focus of this paper. The definition of “investment” determines economic interests, to which governments extend substantive IIA protections, while the definition of “investor” specifies the range of individuals and legal entities that can benefit from the treaty.

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        The Scope for Foreign Exchange Market Interventions (English)
        Discussion paper by Bofinger, Peter / University of Wuerzburg, 2011, 36 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy

        The paper advocates for a strategy of managed floating which can reconcile three objectives that are usually not considered reconcilable - an autonomous monetary policy, a control over the exchange rate and free capital movements. If a central bank targets an exchange rate level based on the interest rate difference between two currencies, it can at the same time set its policy rate autonomously. By eliminating the interest rate differences between countries, such targeting also eliminates the incentives for carry trade and is hence compatible with capital mobility.

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        Share of Labour Compensation and Aggregate Demand - Discussions Towards a Growth Strategy
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2011, 30 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Globalization and Development Strategies

        Economic growth strategies of developing countries have focused in the last decades on expanding their exports. In that scheme, wage compression seems necessary in order to compensate the observed slow productivity pace achieving, therefore, “competitiveness”. The core of this discussion is, undoubtedly, how the national product is appropriated through wages and surplus, i.e. the factorial income distribution. From that viewpoint, this paper discusses the long-term impoverishment of Argentinean workers through two key aspects of the economic process: on one hand, the way in which labour force is allocated, by analysing the relationship between real wage and productivity. On the other, how income is used in the acquisition of consumer goods and capital formation. In order to fully comprehend those trends, this paper recourses to an international comparison with two types of countries: the developed ones (United States of America, France and Japan) and the largest Latin American economies (Brazil and Mexico). As these processes take place in the long run, this paper’s analysis period will start from the 1950s.

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        Situación Reciente De Las Exportaciones Industriales De Colombia (1990-2009)
        Study by Torres, Danilo, 2011, 93 pages
        Categories: VI Members Research

        Developed during a Vi fellowship, this study presents assesses Colombian industrial exports in the last two decades, based on conventional research methods and contrasting with the methodology of technological differentiation of export intensities. The analysis demonstrates that the total Colombian exports during this period was characterized by a predominance of primary commodities and natural resource-based low-technology products. Although efforts are being made aimed at export diversification of mid- and high-technology products, the participation of these in total exports of the country is low.

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        Social Unrest Paves the Way: A Fresh Start for Economic Growth with Social Equity
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 2 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon has emphasised that the wave of popular revolt that has erupted in the North Africa and West Asia region constitutes a “situation which calls for bold reforms”. Indeed, these momentous events also reflect massive social discontent and crises. The push for political change has been mirrored by equally vocal calls for alleviation of poverty, more and better jobs, better wages and social security, access to basic commodities at affordable prices and equitable distribution of national income. In its economic dimensions the upheaval represents a day of reckoning for the trade and economic policy choices made in the region over past decades. But for policy makers in countries facing similar pressures this is an opportune moment to rebuild neglected public institutions so they can lead the process of reshaping economic and labour governance. This can provide a platform for a re-assignment of macroeconomic policies for sustained growth in ways that trigger a virtuous circle of investment, productivity growth, income growth and employment creation so that the income gains from productivity growth are distributed equitably between labour and capital.

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        Some Reflections on Climate Change, Green Growth Illusions and Development Space (English)
        Discussion paper by Hoffmann, Ulrich, 2011, 34 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        Many economists and policy makers advocate a fundamental shift towards “green growth” as the new, qualitatively-different growth paradigm, based on enhanced material/resource/energy efficiency and drastic changes in the energy mix. “Green growth” may work well in creating new growth impulses with reduced environmental load and facilitating related technological and structural change. But can it also mitigate climate change at the required scale (i.e. significant, absolute and permanent decline of GHG emissions at global level) and pace? This paper argues that growth, technological, population-expansion and governance constraints as well as some key systemic issues cast a very long shadow on the “green growth” hopes. One should not deceive oneself into believing that such evolutionary (and often reductionist) approach will be sufficient to cope with the complexities of climate change. It may rather give much false hope and excuses to do nothing really fundamental that can bring about a U-turn of global GHG emissions. The proponents of a resource efficiency revolution and a drastic change in the energy mix need to scrutinize the historical evidence, in particular the arithmetic of economic and population growth. Furthermore, they need to realize that the required transformation goes beyond innovation and structural changes to include democratization of the economy and cultural change. Climate change calls into question the global equality of opportunity for prosperity (i.e. ecological justice and development space) and is thus a huge developmental challenge for the South and a question of life and death for some developing countries (who increasingly resist the framing of climate protection versus equity).

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        Sri Lanka: Company Perspectives - An ITC Series on Non-tariff Measures (English)
        Report by ITC, 2011, 112 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report assesses the impact of Non-Tariff Measures (NTMs) on the business sector. It is based on a large-scale survey conducted in Sri Lanka. The survey covers companies directly reporting burdensome NTMs and the reasons why they consider them to be trade barriers. The paper analyzes the survey findings and compares them to other sources on NTMs to identify regulatory, procedural and infrastructural obstacles in Sri Lanka and in its partner countries. Furthermore it outlines policy options for each sector including clothing, textiles, chemicals, plastics and rubber-based products; tea and other agro-based products. The report also includes NTM classification and bibliographical references.

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        Strengthening the Creative Industries for Development - in Mozambique
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 110 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This report was prepared with the purpose to make an analytical assessment and a policy review of the current status of creative industries in Mozambique to identify key issues and formulate policy proposals to assist the government to shape a strategic plan of action aiming at building a solid basis for enhancing its creative economy for employment, trade and development gains.

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        Strengthening the Creative Industries for Development - in Zambia
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 116 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The main purpose of this study is to assist the Government of Zambia in articulating a development strategy that can optimize the economic potential of the creative sector for job creation, trade expansion and social inclusion. In addition to reviewing current policy in these areas, the report proposes a plan of action to be conducted with the support of relevant United Nations agencies, and an institutional mechanism to facilitate concerted policy actions and interministerial decisions.

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        Structural Change, Global Imbalances, and Employment in the Least Developed Countries
        Policy brief by ICTSD, 2011, 8 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Economic development in the least developed countries (LDCs) is often seen as being constrained by a range of socio-economic and geophysical impediments, which have made this group of countries extremely vulnerable to external shocks. The current global economic crisis is an extreme example of such an external shock. While the group of LDCs experienced a smaller direct adverse impact of the recent financial turmoil than most other developing countries, some LDCs were also exposed to adverse impacts of increased fuel and food price volatility. These adverse effects have been reinforced by the decline in export opportunities caused by the recent weak economic performance in advanced economies.This essay addresses the effects of changes in the level and composition of global demand, and especially of global rebalancing, on trade flows and employment from a demand perspective. It emphasizes that these effects depend on the relative importance of rich and poor countries, as well as of different components of aggregate demand, in global growth. These effects, in turn, affect export opportunities of all countries, including the LDCs, as well as structural change and employment opportunities in their economies.

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        Structural Changes in Exports of an Emerging Economy : Case of Turkey
        Working paper by Saygılı, Hülya, Saygılı, Mesut, 2011, 32 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This study examines structural changes in Turkish export supply and demand functions, which can be used as a good reference in understanding the determinants of trade performance of an emerging market economy. Results show that as the export shares of new non-traditional commodities that have not only higher import and income sensitivity, but also lower real exchange rate elasticity than the traditional commodities increases, coefficients of the total export functions changes accordingly. Process of transformation accelerates during the major reform periods and economic crisis.

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        Supply Chains in Export Agriculture, Competition, and Poverty in Sub-saharan Africa (English)
        Book by Porto, Guido, Depetris Chauvin, Nicolas, Olarreaga, Marcelo / World Bank, 2011, 290 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Competitiveness, Globalization and Development Strategies

        In this book, we study how the internal structure of export markets and the level of competition affect poverty and welfare in remote rural areas in Africa. In sub-Saharan Africa, rural poverty is a widespread phenomenon. While most farmers produce for home consumption, some are engaged in high-value export agriculture. Here, we focus on export crops such as coffee, cotton, cocoa, and tobacco. For many African countries, these crops, which are typically produced by smallholders, are a major source of export revenue. In consequence, changes in export prices and in the conditions faced in export markets (both internally and externally) can play a big role in shaping poverty in the region. Traditionally, the literature has focused on how external conditions affect poverty, for example by addressing whether agricultural subsidies in the developed world affect world prices and how this in turn affects farm-gate prices. Our objective in this book is to explore domestic factors. In particular, we investigate the role played by the structure of competition in export agriculture supply chains.

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        Technology and Innovation Report 2011: Powering Development with Renewable Energy Technologies (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 179 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade and Environment

        The TIR11 focuses on the role of renewable energy technologies in responding to the dual challenge of reducing energy poverty while mitigating climate change. The Report identifies key capacity issues for developing countries and proposes concrete recommendations for the wider use of renewable energy technologies to promote sustainable development and poverty reduction.

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        Trade and Development Report 2011: Post-crisis policy challenges in the world economy (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 224 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy

        The Trade and Development Report 2011 focuses on the post-crisis policy challenges in the world economy. It concludes that the recovery is slowing down and that the "two-speed recovery" in developed and developing countries is mainly the result of wide differences in domestic demand. It shows that post-crisis reforms are progressing slowly, and addresses the main regulatory reforms that should take place in relation to financial markets. To diminish the effect of fnancialization of commodity markets based on herd behaviour, the TDR proposes measures to increase transparency in physical and derivatives markets. Finally, to decrease the disparity between macroeconomic fundamentals and foreign exchange markets, the report recommends a system of rules based management floating at a multilateral level - this would greatly improve international financial stability.

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        Trade and Development Report 2011: Post-crisis policy challenges in the world economy - Overview (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 34 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy

        The Trade and Development Report 2011 focuses on the post-crisis policy challenges in the world economy. It concludes that the recovery is slowing down and that the "two-speed recovery" in developed and developing countries is mainly the result of wide differences in domestic demand. It shows that post-crisis reforms are progressing slowly, and addresses the main regulatory reforms that should take place in relation to financial markets. To diminish the effect of fnancialization of commodity markets based on herd behaviour, the TDR proposes measures to increase transparency in physical and derivatives markets. Finally, to decrease the disparity between macroeconomic fundamentals and foreign exchange markets, the report recommends a system of rules based management floating at a multilateral level - this would greatly improve international financial stability.

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        Trade And Development Symposium. Perspectives On the Multilateral Trading System. How To Encourage The Network Trade Rules Interconnections? An Application To The Case Of Non Tariff Barriers
        Report by Vaillant, Marcel, 2011, 8 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The focus of this paper is different and is also a by-product of the globalization process. The extension of the set of economic activities in the international economy provokes an extension of the themes that require necessary consideration in trade agreements. The adaptation speed in the multilateral field is structurally slow. Countries are less willing to establish rules on the basis of Most Favored Nation than within preferential trade agreements. Hence the demands to expand and deepen in new topics have been channeled through the proliferation of preferential trade agreements. The content of commitments and themes in the agenda of international trade negotiations between national jurisdictions has widened: from the trade of goods to the trade of services, as well as to the mobility of some production factors. At the same time, the field where commitments are achieved has increased exponentially: bilateral agreements, plurilateral agreements, agreements between groups of countries, extension of agreement . This paper chooses, within the wider subject related to goods, the topic of non-tariff barriers, which will be more thoroughly developed in the third section.

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        Trade and Employment. From Myths to Facts (English)
        Book by Jansen, Marion, Peters, Ralf, Salazar-Xirinachs, José Manuel, 2011, 318 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This edited volume tries to address this disconnect between the trade and employment linkages in public debates and the relative absence of factual assessments of the employment and distributional implications of trade. The publication is an outcome of a joint project of the European Commission and the International Labour Office on “Assessing and addressing the employment effects of trade”. This publication has three objectives: First, to fill knowledge gaps by taking stock of the existing evidence on trade and employment with a focus on work using recent methodologies and datasets and on work that pays special attention to the functioning of labour markets. Second, to contribute to the design of tools that governments, social partners and experts can use to evaluate the employment effects of trade. And third, to contribute to the design of policy mixes that promote open markets whilst at the same time promoting quality jobs with adequate levels of protection.

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        Trade Policy and Food Security: The Implications of the WTO’s Agreement on Agriculture for Caribbean Small Vulnerable Economies (English)
        Working paper by Pennycooke, Camiel / University of the West Indies, 2011, 46 pages
        Categories: Commodities, VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The paper focuses on the impact of the Agreement on Agriculture on food security in Caribbean SVEs and was approached by examining its three pillars. In terms of the objectives and commitments made under the Uruguay Round an assessment was made on the implementation of such commitments and the outcomes for the SVEs. The research showed that to date, the objectives of the Agreement have not been fully realized and protectionism has actually increased in developed countries. The multilateral agricultural trade negotiations under the auspices of the World Trade Organization had projected the reduction in trade distortions and protectionism in international trade, thereby creating a fair trading environment for WTO members. This has resulted in the SVEs bringing to attention, in the current round of negotiations (Doha), trade-related problems experienced by the group, among which are the implications of the WTO agreements on their open economies, agriculture and sustained development.

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        UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics 2011 (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2011, 512 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics provides essential data for analysing and measuring world trade, investment, international financial flows and development. Reliable statistical information is often considered as the first step during the preparation of making recommendations or taking decisions that countries will commit for many years as they strive to integrate into the world economy and improve the living standards of their citizens. Whether it is for research, consultation or technical cooperation, UNCTAD requires comparable, often detailed economic, demographic and social data, over several decades and for as many countries as possible. In English and French.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief: Building a Development-led Green Economy (no. 23 - June 2011) (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 2 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Environment

        This policy brief describes the challenges faced by governments in transiting to a green economy.It emphasises that a viable transition must take into consideration constraints on growth, competitive disadvantages and unequal benefits, especially for developing countries,and that specific support must be given to green industries to promote this environmentally and socially sustainable economy strategy.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief N° 24/2011: On The Brink : Fiscal Austerity Threatens A Global Recession (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD TDR, 2011, 4 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Due to sluggish private demand, several advanced economies are hovering on the brink of a second bout of recession. Yet, in many of these countries political attention has turned to ways to cut fiscal deficits and reduce the domestic public debt. This has created a dangerous accumulation of risks for the world economy. The private sector can only successfully deleverage (i.e., reduce its debt) if someone else is willing to take on higher debt and support demand. If the private and the public sectors try to deleverage simultaneously, they must either find debtors elsewhere, or the economy will tailspin into a depression. As the developing world is both unable and unwilling to accept the role of debtor of last resort, dangerous pressures are building up. Unless there is a rapid policy turnaround, the world is in danger of repeating the mistakes of the 1930s. In today’s highly integrated global economy, the contractionary contagion will affect all countries. Emerging and developing economies need to prepare contingency plans.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 20A/2011: The LDC IV Conference: An Agenda for Action (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 2 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The UN LDC IV Conference, to be held in Turkey in May 2011, will have three major objectives: to assess the implementation of the Brussels Programme of Action by LDCs and their development partners; to identify new challenges and opportunities for LDCs; and to agree upon the actions required at national and international levels in response to the inadequate economic and social performance of the LDCs over the last decade. This policy brief proposes elements of a broad agenda for action as an input for the Conference.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 20D/2012: LDCs' Boom and Bust in the 2000's: the Turbulent Decade (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 2 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This policy brief describes the unsustainable growth of LDCs during the 2000s,and the effect of the global recession on these economies, and advocates structural transformation of the LDC economies to become more resilient to external shocks.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 20/E: Poverty Reduction and Progress Towards Mdgs in the LDCs: Encouraging Signs but Much Remains to Be Done (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 4 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Poverty

        This policy brief evaluates the progress of LDCs in achieving the goals set by the MDGs, especially in terms of poverty alleviation.

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        Unctad Policy Brief No. 20F/2011: Development Challenges Facing LDCs in the Coming Decade (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 2 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This policy brief examines the development challenges faced by LDCs in the following decade, namely the employment challenge, the globalization and climate change challenge and the governance deficit challenge.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 20G/2011: Towards a New International Development Architecture for LDCs (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 2 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This policy brief describes the rationale behind establishing a new International Development Architecture (NIDA) for LDCs, the structure of the NIDA, and how it should be implemented.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No.20 - Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security in LDCs (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 2 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This policy brief outlines the major challenges facing LDCs in implementing a sustainable agricultural sector as a means to achieve food security, and provides recommendations to governments and LDC donors to support the development of this important sector.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 2/2011: South-south Integration is Key to Rebalancing the Global Economy (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 2 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The world economy is seriously out of kilter. Over the last 30 years finance-led globalization has distorted developments in the real economy, triggered a series of boom-bust cycles and fuelled the most regressive redistribution of income in the modern era. These trends culminated in a financial meltdown spreading out from the advanced countries in late 2008, and producing the most severe worldwide slowdown since 1945. Imbalances continue to haunt the recovery process, which has been slow and erratic especially in the most heavily financialized and indebted economies, and in the most vulnerable countries in the South, where the economic shocks were compounded by food and energy insecurity and climate variability.

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        Unctad Technology and Innovation Report 2011: Powering Development with Renewable Energy Technologies - Overview (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 37 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade and Environment

        The TIR11 focuses on the role of renewable energy technologies in responding to the dual challenge of reducing energy poverty while mitigating climate change. The Report identifies key capacity issues for developing countries and proposes concrete recommendations for the wider use of renewable energy technologies to promote sustainable development and poverty reduction.

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        Unraveling the Underlying Causes of Price Volatility in World Coffee and Cocoa Commodity Markets (English)
        Discussion paper by Maurice, Noemie Eliana, Davis, Junior / UNCTAD, 2011, 43 pages
        Categories: Commodities, International Financial System, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        In recent years, Commodity Dependent Developing Countries (CDDCs) have faced multiple global food, energy and climate crises, compounded by the recent financial and economic crises, which have increased their vulnerability to excessive price volatility in commodity markets. Moreover, structural vulnerabilities in most CDDCs render their economies more vulnerable to increased commodity market turbulence than developed countries, given their comparatively lower income and high dependence on commodity exports. Therefore, this paper empirically examines the patterns and underlying causes of excessive price volatility for two major soft commodities of critical importance to many of the poorest CDDCs: coffee and cocoa. It aims to identify interactions, similarities and causalities between coffee and cocoa prices on the one hand and, oil and futures prices on the other hand. Our analysis of coffee and cocoa historical prices shows that, coffee price volatility has uneven or differing reactions depending on the nature of the market shock. Oil price spillover effects on coffee and cocoa markets are also assessed using cointegration and causality models. Long-run causality is found between oil prices, and coffee and cocoa prices but, only cocoa has an equilibrium relationship with oil in the longterm. Given the results, this study proposes some policy recommendations for managing price risk and addressing regulation in cocoa and coffee exporting countries

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        Using Intellectual Property Rights to Stimulate Pharmaceutical Production in Developing Countries: A Reference Guide (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 204 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Science and Technology, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The objective of this guide is to provide concise and practical information on ways to promote local pharmaceutical production and improve access to medicines through a variety of policy tools, focusing on the flexibilities provided under the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), and the interfaces between IP, investment,drugs regulation and procurement strategies.

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        Water for Food: Innovative Water Management Technologies for Food Security and Poverty Alleviation (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 39 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Science and Technology, Trade and Environment

        The publication addresses the water-food-poverty nexus in agricultural development. Modern irrigation systems have allowed for increased food production, but population growth and climate change are generating concerns about the food and water security. The study presents water management technologies and dicusses how developing countries can have better access to these.

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        Who is Benefiting from Trade Liberalization in Bhutan? A Gender Perspective (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2011, 68 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The aim of this report is to determine who would benefit from further trade liberalization or facilitation in Bhutan and, in particular, to analyse whether there is a gender bias in the gains from trade. Chapters 1 to 3 provide a stocktaking and analytical background. The core of the analysis is chapter 4, which looks into the income and expenditure distribution for men and women in rural and urban areas, as well as in different economic sectors. It explores how trade expansion would affect men and women, mainly through changes in income and consumption patterns. It then critically assesses the findings from the analysis against the background of important non-trade concerns such as food-security, equitable development, biodiversity conservation and cultural heritage. Chapter 5 concludes with some policy recommendations background.

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        Who is Benefiting from Trade Liberalization in Cape Verde? A Gender Perspective (English)
        Report by Froystad, Mona, Musselli, Irene, Zarrilli, Simonetta, 2011, 85 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The two principal aims of this report are to (a) shed light on the differentiated impacts of trade policies, especially policies geared to trade liberalization and facilitation, on men and women in Cape Verde; and (b) analyse whether there is a gender bias in the gains from trade. Specifically, the report looks at food prices, remittances and tourism as important transmission channels through which trade policies affect gender relations in Cape Verde.

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        The World Development Report 2012: Gender Equality and Development (English)
        Report by World Bank, 2011, 458 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender

        The report argues that greater gender equality can enhance productivity, improve development outcomes for the next generation, and make institutions more representative. It examines the factors that have fostered change and the constraints that have slowed progress. The analysis focuses on the roles of economic growth, households, markets, and institutions in determining gender differences in education and health, agency, and access to economic opportunities. The report identifies four priority areas for domestic policy action: reducing excess female mortality and closing education gaps; improving access to economic opportunities for women; increasing women's voice and agency in the household and in society and limiting the reproduction of gender inequality across generations.

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        World Economic Situation and Prospects 2011 (English)
        Report by DESA,UNCTAD,ECA,ECE,ECLAC,ESCAP,ESCWA, 2011, 204 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy

        The World Economic Situation and Prospects 2011 analyses the slowdown in economic growth among developed countries as from mid-2010. It highlights the continued challenge posed by high unemployment rates in many economies and outlines a number of risks and uncertainties for the economic outlook such as a premature withdrawal of policy stimulus, increased exchange rate volatility and a renewed widening of global imbalances. Against this background, several policy challenges are discussed in greater detail, including the optimal design of fiscal policies as well as the coordination between fiscal and monetary policies, the provision of sufficient support to developing countries in addressing the fallout from the crisis and the coordination of policy measures at the international level.

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        World Economic Situation and Prospects 2011 - Executive Summary (English)
        Report by DESA,UNCTAD,ECA,ECE,ECLAC,ESCWA,ESCAP, 2011, 13 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy

        The World Economic Situation and Prospects 2011 analyses the slowdown in economic growth among developed countries as from mid-2010. It highlights the continued challenge posed by high unemployment rates in many economies and outlines a number of risks and uncertainties for the economic outlook such as a premature withdrawal of policy stimulus, increased exchange rate volatility and a renewed widening of global imbalances. Against this background, several policy challenges are discussed in greater detail, including the optimal design of fiscal policies as well as the coordination between fiscal and monetary policies, the provision of sufficient support to developing countries in addressing the fallout from the crisis and the coordination of policy measures at the international level.

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        World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 (English)
        Report by DESA, UNCTAD, ECA, ECE, ECLAC, ESCAP, ESCWA, 2011, 204 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy

        World Economic Situation and Prospects (WESP) provides an overview of recent global economic performance and short-term prospects for the world economy and of some key global economic policy and development issues. One of its purposes is to serve as a point of reference for discussions on economic, social and related issues taking place in various United Nations entities during the year. The report 2012 is following two years of anaemic and uneven recovery from the global financial crisis, the world economy is teetering on the brink of another major downturn. Output growth has already slowed considerably during 2011, especially in the developed countries. The baseline forecast foresees continued anaemic growth during 2012 and 2013. Such growth is far from sufficient to deal with the continued jobs crises in most developed economies and will drag down income growth in developing countries.

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        World Investment Report 2011: Non-equity modes of international production and development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 251 pages
        Categories: Investment

        Global foreign direct investment (FDI) has not yet bounced back to pre-crisis levels, though some regions show better recovery than others. The reason is not financing constraints, but perceived risks and regulatory uncertainty in a fragile world economy. The World Investment Report 2011 forecasts that, barring any economic shocks, FDI flows will recover to pre-crisis levels over the next two years. The challenge for the development community is to make this anticipated investment have greater impact on our efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.

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        World Investment Report 2011: Non-equity Modes of International Production and Development - Overview
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2011, 44 pages
        Categories: Investment

        Global foreign direct investment (FDI) has not yet bounced back to pre-crisis levels, though some regions show better recovery than others. The reason is not financing constraints, but perceived risks and regulatory uncertainty in a fragile world economy. The World Investment Report 2011 forecasts that, barring any economic shocks, FDI flows will recover to pre-crisis levels over the next two years. The challenge for the development community is to make this anticipated investment have greater impact on our efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.

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        WTO Decision-making for the Future (English)
        Working paper by Low, Patrick, 2011, 14 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Decision making in the WTO has become ever more difficult as the number of members increases and the range of issues tackled broadens. This paper looks at reasons why aspects of decision-making might be changed and discusses a number of potential pitfalls that change would have to avoid, such as a dilution of commitments and fragmentation of the multilateral trading system. It then takes a detailed look at the notion of ‘critical mass’ decision-making. It argues for this approach under certain conditions, as it would: i) allow for the emergence of a more progressive and responsive WTO agenda; ii) blunt the diversion of trade cooperation initiatives to RTAs; iii) allow more efficient differentiation in the levels of rights and obligations among a community of highly diverse economies; and iv) promote greater efficiency in multilaterallybased negotiations on trade rules, and perhaps, sectoral market access agreements.

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        WTO Negotiations on Environmental Goods: Selected Technical Issues (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2011, 28 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper highlights some technical issues on the Doha Round of WTO negotiations, focusing on environmental goods, regulations covering environmental markets, the definition and scope of environmental products, and how to negotiate non-tariff concessions.

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        Wto Report on G-20 Trade Measures
        Report by WTO, 2011, 45 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Covering the period of May to mid-October 2011, the report concludes that the pace of implementation of new trade restrictions by G-20 countries, particularly in the manufacturing sector, has not decelerated over the past six months. Also confirmed is the upward trend in the imposition of export restrictions affecting mainly food and some minerals.

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        Wto Report on G-20 Trade Measures
        Report by WTO, 2011, 45 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This sixth Report reviews trade and trade-related measures undertaken by G-20 economies in the period from 1 May 2011 to mid-October 2011. Section II of the Report presents a comprehensive description of all trade and trade-related developments during the reviewed period. Government support measures implemented during this period are covered in section III, and developments in Trade Finance in section IV. The final section of the Report provides the context of recent economic and trade trends.

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        WTO World Trade Report 2011: the WTO and the preferential trade agreements - From co-existence to coherence (English)
        Report by WTO, 2011, 256 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The World Trade Report 2011 describes the historical development of PTAs and the current landscape of agreements. It analyses the reasons behind establishing PTAs, their impact on economy, and also covers the contents of the agreements themselves. Finally identifies areas of synergies and potential conflicts between PTAs and the multilateral trading system and examines ways in which the two "trade systems" can be made more coherent.

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