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Building knowledge for trade and development

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        15 Years of the Information Technology Agreement: Trade, Innovation and Global Production Networks
        Report by WTO, 2012, 112 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This publication charts the history of the WTO Information Technology Agreement and the effect it has had on the global trade in information technology (IT) products. Details of the latest trends in IT trade and discussions on the future of the ITA make this publication a useful source of information for government officials and policy-makers as well as academics, students and all those involved in the IT sector.

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        Accommodating an Independent Scotland: How a British-style Constitution for the Eu Could Secure Scotland's Future
        Discussion paper by European Policy Centre, 2012, 12 pages
        Categories: VI Members Research

        There is a marked wariness at EU level about the prospect of Scottish independence. But British-style constitutional thinking on flexibility could prove useful in reducing the bloc's difficulties with asymmetry that motivate its hostility towards Scottish independence, write Roderick Parkes and Arno Engel in this Discussion Paper.

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        African Statistical Yearbook 2012 (English)
        Book by AFDB, AU, UNECA, 2012, 353 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This 2012 Yearbook presents a time series showing the performance of African countries for various economic and social indicators over the period 2003–2011. The book consists of two parts: a set of summary tables followed by country profiles (information is provided both in English and French). Topics that are covered include Social demographic indicators, Monetary and Financial Statistics, Economic Statistics, Economic Infrastructure and Investment Climate as well as Millennium Development Goals.

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        Aid for Trade : A Failing Grade in LDCs? (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2012, 4 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Trade Related Capacity Building

        The Aid for Trade programme was launched at the 2005 World Trade Organization (WTO) Ministerial meeting in Hong Kong (China). Its reported aims are to bring greater coherence to existing trade-support programmes and to generate additional funds to assist developing countries to build supply capacity and trade-related skills, so that they can adjust to the post-Doha trading environment. There are some positives to take on the first of these aims but despite the expectation of supplementary resources (‘additionality’), much of the programme has been a repackaging of existing trade-related aid flows. This has worrying implications for the future of the scheme and for the developmental impact of aid more generally.

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        Asian Participation in the WTO Dispute Settlement System (English)
        Note by Curran, John, 2012, 12 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The WTO dispute settlement system provides member countries with the opportunity to have their trade-related disputes heard and adjudicated upon in a rules-based forum. By design, every country has equal access to the system; however it is much less frequently used by developing countries. This Information Note examines how Asian countries are engaging the dispute settlement system, and examines whether the constraints generally limiting developing country participation also apply to select Asian countries.

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        Assessing Regional Integration in Africa V - Towards an African Continental Free Trade Area
        Report by UNECA, African Union, African Development Bank, 2012, 168 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        This report is assesing the regional integration in Africa. The focus of attention lies therefore in the establishment of an African Continental Free Trade Area. Chapter one gives an overall introduction to the issue, chapter two continues then with an overview of regional integration in Africa. Further on chapter three describes the theory of free trade areas, while chapter four of the report applies the theory to the case of an African Continental Free Trade Area. Chapter fives looks at the perspectives for a fast-tracking African Continental Free Trade Area. While the report focuses in chapter six on the movement of people and the right of residence and establishment, it concentrates its analysis in chapter seven on the movement of goods and services and in the final chapter on the movement of investment and capital.

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        Burkina Faso : Perspectives Des Entreprises - Série De L’itc Sur Les Mesures Non Tarifaires
        Report by ITC, 2012, 93 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Rapport faisant partie d'une série de publications qui identifient les principaux obstacles relatifs aux mesures non tarifaires (MNT), auxquels le secteur privé est confronté - analyse l'expérience des entreprises exportatrices et importatrices au Burkina Faso, à travers une enquête directe de grande échelle; identifie les principaux obstacles MNT d'ordre réglementaire et procédurale, imposés par les pays partenaires ainsi que parle Burkina Faso; fournit une analyse sectorielle des problèmes relatifs aux MNT dans le secteur agricole et manufacturier; les appendices incluent la Classification internationale des mesures non tarifaires, et les références bibliographiques.

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        Business Process Analysis Guide to Simplify Trade Procedures
        Paper by UNESCAP and UNECE, 2012, 139 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development

        This paper offers a simple methodology to elicit, document, and analyze the existing “as-is”business processes involved in international trade, as well as aid in developing recommendations for further improvement. It suggests a set of practical steps and activities, from setting the scope of the business process analysis project; planning its implementation; collecting relevant data; and presenting it in an easily understandable manner, to analyzing the captured data in order to identify bottlenecks and developing recommendations for improvement. This recommended set of steps and activities was generalized from the business process analysis exercise conducted in Thailand in preparation for the development of Thailand’s Single Window e-Logistics, which is a national obligation under the ASEAN Single Window initiative.

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        Challenges of Access to Clean Water and Healthy Environment: An Inter-link Between Huge Investment Projects and the Surrounding Local Community in Tanzania (English)
        Article by Ombella, John Sinato / Mzumbe University, 2012, 14 pages
        Categories: VI Members Research

        This article shades a light on the legal aspects of the access to clean water and clean environment and the extent of access of these basic rights. The discussion revolves around the question of whether investment projects and the local community are living in a symbiotic relation or is one prospering to the detriment of the other.

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        Climate Change, Disaster Risk, And The Urban Poor- Cities Building Resilience for a Changing World
        Study by The World Bank, 2012, 322 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Trade and Environment

        This study analyzes the key challenges facing the urban poor, given the risks associated with climate change and disasters, particularly with regard to the delivery of basic services, and identifies strategies and financing opportunities for addressing these risks.

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        The Coffee Exporter's Guide
        Book by ITC, 2012, 267 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        The coffee guide provides a detailed overview of the world trade practices relating to exporting coffee. The guide covers international coffee contracts, logistics, insurance, dispute resolution, futures markets, risk management and hedging, trade financing and collateral management issues. Quality control issues and new trends in the coffee trade, such as electronic commerce and sustainability schemes, are also outlined.

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        The Colombia-Canada Free Trade Area: A Partial Equilibrium Simulation* (English)
        Article by Pereira-Villa Catherine; Gómez, D. and Herrera, O., 2012, 28 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research

        This paper uses disaggregated trade data for 2010 and applies ex-ante partial equilibrium modeling to calculate the impact of the preferential trade agreement between Canada and Colombia. The simulations carried out show aggregate trade creation could be one and a half times larger than trade diversion; trade between the two countries in the first year of the agreement could grow by approximately ten percent and will be focussed on a small number of goods; trade diversion is stronger with the largest trading partner of each signatory, namely the United States; and trade diversion is not strong in the case of Colombia’s neighbors with which there was significant trade prior to the agreement.

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        Commodities at a Glance. Special Issue on Energy
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 67 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies

        This quarter’s edition of UNCTAD’s Commodities at a Glance describes world energy trade, price, production and consumption trends, with a particular focus on Africa. Over the last three decades, world consumption of primary energy nearly doubled from 280 quadrillion British thermal unit (BTU) in 1980 to 490 quadrillion Btu in 2008 (see Figure 4). A number of factors have been attributed to this dramatic increase in consumption including global economic growth, rapidly industrializing developing countries, increasing world population and urbanization. Over the next two decades, the world population is forecast to grow from approximately 7 billion to 8.32 billion, with the likelihood of rising demand for primary energy resources. International Energy Agency (IEA) projections suggest that between 2008 and 2035 global demand for such resources will increase by 36 per cent or 1.2 per cent per year on average. Most of this projected increase is expected to come from non-OECD countries, particularly India and China, accounting for 18 per cent and 36 per cent respectively of this increase. The Middle East is expected to experience the most rapid demand growth at 2 per cent per year largely due to fast growing energy demand sectors, such as petrochemical industries and power generation. Demand in Africa, particularly sub-Saharan Africa, is also expected to grow as electricity supply needs to increase in response to population growth. However, a lack of infrastructure in the region is expected to limit access to primary energies, and demand growth is projected to match the world average at 1.2 per cent per year. Together, non-OECD countries will account for about 93 per cent of global primary energy demand growth by 2035.

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        Cooperation in Coffee Markets: The Case of Vietnam and Colombia
        Article by Gonzalez-Perez, Maria-Alejandra, and Gutierrez-Viana, Santiago, 2012, 18 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Competitiveness, VI Members Research

        Based on a 2008-2009 joint research project between Universidad EAFIT, Colombia, and Vietnam's Foreign Trade University, this article uses value chain analysis to find that although Colombia and Vietnam produce different types of coffee, and have implemented diverse strategies in order to be more competitive in domestic and foreign markets via product differentiation, there is room for cooperation between these two countries in an international environment where fierce competition persists.

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        Development Policies and Income Inequality in Selected Developing Regions, 1980–2010 (English)
        Discussion paper by Giovanni Andrea Cornia, Bruno Martorano, 2012, 52 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Trade and Poverty

        The paper discusses the income inequality changes which have taken place in a few representative developing regions during the last 30 years. While inequality rose in the majority of the countries of these regions in the 1980s and 1990s, the last decade was characterized by a bifurcation of inequality trends. This divergence offers the possibility to contrast the experience of virtuous regions (Latin America and parts of East and South-East Asia) and non-virtuous regions (the European economies in transition and China) so as to draw useful lessons. Since the global economic conditions affecting inequality in these countries were not too dissimilar and since no major variations in endogenous factors were evident across the regions analysed, the difference in inequality trends between virtuous and non-virtuous regions was most likely due to institutional factors and public policies. An econometric test confirms that the reduction of inequality is possible even under open economy conditions if a given set of appropriate macroeconomic, labour, fiscal and social policies is adopted by governments.

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        Dinámica Del Comercio Ilícito De Personas: El Caso De Colombia-oriente Asiático1 (English)
        Article by Hurtado, Monica and Pereira, Catherine Universidad de La Sabana, 2012, 28 pages
        Categories: Commodities, VI Members Research

        Este estudio caracteriza la dinámica de la trata transnacional de personas con fines de explotación sexual desde su dimensión como negocio. Con base en la revisión de expedientes judiciales colombianos (2005-2011), se analizó la interacción entre víctimas, tratantes e intermediarios involucrados en casos de trata entre Colombia y el Oriente Asiático. Esta investigación sostiene que en ocasiones las víctimas de trata tienen una doble condición: por un lado, son sujetos, en la medida que toman decisiones, y por otro, son objetos en situaciones en las que no pueden ejercer su voluntad. El hecho de que las víctimas tomen decisiones con base en información asimétrica facilita su explotación, y explica en parte por qué la trata de personas es un negocio ilícito rentable y creciente. Entre los hallazgos del presente estudio, se estimó la rentabilidad que produce una víctima colombiana a una red en Hong Kong o Singapur, y se identificaron criterios para establecer su situación de explotación.

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        The Doha Round and Food Security in the Dairy Sector in Cameroon: A Global Simulation Model (gsim) Approach (English)
        Discussion paper by Roland R. Leudjou, 2012, 20 pages
        Categories: Commodities, VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        In the framework of the new round of trade liberalization launched in Doha, paragraph 13 of the Development Declaration states that members will support special and differential treatment to accommodate development, including food security. This article simulates scenarios of multilateral tariff reduction from the WTO December 2008 draft modalities on agriculture for the Cameroon dairy sector. Using the Global Simulation Model, the analysis shows a substantial increase in world and domestic consumer prices, as the reduction of bound tariffs does not affect the applied tariffs given the high “binding overhang”. As a consequence, consumers’ welfare decreases.

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        Don’t Blame the Physical Markets: Financialization is the Root Cause of Oil and Commodity Price Volatility (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2012, 4 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The sharp price movements of many primary commodities, including oil, have fuelled intense debate about the causes of the price hikes and possible remedies. Growing demand from large developing economies and frequent supply shocks, such as adverse weather and export bans, are generally accepted as more tangible factors that explain volatility, rather than the hundreds of billions of dollars of bets placed on expectations of temporarily rising prices. Despite a growing body of evidence on the destabilizing influences emanating from financial markets, the “real economy” explanations still dominate the debate. It is not commonly recognized that demand from financial investors in the commodity markets has become overwhelming during the last decade. Of course, supply and demand shocks can still move commodity prices time and again. But with the volumes of exchange traded derivatives on commodity markets now being 20 to 30 times larger than physical production, the influence of financial markets has systematically transformed these real markets into financial markets. This calls for strong and prompt policy and regulatory responses in the financial markets, rather than in the physical markets.

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        Dynamics of Human Trafficking: The Colombia-east Asia Case (English)
        Article by Hurtado, Monica and Pereira-Villa, Catherine Universidad de La Sabana, 2012
        Categories: VI Members Research

        This study characterizes the dynamics of transnational trafficking in humans for commercial sexual exploitation from a business dimension. Based on a review of Colombian judicial records (2005-2011), this study analyses the interaction between victims, traffickers and intermediaries involved in cases of trafficking between Colombia and East Asia. This research argues that victims occasionally have a double-condition for a trafficking network: on the one hand, they are subjects to the extent that they make decisions; and on the other, they are objects as they cannot exercise their free will. Since victims make decisions based on asymmetric information, this facilitates their exploitation and explains in part why trafficking in persons is both a profitable and growing illegal business. Among other topics, this study estimates the profits obtained by a network by exploiting a Colombian victim in Hong Kong or Singapore, and suggests criteria to evaluate exploitation.

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        Economic Development in Africa Report 2012 - Structural Transformation and Sustainable Development in Africa (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 161 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The Economic Development in Africa Report 2012 examines how African countries can promote sustainable development. Chapter 1 is on conceptual issues. It discusses different views of the relationship between the economy and the environment and of how resource use and environmental impacts typically change during the course of a development process. Chapter 2 presents new stylized facts associated with resource use and productivity in Africa. Chapter 3 provides a strategic framework for sustainable structural transformation. Chapter 4 identifies policies for sustainable structural transformation in Africa, with a focus on three key economic sectors: energy, industry and agriculture. The final chapter presents a summary of the main findings and policy recommendations of the Report.

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        Enabling the Graduation of LDCs: Enhancing the Role of Commodities and Improving Agricultural Productivity (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 84 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies

        The Fourth United Nations Conference on Least Developed Countries (LDC-IV) took place in Istanbul (Turkey) in May 2011 and adopted the Istanbul Programme of Action (IPoA) for LDCs for the Decade 2011–2020. The overall question is how can as many LDCs as possible graduate from the LDC category, given the immense socioeconomic challenges facing them, especially in the face of excessive fragility and vulnerability to shocks of their growth performance? The present publication, argues that the boom-bust cycle of the 2000s showed in stark terms that natural resources play a crucial role in LDCs’ economic growth, poverty reduction and food security. In this regard, the publication articulates the dangers of excessive dependence of LDCs’ exports on a few commodities where some five product groups dominate the export earnings of these countries during the 1995–2010 period. The publication consists of four broad chapters. The first chapter sets an analytical construct (framework) for meeting the graduation objective, with a succinct analysis of the challenges, opportunities and prospects vis-à-vis the established criteria for graduation. The second chapter provides evidence-based analysis on the impact of the recent multiple global crises on commodity-dependent LDCs, including at household level, together with policy responses. Chapter three examines the food security situation in LDCs in the light of the precipitous decline in agricultural productivity and the immense shock which people in LDCs experienced as a result of the recent global surge in food prices. Finally, chapter four provides policy conclusions and recommendations on how LDCs can realize the potential of their commodities sector to become a lever for the development and structural transformation of their economies.

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        Engendering Trade (English)
        Working paper by Do Quy-Toan, Levchenko Andrei, Raddatz Claudio, 2012, 44 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Inspired by the third Millennium Development Goal ("Promote gender equality and empower women"), this study discusses both theoretically and empirically how female empowerment is a source of comparative advantage that shapes a country's response to trade opening. Reciprocally, it shows that as countries integrate into the world economy, the costs and benefits of gender discrimination shift. The theory goes beyond a potential aggregate wealth effect associated with trade opening, and emphasizes the heterogeneity of impacts. On the one hand, countries in which women are empowered--measured by fertility rates, female labor force participation or female schooling--experience an expansion of industries that use female labor relatively more intensively. On the other hand, the gender gap is smaller in countries that export more in relatively femalelabor intensive sectors. In conclusion, the road to gender equality is paradoxically very specific to each country's productive structure and exposure to world markets.

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        Entrepreneurship Policy Framework and Implementation Guidance (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 69 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development

        Private sector development has become an important part of development policy. Until recently, however, policymakers around the globe as well as in international organizations adopted a narrow perspective of the challenges involved, focusing in particular on efficiency gains in existing enterprises. In the face of rapid social and technological change, slow economic recovery and jobless growth, many countries have shifted the focus of their policies to facilitating new firm creation. With the inclusion of entrepreneurship as part of the development policy agenda there is an opportunity to better link private sector development to the goals of inclusive and sustainable development. The Entrepreneurship Policy Framework developed by UNCTAD is, therefore, a timely contribution as it aims to assist policymakers in identifying the key elements of an entrepreneurship policy and formulating actions. It also provides policy options that will help developing countries and countries in transition to stimulate inclusive and sustainable growth. While cautioning that one-size does not fit all, the policy recommendations are clearly stated and are accompanied by practical checklists, an inventory of selected examples and monitoring indicators. The four design principles that underpin the findings in this document are the following: 1. Consensus building: development partners should contribute to a national entrepreneurship strategy that is the result of extensive consultation between the government and representatives of all sectors of business activity, local communities, education and financial institutions. 2. Sustainability: poverty reduction, gender equality and environmental protection are core goals. 3. Implementation: multiple ministries, as well as implementing agencies from the private sector and civil society should be identified and their role clearly defined 4. Monitoring and evaluation: the periodic measurement of policy effectiveness is essential for the management of entrepreneurship policy and should incorporate feedback from lessons learnt on an on-going basis.

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        Euro Zone Debt Crisis: Scenario Analysis and Implications for Developing Asia-pacific (English)
        Working paper by ESCAP, 2012, 31 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Macroeconomic Policy, Trade and Poverty

        The ongoing euro zone debt crisis creates an undesirable scenario for the global economy as well as for the Asia-Pacific region given that the region has close economic linkages. The paper aims to provide quantitative estimates of the potential impact of the euro zone debt crisis on merchandise exports as well as on economic growth and poverty reduction efforts in the region. The results indicate that a one-percentage-point fall of output growth of the euro zone would result in a total export loss of $166 billion. In addition, the protectionist threats could further increase the loss in exports by $27 billion. On social development, the disorderly euro zone debt crisis scenario would prevent 8.19 million people to get out of poverty and another 1.15 million would be pushed back into poverty as per the $1.25-a-day poverty line. The paper illustrates that macroeconomic policy space appears adequate in most economies that tend to be more heavily affected by the euro zone debt crisis. But strong inflationary pressures and less favourable public debt conditions could prevent some economies from implementing swift and forceful macroeconomic policy responses.

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        Evolution Of Non-tariff Measures: Emerging Cases From Selected Developing Countries (English)
        Discussion paper by Basu, Ranjan Sudip; Kuwahara, Hiroaki;Dumesnil, Fabien, 2012, 39 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The objective of the paper is to provide a brief account of the international efforts in understanding non-tariff measure-related trade policies. It uses the NTMs classification system to reflect the increasing use and importance of these policy measures, and includes the concept of procedural obstacles, which refers to issues related to the process of applying an NTM, rather than the measure itself.

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        Expropriation: A Sequel (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2012, 181 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law

        This sequel to the UNCTAD 1999 Pink Series paper on expropriation, analyzes expropriation provisions in international investment agreements (IIAs) and their interpretation by arbitral tribunals. Moving beyond a merely descriptive role, the paper offers policy options to assist States in drafting IIA clauses that help to promote sustainable development.

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        Extractive Industries : Optimizing Value Retention in Host Countries (English)
        Report by Sigam, Claudine, Garcia, Leonardo/ UNCTAD, 2012, 54 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies

        This paper examines ways in which local content in the extractive industries can be addressed.. In this respect, the paper is divided in five parts. Part 1 describes the structure of the oil and gas and mining industries, including a discussion of the margins in the oil value chain as well as the stakeholders. Part 2 explains the positive and negative impacts of natural resources exploitation in host countries. Part 3 identifies the main challenges that developing countries face in optimizing value retention and examines ways in which they can be addressed. Part 4 presents three different country experiences of local industry development strategies in the extractive industries. The paper concludes with some policy implications and conclusions with regards to local content development strategies.

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        Firm Growth and Productivity in Belarus : New Empirical Evidence from the Machine Building Industry (English)
        Working paper by Jesus Crespo Cuaresma, Herald Oberhofer, Gallina A.Vicelette, 2012, 33 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development

        The paper uses a dataset comprising information of 153 firms in the machine building sector in Belarus. It investigates the determinants of firm growth for an economy where state ownership of enterprises is widespread. It uses panel data models based on generalizations of Gibrat’s law, total factor productivity estimates and matching methods to assess the differences in firm growth between private and state-controlled firms. The main finding indicates that labor hoarding and soft budget constraints play a particularly important role in explaining differences in performance between these two groups of firms.

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        Gendered Impacts of Globalization. Employment and Social Protection (English)
        Report by Razavi, Shara, Azra, Camilla, Braunstein Elissa, Cook, Sarah, Goulding, Kristine, 2012, 108 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Gender

        The paper examines how globalization affects gendered access to employment and social protection, with a particular focus on informal employment, and the implications of these connections for policy and practice.

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        Geospatial Science and Technology for Development
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 61 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        This study explores the ways in which tools and methodologies used to collect, manage and analyse data related to the Earth, can support development. Chapter 1 defines GS&T and provides an overview of its applications. Chapter 2 describes a multi-level approach for the examination of GS&T, and related recent developments. The next three chapters considerthree specific areas where GS&T can be applied to support development. Chapter 6 sets out challenges to implementation. Chapter 7 provides policy recommendations.

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        Global Supply Chains: Trade And Economic Policies For Developing Countries (English)
        Discussion paper by Nicita, Alessandro, Ognivtsev, Victor and Shirotori, Miho/UNCTAD, 2012, 28 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Enterprise Development

        Although a substantial share of Global Supply Chains (GSCs) production processes is taking place in developing countries, the Least Developed Countries and other low-income countries lack the business supporting national policies to ensure that their participation in GSCs is more than that of providers of low value-added components.

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        Good Faith (lack Of) in Investment Arbitration and the Conduct of the Ethiopian Government in the Salini Case: Exercise of Legitimate Right or “exhibit A” for Guerrilla Tactics?
        Paper by Hailu, Martha Belete, Addis Ababa University, 2012
        Categories: Investment, VI Members Research

        This article looks at tactics that may frustrate investor-state arbitration, using arguments from the principles of good faith and equality of arms, and describing the case of Salini Consoruttori SPA Vs The FDRE Addis Ababa Water and Sewage Authority (ICC Arbitration No 10623/AER/ACS).

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        The Gravity Model of International Trade: A User Guide
        Manual by UNESCAP, 2012, 76 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The purpose of the Guide is to provide a “hands-on” introduction to gravity modeling for applied policy researchers. It is designed to be used in conjunction with a dataset of bilateral trade in services available for free download at http://www.unescap.org/tid/artnet/artnet_app/rgs_artnetgm.aspx. Readers are encouraged to replicate the results presented here using the Stata code provided in the text. Although some basic knowledge of Stata is required, more advanced commands and techniques are introduced in the text as necessary.

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        Growing Together - Economic Integration for an Exclusive and Sustainable Asia-pacific Century (English)
        Book by ESCAP, 2012, 196 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        The Asia-Pacific region’s rapid growth since the 1950s has been supported by a favourable external economic environment and opportunities arising from globalization. But in a dramatically altered post-global financial crisis scenario, the region’s dynamism, which is crucial for the elimination of poverty and hunger and the realization of the Asia-Pacific century, will critically depend on its ability to harness the potential of regional economic integration. Chapter one of the study gives an overview of the key issues in the context of regional economic integration in Asia and the Pacific. The following chapters deal with the process of a broader integrated market. Chapter three looks therefore at the aspect of connectivity, while chapter four is focussing on the financial cooperation aspect. The final chapter concludes with looking at the future - towards an inclusive and sustainable Asia-Pacific century.

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        Handbook on Duty-Free and Quota-Free Market Access and Rules of Origin for Least Developed Countries – Part Ii : Other Developed Countries and Developing Countries (English)
        Manual by Inama, Stefano / UNCTAD, 2012, 206 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This handbook reviews the progress made to implement the Hong Kong (China) Ministerial Decision on the Duty-Free Quota-Free (DFQF) by other Developed countries and Developing countries in the light of past initiatives and ongoing negotiations in the context of the Doha round of trade negotiations.

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        Harmonizing Cyberlaws and Regulations: The Experience of the East African Community (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 65 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Science and Technology

        The first part discusses the need for regional harmonization and the challenges faced with regard to the implementation of cyberlaws in the EAC region. The second gives a detailed account of the status of cyberlaws in each country. It is hoped that the work of the EAC Task Force on Cyberlaws and this study offer some useful lessons and tools for other countries and regions engaging in cyberlaw reforms.

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        IIA Issue Note No. 1/2012: Latest Developments in Investor-State Dispute Settlement (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2012, 21 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law

        In 2011, the number of known treaty-based investor-State dispute settlement (ISDS) cases filed under international investment agreements (IIAs) grew by at least 46, bringing the total number of known treaty-based cases to 450 by the end of 2011. This constitutes the highest number of known treaty-based disputes ever filed in one year. Since most arbitration forums do not maintain a public registry of claims, the total number of actual treaty-based cases is likely to be higher. This issue note looks at the recent trends in investor-state dispute settlement, covers the key issues of the decisions made in year 2011 and gives concluding remarks at the end.

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        The Informal Sector in Francophone Africa: Firm Size, Productivity, and Institutions
        Study by Benjamin, Nancy and Mbaye, Ahmadou Ali with Diop, Ibrahima Thione, Golub, Stephen S., Haughton, Dominique, and Niang, Birahim Bouna, 2012, 264 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Enterprise Development

        The book provides detailed description and analysis of the characteristics and functioning of informal sector firms, the causes of the pervasiveness of these firms, the relations between formal and informal firms, the consequences of informality for economic development, and appropriate policy responses. This study focuses on the urban informal sector in three capital cities: Dakar (Senegal), Cotonou (Benin), and Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso).

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        Information Economy Report 2012 - Overview
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2012, 17 pages

        The Information Economy Report 2012 finds that, because software is increasingly permeating societies at all levels of development and activity, it is becoming more important for countries to develop the technological capabilities needed to adopt and adapt existing software solutions, and eventually to innovate. Software and service activities represent an opportunity for developing countries, thanks to the low capital entry requirements, the sector's high-value, high-growth nature and knowledge-rich profile. The Report introduces the concept of the national software system, and the importance of the role of governments, whose policies should nurture software capabilities and the system as a whole.

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        Information Economy Report 2012: The Software Industry and Developing Countries
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 72 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        The Information Economy Report 2012 finds that, because software is increasingly permeating societies at all levels of development and activity, it is becoming more important for countries to develop the technological capabilities needed to adopt and adapt existing software solutions, and eventually to innovate. Software and service activities represent an opportunity for developing countries, thanks to the low capital entry requirements, the sector's high-value, high-growth nature and knowledge-rich profile. The Report introduces the concept of the national software system, and the importance of the role of governments, whose policies should nurture software capabilities and the system as a whole.

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        Information Economy Report 2012: The Software Industry and Developing Countries - Overview (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2012, 17 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        The Information Economy Report 2012 finds that, because software is increasingly permeating societies at all levels of development and activity, it is becoming more important for countries to develop the technological capabilities needed to adopt and adapt existing software solutions, and eventually to innovate. Software and service activities represent an opportunity for developing countries, thanks to the low capital entry requirements, the sector's high-value, high-growth nature and knowledge-rich profile. The Report introduces the concept of the national software system, and the importance of the role of governments, whose policies should nurture software capabilities and the system as a whole.

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        International Accounting and Reporting Issues 2011 Review
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 121 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development

        This volume contains a review of the main developments in the area of accounting and reporting during 2011. It contains discussion and analysis of a number of corporate reporting issues that policy-makers, regulators, standard-setters, private sector as well as public sector accountants, auditors, academia, and other interested readers will find useful for keeping up-to-date with developments in the corporate reporting arena, including financial and non-financial reporting.

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        International Trade and Inter-industry Wage Inequality in Developing Countries (English)
        Discussion paper by KOUTY Manfred, 2012, 18 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research

        The last two decades are characterized by the expansion of world trade and inequalities in developing countries (DCs). In contrast to most existing studies that focus on income inequality in particular country or region, this paper focuses on the inter-industry wage inequality. Using the dynamic panel data of 96 developing countries over the 1985- 2003, the study finds that trade flows (import and export) are not significantly related to interindustry wage inequality in DCs. The increase of number of tariff line s increases the interindustrial wage inequality.

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        International Trade Statistics 2012
        Book by WTO, 2012, 274 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The 2012 edition provides comprehensive and detailed data required to describe major trends and developments in international trade and market access.

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        Investment Country Profile : Greece (English)
        Data by UNCTAD, 2012, 28 pages
        Categories: Investment

        This paper from the Division on Investment and Enterprise of UNCTAD presents data collected on the inward and outward Foreign Direct Investment in Greece. It shows the situation of the FDI flows and stock in general, by type of investment. More precisely, it looks at the flows and the stocks in the host economy and abroad by industry and by geographical origin. It also presents data on the employment, of the sales and of the on value added of foreign affiliates of home-based TNCs, all of them by industry and by geographical origin.

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        Investment Country Profile : South Africa (English)
        Data by UNCTAD, 2012, 15 pages
        Categories: Investment

        Paper by the Division on Investment and Enterprise of UNCTAD, that presents data collected about Foreign Direct Investment flows in South Africa ; its composition, sources, investing countries and share of industry.

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        Investment Country Profile : Tunisia (English)
        Data by UNCTAD, 2012, 20 pages
        Categories: Investment

        This paper from the Division on Investment and Enterprise of UNCTAD presents data collected on the inward and outward Foreign Direct Investment in Tunisia. It presents the situation of the FDI flows and stock in general, by type of investment. More precisely, it looks at the flows in the host economy and abroad by industry and by geographical origin. It also presents data on the number of affiliates of foreign TNCs and of employment of affiliates of foreign TNCs in the host economy, also by industry and geographical origin.

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        Investment Country Profile : Turkey (English)
        Data by UNCTAD, 2012, 26 pages
        Categories: Investment

        This paper from the Division on Investment and Enterprise of UNCTAD presents data collected on the inward and outward Foreign Direct Investment in Turkey. It presents the situation of the FDI flows and stock in the host economy and abroad, by industry, by geographical origin and by type of investment. It also looks at the number of affiliates of foreign TNCs in the host economy by industry and by geographical origin.

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        Investment Policy Framework for Sustainable Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 73 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment

        This report takes a fresh look at investment policymaking – focusing on direct private investment in productive assets (i.e. excluding other capital flows which should be addressed by the financial system and policies) – by taking a systemic approach that examines the universe of national and international policies through the lens of today’s key investment policy challenges. It also aims explicitly to strengthen the development dimension of investment policies, and presents a comprehensive Investment Policy Framework for Sustainable Development (IPFSD). The IPFSD consists of a set of Core Principles for investment policymaking, guidelines for national investment policies, and guidance for policymakers on how to engage in the international investment policy regime, in the form of options for the design and use of international investment agreements (IIAs).

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        Investment Policy Review of Mozambique
        Review by UNCTAD, 2012, 126 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This Review provides a comprehensive assessment of the regulatory framework for investment and identifies a number of key weaknesses, including in particular: (1) the general approach to investment rulemaking; (2) corporate taxation and the structure of tax incentives; (3) the employment of foreigners and access to skills; (4) access to land; (5) PPPs and the management of mega-projects; and (6) licensing and inspections. It concludes by proposing a strategy to attract the type of FDI that could best support Mozambique achieve its development goals and address its main challenges, including job creation.

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        It's Not All About Trade: Preferential Trading Agreements Induce Economic Reforms in Developing Countries (English)
        Article by Leonardo Baccini, Johannes Urpelainen, 2012, 5 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        In this brief, the authors present results of their empirical analysis on two stages of cooperation between the EU and the US and devloping countries. In their remarkable conclusion they prompt that the deepest and broadest preferential North-South trading agreements signed by most developing countries are ultimately about economic reform.

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        Labour Migration and Human Development 2011 Annual Report
        Report by IOM, 2012, 70 pages
        Categories: Migration and Development

        The report presents an overview of labour migration and development dynamics in the framework of IOM’s vision and strategy. It includes examples of best practices and highlights relevant projects implemented by IOM’s offices around the globe with respect to global and local issues in commitment with migrants’ interests. In addition, the report outlines anticipated programmatic trends for 2012.

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        Latest Developments In Investor-state Dispute Settlement (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2012, 21 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        In 2011, the number of known treaty-based investor-State dispute settlement (ISDS) cases filed under international investment agreements (IIAs) grew by at least 46, bringing the total number of known treatybased cases to 450 by the end of 2011 (figure 1).1 This constitutes the highest number of known treatybased disputes ever filed in one year. Since most arbitration forums do not maintain a public registry of claims, the total number of actual treatybased cases is likely to be higher.

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        LDC Export Diversification, Employment Generation and the “green Economy”: What Roles for Tourism Linkages? (English)
        Working paper by Honeck, Dale / WTO, 2012, 117 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        Taking export diversification, employment generation and the "green economy" in turn, the working paper analyzes feasible LDC alternatives, reaching the conclusion that -- in contrast with the current overemphasis on agriculture and manufacturing -- green tourism is demonstrably one of the areas of greatest current comparative advantage and development potential for the majority of LDCs.

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        Least Developed Countries Report 2012 - Harnessing Remittances and Diaspora Knowledge to Build Productive Capacities
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 190 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Migration and Development

        The Least Developed Countries Report 2012 focuses on the issue of remittances from a wider perspective. It examines the potential role of migrants or diasporas at large from LDCs as sources of development finance and also as channels of knowledge transfer and as facilitators of trade and market access opportunities in the host countries. The Report identifies policies, including policy lessons from other countries, that LDCs may wish to consider in designing policy frameworks for harnessing remittances and diaspora knowledge to build productive capacities.

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        Least Developed Countries Report 2012 - Harnessing Remittances and Diaspora Knowledge to Build Productive Capacities - Overview
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2012, 27 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Migration and Development

        The Least Developed Countries Report 2012 focuses on the issue of remittances from a wider perspective. It examines the potential role of migrants or diasporas at large from LDCs as sources of development finance and also as channels of knowledge transfer and as facilitators of trade and market access opportunities in the host countries. The Report identifies policies, including policy lessons from other countries, that LDCs may wish to consider in designing policy frameworks for harnessing remittances and diaspora knowledge to build productive capacities.

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        Liability and Compensation for Ship-source Oil Pollution: An Overview of the International Legal Framework for Oil Pollution Damage from Tankers (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 76 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Trade and Environment

        While large oil pollution incidents have reduced both in number and in size over recent decades, the potential threat of environmental damage and economic loss associated with the carriage of oil remains disconcerting. In particular, for coastal developing countries and small island developing States with economies heavily dependent on income from fisheries and tourism, exposure to damage arising from ship-source oil pollution incidents poses a potentially significant economic threat. This report has been prepared to assist policymakers, in particular in developing countries, in their understanding of the existing legal framework and in assessing the merits of accession to the relevant international legal instruments.

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        Local Production of Pharmaceuticals and Related Technology Transfer in Developing Countries (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2012, 326 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        This series of case studies examine the transfer of technology and local production of pharmaceuticals in different regions, highlighting different characteristics such as firm structure, the means by which local producers obtained and developed the technological capacity to produce medicines, and the types of product handled.

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        Maroc: Perspectives Des Entreprises - Série de l'ITC sur les Mesures Non Tarifaires (English)
        Report by ICT, 2012, 107 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Rapport faisant partie d'une série de publications qui identifient les principaux obstacles relatifs aux mesures non tarifaires (MNT), auxquels le secteur privé est confronté – analyse l'expérience des entreprises exportatrices et importatrices au Maroc, à travers une enquête directe de grande échelle; identifie les principaux obstacles MNT d'ordre réglementaire et procédurale, imposés par les pays partenaires ainsi que par le Maroc; fournit une analyse sectorielle des problèmes relatifs aux MNT dans le secteur agricole et manufacturier; les appendices incluent : la méthodologie globale des enquêtes sur les MNT, les principaux résultats des entretiens face à face par secteur, une liste des obstacles procéduraux, et les références bibliographiques.

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        MDG Report 2012: Assessing Progress in Africa Toward the Millennium Development Goals (English)
        Report by AUC, UNECA, AfDB, UNDP, 2012, 184 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        This report looks at the situation in Africa three years to the MDG 2015 deadline. It shows that progress has been made in primary school enrolment, gender parity in primary school enrolment, the proportion of seats held by women in national parliament and HIV and AIDS prevalence rates. It notes a slow decline in child mortality and highlights important gains in the areas of health and education, but these are hindered by poor quality and access. In spite of this progress, Africa still faces the challenges of addressing pervasive income inequalities, creating decent jobs, access to health and sanitation services. The report concludes by presenting the emerging perspectives on the post-2015 agenda.

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        Mobile Money for Business Development in the East African Community - A Comparative Study of Existing Platforms and Regulations (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 66 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Science and Technology

        This report is a survey of mobile money services across East African Community (EAC), providing an analysis and comparison between the different platforms currently on offer. The report is organized as follows: Section A provides a background to mobile money across EAC. Section B examines the different mobile money service offerings along with their associated fees. Section C looks at some salient features of the services currently on offer across EAC and identifies some usability issues such as access channels, security, registration and transaction limits, agent networks and consumer awareness and support. Section D provides an analysis of regulatory issues structured around the different functions embedded in a mobile money service. Section E draws on lessons across EAC to make policy recommendations to help direct the development of mobile money in a way that is inclusive and that also favours mobile money use amongst small businesses. Country profiles in the Annex provide in-depth detail and comparison across mobile money platforms within each country in EAC.

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        Multilateral Indexed Loans And Debt Sustainability
        Discussion paper by Alessandro Missale, Emanuele Bacchiocchi, 2012, 50 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, International Financial System

        This study focuses on the potential for introducing indexation on loans provided by multilateral lenders to low income countries (LICs) and examines whether a reform of their lending policy is feasible and economically justified. It provides new evidence for a group of 40 international development association (IDA) countries over the 1990–2010 period for three types of debt: (i) foreign currency loans indexed to real gross domestic product (GDP); (ii) foreign currency loans indexed to the dollar value of exports; and (iii) inflation-indexed loans denominated in local currency. The study finds that both GDP indexation and domestic currency lending are feasible policies. However, the analysis shows that ‘one size fits all solution’ does not exist to the problem of stabilizing the debt ratio, making a reform of multilateral lending, desirable to all LICs, difficult to implement.

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        Multilateralism in Crisis (English)
        Working paper by Peter Lloyd, 2012, 30 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper examines multilateralism by looking at the two most important current efforts to devise new multilateral rules binding all nations - the negotiations in the World Trade Organization (WTO) about trade rules and the negotioations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) to devise rules restricting the annual emissions of greenhouse gases. Both negotiations have failed after several years of intensive effort.

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        Natural Resource Abundance, Growth, and Diversification in the Middle East and North Africa
        Book by The World Bank, 2012, 228 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies

        Investigates the effect of natural resources dependence and the role of policies in achieving sustained growth and diversification away from oil.

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        Net Food-importing Developing Countries - Who They Are, and Policy Options for Global Price Volatility
        Study by ICTSD, 2012, 29 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        This paper discusses net food-importing developing countries – the most vulnerable – in the light of the recent commodity price spikes: who they are, and policy options for dealing with global price volatility. From the 2007-2008 episode of rapid commodity price increases, there are three considerations to highlight for future policies. The first is that price spikes harm in proportion to the level of net food imports, a concern for the majority of developing countries. The second policy consideration is the heterogeneity within farming. The poor are the smallest farmers, and most often are net food buyers. The third consideration is that price spikes hit major commodities more than food generally. The paper also presents a brief review of the national policy responses to the price spike during 2007- 08.

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        New Century,old Disparities: Gender And Ethnic Earnings Gaps In Latin America And The Caribbean (English)
        Book by Hugo Ñopo/IDB/WB, 2012, 356 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This book adopts an econometric methodology for measuring earnings gaps and applies it consistently across and within countries to measure gender and racial or ethnic differences. It offers insights on economic and political strategies that could be adopted to reduce inequality.

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        Non-tariff Measures and the WTO (English)
        Working paper by Staiger, Robert W., 2012, 47 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        In this paper I sketch out the rough contours of the challenge faced by the WTO in dealing with non-tariff measures (NTMs) as seen from the economic theories of trade agreements. The key questions for the WTO - the answers to which largely dictate the choice between shallow and deep approaches to integration - appear to be two: (1) Is it the terms-of-trade problem or the commitment problem that WTO member governments seek to solve with their WTO membership?; and (2) Is it market clearing or offshoring/bilateral bargaining that is now the most prominent mechanism for the determination of international prices? I suggest that evidence on the …rst question points to the terms-of-trade theory and hence toward shallow integration, but that answering the second question may be the key to identifying the best way forward on NTMs for the WTO.

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        O Regionalismo No Século XXI: Comércio, Regulação E Política (English)
        Discussion paper by Machado Oliveira, Ivan Tiago, 2012, 36 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research

        This paper aims to analyze how the waves of regionalism represented changes in the way trade policy has been conducted, expanding the game of political negotiation with variable geometry and determining its influence on the political regulation of international trade. To do so, the concept and a typology of regionalism in its economic bases are presented. Moreover, the relation between the rules of the multilateral trade regime and those of regional agreements will be explored by analyzing the proliferation of the latter and the tensions, antagonisms and complementarities between regionalism and multilateralism. Finally, the waves of regionalism and some of the most relevant theoretical and analytical approaches that seek to explain them will be presented in order to shed light on the study of regionalism in trade policy strategies within the framework of a new political regulation of international trade in the 21st century.

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        Os Brics Na OMC: Políticas Comerciais Comparadas De Brasil, Rússia, Índia, China E África Do Sul (English)
        Book by Oliveira, Ivan (IPEA) and Thorstensen, Vera (FGV), 2012, 484 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The result of a research project of the Department of International Studies at IPEA, in partnership with researchers from FGV, the study analyzes the trade policy of the BRICS countries, particularly with respect to their participation in the multilateral trading system.

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        The Palestinian Economy in East Jerusalem: Endurin Annexation, Isolation and Disintegration (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 76 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        Overview on the political, physical and economic cghanges caused by segregation since 1967 (armistice line). The document describes the changing demographics, civil rights, industries that affected the occupied Palestinian Territory.Descripcion of the diminished social conditions, impoverishment and restricted access to public services such as education and health.

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        Pathways to African Export Sustainability (English)
        Report by The World Bank, 2012, 140 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Enterprise Development

        African exporters suffer from low survival in international markets.Is this really the case? This report shows that the answer is “no.” When survival performance is controlled for by observable country characteristics such as—among other things—the level of income, Africa is no outlier. African exports have short life expectancies, but not any shorter than comparable countries. Beyond income levels, short export survival is largely explained by the difficult business environment in which African exporters operate. Once measures of this environment are taken into account, African countries are by no means “below the regression line” in terms of export survival. To give an overview of the report: Chapter 1 sets the stage by putting Africa’s export-survival performance into perspective and proposing a framework that will guide the interpretation of empirical evidence throughout the report. Chapter 2 covers country-level determinants of export sustainability at origin and destination, including the exporting country’s business environment. Chapter 3 explores some of the firm-level evidence on what drives export sustainability, including uncertainty, incomplete contracts, learning, and networks. Finally, chapter 4 offers tentative policy implications.

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        Peru: Company Perspectives – An ITC Series on Non-tariff Measures (English)
        Report by ITC, 2012, 134 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        A recent ITC survey of 960 Peruvian companies shows that 40% face challenges related to non-tariff measures, mostly in their major export markets in the USA, the EU and some countries in Latin America. This report outlines survey results and policy options discussed at a national roundtable in Peru in February 2012. While Peru’s exports doubled in five years, resources of specialized technical agencies have not increased accordingly. Certification and inspection have thus become a bottleneck. Information systems about NTMs need strengthening, as many issues faced particularly by small and medium-sized firms emerged from their lack of knowledge about regulations.

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        Poison In The Wine? Tracing GATS-minus Commitments In Regional Trade Agreements (English)
        Working paper by Adlung, Rudolf, Miroudot, Sébastien, 2012, 25 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Commitments in regional trade agreements (RTAs) that fall short of the same countries'obligations under the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) are a relatively frequent phenomenon. However, they have gone widely unnoticed in the literature to date and drawn very little attention in relevant WTO fora either. Nevertheless, 'minus commitments' are potentially poisonous and, for various reasons, would deserve close attention. Given the broad definitional scope of the GATS, extending inter alia to commercial presence, such commitments may impinge upon the rights of third-country investors in the RTA economies. Their existence casts doubts on the legal status of the respective agreements under the GATS and can have severe implications for the trading system overall. If not complemented by comprehensive Most-favoured-Nation clauses, the RTAs concerned are disconnected from the WTO and virtually impossible to multilateralize. Based on a review of some 80,000 commitments in 66 agreements, this study seeks to develop a reasonably comprehensive picture of the frequency of 'minus commitments' and their dosage in terms of sectors, measures and modes of supply. It also discusses potential remedies from a WTO perspective.

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        The Political Economy of Green Growth in India (English)
        Report by Banerjee, Payal, Sood, Atul, 2012, 20 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        This paper analyses how emerging economies like India have responded to the opposing demands of inclusive growth and more equitable development aimed at closing social divides, and explores the politics of green growth with a case study of two seemingly contradictory development trajectories: the Green Mission and the hydroelectric power (HEP) projects and dams on the river Teesta in India’s northeastern Himalayan region.

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        Potential Impact of Proposed 2012 Farm Bill Commodity Programs on Developing Countries (English)
        Discussion paper by Babcock, Bruce / Iowa State University, Paulson, Nick / University of Illinois, 2012, 37 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        In this paper, Bruce Babcock and Nick Paulson offer an analysis of how production of key farm goods will change due to proposals on the Farm Bill. They offer insights on the development of US agricultural policy and the particularities of the current House and Senate proposals, including the proposed resolution of the Upland Cotton dispute between the US and Brazil through the Stacked Income Protection Plan.

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        The Poverty and Welfare Impacts of Climate Change Quantifying the Effects, Identifying the Adaptation Strategies (English)
        Report by The World Bank, 2012, 146 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        This report examines the effects of climate change on welfare and poverty. Chapter one describes the general implications of climate change for poverty reduction. Chapter 2 provides a forecast for poverty, by introducing heterogeneity, a microeconomic approach. Chapter 3 deals with the welfare impacts of rainfall shocks in rural Indonesia. Chapter 4 looks at the effects of wheater shocks on houshold welfare in rural Mexico, while chapter 5 deals with the climate variability and its relation to children's height in the same region.

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        Practical Considerations in Managing Trade Disputes (English)
        Note by ICTSD, 2012, 22 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This note presents the main findings and recommendations from the “South-South Dialogue on Managing Trade Disputes”, facilitated by the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD), the WTO and the Advisory Centre on WTO Law (ACWL). Aimed at identifying lessons and best-practices, the dialogue focused on developing countries’ experiences with managing disputes at the domestic level.

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        A Practical Guide to Trade Policy Analysis
        Book by UNCTAD/WTO, 2012, 236 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The book starts with the quantification of trade flows and trade policies (Chapters 1 and 2), which allows to describe, compare or follow the evolution of policies between sectors or countries or over time, and provides indispensable input into the modelling exercises presented in the following chapters. Chapter 3 presents the gravity models, which are useful for understanding the determinants and patterns of trade and for assessing the trade effects of certain trade policies, such as WTO accessions or the signing of preferential trade agreements. Chapters 4-6 cover a number of simulation methodologies (partial equilibrium, general equilibrium) which can be used to "predict" the effects of trade and trade-related policies on trade flows, welfare, and the distribution of income. The accompanying DVD contains datasets and command files allowing for hands-on practice. The book and the empirical material can also be downloaded from http://vi.unctad.org/tpa.

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        Promoting Access to Medical Technologies and Innovation: Intersections Between Public Health, Intellectual Property and Trade (English)
        Study by WHO, WIPO, WTO, 2012, 253 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        This joint study by the World Health Organization, the World Intellectual Property Organization and World Trade Organization examines the interplay between public health, trade and intellectual property, and how these policy domains affect medical innovation and access to medical technologies.

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        Public Debt and Economic Growth : Is There a Causal Effect? (English)
        Working paper by Panizza, Ugo, Panizza, Presbitero, Andrea F., 2012, 48 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy

        This paper uses an instrumental variable approach to study whether public debt has a causal effect on economic growth in a sample of OECD countries. The results are consistent with the existing literature that has found a negative correlation between debt and growth. However, the link between debt and growth disappears once we instrument debt with a variable that captures valuation effects brought about by the interaction between foreign currency debt and exchange rate volatility. We conduct a battery of robustness tests and show that our results are not affected by weak instrument problems and are robust to relaxing our exclusion restriction.

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        Russia's Accession to the WTO: Major Commitments, Possible Implications (English)
        Article by St Petersburg State University, 2012, 35 pages
        Categories: VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The article provides insights into the terms of Russia’s accession to the WTO in the area of trade in goods and services, as well as domestic reforms of the economy that have been undertaken. The paper shows both advantages and disadvantages of Accession for Russia's economic entities. It includes more focused sections on business implications of Russia’s WTO Accession commitments in the sectors of automobile manufacturing, production of meat and meat products, financial services, and energy services.

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        Science, Technology & Innovation Policy Review - Dominican Republic (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 116 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Science and Technology

        This document has three fundamental goals: first, to offer the Government and Dominican society an up-dated diagnosis of the effectiveness of STI policies, programmes and instruments; second, to facilitate the strengthening of those policies and measures by integrating them into the national development process; and third, to contribute to improve technological capacity, encourage innovation and incorporate greater added value into production.

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        The State of Commodity Dependence in 2012 (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2012, 126 pages
        Categories: Commodities, International Financial System, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This document aims to provide an individual country overview of the commodity-related situation of 154 developing countries. This publication also contains graphs which present a regional and global perspective of commodity dependence in the developing world over the period 2009–2010.

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        Sustainable Development Through Policy Integration in Latin America. A Comparative Approach
        Report by Rival, Laura, 2012, 24 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Environment

        This paper examines how social and political actors in Brazil and in Ecuador propose to govern natural resource use sustainably, and how they work at building an alternative political economy based on ecosystem protection, biodiversity, renewable energy use and poverty reduction.

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        The Synchronized and Long-lasting Structural Change on Commodity Markets: Evidence from High Frequency Data (English)
        Working paper by Bicchetti, David and Maystre, Nicolas / UNCTAD, 2012, 35 pages
        Categories: Commodities, International Financial System

        This paper analyses the intraday co-movements between returns on several commodity markets and on the stock market in the United States over the 1997- 2011 period. By exploiting a new high frequency database, we compute various rolling correlations. Using this database, we document a synchronized structural break, characterized by a departure from zero, which starts in the course of 2008 and continues thereafter. This is consistent with the idea that recent financial innovations on commodity futures exchanges, in particular the high frequency trading activities and algorithm strategies have an impact on these correlations.

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        Technology and Innovation Report 2012 - Innovation, Technology and South-South Collaboration (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 164 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Science and Technology

        UNCTAD’s Technology and Innovation Report 2012 focuses on how South-South collaboration can help address key capacity questions faced by developing countries.

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        Technology and Innovation Report 2012 - Innovation, Technology and South-south Collaboration (overview)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2012, 36 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        UNCTAD’s Technology and Innovation Report 2012 focuses on how South-South collaboration can help address key capacity questions faced by developing countries.

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        Toward Gender Equality in East Asia and the Pacific -a Companion to the World Development Report (English)
        Report by The World Bank, 2012, 272 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender

        This report examines the gender dimensions of several emerging trends in the region—increased global economic integration, the rising use of information and communication technologies, migration, urbanization, and rapid population aging.

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        Trade and Biodiversity: The Biotrade Experiences in Latin America
        Paper by UNCTAD, 2012, 64 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        This paper illustrates the potential for developing Sustainable Environment Management practices such as BioTrade in Latin America. In 2008, these practices had already generated over $230 million in exports of sustainably-produced products and services derived for Latin American’s biodiversity. These results are presented through case studies built on the experiences of BioTrade practitioners and programmes at the national, regional and international levels

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        Trade and Development Report, 1981-2011: Three Decades of Thinking Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 138 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, International Financial System

        This review traces the key issues relating to the global economy and development strategies that have been addressed in UNCTAD’s Trade and Development Reports (TDRs) over the past three decades. It also intends to show how ideas, opinions and proposals expressed in the TDR, and the analytical approaches used, differed from those of proponents of “the mainstream” and how they evolved in response to new challenges arising from developments in the world economy.

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        Trade and Development Report 2012 - Policies for Inclusive and Balanced Growth (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 208 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Trade and Poverty

        The world economy, which continues to suffer from the fallout of the financial crisis that began in late 2007 and the meltdown in September 2008, has not been able to revive the growth conditions of the preceding decade. Those conditions had been particularly supportive of economic and social progress in the developing world, and the resulting momentum, especially in some of the larger developing countries, helped to stoke recovery in the world economy once the worst of the crisis had been contained. However, those countries are now losing that momentum and downside risks for the world economy are growing again. The immediate problem is the inability of the developed countries to return to a normal growth pattern, but there is also an equally serious problem of contagion. Amidst their fragile recovery, an unreformed (and unrepentant) financial sector and macroeconomic policies that are timid at best, and counterproductive at worst, the developing countries will find it difficult to sustain their own growth dynamic, let alone that of the global economy. Therefore, a fundamental policy reorientation is needed, recognizing that healthy and inclusive growth will require a stable expansion of consumption and investment in productive capacity based on favourable income expectations of the working population and positive demand expectations of entrepreneurs. This requires a rethinking of the principles underlying the design of national economic policy and supportive international institutional arrangements.In detail, in its first chapter the report is dealing with current trends and challenges in the world economy. In the second chapter the report covers the main issues of income inequality and its evolution. Further on the third chapter concerns with the impacts of changes in globalization and technology for income inequality and the fourth chapter with the role of fiscal policy in income distribution. The last chapter finishes the report with a reconsideration of current economics and politics of inquality.

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        Trade Costs in the Developing World: 1995 – 2010 (English)
        Working paper by ARTNET (Arvis, Jean-François, Duval, Yann, Shepherd Ben, and Utoktham, Chorthip), 2012, 40 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The paper uses newly collected data on trade and production in 178 countries to infer estimates of trade costs in agriculture and manufactured goods for the 1995-2010 period. Findings indicate that trade costs are falling noticeably faster in developed countries than in developing ones, increasing the relative isolation of the latter. In particular, Sub-Saharan African countries and low income countries remain subject to very high levels of trade costs.

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        Trade, Income Distribution and Poverty in Developing Countries: A Survey (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2012, 36 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The paper surveys the theoretical and empirical research on how trade and trade liberalization affect poverty and income distribution. The impact of globalization on poverty reduction has been uneven but the findings in the literature are sensitive to modelling choices. Trade liberalization improves aggregate welfare but the gains are small and unequally distributed. The welfare effects are measured basically through price changes, focusing on the effect on the relative demand for domestic factors of production and, in particular, the demand for skilled relative to unskilled labour. The literature shows that poverty constraints originate from various sources including infrastructure, skills, incomplete markets, and policy.

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        Trade Profiles 2012 (English)
        Report by WTO, 2012, 194 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Trade Profiles 2012 provides a country-by-country breakdown of trade flows and trade policy measures for WTO members and countries seeking to join the WTO. The data provided in a standardized format for each country includes basic economic indicators, trade policy indicators, merchandise trade flows, commercial trade flows and industrial property.

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        UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics 2012 (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2012, 522 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics provides essential data for analysing and measuring world trade, investment, international financial flows and development. In this edition of the Handbook, the presentation of data for trade in services by service category has changed. Table 5.2 now includes statistics for selected country groups, in addition to those on main exporters and importers among individual economies, by service category.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 1/2012: The Paradox of Finance-driven Globalization (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2012, 4 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, International Financial System, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Over the past thirty years, many developing countries have experienced spurts of economic growth followed by collapses. In the process, some have fallen further behind the advanced economies, while only a few have enjoyed sustained economic growth. This policy brief explores the reasons for these diverse outcomes. It suggests that the countries with the strongest performance are those that have rejected the dominant economic wisdom of trusting their growth prospects to financial markets, and instead have pursued innovative and heterodox policies, tailored to local conditions. This has allowed them to shift resources to activities that are increasingly productive. Meanwhile, many developing countries that have embraced finance-driven globalization (FDG) have seen their ability to achieve this structural transformation greatly reduced.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 26/2012: Greater Income Share for Labour - the Essential Catalyst for Global Economic Recovery and Employment (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2012, 4 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This policy brief examines the weakness of the advanced economies which poses a threat for recovery of the world economy, as developing countries’ domestic demand is not strong enough to sustain their recent growth path. It discusses wage compression in relation to economic development, the revival of demand from traditional markets in the North, the prospects of fiscal austerity and active income policies.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 3/2012: Sovereign Debt Crisis : From Relief to Resolution (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2012, 4 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The current discussion on sovereign debt has concentrated on the predicaments of Europe and other developed countries, which have accumulated new debt very rapidly in recent years.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No 4/2012: The Continuing Relevance of Development Banks (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2012, 4 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Finance for Development, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The demand for the mobilization of domestic resources for social inclusion and in support of virtuous circles of investment, productivity increase and income growth has created pressures to direct flows of finance towards priority income groups and strategically important sectors. There is no doubt that commercial financial institutions are part of the required institutional environment. However, the potential contribution of these institutions is limited by widespread financial market failures, and by their procyclical lending patterns and focus on short-term profitability rather than long-term social welfare. National development banks (NDBs) partially or wholly owned by the state can offer an alternative.

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        Unctad Review of Maritime Transport 2012
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 196 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation

        This year's Review notes that world seaborne trade grew by 4 per cent in 2011, whereas the tonnage of the world fleet grew at a greater rate, by almost 10 per cent, as shipowners took delivery of vessels that had been ordered before the economic crisis began. With supply outstripping demand, freight rates fell even further, to unprofitable levels for most shipping companies. For importers and exporters, however, the low freight rates helped to reduce transaction costs, which is important for helping to revive global trade.

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        Unpacking the International Technology Transfer Debate: Fifty Years and Beyond (English)
        Report by ICTSD, 2012, 58 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        On the occasion of fifty years of the international technology transfer debates and twenty years since the Rio Summit, this paper attempts to capture the political economy of technology transfer negotiations since the 1960s. It seeks to juxtapose issues of technological capacity, innovation and economic development with international technology transfer negotiations over the past decades. In doing so, the analysis places a particular emphasis on the technology transfer-intellectual property rights (IPRs) nexus which in many ways, has been at the heart of the international discourse on technology transfer. This paper aims to broaden the understanding of two key issues. First, do international negotiations on technology transfer and results achieved thereunder correspond to country level technological needs, and to the growing insights on how technological change takes place? Second, how and through what ways can international discussions on technology transfer be made to reflect both the lessons of different developing countries in building technological capabilities as well as the changing global environment for knowledge and technology globally? The authors conclude by identifying the main issues that remain outstanding in this discourse and propose some thoughts for the way forward. This work, in its current working paper format, is intended to generate constructive dialogue on technology transfer and technology accumulation for development.

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        Use of the WTO Trade Dispute Settlement Mechanism By The Latin American Countries – Dispelling Myths And Breaking Down Barriers (English)
        Working paper by Torres, Raúl/WTO, 2012, 26 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The WTO's Dispute Settlement Mechanism (DSM) has been hailed as a fundamental aspect of the Multilateral Trading System for developing countries. At the same time developing countries face many challenges to ensure their effective participation in the mechanism. This paper presents statistical evidence of how Latin-American countries have been very active in their use of the DSM, especially when their use of the mechanism is compared to their participation in world trade. This paper also analyses why, to a large extent, Latin American countries have overcome the challenges of participating in the DSM; and have done so by coming up with innovative and creative solutions, without deviating from the guidelines established by WTO rules.

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        Using Supply Chain Analysis to Examine the Costs of Non-tariff Measures (ntms) and the Benefits of Trade Facilitation (English)
        Working paper by Ferrantino, Michael J., 2012, 33 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        It has become increasingly common to produce goods in a number of geographically dispersed stages linked by international trade. This tendency, known by names such as “production fragmentation”, “processing trade”, and “vertical specialization”, has important implications for the analysis of nontariff measures (NTMs) and trade facilitation. First, different types of NTMs or trade facilitation issues are naturally associated with different stages in the movement of goods. Different price gaps can be assigned to these stages, making it possible to decompose the overall amount of distortion and to prioritize the policies with the largest potential efficiency gains. Second, NTMs may accumulate in long supply chains, implying that their trade-distorting effects are greater for goods produced in a fragmented manner than for goods with simple production processes. There is evidence that trade costs are more important for high technology goods or goods undergoing several stages of processing. Issues with product standards may be particularly important for goods with long supply chains. The link between NTMs and supply chains also has implications for economic development and for the relationship between liberalization in services and goods.

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        Virtual Institute Teaching Material on Transfer of Technology (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2012, 132 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Science and Technology

        The aim of this course is to introduce and discuss key concepts related to international technology transfer, and in particular, the transfer of technology from technologically-advanced countries to those that are lagging behind. The teaching material comprises four modules. The first module presents definitions of basic terms and concepts, gives an overview of the various channels and modes of international technology transfer and the measures that can be used to facilitate it. The second module shows current trends in the international transfer of technology and discusses the technology transfer process in more detail. The third module focuses on the complex relationship between intellectual property rights and international technology transfer. Finally, the last module explains and discusses international agreements dealing with related international technology transfer issues.

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        Who is Benefiting from Trade Liberalization in Lesotho? - A Gender Perspective (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2012, 61 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender

        This report aims to critically assess the gender implications of Lesotho’s trade-led productive transformation. The study is structured as follows: Chapter 1 provides a broad country overview. Chapter 2 assesses the gender situation in Lesotho, by considering both gender-related “outcomes” (the relative position of men and women in key aspects of social life) and relevant policies and social institutions (“input” or “means” variables). Chapter 3 reviews some changes in Lesotho’s structure of production and trade, outlines some underlying trade policy developments, and singles out some gendered implications of these developments. Chapter 4 closes with some summary observations and illustrates a spectrum of policy options for Lesotho for the implementation of a gender-sensitive trade strategy.

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        Work and Welfare: Revisiting the Linkages from a Gender Perspective (English)
        Working paper by Cook, Sarah and Razavi, Shahra / UNRISD, 2012, 42 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender

        This paper examines the relationship between employment and social policy specifically from a gender perspective. It lays out the conceptual ground, reviews the empirical evidence and explores relationships and interactions between work, employment and social policies.

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        The World Development Report 2013: Jobs (English)
        Report by World Bank, 2012, 422 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The WDR 2013 report analyzes the connection between jobs and economic and social development, and stresses the importance of the private sector in creating jobs. It looks at why some jobs do more for development than others. The Report finds that the jobs with the greatest development payoffs are those that make cities function better, connect the economy to global markets, protect the environment, foster trust and civic engagement, or reduce poverty. The report proposes a three-layered approach to policy which consists of a framework that is conducive to growth, well-designed labor policies and prioritizing jobs that ensure development.

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        The World Development Report 2013: Jobs Overview (English)
        Summary by World Bank, 2012, 64 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The WDR 2013 report analyzes the connection between jobs and economic and social development, and stresses the importance of the private sector in creating jobs. It looks at why some jobs do more for development than others. The Report finds that the jobs with the greatest development payoffs are those that make cities function better, connect the economy to global markets, protect the environment, foster trust and civic engagement, or reduce poverty. The report proposes a three-layered approach to policy which consists of a framework that is conducive to growth, well-designed labor policies and prioritizing jobs that ensure development.

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        World Investment Prospects Survey 2012-2014
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 178 pages
        Categories: Investment

        This UNCTAD publication provides an outlook on future trends in foreign direct investment (FDI) by the largest transnational corporations (TNCs). This year’s survey is the most recent in a series of similar surveys that have been conducted regularly by UNCTAD since 1995 as part of the background work for its annual World Investment Report.

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        World Investment Report 2012 - Towards a New Generation of Investment Policies (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 239 pages
        Categories: Investment

        The World Investment Report (WIR) 2012 is dedicated to the development of a new generation of investment policies, which place inclusive growth and sustainable development at the heart of efforts to attract and benefit from investment. In addition to surveying global investment trends, regional trends in FDI and recent policy developmentsthe WIR presents UNCTAD's "Investment policy framework for sustainable development", and outlines its core principles for investment policymaking, guidelines for national investment policies, and options for the design and use of international investment agreements (IIAs).

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        World Investment Report 2012 - Towards a New Generation of Investment Policies - Overview (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2012, 48 pages
        Categories: Investment

        The World Investment Report 2012 is dedicated to the new generation of investment policies in 2012. It concerns with the globals investment trends, regional trends in FDI, as well as recent policy developments in the world investment. It also presents UNCTAD's "Investment policy framework for sustainable development", which consists of (i) core Principles for investment policymaking, (ii) guidelines for national investment policies, and (iii) options for the design and use of international investment agreement (IIAs).

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        World Tariff Profiles 2012 (English)
        Report by WTO, ITC, UNCTAD, 2012, 220 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This co-publication of the WTO, ITC and UNCTAD covers market access for goods. It contains a comprehensive compilation of the tariffs imposed by each of the 155 WTO members plus a number of other countries and customs territories. Non-WTO members are included in this year’s issue if data on the tariffs they applied in 2010 or 2011 is available in the databases of the WTO, ITC or UNCTAD.

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        World Trade Report 2012 - Trade and Public Policies: A Closer Look at Non-tariff Measures in the 21st Century (English)
        Report by WTO, 2012, 252 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The 2012 World Trade Report is split into two main parts. The first is a brief summary of the trade situation in 2011. The second part focuses on the special theme of non-tariff measures in the 21st century.Section A of the Report presents an overview of the history of non-tariff measures in the GATT/WTO. Section B examines the reasons why governments use NTMs and services measures and the extent to which public policy interventions may also distort international trade. The phenomenon of offshoring and the crosseffects of services measures on goods trade are also considered. The section analyses choices among alternative policy instruments from a theoretical and empirical perspective. Finally, case studies are presented on the use of NTMs in particular contexts. These include the recent financial crisis, climate change policy and food safety concerns. The case studies consider how far measures adopted may pose a challenge for international trade. Section C of the Report surveys available sources of information on NTMs and services measures and evaluates their relative strengths and weaknesses. It uses this information to establish a number of “stylized facts”, first about NTMs (TBT/SPS measures in particular) and then about services measures. Section D discusses the magnitude and the trade effects of NTMs and services measures in general, before focusing on TBT/SPS measures and domestic regulation in services. It also examines how regulatory harmonization and/or mutual recognition of standards help to reduce the trade-hindering effects of the diversity of TBT and SPS measures and domestic regulation in services. Section E looks at international cooperation on NTMs and services measures. The first part reviews the economic rationale for such cooperation and discusses the efficient design of rules on NTMs in a trade agreement. The second part looks at how cooperation has occurred on TBT/SPS measures and services regulation in the multilateral trading system, and within other international forums and institutions. The third part of the section deals with the legal analysis of the treatment of NTMs in the GATT/WTO dispute system and interpretations of the rules that have emerged in recent international trade disputes. The section concludes with a discussion of outstanding challenges and key policy implications of the Report.

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