A partnership with academia

Building knowledge for trade and development

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        4° Turn Down the Heat: Climate Extremes, Regional Impacts and the Case for Resilience
        Report by World Bank, Potsdam Institute, 2013, 254 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        The report outlines the alarming scenario for the years ahead. It focuses on the risks of climate change to development in Sub-Saharan Africa, South East Asia and South Asia and their climate change impacts on agricultural production, water resources, coastal zone fisheries, and coastal safety.

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        Addressing Non-Tariff Measures in ASEAN (English)
        Working paper by Pasadilla, Gloria/ARTNeT, 2013, 63 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        Intra-ASEAN trade has increased six-fold since 1993 but greater integration challenge looms in addressing non-tariff measures. The paper discusses the various ASEAN work programs on NTMs and assesses the incidence of Members’ NTMs on various products. Various ways of accelerating the reduction of non-tariff barriers are discussed, including dispute settlement mechanisms. The paper highlights the importance of a unilateral approach in addressing NTMs and the use of regulatory impact analysis to improve policy making.

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        Africa–BRICs Cooperation: Implications for Growth (English)
        Case study by UNECA, 2013, 48 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation

        This study shows what effect trade with, and investment and aid from, the BRICS (Brazil, Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa) could have on growth, employment and structural transformation in Africa. In addition, it shows how Africa could maximize the benefits of its engagement with the BRICS, and minimize the risks. The study offers policy recommendations based on comparative analysis of BRICS’ practices in their cooperation with Africa.

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        The African Growth and Opportunity Act: An Empirical Analysis of the Possibilities Post-2015
        Report by UNECA, 2013, 68 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report provides an analysis of outcomes of U.S.-Africa trade under five categories of post-2015 scenarios. These scenarios look at the trade and income implications of not extending AGOA beyond 2015; expanded product eligibility for AGOA; revisions to the currently eligible countries; a restructuring of AGOA to resemble the economic partnership agreements (EPAs) of the European Union; and the effects that a possible EU-U.S. free trade agreement (FTA) could have on AGOA or an EPA-like situation, with an additional scenario examining how a continental free trade area (CFTA) would play into such an integrated trade environment. The results indicate, first of all, that should AGOA not be extended and current AGOA-eligible countries revert back to the U.S. Generalized System of Preferences (GSP), then trade losses would be distributed in a very unequal fashion across the continent due to the variation in AGOA-eligible products that are exported by different countries. The results also show that expanding product eligibility for AGOA would only have small effects on the exports coming from AGOA-eligible countries— unless complete duty-free and quota-free (DFQF) market access was granted because the most import-sensitive sectors for the U.S. (e.g., sugar, cotton and clothing) are still where Africa would gain the most.

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        Aid for Trade: Resource Materials for Trade Development (English)
        Report by UNECE, 2013, 35 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Trade Related Capacity Building

        This publication provides information about the resources available, free of charge, from the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) that can be used to support Aid-for-Trade projects. The resources include international conventions, publications, standards and training materials, and are available to all interested stakeholders in Aid for Trade: countries, bilateral donors, development banks, international organizations and non-governmental organizations. They are developed by country-nominated experts and the UNECE secretariat under the supervision of a wide range of intergovernmental bodies.

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        The Asian Developmental State and the Flying Geese Paradigm
        Discussion paper by Kasahara, Shigehisa / Erasmus University, 2013, 36 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Globalization and Development Strategies

        This paper contemplates an outlook of the developmental state in the light of growing regionalist drive in East Asia. More specifically, it explores the possibility of developmental regionalism. Developmental regionalism, in this framework, upholds a hybrid of limited liberalism at the national level and protectionism at the regional level. It is also a hybrid of North-South and South-South cooperation for achieving agreed specialization. While the discussion is at the exploratory stage with respect to concrete policy implications, developmental regionalism could contribute to bridging the aforementioned two contending concepts.

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        Assessing Regional Integration in Africa VI: Harmonizing Policies to Transform the Trading Environment (English)
        Report by UNECA, 2013, 84 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Facilitation

        This paper carries forward the momentum of January 2012’s Decision and Declaration on boosting intra-African trade and fast-tracking the establishment of a Continental Free Trade Area by 2017 by addressing the issue of harmonizing rules of origin and trade facilitation instruments to facilitate Continental Free Trade Area negotiations by member States. The report starts with a brief overview of progress in regional integration, followed by discussions on the harmonization of three key prerequisites to pave the way for a meaningful continental market—namely rules of origin, trade facilitation instruments and cross-border linkages for information and communications technology.

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        Atlas of Global Development - A Visual Guide to the World’s Greatest Challenges (English)
        Report by The Work Bank, 2013, 147 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This report illustrates the most important development challenges facing our world today. Based upon authoritative data from the World Bank's World Development Indicators, it provides information on critical global topics - from poverty, population growth, and food production to climate change, foreign direct investment, and international trade. In addition, it includes detailed information about targets for the Millennium Development Goals.

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        Building a Dataset for Bilateral Maritime Connectivity
        Study by Fugazza, Marco; Hoffmann, Jan and Razafinombana, Rado, 2013, 31 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper presents a unique database reporting the shortest liner shipping routes between any pair of countries for a reference sample of 178 countries over the 2006–2012 period. Computed maritime distances are retrieved using an original database containing all existing direct liner shipping connections between pairs of countries and the corresponding sea distance. The number of transhipments necessary to connect any country pair to allow for containerizable trade is also retrieved. The contribution of this database is threefold. First, it is expected to be a useful tool for a better appreciation of transport costs and access to regular container shipping services and their impact on trade. Secondly, as presented in this paper, it helps to describe and analyse the structure of the existing global network of liner shipping services for containerizable trade, i.e. most international trade in manufactured goods. Finally, this database is expected to facilitate the construction of a bilateral liner shipping connectivity index building on UNCTAD’s original work.

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        Chinese Trade Reforms, Market Access and Foreign Competition - The Patterns of French Exporters (English)
        Working paper by Maria Bas, Pamela Bombarda, 2013, 39 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Using detailed trade and firm-level data from France, the authors investigate how French firms' product scope and export sales changed after Chinese liberalization vis-a-vis Asian liberalization. The findings suggest that lower Chinese import tariffs account on average for 7 percent of the new products exported by French firms, and for 18 percent of additional French export sales.

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        Classification of Non-tariff Measures (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2013, 52 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Non-tariff measures are generally defined as policy measures other than ordinary customs tariffs that can potentially have an economic effect on international trade in goods, changing quantities traded, or prices or both. Since this definition is broad, a detailed classification is of critical importance so as to better identify and distinguish among the various forms of non-tariff measures.

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        Commodities and Development Report - Perennial Problems, New Challenges and Evolving Perspectives
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 178 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Poverty, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The aim of this report is to consider the factors that have shaped the commodities sector in recent years and in particular, the implications of the commodity boom of 2003–2008 for commodity-dependent developing countries.

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        Comparing the Performance of Uganda’s Intra-east African Community Trade and Other Trading Blocs: A Gravity Model Analysis (English)
        Working paper by Shinyekwa, Isaac and Othieno, Lawrence, 2013, 52 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research

        This paper examines factors that determine Uganda’s trade flows and specifically compares the impact and performance of the different trade blocs on Uganda’s trade patterns and flows. The empirical question is whether Uganda’s trade is getting more integrated in the East African Community(EAC) region or is still dominated by other trading blocs, namely European Union (EU), Asia and Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). Two analytical approaches are used, namely: trade indicators and estimation of the gravity models using data extracted from COMTRADE for the period 2001–2009 (panel). The results suggest a strong relationship between belonging to a trading bloc and trade flows.

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        E-commerce in Developing Countries: Opportunities and Challenges for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises
        Report by World Trade Organization, 2013, 16 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Science and Technology

        This publication focuses on how e-commerce and mobile telephony have transformed the lives of many people in developing countries. It examines different ways of using e-commerce, and looks at specific sectors where Small and Medium Entreprises tap into important market information for their business.

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        Economic Development in Africa Report 2013 Intra-african Trade: Unlocking Private Sector Dynamism (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 158 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Globalization and Development Strategies, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        The main message of this year's report is that intra-African trade presents opportunities for sustained growth and development in Africa, but that seizing these opportunitiesrequires private sector dynamism to be unlocked and a development-based approach to integration to be adopted. Chapter 1 provides empirical facts on intra-African trade and investment. Chapter 2 examines the drivers of intra-Africantrade. Chapter 3 focuses on the structure of enterprises in Africa and identifies the distinctive features of the enterprise structures that inhibit trade. Chapter 4 discusses how to boost intra-African trade in the context of developmental regionalism. Chapter 5 provides a summary of the main findings and recommendations of the report.

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        Economic Report on Africa 2013-Making the Most of Africa’s Commodities: Industrializing for Growth, Jobs and Economic Transformation (English)
        Report by United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, 2013, 260 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies

        The report examines the need for Africa to industrialize, accelerate and sustain growth, as well as create jobs for its youth, and achieve economic transformation. This report also underscores the need for African countries to develop appropriate local policies, boost infrastructure, develop human skills and technological capabilities, and foster regional integration and intra-African trade. This report is based on the studies of nine African countries, which have helped generate evidence-based policy recommendations.

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        The Economics Behind Non-tariff Measures: Theoretical Insights and Empirical Evidence (English)
        Discussion paper by Marco Fugazza, 2013, 33 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        this paper from UNCTAD's study series reviews technical barriers to trade (TBTs) and sanitary measures (SPS) measures to generate different trade effects for different exporters and different industries. It adressess regulations and restrictions to protect human, animal or plant life or health and other technical regulations. It does so by showing variations in estimated trade effects through different forms of technical measures proxies, model specifications, and other methodology variations.

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        Empowering Women-legal Rights and Economic Opportunities in Africa (English)
        Book by World Bank, 2013, 236 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender

        This book looks at the effect of legal and economic rights on women’s economic opportunities. It examines family, inheritance, and land laws, which often restrict these rights in ways that hurt women, and looks at some labor law issues. In addition, the book provides a series of indicators that show whether a country does or does not provide particular legal provisions.

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        Enterprising Women : Expanding Economic Opportunities in Africa (English)
        Book by Hallward-Driemeier, Mary, World Bank, 2013, 306 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Trade and Gender

        The book looks at the ways to expand women entrepreneurs’ economic opportunities in Sub-Saharan Africa. What explains the gender sorting in the types of enterprises that women and men run? The analysis shows that many Sub-Saharan countries present a challenging environment for women. Four key areas of the agenda for expanding women’s economic opportunities in Africa are analyzed: strengthening women’s property rights and their ability to control assets; improving women’s access to finance; building human capital in business skills and networks; and strengthening women’s voices in business environment reform.

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        Examen De La Politique D'investissement De Djibouti (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2013, 115 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The Investment Policy Review (IPR) of Djibouti identifies a number of weaknesses in the policy, legal, regulatory and institutional frameworks for investment in Djibouti. Taking into account Djibouti's development objectives and the Government's will to improve the investment environment, the IPR proposes remedial actions and puts forward a multidimensional strategy to attract FDI.

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        Exchange Rates, International Trade and Trade Policies (English)
        Article by Alessandro Nicita, 2013, 30 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper analyses the impact that exchange rate volatility and misalignment have on trade and whether exchange rate misalignments affect governments’ decisions on trade policies. It also shows that trade policy is used to compensate for some of the consequences of an overvalued currency, especially anti-dumping.

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        Fast-tracking Green Patent Applications: An Empirical Analysis
        Report by ICTSD, 2013, 42 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade and Environment

        This paper is the first study to empirically analyze green patent fast-tracking programmes and to examine whether these programmes may help the diffusion of green technologies. After pointing out the main differences among the approaches taken by different countries, the paper presents several key findings, such as there is a clear demand for fast-tracking procedures, climate change-related technologies represent the vast majority of patents in the fast-tracking programmes.

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        Feasibility and Implication of East African Community Monetary Union (English)
        Article by E.P Bagumhe, 2013, 31 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research

        This paper , seeks to employ the Bayoumi and Eichengreen’s (1997) OCA Index methodology as a framework of analysis to examine this objective of EAC. The paper will proceed by providing a brief historical background of monetary and economic arrangements in East African Community. Part two of this paper will review both the theoretical and empirical literature with a view of the theoretical prediction towards the OCA. The specific objective of this paper is to answer four policy questions; Will individual countries increase their welfare when they abolish their national Currency and adopt some currency of a wider area, what is the ideal arrangement of forming regional currency blocs before reaching a complete monetary integration? Thirdly, what is the similarity of output movements of the EAC partner’s states? Fourthly, Does the EAC Partner states meet the convergence criteria as proposed by OCA theory.

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        The Future of Trade: The Challenges of Convergence Report of the Panel on Defining the Future of Trade Convened by WTO Director-general Pascal Lamy (English)
        Report by WTO, 2013, 54 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Chapter 1 of the Panel on Defining the Future of Trade Report discusses the contribution that trade opening has made to growth, development prosperity, the challenges of managing jobless growth, high unemployment, poverty, inequality, the environment and sustainable development, and the role of trade as well as investment in this context. Chapter 2 examines certain transformational actors that have shaped trade in recent years and will continue to do so in the future. Finally, chapter 3 contains a number of recommendations for possible action.

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        Gender at Work: A Companion to the World Development Report on Jobs (English)
        Report by World Bank, 2013, 91 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Gender

        A companion to the 2013 World Development Report on jobs, Gender at Work finds huge, persistent gender gaps at work around the world. This major new report advances our understanding of key trends, patterns and constraints, and offers innovative, promising approaches to policies and programs that can level the playing field.

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        Global Economic Prospects 2013: Assuring Growth Over the Medium Term (English)
        Report by The World Bank, 2013, 169 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report examines growth trends for the global economy and how they affect developing countries. It includes three-year forecasts and long-term global economic prospects and long-term global scenarios which look ten years into the future. Topical analyses cover financial markets, industrial production, global trade, inflation, exchange rates and commodities.

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        Global Economic Prospects: Less volatile, but slower growth (English)
        Book by World Bank, 2013, 206 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The book is organized by topics such as industrial production, inflation, financial markets, trade, and others that give an overview of the world's economy and its main conclusion is that global economy appears to be transitioning toward a period of more stable, but slower growth. It also contains detailed information and figures by region where the figures show that growth is firming in developing countries, but conditions vary widely across economies.

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        Global Value Chains and Development: Investment and Value Added Trade in the Global Economy (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 40 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Investment, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This study presents the value-added patterns in the global economy and in the developing world. It looks at the global value chains (GVCs) and their increasing complexity, which often results in distorted statistics on global trade due to double counting. The report estimates that the value chains administered in various ways by transnational corporations (TNCs) now account for 80 percent of global trade. Moreover, the data shows that developing countries are participating more and more in GVCs and this can play an important role in economic growth in the future. In addition, the report states that the balance of opportunities and risks associated with GVCs makes it important for governments to carry out well-informed policy debates on GVCs’ development impacts.

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        Growing Green : The Economic Benefits of Climate Action (English)
        Report by Uwe Deichmann and Fan Zhang, 2013, 423 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Trade and Environment

        With prospects of a global climate agreement uncertain, this report identifies the actions that governments in Eastern Europe and Central Asia can take to reduce the carbon footprints of their economies. It identifies actions in three priority areas: using energy more efficiently, moving to cleaner energy sources, and increasing carbon capture in soils and forests.

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        Guidelines for the Sustainable Management of Biotrade Products: Resource Assesment
        Manual by Francisco Cuesta, María Teresa, 2013, 42 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        Guidelines for the design and implementation of resource assesment for biotrade wil-collected species. It includes their appraisal for BioTrade management, biological and socio-economic information on the managed species. The documents shows how to conduct field inventories to collect data on key population and demographic calculations. It gives guidelides on management, gives examples of good practices and ideas on how to improve monitoring.

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        Handbook on Negotiating Preferential Trade Agreements: Services Liberalization (English)
        Manual by Pierre Sauvé, Simon Lacey, 2013, 94 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        Manual oriented to policymakers and trade negotiators in developing countries and economies in transition. It explains Aid for Trade in services and insights on PTA provisions. It includes a thorough explanation on how to prepare for negotiations by identifying actors, consulting stakeholders, conducting research, setting goals and performance. The second part, describes how to conduct the negotiations themselves and the third part goes into some detail on Aid for Trade and how to increase the capacity for exporting services. Finally, as a final stage of the negotiation process; Implementation, monitoring and enforcement techniques are suggested, as well as a brief introduction to dispute settlement.

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        The History and Challenges of Latin American Development (English)
        Working paper by José Antonio Ocampo, 2013, 32 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The publication offers rethinking the development agenda. It contains insights on capacity-building, technological progress, job opportunities and access to social benefits and how to include all of these into the interweaving them in society. It discusses employment with rights as a tool to eradicate inequality, close gaps and mainstreaming perspectives of gender, ethnic and racial equity. In essence this short publication suggests structural changes for making qualitative changes in the production structures of the countries in Latin America.

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        How Are the Poor Affected by International Trade in India: An Empirical Approach (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 134 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This document takes an alternative approach to the issue of impact of international trade on poverty. The framework of the study traces the role played by international trade in influencing the four facts of human development, namely empowerment, productivity, equity and sustainability.

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        Human Development Report 2013 – The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World (English)
        Report by UNDP, 2013, 216 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Globalization and Development Strategies

        The report examines the profound shift in global dynamics driven by the fast-rising new powers of the developing world and its long-term implications for human development. It analyzes more than 40 developing countries and specifically looks at the strategies of those which lifted their HDI value substantially between 1990 and 2012. It looks at the results of new trade and technology partnerships within the South itself. The report identifies four specific areas of focus for sustaining development momentum: enhancing equity; enabling greater voice and participation of citizens; confronting environmental pressures; and managing demographic change. With fresh analytical insights and clear proposals for policy reforms, the report calls for a better representation of the South in global governance systems and points to potential new sources of financing within the South.

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        Human Development Report 2013 – The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World - Summary (English)
        Summary by UNDP, 2013, 28 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Globalization and Development Strategies

        The Human Development Report examines the profound shift in global dynamics driven by the fast-rising new powers of the developing world and its long-term implications for human development. It identifies more than 40 countries and analyzes the causes and consequences of their achievements and related challenges. The report specifically looks at the strategies of those countries which lifted their HDI value substantially between 1990 and 2012.

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        Identifying Asian LDCs’ High Potential Export Sectors (English)
        Report by ITC, 2013, 33 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Enterprise Development, Globalization and Development Strategies

        This report aims at identifying at least two sectors that show a high potential for exports in several Asian LDCs vis-à-vis China and vis-à-vis developing countries in Asia in general. Expanding exports by targeting dynamic markets is critical for future development and poverty alleviation in many developing countries and, yet, Asian Least Developed Countries (LDCs) like many other LDCs remain marginal players in the global economy and need technical assistance to fully grasp the benefits from international trade. Governments seek to complement general (“horizontal”) policies that improve the overall business environment by more targeted, sector-specific policies. Identifying sectors on which to put priority is necessary for a sound allocation of limited public resources. Governments, donors and other stakeholders want to make an informed decision on which priority sectors to select, and thus need to assess the export potential of individual sectors. As important as knowing what to export is the question where to export. Given the stagnating demand in many developed economies, emerging regional markets, first and foremost China, may offer export opportunities to Asian LDCs that are yet to be explored.

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        Identifying New Product And Service Export Opportunities For South Africa Using A Decision Support Model
        Working paper by North-West University, 2013
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research

        This paper examines the role of the Decision Support Model (DSM) for products and services. The Decision Support Model (DSM) is an export market selection tool that makes use of a sophisticated filtering process to sift through an extensive range of product-/service- and country-related data to reveal the export opportunities that are the most realistic and sustainable. The paper illustrates how the use of these models can herald the start of a new era in export market selection and promotion in South Africa.

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        IIA Issues Note No. 1/2013: Recent Developments in Investor-state Dispute Settlement (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2013, 36 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, International Financial System, Investment

        This issue note analyses the recent developments in investor state dispute settlement (ISDS). As the public discourse about the usefulness and legitimacy of the ISDS mechanism is gaining momentum, reform options with respect to their feasibility, expected effectiveness and implementation methods remains wanting. The note advocates a multilateral policy dialogue to help to develop a consensus about the preferred course for reform and ways to put it into action.

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        Impact of the Global Slowdown on India’s Exports and Employment (English)
        Working paper by UNCTAD, 2013, 46 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The paper forecasts the impact of the slowdown in global GDP on India’s total exports and exports of 10 major sectors. It also estimates economy-wide and sectoral employment impacts in October 2009 and November 2010. Further, the study identifies vulnerable sectors with high potential for employment generation for immediate policy interventions.

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        Implications of Global Value Chains for Trade, Investment, Development and Jobs (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD OECD WTO, 2013, 29 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Brief prepared for the G-20 Leaders Summit Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)on the highlights on trade and investment openness. Main points regarding value chains encompassing an emphasis on trade facilitation, non-tariff measures, market efficiency, competitiveness, investment trade policy implications and strategies for development and job creation.

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        Information Economy Report 2013: The Cloud Economy and Developing Countries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 136 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        The Information Economy Report 2013 marks the first time the United Nations is examining the economic potential of cloud computing for low- and middle-income countries, where rates of adoption are currently low. With governments, businesses and other organizations in the developing world considering whether to migrate some or all of their data and activities to the cloud, this publication is especially timely.

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        Infrastructure and Employment Creation in the Middle East and North Africa (English)
        Case study by Antonio Estache, Elena Ianchovichina, Robert Bacon,Ilhem Salamon, 2013, 114 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Trade Facilitation

        The study discusses how infrastructure investments can help to stimulate employment creation in the immediate future while building foundations for sustainable growth and job creation in the MENA region.

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        Integración Y Convergencia En Unasur
        Working paper by Reinoso, Alan Fairlie, 2013, 17 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research

        En UNASUR coexisten países con diferentes estrategias de desarrollo e inserción internacional, que han llevado a tensiones y/o conflictos complicados. Por un lado tenemos países que han impulsado un proceso de liberación y apertura combinado con la suscripción de acuerdos comerciales regionales, principalmente Norte-Sur (TLCs). Por otro lado hay países que no solo cuestionan estas estrategias y han planteado una nueva intervención del Estado para manejar la renta de los recursos naturales, sino que también cuestionan los TLC porque entienden que no contribuyen al desarrollo de sus países. Este documento se concentra en discutir sobre las posibilidades de convergencia que habría en el plano económico – comercial, estratégico, en el espacio de UNASUR.

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        International Trade in Services and Economic Growth: The Case of Jordan
        Working paper by Buthaina Muhtaseb/ University of Jordan, 2013
        Categories: Trade Related Capacity Building, VI Members Research

        The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of services imports on Jordanian economic growth during 1990 – 2012 . The regression analysis is based on an output growth equation, utilizing the Fully-Modified Ordinary Least Square method after performing the appropriate statistical tests.

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        International Trade Statistics 2013
        Report by WTO, 2013, 208 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        International trade statistics provides the facts that firms and policy makers need to take decisions. Equally, it provides the information that analysts and academics need to provide advice to decision makers. This year's edition includes a new chapter on trade in global value chains, offering new perspectives on world trade and economic growth. The new data highlight, for example, that trade in intermediate goods is just as concentrated among large players as overall trade. The new data in this publication reveal the leading exporters and importers of intermediate goods, an important indicator of increased fragmentation in production chains. The new chapter also highlights the sectoral contributions of the value added to exports, demonstrating the interdependency of domestic and foreign sectors. Finally, the new chapter provides information outlining the level of exchanges within their multinational parent company carried out by US-owned affiliates.

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        Investment Policy Review, Djibouti - Summary (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2013, 5 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The Investment Policy Review (IPR) of Djibouti identifies a number of weaknesses in the policy, legal, regulatory and institutional frameworks for investment in Djibouti. Taking into account Djibouti's development objectives and the Government's will to improve the investment environment, the IPR proposes remedial actions and puts forward a multidimensional strategy to attract FDI.

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        Jobs for Shared Prosperity : Time for Action in the Middle East and North Africa (English)
        Report by World Bank, 2013, 350 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This report uses jobs as a lens to weave together the complex dynamics of employment creation, skills supply, and the institutional environment of labor markets and goes beyond the traditional links between jobs, productivity, and living standards to include an understanding of how jobs matter for individual dignity and expectations. It aims to provide an in-depth analysis of the labor markets in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and to identify the barriers to the creation of more and better jobs.

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        Key Trends in International Merchandise Trade (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 45 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The purpose of this report is to provide some key trends in world trade in goods over the recent medium-term period. This report is intended as a monitoring exercise so as to provide interested readers with informative data and analysis on a regular basis. The report is organized in four parts. The first part presents broad statistics on international trade. The second section presents statistics on international trade disaggregated by broad product groups and economic sectors. The third section presents statistics related to bilateral trade flows and regional trade flows. The fourth part presents some of the commonly used indices related to international trade including diversification, intra industry trade, and sophistication of exports.

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        Latin America And The Caribbean As Tailwinds Recede: In Search Of Higher Growth (English)
        Report by The World Bank, 2013, 60 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This semiannual report examines the short and medium-term challenges for Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) as the external factors instrumental in the region’s recent performance. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the global economy and its implications for the short and medium-term prospects of the LAC region. Chapter 2 provides a detailed analysis of the general patterns of domestic demand and supply observed in LAC over the last decade.

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        Latin American Experience in Wto Dispute Settlement: Recommendations for Russia
        Working paper by St. Petersburg State University, 2013
        Categories: VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The article analyses the experience of Latin American countries (LAC) with regards to their participation in various economic dispute settlement mechanisms. On the basis of this analysis, the paper makes some recommendations for the Russian Federation as a new member of the organization that may use the World Trade Organization dispute settlement mechanism in order to defend its economic interests.

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        LDC Services Exports: Trends and Success Stories (English)
        Working paper by ITC, 2013, 39 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Paper focuses on recent trends in the Least Developed Countries ( LDCs) exports of commercial services targeted at trade support institutions and the Aid for Trade community. It describes the LDCs current services export performance based on the UNCTAD-WTO Trade in Services Statistics for 2011 and provides a collection of services exporter case stories featuring case studies from Bangladesh, Cambodia, Rwanda, Senegal, Uganda, Vanuatu. The paper discusses lessons learned on the drivers of competitiveness in services and offers initial suggestions for what needs to be done to enhance LDC services enterprises' competitiveness.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2013: Growth with employment for inclusive and sustainable development (English)
        Report by Collardeau-Angleys, Agnès; Davis, Junior; Encontre, Pierre; Paunovic, Igor; Rajalingam, Madasamyraja; Traeger, Rolf and Wicks, Heather/UNCTAD, 2013, 218 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This Report examines the link between investment, growth and employment. More specifically, it considers how LDCs can promote growth that generates an adequate number of quality jobs and that enables them to reach what UNCTAD believes are their most urgent and pivotal goals, both now and in the post-2015 development agenda: poverty reduction, inclusive growth and sustainable development.

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        The Little Data Book on Information and Communication Technology 2013
        Book by World Bank, 2013, 245 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        Like the rest of this series on little data books, it is organized by regional and income group data. It provides data on access to information and communication technologies (ICTs) which have seen tremendous growth. The usage of the internet, mobile phones will continue rising. The number of individuals using the Internet will reach an estimated 2.7 billion while the number of fixed (wired) broadband subscriptions will reach almost 700 million at the end of 2013. This publication is important because investment in information and communication technologies is associated with economic benefits as higher productivity, lower costs, new economic opportunities, job creation, innovation, and increased trade. This publication provides comparable statistics on the sector for 2005 and 2011 across a range of indicators, enabling readers to readily compare economies. Such indicators cover the economic and social context structure of the information and communication technology sector, sector efficiency and capacity, and sector performance related to access, usage, quality, affordability, trade, and applications.

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        The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development 2013 (English)
        Book by World Bank, 2013, 246 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development

        The book contains reliable cross-country data on private sector development. It is meant to make informed decisions when formulating responses to economic crises. Specially in the case of downturns which affect exports, investment, and growth negatively. It contains data on the investment climate by regions and by income groups. Data from the World Bank Group’s Doing Business project, Enterprise Surveys, Entrepreneurship Snapshots was also included. Some of the indicators included are on the economic and social context such as the investment climate, private sector investment, finance and banking, and infrastructure.

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        The Little Green Data Book 2013
        Book by World Bank, 2013, 250 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        This book contains data related to development and environment. Its main goal is to provide information to countries on the state of their environment and natural resources It contains more than 50 indicators for more than 200 countries critical to the post-2015 development dialogue. The chosen indicators are based on the Millennium Development Goals. Issues currently being discussed for SDGs and cover the three pillars of sustainability (economic, social, and environmental).

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        Madagascar: Company Perspectives – An Itc Series on Non-tariff Measures
        Policy brief by ITC, 2013, 136 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The majority of trade obstacles in Madagascar involve the high number and complexity of national controls and inspections as well as cumbersome and opaque Malagasy administrative procedures.A recent survey on non-tariff measures conducted with 400 exporters and importers in Madagascar also reveals that companies have difficulty meeting stringent quality and certification requirements imposed by partner countries. These obstacles underline the need for the government to strengthen its national quality strategy by streamlining and upgrading national inspection and certification procedures and infrastructure.

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        Malawi: Company Perspectives - An ITC Series on Non-Tariff Measures (English)
        Report by ITC, 2013, 107 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This survey of exporters and importers in Malawi reveals that their main challenges to access markets abroad are twofold in relation to non-tariff measures. First, product certification is problematic: companies have difficulties to meet international standards. In addition, Malawi lacks an internationally accredited facility to certify products. Second, export licensing is a real challenge due to the many institutions involved, which contributes to inefficiency in issuing licenses. This report presents and analyses the survey results, including trade policy implications for Malawi. It also outlines the recommendations established in a public-private dialogue on the survey results.

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        Market Access, Export Performance and Survival Evidence from Peruvian Firms (English)
        Working paper by Marco Fugazza, Alain McLaren, 2013, 39 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The paper provides an empirical assessment of the impact of changes in tariff-wise market access conditions for Peru using firm-level customs data over the period 2002–2008.It uses two indicators of tariff-wise market access. One is the average tariff level corrected for the responsiveness of foreign demand and the other one reflects relative market access conditions.

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        Mexico’s Agriculture Development: Perspectives and Outlook (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 209 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies

        This work addresses key issues affecting agricultural production and trade of those commodities identified by the Mexican authorities as being of strategic importance for the country. It encompasses both macro- and micro-economic issues with links to commodities, trade policy and trade agreements, competition and competitiveness, and food and energy security. It also identifies complementary measures and enabling policies, such as infrastructural investment, research and development, and trade facilitation. Furthermore, the study demonstrates a close integration with the national development outlook of Mexico, which ensures an ongoing consistency with overall national development priorities, including enhancing food security, and reducing poverty, consistent with the UN Millennium Development Goal 1.

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        Mobilizing Business for Trade in Services (English)
        Book by ITC, 2013, 156 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The book summarizes key arguments on the role of services in development, providing analysis and explanation of the regulatory reforms and trade negotiations needed to foster a vibrant services sector in developing countries. It provides an overview of how policymakers and people working in business can work together to develop specific services sectors, such as tourism; transport and logistics; communications; audiovisual; computer and business process outsourcing; financial services; professional and other business services; construction; distribution; and cultural and recreational services.

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        The New Microfinance Handbook : A Financial Market System Perspective (English)
        Book by Ledgerwood, Joanna, 2013, 532 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development

        The new edition of Microfinance Handbook takes a market systems approach to financial inclusion, oriented by client needs. The book addresses the wider financial ecosystem, moving beyond the traditional meaning of microfinance to inclusive financial systems, with a particular focus on understanding the needs of poor households. It reflects the multidisciplinary intersection of finance, technology, and development with specified topics such as mobile operators, microfinance institutions and community networks.

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        Non-tariff Measures To Trade: Economic and Policy Issues for Developing Countries
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 124 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This study provides an analysis of the utilization, methods of quantification and impacts of Non-Tariff Measures (NTMs), and illustrates some aspects of NTMs and the policy responses Governments and the international community might deploy to address some of the complexities arising from their use.

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        Opening a Pandora’s Box: Modeling World Trade Patterns at the 2035 Horizon (English)
        Working paper by Lionel Fontagné, Jean Fouré, 2013, 48 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Economic projections for the world economy in relation to the construction of Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) baselines. The document shows projection of world trade trajectories up to 2035. It includes world trade patterns in comparative advantages, demand, and capabilities of different regions. Mentions models such as the production factors model and the factor-specific productivities. It shows trade elasticity regarding trade and income. It also shows demographics, gross domestic product, saving rates, factors and current account trajectories on the CGE baseline. Lastly it suggests trade policy scenarios as demand and trade patterns.

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        Pacific Alliance: An Ongoing Negotiation
        Working paper by Dorotea López; Felipe Muñoz/ University of Chile, 2013
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research

        The new integration scheme that arises in Latin America is known as the Pacific Alliance (PA). It brings together Latin American countries which economies are oriented towards trade liberalization like Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru. This article considers that this alliance is an innovative strategy focused on responding to the objectives initially defined by its members. It reviews its construction and status before presenting the specificities of the PA.

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        Paraguay: Company Perspectives – An Itc Series on Non-tariff Measures (English)
        Report by ITC, 2013, 135 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        According to an ITC survey, non-tariff measures (NTMs) affect Paraguayan companies more than those in other Latin American countries. This report outlines policy recommendations to overcome the negative impacts of identified burdensome NTMs, particularly testing and product certification requirements, taxes and charges, quantity control measures and procedural obstacles which make export and import processes more complex.

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        Paraguay: Company Perspectives – An Itc Series on Non-tariff Measures
        Policy brief by ITC, 2013, 135 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Non-tariff measures (NTMs) affect Paraguayan companies more than those in other Latin American countries, an ITC survey reveals.Of 406 exporters and importers, 62% report problems linked to burdensome NTMs, particularly testing and product certification requirements. Taxes and charges and quantity control measures are hampering regional integration in MERCOSUR. Procedural obstacles, such as inefficiencies in institutions, make export and import processes more complex. The report outlines policy recommendations to overcome the negative impacts of identified NTMs.

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        Participation Of Non-state Actors In Formulation Of Trade Policy In Vietnam (English)
        Working paper by Dao Ngoc Tien, Nguyen Quynh Huong, Nguyen Thu Hang, Ngo Chi Le, 2013, 70 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, VI Members Research

        Vietnam has laid the initial legal foundation for consultation in trade policy development. The current consultation of trade policy in Vietnam can be divided into 3 layers, based on relationships between the bodies. The core layer with frequent and effective consultation includes those currently working in state sector, including government research institutes. At the centre of this core layer is the operation of MoIT as the main ministry relating to trade policy and NCIEC as the inter-ministries coordinating agency. However, this should not be considered as the consultation as all the actors are government with different policy making authority. Expanding from this core, the second layer will includes those are former governmental officials (head of business associations) and VCCI, which has a “special” relation with government. It is a part of business-focus consultation as it only allows indirect interaction rather than direct between enterprises and government.

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        Practical Solution for Cameroonian SMEs Financing Issue / Solutions Pratiques Au Problème De Financement Des Pme Au Cameroun (English)
        Policy brief by Christian Lambert NGUENA, 2013, 5 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Finance for Development, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Le rôle des petites et moyennes entreprises (PME) dans la lutte contre le chômage et la relance de l’activité économique n’est plus à démontrer. Le Cameroun souffre jusqu’à nos jours d’un secteur privé à plus de 90 % constitué de PME peu viables faute de financement, situation qui tend à s’accentuer avec l’avènement des crises financières. L’essor des PME demande donc la mise en oeuvre d’un mécanisme efficace pour leur financement, pierre angulaire de leur santé et de leur épanouissement. Fort de ce constat, ce policy brief, basé sur une étude, propose différentes actions que les acteurs peuvent engager pour résoudre le problème de déficit de financement dont souffrent les PME camerounaises. Ainsi : • L’État devrait développer et maintenir une politique d’assainissement et de facilitation des mécanismes de financement des PME ; • Les promoteurs des PME et entrepreneurs devraient remettre en cause et corriger leurs comportements préjudiciables à la recherche de financement ; • Et enfin les institutions financières devraient, à l’instar de l’État, faciliter le processus de financement des PME.

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        A Preliminary Analysis on Newly Collected Data on Non-tariff Measures (English)
        Working paper by Nicita, Alessandro / UNCTAD and Gourdon, Julien / World Bank, 2013, 32 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper makes use of data newly collected by UNCTAD and the World Bank to investigate the use of non-tariff measures (NTMs) in about 26 countries. The analysis is based on simple inventory methods: frequency indices and coverage ratios. The results indicate that the use of NTMs is extensive and increasing, especially with regard to technical measures.

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        Promoting Local IT Sector Development Through Public Procurement (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 80 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        This study seeks to address the link between public procurement and local IT sector development in developing and emerging economies, and to provide decision makers with an improved basis for understanding when and how public procurement can be leveraged for the development of a vibrant IT sector. The report proposes measures to promote ICT sector development and build local ICT capacities in developing and emerging economies.

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        Promoting Low-carbon Investment (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 75 pages
        Categories: Investment, Trade and Environment

        The Investment Advisory Series provides practical advice and case studies of best policy practice for attracting and benefiting from foreign direct investment (FDI), in line with national development strategies. The Series draws on the experiences gained in, and lessons learned through, UNCTAD’s capacity and institution building work in developing countries and countries with economies in transition. This Series deals with issues related to investment promotion and facilitation and to the work of investment promotion agencies (IPAs) and other institutions that promote FDI and provide information and services to investors. The publication is intended to be pragmatic, with a how-to focus, and includes toolkits and handbooks. The prime target audience for it is practitioners in the field of investment promotion and facilitation, mainly in IPAs.

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        Prospects of the Bali Ministerial (English)
        Working paper by Dhar, Biswajit and Kishore, Roshan/ARTNeT, 2013, 22 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper looks at the possibilities of a concluding “Bali package” on the issues that are currently engaging the WTO Members. It gives an account of the discussions currently taking place on each of the three areas and makes an assessment whether it is possible for the key countries to arrive at a consensus in time for the Ministers to give their endorsement in Bali.

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        Protecting Shared Traditional Knowledge (English)
        Working paper by Muller, Manuel/ICTSD, 2013, 38 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Science and Technology, Trade and Poverty

        This paper offers some initial suggestions on how to address issues concerning the traditional knowledge (TK) of indigenous peoples, which is shared and distributed widely among communities and beyond. In a scenario where there is growing international and national interest to legally protect TK related to biodiversity, the question of how to achieve this when TK is shared is particularly complicated. Who has rights, who consents to access and use of TK, how are benefits shared and between whom, are just some of the vexing questions that must be addressed to advance and inform policymaking and the development of legal standards. The study reviews some of the legal and policy options that exist for the protection of shared and widely distributed TK.

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        Quantification of the High Level of Endogeneity and of Structural Regime Shifts in Commodity Markets (English)
        Discussion paper by Filimonov,Vladimir; Bicchetti, David; Maystre, Nicolas; Sornette ,Didier, 2013, 46 pages
        Categories: Commodities, International Financial System

        This paper proposes a “reflexivity” index that quantifies the relative importance of short-term endogeneity/reflexivity for several commodity futures markets (corn, oil, soybeans, sugar, and wheat) and a benchmark equity futures market. The authors use a reflexivity index that is defined as the average ratio of the number of price moves that are due to endogenous interactions to the total number of all price changes, which also include exogenous events. Estimated reflexivity levels are obtained by calibrating the Hawkes self-excited conditional Poisson model on time series of price changes. The Hawkes model accounts simultaneously for the co-existence and interplay between the exogenous impact of news and the endogenous mechanism by which past price changes may influence future price changes. Robustness tests show that the index provides a ‘pure’ measure of endogeneity that is independent of the rate of activity, order size, volume or volatility. The authors find an overall increase of the reflexivity index since the middle of the first decade of the 21st century to October 2012, which implies that, on a monthly basis, at least 60–70 per cent of commodity price changes are now due to self-generated activities rather than novel information, compared to 20–30 per cent earlier. While their reflexivity index is defined on short-time windows (10 minutes) and thus does not capture long-term memory, they discover striking coincidence between its dynamics and that of the price hikes and abrupt falls that developed since 2006 and culminated in early 2009.

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        Reform of Investor-state Dispute Settlement: In Search of a Roadmap (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2013, 12 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law

        This issues note by the UNCTAD secretariat outlines five paths for reform of the investor-State dispute settlement (ISDS) regime, which is plagued by concerns related to perceived deficit of legitimacy and transparency; contradictions between arbitral awards; difficulties in correcting erroneous arbitral decisions; questions about the independence and impartiality of arbitrators, and costs and time of arbitral procedures.

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        Rethinking Pro-growth Monetary Policy in Africa: Monetarist Versus Keynesian Approach / Repenser La Politique Monétaire Pour La Croissance En Afrique: Approche Monétariste Versus Keynesienne (English)
        Policy brief by Christian Lambert NGUENA, 2013, 8 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, VI Members Research

        The relative positive economic growth experienced by most African countries in the recent decade has come with insufficient demand stimulation. The concern of poverty at the forefront of economic policy, the need for inclusive growth and sustainable development, inter alia, brings forward the inevitable question of the monetary policy responsibility. Accordingly, the monetarist theory that focuses on price stability inherently neglects the demand stimulation aspect of economic prosperity. Since the mid 1980s, the monetarist school driven by its central aim of fighting inflation and maintaining credibility in markets and economic agents has been priority for monetary authorities (especially in Africa). To this effect, while good results in terms of inflation targeting has been achieved in many African countries; economic growth has sometimes been low. Hence, in light of the above, using a statistical and theoretical debate method, the Credible Monetary Policy (CMP)1 paradox is traceable to Africa. Accordingly, with the promising economic environment in Africa, we recommend the promotion of a monetary policy oriented toward improving economic growth under the constraint of price stability. In light of the above view, there are some note worthy signs such the recent decision by the two CFA zone central banks to either maintain interest rates at a low level or reduce it despite tightening measures of monetary policy taken by the European Central Bank (ECB) earlier in the year. In the same vein, the central bank of South Africa has maintained its policy of low interest rates with an objective of economic expansion. Since, the 2008 financial crisis, the consolidation of the Federal Reserve’s declared final objective of lowering interest rates and making emergency loans is an eloquent example to reassure African central banks in the choice of the pro-growth monetary policy option.

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        Review of Maritime Transport 2013
        Review by UNCTAD, 2013, 204 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Globalization and Development Strategies

        The 2013 edition of the Review of Maritime Transport estimates global seaborne trade to have increased by 4.3 per cent, with the total reaching over 9 billion tons in 2012 for the first time ever. Driven in particular by growing domestic demand in China and increased intra-Asian and South-South trade, seaborne trade nevertheless remains subject to persistent downside risks facing the world economy and trade. Freight rates have remained low and volatile in the various market segments (container, liquid and dry bulk).The Review proposes a new paradigm for transit based on a conveyor-belt concept, which aims at achieving a continuous supply of transit transport services, supported by institutional frameworks and infrastructure. The argument proposed here is that a regular, reliable and secure transit system is the simple, straightforward goal to pursue in order to guarantee access for landlocked developing countries to global shipping networks on the basis of non-penalizing conditions. Given the review of the Almaty Programme of Action that is to take place in 2014, this proposal could be part of the actions within a new agenda for landlocked and transit developing countries

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        Services Policy Review: Lesotho (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2013, 101 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The Lesotho Services Policy Review (SPR) aims to investigate policy, regulatory and institutional weaknesses, and to make recommendations addressing such deficiencies in Lesotho's key sectors of tourism, and financial and professional medical services. For each of these, an economic overview is followed by an inventory of legislation, regulations, institutions and policy measures.

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        Services Policy Reviews: A Detailed Methodology for Reviewing Policy, Regulatory and Institutional Frameworks (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD/DITC/TNCD, 2013, 21 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The SPRs are a systematic review of economic, regulatory and institutional frameworks characterizing the services sectors, with the aim of identifying trade policy options that advance national sectoral development objectives. In addition to reviewing the development benefits of services and services trade, this review explains the methodology behind the SPR process itself: the purpose, the structure, the outcome, stakeholder participation and activities that are involved in the process.

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        Shared Harvests: Agriculture, Trade and Employment (English)
        Report by ILO and UNCTAD, 2013, 400 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The International Labour Office and UNCTAD have collaborated on this edited volume concerning how the agricultural sector affects the world of work and broad development processes. The emphasis is on the need to make agriculture a high policy priority, particularly in the domains of trade and employment. Policy makers can maximize the development benefits from agriculture by carefully considering agricultural trade policy.

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        South Asia Economic Focus, Spring 2013 : Regaining Momentum (English)
        Report by World Bank, 2013, 62 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        South Asia is regaining its economic momentum, but the recovery in the world’s region with the largest number of poor people could falter in the absence of a stronger investment climate. This report displays the region's recent economic developments and gives an outlook of South Asia's economic growth while presenting individual country briefs (Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka).

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        Structural Change and Economic Development: is Brazil Catching Up or Falling Behind? (English)
        Discussion paper by Nassif, André; Feijó, Carmem; Araújo, Eliane, 2013, 36 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper presents a Kaldor-Thirlwall theoretical and empirical framework on the basic driving forces of the behaviour of productivity and economic development in the long-run. By calculating the so- called Thirlwall equation, the main contribution of this research is to examine whether Brazil has been catching up or falling behind. The authors show some empirical evidence based on both descriptive statistics and econometric regressions for Brazil between 1970 and 2010. Some important indicators of descriptive statistics reveal that Brazil has entered into a process of early de-industrialization. In addition, since the econometric estimates also show that there was a dramatic increase in the income elasticity of demand for imports between 1980–1998 and 1999–2010 (from 1.97 to 3.36) and a small decrease in the income elasticity for exports during the same periods (from 1.36 to 1.33), the authors conclude that Brazil not only has already embarked on a trajectory of falling-behind relative to the world economy and the international economic frontier, but also that it might show, in the absence of appropriate policies, lower growth rates in the long run. However, if the opposite occurs, it would face major long-term external constraints to growth.

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        Stuck in the Middle: “Dutch Disease” and Energy-driven Diversification in Russia (English)
        Working paper by Olga Garanina/St Petersburg State University of Economics, 2013
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, VI Members Research

        The aim of the present paper is to aliment the debate on the impact of resource richness on economic development through the analysis of the Russian case. The paper identifies the patterns of the “Dutch disease” and provides the foresight on energy-driven diversification. It argues that Russia does not clearly demonstrate all symptoms of the “Dutch disease”, but neither it seems to successfully put in place a strategy of energy-driven industrial modernization.

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        Supply Chain Perspectives and Issues: A Literature Review (English)
        Book by WTO, FUNG, 2013, 234 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Enterprise Development

        A literature reviw on various topics related to supply chains in the economics literature such as Supply chains in the business literature, offshoring, risk in supply chains, SMEs, services, value-added and sustainability. It also gives an overview on recent business models, trade policy and finance.

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        Survival Analysis of the Exports of Least Developed Countries: The Role of Comparative Advantage (English)
        Working paper by Alessandro Nicita, Miho Shirotori, Bolormaa Tumurchudur Klok, 2013, 26 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper investigates whether comparative advantage affects the duration of exports from least developed countries. The research finds that exports of products that are close to the country’s comparative advantage are likely to be more durable.

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        Tales from the Development Frontier : How China and Other Countries Harness Light Manufacturing to Create Jobs and Prosperity (English)
        Book by World Bank, 2013, 555 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Globalization and Development Strategies, Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation

        This work describes how most developing countries have had little success in raising the share of manufacturing in production, employment, or exports. It sheds light on manufacturing clusters in several Asian and African countries and focuses on the six main binding constraints to competitiveness such as availability, cost, and quality of inputs; access to industrial land; access to finance; trade logistics; entrepreneurial capabilities, both technical and managerial; and worker skills. The volume systematically explores potential growth opportunities in industries: agribusiness, apparel, leather goods, wood working, and metal products.

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        Tariff Preferences As a Determinant for Exports from Sub-saharan Africa (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2013, 30 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper examines the impact of market access conditions as a determinant of exports from sub-Saharan Africa. The analysis focuses on tariffs and considers both direct market access (the tariffs faced by exports from sub-Saharan Africa) and relative market access conditions (the preferential margin of African exports relative to that of other competitors). The results find that both direct market access conditions and relative market access conditions matter, although relative market access conditions matter in a larger number of cases. This suggests that the exports from the countries of sub-Saharan Africa often face more competition from foreign competitors than from domestic industries in their destination markets. It also finds that, given the relatively large tariffs currently applied to intraregional trade, complete tariff liberalization within the countries of sub-Saharan Africa represents a significant incentive for intraregional trade.

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        Towards More Balanced Growth Strategies in Developing Countries: Issues Related to Market Size, Trade Balances and Purchasing Power
        Paper by Jörg Mayer/UNCTAD, 2013, 42 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy

        Concentrating on household consumption, the paper shows that the sales potential in some large emerging economies is approaching that in developed countries but also that imports might meet most new domestic consumption demand. Sustaining a shift towards a more balanced growth path requires changes in the production structure, fostered by product innovation, to make domestic production patterns better correspond to newly emerging demand patterns. The associated new employment and wage opportunities would allow realizing emerging sales potentials through rising incomes, rather than rising household debt.

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        Trade and Development Report 2013 - Adjusting to the Changing Dynamic of the World Economy (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 186 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Globalization and Development Strategies

        Overview of the world economy and financial situation in 2013 by major economic regions. It discusses their financial markets, commodity prices, growth and trade patterns. Discusses expected economic activity for the year which seems to have slowed down and has brought international trade into a halt. It also discusses the economic activity that developed and developing countries have had since the 2008 economic crisis.

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        Trade and Environment Review 2013, Wake Up Before It is Too Late: Make Agriculture Truly Sustainable Now for Food Security in a Changing Climate
        Review by UNCTAD, 2013, 341 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, Trade and Poverty

        According to the report, the continuing rural poverty, persistent hunger around the world, growing populations, and mounting environmental concerns must be treated as a collective crisis. The developing and developed countries should make a shift in agricultural development from a "green revolution" to a "truly ecological intensification" approach. More than 60 international experts have contributed their views of the challenges and the most suitable strategic approaches for dealing holistically with the inter-related problems of hunger and poverty, rural livelihoods, social and gender inequity, poor health and nutrition, climate change and environmental sustainability.

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        Trade Creation & Diversion Effects of the East African Community Regional Trade Agreement: A Gravity Model Analysis (English)
        Article by Shinyekwa, Isaac and Othieno, Lawrence, 2013, 40 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research

        The paper investigates the potential impact of the East African Community (EAC) on trade creation and diversion. The paper seeks to establish whether the EAC regional trade agreement (RTA) has diverted or created trade using an expanded(augmented)gravity model. The authors estimate static and dynamic random effects models using a panel data set from 2001 to 2011 on 70 countries that trade mainly with the EAC partner states. Results suggest that indeed the implementation of the EAC treaty has created trade, contrary to widely held views that South-South RTAs largely divert trade.

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        Trade Facilitation and Microfinance for Poverty Reduction in the Greater Mekong Subregion: A Case Study of Thailand
        Working paper by Cheewatrakoolpong, Kornkarum; Mallikamas, Sothitorn; Phupoxsakul, Kawin, 2013, 52 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Trade Facilitation

        This paper examines whether trade facilitation measures benefit the poor and explores the role of microfinance in supporting the utilization of the trade facilitation initiatives. The focus of the study is on the Economic Corridors and Cross Border Transportation Agreement, an Asian Development Bank programme to facilitate trade in the Greater Mekong Subregion. The paper shows that trade facilitation measures have brought about major improvements in transportation between Thailand and its neighbouring countries. This has helped considerably in promoting tourism, export activities, labour movement and investment activities. However, the poor and microenterprises still face many obstacles in taking advantage of such opportunities due to their inability to access financing as well as a lack of relevant skills and knowledge.

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        Trade Facilitation and Poverty Reduction: China - ASEAN Region Case Study (English)
        Working paper by Wu, Laping /ARTNeT, 2013, 39 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Trade facilitation has been a key part in the opening up process of China. This paper aims to investigate the linkage between trade facilitation and poverty reduction in China. It discusses the impact of the trade facilitation practices in China and the China - ASEAN cooperation on trade between China and ASEAN countries. A provincial panel data set for China from 2000 to 2008 is employed to quantify the impact of agricultural imports, agricultural exports and trade facilitation on poverty. The results show that a 1 per cent increase in port efficiency results in a 1.051 per cent decrease in the poverty index.

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        Trade Facilitation and Poverty Reduction in Asia and the Pacific: A Case Study of a South Asian Economic Corridor
        Working paper by De, Prabir and Raychaudhuri, Ajitava/ARTNeT, 2013, 60 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty, Trade Facilitation

        Based on primary survey data, this study assesses the potential impact of trade facilitation on poverty reduction in the region falling under SAARC Corridor 1, which is one of the leading corridors in South Asia that handles considerably good amount of overland trade between three major South Asian countries, namely, Bangladesh, India and Pakistan and also their global trade. One of the conclusions of this study is that poverty reduction, in the perception of the individuals connected with trade, depends on reduction in trade barriers through better trade facilitation. However, in the perception of the trading firms, better infrastructure which facilitates more trade is tagged with a positive response about decline of poverty.

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        Trade Facilitation from an African Perspective (English)
        Working paper by UNECA, 2013, 71 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        In the context of negotiations on the proposed agreement on trade facilitation, this paper provides a thorough analysis of key trade facilitation issues from an African perspective, highlighting what is at stake for the continent, thereby contributing to inform the opinions of African negotiators at a critical juncture. The premise of this analysis is that there is a consensus in the empirical literature, regardless of the methodology utilized, on the positive and significant impact trade facilitation could have for Africa’s trade performance.

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        Trade Opportunities of an Fta Between Colombia and Turkey
        Working paper by Daniel Gómez-Abella; Catherine Pereira-Villa; Loly-Aylú Gaitán-Guerrero, 2013
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research

        The objective of this article is to explore the opportunities for growth, diversification and competition present in trade between Colombia and Turkey, as well as the ones that would result from a free trade agreement. It uses five indicators to characterize trade and trade policy. Disaggregated data from 2010 is used to conduct partial equilibrium simulations yielding estimates on trade, welfare and income effects. The paper shows that Turkish and Colombian consumers would gain in terms of welfare while Turkish tax revenues would fall more than those of Colombia.

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        Trade Profiles 2013
        Report by WTO, 2013, 206 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Trade Profiles 2013 provides the latest information on the trade flows and trade policy measures of WTO members, observers and other selected economies. The data provided for each economy include basic economic indicators (such as GDP), trade policy indicators (such as tariffs, import duties, number of disputes, notifications outstanding and contingency measures in force), merchandise trade flows (broken down by broad product categories and major origins and destinations), services trade flows (with a breakdown by major components) and industrial property indicators. With one page devoted to each economy, Trade Profiles 2013 offers a concise overview of global trade.

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        Trends In Developing Country Trade 1980–2010 (English)
        Working paper by Constantine Michalopoulos, Francis Ng, 2013, 38 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The paper reviews trends and patterns in developing countries' trade from 1980 to 2010. During the 30-year span, world trade expanded rapidly, especially in developing countries in the last decade and a similar picture emerges in trade services. However, these overall trends mask different trade patterns during some of the time periods and among different developing countries. In addition, they raise questions about sustainability, trade policy and the architecture of the trading system.

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        Turkish Enterprise-level Response to Foreign Trade Liberalization (English)
        Working paper by UNCTAD, 2013, 56 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Trade in textiles and apparel is of special interest among international trade transactions. Removal of the final Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC) quotas in 2005 brought about a division of textile- and apparel-exporting countries into groups of winners and losers. Turkey appeared as a successful country from the former category. Based firm-level data results suggest that while Turkish enterprises were more successful than most in adapting to the post-quota market in textiles and apparel, their performance paled relative to the performance of enterprises in areas not covered by the ATC. Producers that specialized in textiles and apparel during the ATC quotas removal period had ceteris paribus lower sales revenue and employment growth and a lower profit rate on average than those selling other products. The latter category of producers was also significantly more likely to fail during this period.

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        Unctad Handbook of Statistics 2013 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 522 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics provides essential data for analysing and measuring world trade, investment, international financial flows and development. As reliable statistical information is often considered as the first step during the preparation of recommendations or decisions that will commit countries for many years, this publication is really useful for research or consultation.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 1/2013: The Post-2015 Agenda (English)
        Policy brief by Kozul-Wright, Richard/UNCTAD, 2013, 4 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        UNCTAD has a key role in the post-2015 process. Specifically, as the focal point in the United Nations for the integrated treatment of trade and development, and interrelated issues in the areas of finance, technology, investment and sustainable development, it falls to UNCTAD to take a leadership role in integrating economic development and related global economic issues into the United Nations-led post-2015 agenda.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 2/2013, Growth and Poverty Eradication: Why Addressing Inequality Matters
        Policy brief by Kozul-Wright, Richard/UNCTAD, 2013, 4 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Poverty

        The Millennium Development Goals have centred on social outcomes, primarily in the fields of poverty, health and education. The goal of halving extreme poverty globally has already been met, albeit in large part thanks to the remarkable performance over three decades of the Chinese economy. Greater ambition is expected for a post-2015 agenda, with the eradication of extreme poverty a possible new goal. However, this goal is very unlikely to be reached by 2030 if business as usual is the order of the day. Paradoxically, this partly reflects the lack of ambition in the conventional poverty line of $1.25 per day, which is by any standard extremely low; but it is also because poverty eradication, even at this level of ambition, will not happen without addressing the more challenging issue of global inequality.

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        The Value of Forests: Payments for Ecosystem Services in a Green Economy
        Paper by UNEP, UNECE and FAO, 2013, 92 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        This publication is a joint effort of UNEP, UNECE and FAO and discusses the concept of Payment for ecosystem services(PES) which is a tool to enable a forest owner or owners to capture the financial benefits from the positive externalities derived from forest ecosystem services and encourage them to continue to provide these services to another party or society at large. This paper also discusses the various approaches, applications and resulting benefits of the PES in the UNECE region. It also covers some negatives that could occur without good policy in place. It uses lessons learned to provide guidance on what is needed for the success of PES schemes and their possible future.

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        The Way to the Ocean - Transit Corridors Servicing the Trade of Landlocked Developing Countries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 36 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Trade Facilitation

        This report looks at selected East African transit corridors which provide access to seaports as gateways to link landlocked developing countries (LLDCs) with overseas trading partners, and suggests complementary courses of action to improve transit transport efficiency and sustainability.

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        Who is Benefiting from Trade Liberalization in Angola? A Gender Perspective (English)
        Case study by Zarrill, Simonetta/ UNCTAD, 2013, 83 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender

        The study assesses the extent to which trade liberalization in Angola has had an impact on women and attempts to determine whether trade policies and patterns of structural transformation have reinforced gender inequality or created new opportunities for women. Based on a quantitative approach, the analysis explores first whether patterns of structural transformation have generated job opportunities; and secondly, if such opportunities have matched the skill profile of the female workforce, thereby leading to the feminization of the workforce in the country and affecting the working conditions of women workers.

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        Who Profits from Trade Facilitation Initiatives? (English)
        Working paper by Hoekman, Bernard and Shepherd, Ben/ARTNeT, 2013, 32 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Extensive research has demonstrated the existence of large potential welfare gains from trade facilitation—measures to reduce the overall costs of the international movement of goods. From an equity perspective an important question is how those benefits are distributed across and within nations. The paper evaluates the possible impacts of trade facilitation, and uses firm-level data for a wide variety of developing countries to investigate whether it is mostly large firms that benefit from trade facilitation. It finds that firms of all sizes export more in response to improved trade facilitation, suggesting that trade facilitation can be beneficial in a range of countries, including those that are primarily involved in value chains as suppliers.

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        World Development Indicators 2013 (English)
        Book by The World Bank, 2013, 150 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This compilation of cross-country comparable statistics about development is organized around six themes—world view, people, environment, economy, states and markets, and global links. Each section includes an introduction, a set of six stories highlighting regional trends, a table of the most relevant and popular indicators, and an index to the full set of tables and indicators available online.It also reviews progress toward the Millennium Development Goals.

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        World Development Report 2014 - Risk and Opportunity: Managing Risk for Development (English)
        Report by World Bank, 2013, 363 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy

        The WDR 2014 focuses on questions such as the role of the state in helping people manage risks by direct interventions or providing an enabling environment, improving government's risk and introduces mechanisms for risk management.It finds that: Taking on risks is necessary to pursue opportunities for development; to confront risk successfully, it is essential to shift from unplanned and ad hoc responses when crises occur to proactive, systematic, and integrated risk management and that the trade-offs and obstacles to risk management must also be identified, prioritized, and addressed. The report emphasizes that risk management requires shared action and responsibility at different levels of society and governments have a critical role in managing these systemic risks.

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        The World Economic Situation and Prospects 2013 (English)
        Report by DESA; UNCTAD; ECA; ECE; ECLAC; ESCAP; ESCWA, 2013, 207 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy

        The 2013 World Economic Situation and Prospects (WESP) analyzes the post-crisis world economy as it struggles with continued weakening growth in the face of major uncertainties. For 2013 and 2014, it projects disappointing global growth, much slower poverty reduction in many developing countries, and narrowing fiscal space for investments in the many critical areas needed for achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

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        The World Economic Situation and Prospects 2013 - Executive Summary (English)
        Summary by DESA; UNCTAD; ECA; ECE; ECLAC; ESCAP; ESCWA, 2013, 10 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy

        The 2013 World Economic Situation and Prospects (WESP) analyzes the post-crisis world economy as it struggles with continued weakening growth in the face of major uncertainties. For 2013 and 2014, it projects disappointing global growth, much slower poverty reduction in many developing countries, and narrowing fiscal space for investments in the many critical areas needed for achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

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        World Investment Report 2013: Global Value Chains: Investment and Trade for Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 264 pages
        Categories: Investment

        The WIR 2013 puts forward the latest trends in foreign direct investment and in-depth analysis of policy developments, investment prospects, and key emerging issues of investment -- including offshore financial flows and divestments. This year’s edition focuses on strategic development options to maximize the benefits and minimize the risks of global value chains.

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        World Investment Report 2013 : Global Value Chains, Investment and Trade for Development - Overview
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2013, 44 pages
        Categories: Investment

        The WIR 2013 puts forward the latest trends in foreign direct investment and in-depth analysis of policy developments, investment prospects, and key emerging issues of investment -- including offshore financial flows and divestments. This year’s edition focuses on strategic development options to maximize the benefits and minimize the risks of global value chains.

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        World Tariff Profiles 2013
        Report by WTO, ITC and UNCTAD, 2013, 202 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The World Tariff Profiles is a joint publication of the WTO, ITC and UNCTAD devoted to market access for goods. This statistical yearbook contains a comprehensive compilation of the main tariff parameters for each of the 159 WTO members plus other countries and customs territories where data is available. Each country profile presents information on tariffs imposed by each economy on its imports complemented with an analysis of the market access conditions it faces in its major export markets.

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        WTO Analytical Index: Supplement Covering New Developments in WTO Law and Practice October 2011 – January 2013 (English)
        Book by WTO, 2013, 218 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        As a supplement to the legal research tool "The Analytical Index", this resource covers developments in WTO law and practice after 30 September 2011. The Supplement is divided into two parts: "New Dispute Settlement Reports, Awards and Decisions" covers jurisprudence and "Other Developments in WTO Law and Practice" contains summaries and extracts on decisions and other significant activities of WTO bodies. Its coverage includes the WTO, the GATT 1994, the SPS, the TBT, the TRIMS and the SCM Agreements as well as the Agreements on Anti-Dumping, Safeguards and Government Procurement.

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        WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement - A Business Guide for Developing Countries (English)
        Manual by ITC, 2013, 44 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The guide explains the significance of the WTO Agreement on Trade Facilitation and the reasons why it was proposed. It aims at helping business communities in developing countries understand the obligations that these countries have taken on or will do so in the future; gives an overview of the main provisions of the agreement; explains how it is intended to ease border controls for business, and how business can still influence the way that governments implement the obligations and specific commitments they have undertaken in reaching the Agreement.

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