A partnership with academia

Building knowledge for trade and development

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        Asia-pacific Trade and Investment Report 2014 (English)
        Report by UNESCAP, 2014, 124 pages
        Categories: Investment, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The Asia-Pacific Trade and Investment Report 2014 provides analysis of trends and developments in regional trade and investment, as well as insights into their impact on countries’ abilities to achieve inclusive and sustainable development. It shows that while the Asia-Pacific region remained the most dynamic pole of the global economy, growth in trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) flows in 2013 did not yet return to the pre-crisis levels. Growth in services exports from the Asia-Pacific region lagged behind the world total in 2013, with 65 per cent of all services exports originating from just six countries: China, India, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Singapore and Hong Kong, China, which suggests large gaps between the countries in the region in terms of their trade competitiveness. In 2013, Asia-Pacific attracted almost 38 per cent of global FDI inflows. The increase in investment inflows was lower than at the global level and in other fast-growing regions such as Latin America, but was accompanied by a noticeable diversification of FDI destinations within the region. With regard to trade policies, the report points to a trend of increasingly restrictive measures across the region, dominated by behind-the-border non-tariff measures, many of which have had a negative impact on the region’s least developed countries and small and medium sized exporters. The proliferation of preferential trade agreements continued, although there is evidence of a plateau being reached, especially with regard to the involvement of Asia-Pacific countries. Much attention is now focused on the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), which involves 16 Asia-Pacific economies, and the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) between 12 countries from Asia and the Pacific Rim.

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        Biodiversity and Trade: Promoting Sustainable Use Through Business Engagement (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 32 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade Facilitation, Trade Related Capacity Building

        This paper reports on the key discussion points and presentations at the III Biotrade Congress held by the International Trade in Goods and Services, and Commodities Division in the Republic of Korea in 2014. The Congress aimed to foster discussions and stimulate debate on new approaches and schemes to promote the sustainable use and trade of biodiversity, legal access and benefit sharing when engaging in BioTrade activities. It provided an important and useful platform for business engagement and multi-stakeholder dialogue on issues related to sustainability and biological diversity. Different views and perspectives on the new challenges and opportunities ahead in the BioTrade area were shared, such as the Nagoya Protocol’s entry into force. For the effective implementation of the Nagoya Protocol, there is a need for tailor-made technical assistance to governments, businesses and other relevant stakeholders. Different practices and tools applicable to sustainable sourcing and corporate social (and environmental) responsibility in the cosmetic, traditional medicine, fashion design and tourism sectors exist. The importance and value of openness and transparency along the value chains and the need for inclusive processes were stressed. Some reflections were shared on the importance given by consumers to sustainability and its impact to business branding strategies. Many tools were identified such as assessments, guidelines, codes of conduct, standards, traceability systems, certification, public-private partnerships (PPPs) and accountability practices. The Congress recognized the value of partnerships and cooperation by all participants and organizations involved, as well as with relevant stakeholders in the field.

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        A BRICS Development Bank: a Dream Coming True? (English)
        Working paper by Griffith-Jones, Stephany, 2014, 28 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Finance for Development

        BRICS leaders have approved creating a new development bank which would fund long-term investment in infrastructure and more sustainable development. This paper documents the scale of unmet needs in these areas in developing and emerging economies and estimates the likely level of loans that this new development bank could make, under different assumptions. The paper also highlights the complementary role that such a bank would play with existing development banks and shows its importance for enhancing the influence of BRICS and other developing countries in the international development architecture.

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        The Business of Biotrade: Using Biological Resources Sustainably and Responsibly
        Paper by UNCTAD, 2014, 60 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        This paper explores how the efforts of the Biotrade Initiative provide incentives for business to conserve biodiversity through using biological resources sustainably and responsibly. Through a review and assessment of distinct case studies, it identifies the actual, practical, bottom-up incentives generated by Biotrade partners and practitioners.

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        Can Mirror Data Help To Capture Informal International Trade? (English)
        Report by Carrère, Céline; Grigoriou, Christopher /UNCTAD, 2014, 44 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report uses mirror trade statistics, or data reported by trading partners, to see if and how the gap between the declared and mirrored disaggregated bilateral data could be used to capture informal cross border trade. The paper proposes a review of the reasons for the gap between matched partner data, before investigating stylized facts from UN-COMTRADE data. Empirical analysis relying on econometrical panel data over a worldwide set of data at the 6 digits level evidences that discrepancies from the mirror data are not erratically driven. A statistically significant relationship between the gap and macroeconomic variables such bilateral distance, gdp per capita, average tariffs, foreign direct investments (FDI), implementation of regional trade agreements (RTA) have been evidenced. Based on these preliminary correlations, a probit has been run on orphan imports (imports reported by importing country without equivalent by exporting country) and predicts accurately up to 68 per cent of these misclassification cases. Thus, part of the gap can be predicted by macroeconomic variables, some of them suggesting a relationship between cross-border trade flows misreporting and fraud opportunities to evade tariffs and taxes.

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        China’s Development Trajectory: A Strategic Opening for Industrial Policy in the South (English)
        Report by Poon, Daniel /UNCTAD, 2014, 50 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation

        Through the lens of the five key sectors outlined by Arthur Lewis, this paper assess China’s economic trajectory that shows signs of indigenous technological capabilities taking root. A new gap between China’s industrial ambitions and its current capabilities provides a strategic opening for other developing countries to bargain for enhanced opportunities for domestic investment, learning, technical change and structural transformation.

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        Connecting to Global Markets (English)
        Case study by Jansen, Marion; Jallab, Mustapha and Smeets, Maarten., 2014, 236 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Developing countries and emerging economies have played an ever-expanding role in world trade flows in recent decades but they still face a number of constraints in connecting to global markets. In this volume, members of the WTO’s academic network in developing countries — the WTO Chairs Programme — identify major challenges in their respective countries and how to overcome them.

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        Côte D’ivoire: Company Perspectives – An Itc Series on Non-tariff Measures (English)
        Report by ITC, 2014, 124 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report is part of a series of publications that identify the main obstacles related to non-tariff measures (NTMs) that the private sector faces. It analyzes the experience of exporting and importing companies in Côte d'Ivoire through a large scale survey as well as identifies the main obstacles in NTM regulatory and procedural order imposed by partner countries as well as Côte d'Ivoire.

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        Economic Development in Africa Report 2014: Catalysing Investment for Transformative Growth in Africa (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 110 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment

        The report examines how to boost and use investment in support of economic transformation and sustained growth in Africa. The focus of the report on total investment reflects the fact that all components of investment matter for growth and development and so the focus of policy should be on how to exploit the complementarities among the various components, rather than promoting one component at the expense of the other. The report also provides actionable policy recommendations on how African countries could accelerate investment for transformative growth.

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        Economic Report on Africa 2014: Dynamic industrial policy in Africa (English)
        Report by UNECA, 2014, 148 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        Based on commissioned studies of 11 African countries and experiences from the global south, this report identifies the challenges and pitfalls faced in designing and implementing industrial policy and how they have been overcome. And it points to the key institutional features that allow industrial policy to be dynamically and organically connected to the processes and players underlying industrialization.

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        Effects of Environmental Regulations on South Asian Food and Agricultural Exports: A Gravity Analysis (English)
        Working paper by Wijesinghe, W.P.A.S., 2014, 27 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper investigates the effects of environmental regulation on the food and agricultural trade of four South Asian nations, i.e., Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. For this study, the Gravity Model for international trade analysis was used with country- and time-specific fixed effects followed by Heckman sample selection model to avoid possible biases that are widely cited in the gravity literature. The Environmental Performance Index was utilized as a proxy measure for the environmental regulation of the four SAARC nations and their trade partners to denote environmental regulation of reporting and partner countries. The results of the coefficient estimates revealed that even though there appears to be a relationship between stringent regulations and foreign trade without these specific effects, its significance fades as soon as both the importing and exporting country-specific effects are taken into consideration.

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        Empirical Insights on Market Access and Foreign Direct Investment (English)
        Working paper by Fugazza, Marco and Trentini, Claudia, 2014, 35 pages
        Categories: Investment, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper conducts a general examination of the influence of market access conditions on FDI decisions using a unique data set on bilateral FDI outward stocks and novel measures of market access. Authors find that over the period 1990–2010, export platform and complex-vertical investment strategies have been driving FDI decisions around the world.

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        Enter the Dragon: Policies to Attract Chinese Investment
        Working paper by Ramasamy, Bala and Yeung, Matthew, 2014, 38 pages
        Categories: Investment

        Over the last ten years, Chinese enterprises have become more multi-national in nature. China’s outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) has been growing at a phenomenal rate. In 2012, China became the third largest investor, after the US and Japan; and the largest investor among developing countries. How can host governments attract more of this Chinese capital? What are some short to medium term policies that host governments can initiate to make their respective nations attractive to Chinese investors? This paper considers these questions by utilizing a best-worst choice exercise among 114 senior corporate decision-makers of Chinese companies who have planned or are planning to globalize. Using the maximum difference scaling methodology, this paper ranks 19 most common determinants that influence FDI location choice. It also proposes five “low hanging fruits” that policy-makers should consider that could ensure their countries come within the radar of Chinese multi-nationals.

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        Estimating the Benefits of Cross-border Paperless Trade (English)
        Report by UNESCAP, 2014, 36 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report focuses on determining the precise measures covered by cross-border paperless trade initiatives. It aims to estimate the possible economic benefits—export gains, and cost savings—from partial or full implementation of the determined set of measures. The approach of this report is to conduct counter factual simulations: “what if” exercises based on the current reality of cross-border paperless trade implementation, and two ambitious but realistic reform scenarios.

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        The Fisheries Sector in the Gambia: Trade, Value Addition and Social Inclusiveness, with a Focus on Women (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 66 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Gender

        This analytical report - part of UNCTAD’s activities on trade, gender and development - is intended to accompany the Diagnostic Trade Integration Study (DTIS) Update for The Gambia: Harnessing Trade for Growth and Employment, carried out under the Enhanced Integrated Framework (EIF) for trade-related assistance for Least Developed Countries. It sets out a detailed analysis of the fisheries sector and its prospects for value-addition and social inclusiveness, with a focus on women. The intention is to capture all the information generated through the DTIS Update process, and disseminate this knowledge to a broader audience.

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        Frontier Markets in Africa: Misperceptions in a Sea of Opportunities
        Report by UNECA, 2014, 27 pages
        Categories: Investment

        This report identifies the opportunities for investment in Africa, corrects misperceptions about the business environment on the continent and suggests general areas of focus for future partnership between Africa and the United States of America.

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        Growing Through Manufacturing: Myanmar’s Industrial Transformation
        Working paper by Abe, Masato, 2014, 43 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        Recent reforms in Myanmar have already shown some positive impacts on the manufacturing sector, which must play a key role in the industrial transformation, including increased investment flows domestically and internationally and the development of fundamental infrastructure for the sector. Government promotion of the development of industrial zones and special economic zones is one of the main development activities for further trade and investment promotion in the manufacturing sector. Also presented are the results of the recently completed country-wide business survey with over 1000 manufacturers in Myanmar, particularly concerning the business climate in the manufacturing sector and the crucial issues for the development of the sector.

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        IIA Issues Note - Investor-state Dispute Settlement: an Information Note on the United States and the European Union (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2014, 14 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law

        The Information Note discusses facts and figures regarding Investor-State dispute settlement (ISDS) cases brought by investors from the US and from EU Member States, and ISDS cases against the US and EU Member States. This discussion is preceded by an overview of the IIA networks of the US and the EU and its Member States.

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        IIA Issues Note - Reform of the Iia Regime: Four Paths of Action and a Way Forward (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2014, 9 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law

        While almost all countries are party to one or more IIAs, many are dissatisfied with the current regime. Concerns relate mostly to the development dimension of IIAs, the balance of rights and obligations of investors and States, and the systemic complexity of the IIA regime. Countries' current efforts to address these challenges reveal four different paths of action:(i)maintaining the status quo, largely refraining from changes in the way they enter into IIA commitments; (ii)disengaging from the IIA regime, unilaterally terminating existing treaties or denouncing multilateral arbitration conventions; and (iii)implementing selective adjustments, modifying models for future treaties but leaving the treaty core and the body of existing treaties largely untouched. Finally, (iv) there is the path of systematic reform that aims to comprehensively address the IIA regime's challenges in a holistic manner. While each of these paths has benefits and drawbacks, systemic reform could effectively address the complexities of the IIA regime and bring it in line with the sustainable development imperative.

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        Internationalization of Finance and Changing Vulnerabilities in Emerging and Developing Economies
        Report by Akyüz, Yılmaz /UNCTAD, 2014, 72 pages
        Categories: International Financial System

        This paper analyses the salient features of the recent pace and pattern of integration of major Emerging and Developing Economies (EDEs) into the global financial system and their changing vulnerabilities to external financial shocks. In discussing the pattern of integration and the associated vulnerabilities, the paper focuses on the size and composition of gross external balance sheets, particularly gross liabilities.

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        Investment by TNCs and Gender: Preliminary Assessment and Way Forward (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 62 pages
        Categories: Investment, Trade and Gender

        This report examines the impact that investment by transnational corporations (TNCs) – that is, direct investment conducted by TNCs as well as activities by non-equity modalities (NEMs), has on gender, particularly in the context of developing host countries. The objective is to review the gender-related effects of investment by TNCs, in the context of investment and social sustainability, and provide initial evidence with regard to the positive and negative effects on women.

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        Investment Policy Review The Sudan
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2014, 67 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Through its national development plans and legislative reforms, the Sudan has made efforts to diversify the economy and attract FDI into new industries. However, more is needed to build a transparent and predictable business environment. The analysis of the Investment Policy Review (IPR) completed by UNCTAD shows that the Sudan has put in place a relatively open investment legislative framework and several laws are modern and in line with good practices. However, their implementation is often impeded by the absence of secondary legislation, insufficient institutional capacity and lack of coordination among different levels of the Government. The IPR proposes a number of concrete recommendations to address these shortcomings and to build a favourable business environment.

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        Kenya: Company Perspectives – An Itc Series on Non-tariff Measures (English)
        Report by ITC, 2014, 124 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report is part of a series of publications assessing the impact of Non-Tariff Measures (NTMs) on the business sector, based on a large-scale survey conducted in Kenya with companies directly reporting burdensome NTMs and the reasons why they consider them to be trade obstacles. It analyses survey findings and compares them to other sources on NTMs to identify regulatory, procedural and infrastructural obstacles in Kenya and its partner countries. It also gives trade and trade policy overview of Kenya and covers food and agro-based products including tea and horticultural products, manufacturing sectors such as chemicals, metal and non-electric machinery, plastics and rubber products, and textiles and clothing.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2014 - Growth with structural transformation: A post-2015 development agenda (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 198 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The Least Developed Countries Report 2014 examines the linkages between structural transformation, economic growth and human development. It argues that LDCs cannot, and should not, focus only on aggregate growth; they also need to pay attention to the type of growth pattern and its main drivers. The Report also considers what LDCs can do to transform their economies in order to foster economic growth and achieve the MDGs and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) which are planned to succeed them, and what the international community can do to support LDCs in their structural transformation and in their efforts to achieve the SDGs.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2014: Growth with structural transformation: A post-2015 development agenda - Overview
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 27 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The Least Developed Countries Report 2014 examines the linkages between structural transformation, economic growth and human development. It argues that LDCs cannot, and should not, focus only on aggregate growth; they also need to pay attention to the type of growth pattern and its main drivers. The Report also considers what LDCs can do to transform their economies in order to foster economic growth and achieve the MDGs and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) which are planned to succeed them, and what the international community can do to support LDCs in their structural transformation and in their efforts to achieve the SDGs.

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        Local Content Requirements and The Green Economy (English)
        Report by Trade Environment, Climate Change and Sustainable Development Branch, DITC, UNCTAD, 2014, 46 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        The study was prepared at a time when the “green economy” concept moved from theory to practice, with a range of developed and developing countries placing local content at the heart of their green economy strategies, and their green economy plans at the heart of their industrial policies. It reflects developing countries’ increasing emphasis on the “sustainable” element of traditional development objectives, such as rural development, urban planning and industrialization.

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        Looking at Trade Policy Through a “Gender Lens”: Summary of Seven Country Case Studies Conducted by Unctad (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 32 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender

        This paper presents the findings of seven country case studies which examine the impact of trade liberalization and facilitation on gender equality and women's well-being. The countries reviewed are: Angola, Bhutan, Cape Verde, the Gambia, Lesotho, Rwanda and Uruguay. The case studies highlight the ways in which a gender perspective can contribute to a deeper and richer understanding of trade policy and performance by challenging the mainly aggregate focus of conventional trade policy analysis that overshadows the redistributive effects of trade at the country level. It brings to the forefront of the analysis intersecting patterns of inequality (e.g. sex, income, race, and spatial location) and integrates social and cultural factors into the economic analysis.

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        Maritime Piracy Part I: An Overview of Trends, Costs and Trade-related Implications
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 47 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation

        The report considers the costs and trade-related implications of maritime piracy and takes stock of regulatory and other initiatives pursued by the international community in an effort to combat piracy. Part I of the report presents overall trends in maritime piracy and related crimes, and highlights some of the key issues at stake by focusing on its costs and broader trade-related implications.

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        Maritime Piracy (part Ii): An Overview of the International Legal Framework and of Multilateral Cooperation to Combat Piracy
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 82 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation

        The report considers the costs and trade-related implications of maritime piracy and takes stock of regulatory and other initiatives pursued by the international community in an effort to combat piracy. Part II of the report provides an overview of the contemporary international legal regime for countering piracy and identifies key examples of international cooperation and multilateral initiatives to combat the phenomenon.

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        Mauritius: Company Perspectives – An Itc Series on Non-tariff Measures
        Policy brief by ITC, 2014, 132 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Mauritian exporters claim to be less affected by trade barriers than many other countries that have participated in the ITC business surveys on non-tariff measures. Among the 400 Mauritian firms surveyed, 27% of exporters were adversely affected by non-tariff measures; 36% of importing firms reported they were affected by non-tariff measures.The main concern is conformity assessment for the European Union, the largest market for Mauritian exports. In addition, companies reported a disproportionate share of measures related to the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). COMESA countries comprise only 6% of Mauritian agricultural exports, however, they accounted for 29% of company concerns related to non-tariff measures. Among other countries surveyed by ITC that report higher barriers due to non-tariff measures are: Paraguay (69%), Peru (42%), Sri Lanka (70%), and Uruguay (56%).

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        Mauritius: Company Perspectives – An ITC Series on Non-tariff Measures (English)
        Report by ITC, 2014, 132 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This country report analyses survey findings from the ITC business surveys on non-tariff measures (NTM) and compares them to other sources on NTMs to identify regulatory, procedural and infrastructural obstacles in Mauritius and its partner countries covering food and agro-based products, textiles and clothing, manufacturing sectors and intellectual property issues before outlining policy options.

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        Medical and Wellness Tourism: Lessons from Asia
        Working paper by ITC, 2014, 44 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation

        This paper reviews current trends in global medical tourism. It draws on the experience of four Asian countries – India, Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines – to extract lessons and the best practices for another Asian country, Sri Lanka that demonstrates considerable potential in medical and wellness tourism given its traditional knowledge of ayurvedic treatments. It concludes by highlighting the role that international organizations can play in helping developing countries grow their domestic capabilities and join the global health tourism industry.

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        The New Frontier of Competitiveness in Developing Countries - Implementing Trade Facilitation
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 62 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation

        This report consolidates results from 26 national implementation plans (comprise of LDCs, middle income developing economies, landlocked countries, and small island economies in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, and Latin America.) to help assess the progress thus far achieved in the implementation of the trade facilitation agreement (TFA) as negotiated at the WTO. The report is intended to serve as a guidance tool for trade facilitation policy makers at the national, regional, and multilateral levels in both developed and developing countries.

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        The Oceans Economy: Opportunities and Challenges for Small Island Developing States (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 38 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        This report is the consequence of a joint effort from a team of experts from UNCTAD and the Commonwealth Secretariat to better understand the implications of the nascent and evolving concept of the oceans economy. This report underlines the importance of sustainable oceanic activities for the development of SIDS and other coastal states.Both opportunities and challenges for SIDS are identified in existing and emerging trade-related sectors such as sustainable fisheries and aquaculture, renewable marine energy, marine bio-prospecting, maritime transport and marine and coastal tourism.It also points at the need to consider the formation of regional economic groupings that combine their "economic exclusive zones" under a common oceans economic space in order to be able to seize, manage and sustainably use joint resources and build common infrastructures.

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        Pan-african Cotton Road Map: A Continental Strategy to Strengthen Regional Cotton Value Chains for Poverty Reduction and Food Security (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 30 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Competitiveness

        The subject of this report, the Pan-African Road Map, was sketched out at the June, 2011 Pan-African meeting in Cotonou that gave participants the opportunity to outline details and expectations with regards to the cotton sector. The report aims to provide a common framework at the Pan-African level that addresses the three existing strategies (in the areas of productivity, marketing and value-addition) and national and regional policies from a Pan-African perspective.

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        Review of Maritime Transport 2014: Special Chapter on Small Island Developing States
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 136 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation

        The Review of Maritime Transport provides an analysis of structural and cyclical changes affecting seaborne trade, ports and shipping, as well as an extensive collection of statistical information. The 2014 edition provides data and insights on the issue of seaborne trade, the world fleet, freight rates, seaports and the legal and regulatory developments.

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        The Road from Rio+20: Towards Sustainable Development Goals
        Paper by UNCTAD, 2014, 60 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        This fourth issue of the Rio+20 Journal, articulates some perspectives on post-2015 sustainable development goals and the contribution of international trade. The Journal includes views from several leading personalities on aspects of the development framework in the post-2015 period. In addition, this journal is aimed to help Governments and other stakeholders navigate the multitude of global issues facing the international community today and define a sustainable development framework that can have a major impact on poverty eradication across the globe in the years ahead.

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        Rwanda: Company Perspectives – An ITC Series on Non-tariff Measures (English)
        Report by ITC, 2014, 110 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report is part of a series of publications assessing the impact of non-tariff measures (NTMs) on the business sector, based on a large-scale survey conducted in Rwanda with companies directly reporting burdensome NTMs and the reasons why they consider them to be trade barriers. It analyses survey findings and compares them to other sources on NTMs to identify regulatory, procedural and infrastructural obstacles in Rwanda, its partner countries and transit countries and covers food and agro based products including coffee, tea, pyrethrum, other agricultural and agro-based products and chemicals, rubber-based products and other manufactures.

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        A Selective Review of Foreign Direct Investment Theories
        Working paper by Nayak, Dinkar and Choudhury, Rahul, 2014, 39 pages
        Categories: Investment

        Several theories have been put forward by researchers to explain foreign direct investment. However, no single theory fits the different types of direct investment or the investment made by a particular multinational corporation or country in any region. This paper traces the evolution of the theories of foreign direct investment (FDI) during the past few decades. It also attempts to explain the growth phenomenon of Third World multinational companies. The applicability of the theory differs with the type and origin of investment. Nevertheless, all these theories are unanimous in their view that a firm moves abroad to reap the benefits of the advantages in the form of location, firm-specific or internationalization of markets.

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        Senegal: Company Perspectives – An ITC Series on Non-tariffs Measures (English)
        Report by ITC, 2014, 115 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report is part of a series of publications that identify the main obstacles related to non-tariff measures (NTMs) that the private sector faces. It analyzes the experience of exporting and importing companies in Senegal through a large scale survey as well as identifies the main obstacles in NTM regulatory and procedural order imposed by partner countries as well as Senegal.

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        Studies in Technology Transfer: Selected Cases from Argentina, China, South Africa and Taiwan Province of China (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 101 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        This paper builds on ongoing efforts by UNCTAD to investigate the role of the transfer of technology in economic development. The paper presents diverse cases which provide contrasting experiences of the role of technology transfer and absorption in the development of four different industries in economies from Africa (South Africa), Asia (Taiwan Province of China and China) and Latin America (Argentina). These studies illustrate the varying approaches that firms and industries in different countries have taken in using international and domestic transfer of technology and combining these transfers with knowledge accumulated through internal effort in order to build stronger capabilities and improve their innovation performance. These capabilities are critical to enable the upgrading of firms into more complex, skill and knowledge intensive activities, which typically add more value to local production, allow increased productivity and ultimately lead to higher wages, expanding domestic demand and growing economies.

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        Study of Average Effects of Non-tariff Measures on Trade Imports (English)
        Report by Penello Rial, Denise / UNCTAD, 2014, 28 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Newly collected data in UNCTAD’s Trade Analysis and In formation System (TRAINS)database on non-tariff measures (NTMs) offers the possibility to assess its impact on trade. The approach chosen is using a frequency count, which is the number of NTM on a single product. This novel method can be relevant if one can assume that NTM do have a cost for exporters, even if that cost is unknown. The key concept is the average cost of any NTM. This analysis checks whether more measures imposed on a single product, will increase difficulty for exporters to comply with all requisites and still being able to export competitively. European imports of agri-food products (at 4 digit level) is analysed, and data suggests that higher frequency of SPS measures may be significant to influence European imports from all countries, and it impacts LDC in special, particularly those in Africa. Exports could be reduced by around 3 per cent for all countries, and almost 5 per cent for LDC countries for each additional SPS requirement in the importing country. Countries in Asia do not seem to be affected, but this is probably because of trade patterns, since European Union is not a major market for agri-food exports coming from those countries. Other middle income countries are affected in a lesser way. This fact gives strength to the idea that the higher income in a country, the more resources are available to the companies operating in their territory to overcome obstacles posed by NTM in partner markets and continue exporting. Even in the evidence that NT M may negatively affect trade, negotiation for reduction, harmonization or elimination is not automatic or even desirable. Some policy implications are discussed based on the conclusions.

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        Trade and Development Report 2014: Global Governance and Policy Space for Development
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 242 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This year's Trade and Development report examines recent trends in the global economy, with a focus on growth, trade and commodity prices. The Report highlights that, six years after the onset of the global economic and financial crisis, the world economy has not yet established a new sustainable growth regime. With an expected growth between 2.5 and 3 per cent in 2014, the recovery of global output remains weak. Furthermore, the policies supporting the recovery are frequently inadequate, as they do not address the rise of income inequality, the steady erosion of policy space along with the diminishing economic role of governments and the primacy of the financial sector of the economy, which are the root causes of the crisis of 2008. Putting the world economy on the path of sustainable growth requires strengthening domestic and regional demand, with a reliance on better income distribution rather than new financial bubbles.

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        Trade Facilitation and Paperless Trade Implementation: 2013/14 Asia-Pacific Update (English)
        Working paper by Wang, Tengfei and Duval, Yann, 2014, 40 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper provides a unique set of data on the progress made by 29 countries in Asia and the Pacific in implementing various trade facilitation and paperless trade measures in 2013/14, as well as estimates of the benefits from moving forward with implementation. An important finding is that most countries do not regularly assess or publish release times, pointing to the lack of effective national trade facilitation monitoring mechanisms. The study reveals that, at the regional level, automation and paperless trade, including establishment of national single window, were the key focus of trade facilitation reforms in 2013. Enabling cross-border paperless trade is identified as the most challenging task to further advance trade facilitation in Asia-Pacific, highlighting the need for timely conclusion of a regional arrangement to facilitate cross-border recognition and exchange of trade-related electronic data and documents.

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        Trade Facilitation Potential of Asian Transit Agreements in the Context of the WTO (English)
        Working paper by Cousin, Louis and Duval, Yann, 2014, 37 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Trade Facilitation, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper examines how freedom of transit and transit facilitation are addressed in trade, transport as well as transit specific agreements in the ESCAP region, with a view to identifying good practices and the extent to which existing agreements meet the transit facilitation provisions set out in the draft text of the WTO trade facilitation agreement (TFA). Following an overview of the provisions on transit found in 153 preferential trade agreements involving ESCAP countries, the study provides a more detailed analysis of a sample of 19 international transport and transit agreements in Asia in terms of their trade facilitation potential. Although some useful provisions for transit facilitation considered during the WTO negotiations did not find their way into the final TFA, the text agreed in Bali strengthens the basis for implementation of freedom of transit in the Asia-Pacific region. At the same time, the analysis highlights the complexity of the existing legal environment for transit and suggests a need for further enhancing inter-agency coordination and strengthening of multilateral rules in this area, building on the “good practices” found in the many existing bilateral, regional and multilateral instruments.

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        Trade in Unemployment (English)
        Report by Fugazza, Marco; Carrere, Celine; Olarreaga, Marcelo; Robert-Nicoud, Frederic /UNCTAD, 2014, 38 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Insights from a novel Trade-and-Employment theoretical framework are used to assess the relationship between openness to trade and unemployment. The impact of trade on unemployment depends on the covariance between comparative advantage and sector level labour market frictions. If the covariance is positive then trade liberalization may lead to an increase in unemployment, whereas if the correlation is negative then unemployment falls as the economy opens up to international trade. This prediction is empirically confirmed in a panel of 97 countries during the period 1995-2009.

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        Trade Policies, Household Welfare and Poverty Alleviation: Case Studies from the Virtual Institute Academic Network (English)
        Book by Calvo, Paula; Fu, Dahai; Idowu, Olayinka; La, Anh; Li, Shantong; Manzano, George; Matta Jara, Carmen Cecilia; Petreski, Marjan; Pham, Ngoc; Prado, Shanti Aubren; Umana, Carlos; Vera Ganoza, Ana, 2014, 347 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This book is the outcome of a three-year UNCTAD Virtual Institute (Vi) capacity building project on trade and poverty for researchers in developing and transition countries. The studies collected in this volume examine the welfare and poverty consequences of changes in global commodity prices and trade policies in the Philippines, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Argentina, China, Costa Rica, Peru, Nigeria and Viet Nam. The research uses a methodology based on household-level surveys with a focus on the short-term effect of price changes through household consumption, production and wage earnings. The data is derived from actual price changes or a price change predicted by a policy adjustment, such as a change in an import tariff or exchange rate appreciation.

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        Trade Remedies: Targeting the Renewable Energy Sector (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 50 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The report disputes the adverse effects of trade remedies on the renewable energy sector. It explains how anti-dumping and countervailing duties implemented by both developed and developing countries contradict the pre-existing climate and environmental policies put into place to advance the renewable energy sector. This report is useful for courses in environmental trade and policy as it will generate in-depth debate on the positive and negative aspects of trade protection policy. It provides a survey of cases studies from the Great Recession in 2008 until 2014, recent trade disputes presented to the World Trade Organization, and a literature overview on the topic in order to better analyses the results of these policy measures and further determine how to advance the green economy.

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        Trading with Conditions: The Effect of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures on Lower Income Countries’ Agricultural Exports (English)
        Report by Murina, Marina; Nicita, Alessandro / UNCTAD, 2014, 22 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Using the UNCTAD's TRAINS database on non-tariff measures, this paper utilizes an econometric model to investigate the effect of the European Union’s sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures across 21 broad categories of agricultural goods. The findings indicate that SPS measures result in relatively higher burdens for lower income countries but that membership in deep trade agreements seems to reduce the difficulties related to compliance with SPS measures. Overall, the additional trade distortionary effect of the European Union SPS measures is quantified in a reduction of lower income countries’ agricultural exports of about 3 billion $US (equivalent to about 14 percent of the agricultural trade from lower income countries to the European Union). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that while many middle and high income countries have the internal capacity to comply with SPS measures, lower income countries do not. In broader terms, these results may be interpreted as an indication that technical assistance is helpful for lower income countries to meet compliance costs related to SPS measures. Further progress with well-targeted technical assistance projects, both at the bilateral and multilateral levels, could generate considerable gains for lower income countries.

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        Transfer of Technology and Knowledge-sharing for Development: Science, Technology and Innovation Issues for Developing Countries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, Science, Technology and Information and Communications Technology (STICT) Branch, 2014, 71 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        This report reviews some basic concepts underlying technology and knowledge transfer theory and practice and presents some concerns that may inform the policy choices of developing and developed countries in this field.

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        Transforming Economies - Making Industrial Policy Work for Growth, Jobs and Development
        Book by Salazar-Xirinachs, José Manuel; Nübler, Irmgard; Kozul-Wright, Richard, 2014, 411 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The book aims to identify the relevance of different traditions in development economics and the contributions of their various frameworks to the analysis and design of industrial policy. Moreover, it emphasizes the need for a coherent set of macroeconomic, trade, investment, sectoral, labor market and financial policies to respond to the challenges of structural transformation faced by countries today. Lastly, it attempts to explore the links between productive transformation, job creation and employment growth. In addition to the overview of the frameworks and challenges, the book provides case studies on industrial strategies and policies of developed and developing countries.

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        Unctad at 50: A Short History (English)
        Book by Toye, John, 2014, 154 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The book provides an overview of UNCTAD's origins and development over the last 50 years. It focuses particularly on the reasons why some of the organization's proposals gained popularity and some did not. It concludes with a forecast of the future role of UNCTAD as an international governance regime.

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        UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics 2014 (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2014, 387 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The handbook contains a collection of statistics and indicators relevant to the analysis of international trade, investment and development. Moreover, the handbook provides policymakers, research specialists, academics, officials from national governments or international organizations, journalists,executive managers, members of non-governmental organizations with access to cross-comparable sets of data. It presents a consolidated, yet wide-ranging overview of the statistical series available at UNCTAD.

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        UNCTAD Investment Policy Monitor No. 2/2014 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 16 pages
        Categories: Investment

        The Investment Policy Monitor provides the international investment community with country-specific, up-to-date information about the latest developments in foreign investment policies, both at the national and international levels.

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        The United States 2014 Farm Bill and Its Implications for Cotton Producers in Low-income Developing Countries (English)
        Report by Townsend, Terry /y UNCTAD's Special Unit on Commodities, 2014, 29 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The report seeks to examine whether the subsidies paid to United States cotton growers are likely to lead to increased or decreased United States cotton production by 2018 based on findings from the 2014 Farm Bill and the Stacked Income Protection Plan (STAX).

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        United States’ Unfair Competition Acts and Software Piracy– Which Asia-pacific Countries Are at Risk and What Recourse Do They Have?
        Policy brief by Puutio, Teemu Alexander, 2014, 12 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy

        In response to tightening global competition and the ripple effects of the 2008 economic crisis United States' state and federal level competition law is being applied to counter software piracy’s effects on the competitiveness of foreign exporters. Sanctions range from fines to import bans. Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, China, Pakistan and Vietnam are among the countries with the highest levels of software piracy and dependence on exports to the United States and thus among the most exposed to the acts.Weighed against the general trade interests of the United States, China, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Thailand, India and Indonesia emerge as the most exposed. Adjusting to the legislation requires long-term actions which aim at reducing piracy rates through awareness, education, and enforcement. In the short term, countries may wish to avoid exposure by steering exports to different export destinations within or outside the United States.

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        Who is Benefiting from Trade Liberalization in Rwanda? A Gender Perspective (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 88 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report analyzes the ways in which trade policies may impact women's well-being in Rwanda and explores possible strategies to encourage the inclusion of gender considerations in trade policy formulation and implementation.

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        World Economic Situation and Prospects 2014 (English)
        Report by UN/DESA and UNCTAD, 2014, 198 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy

        The World Economic Situation and Prospects 2014 reports that the global economy is improving but remains vulnerable to new and old headwinds. Global economic growth is forecast to accelerate from a sluggish 2.1 per cent in 2013 to 3.0 per cent in 2014 and 3.3 per cent in 2015. The report warns of the risks associated with the upcoming unwinding of quantitative easing programs in major developed economies.

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        World Investment Report 2014 - Investing in the SDGs: An Action Plan (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 265 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment

        This year’s World Investment Report offers a global action plan for galvanizing the role of businesses in achieving future sustainable development goals beyond 2015, and enhancing the private sector’s positive economic, social and environmental impacts. The report reveals an encouraging trend: after a decline in 2012, global foreign direct investment flows rose by 9 per cent in 2013, with growth expected to continue in the years to come. This demonstrates the great potential of international investment, along with other financial resources, to help reach the goals of a post-2015 agenda for sustainable development. The report also identifies the financing gap, especially in vulnerable economies, assesses the primary sources of funds for bridging the gap, and proposes policy options for the future.

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        World Investment Report 2014: Investing in the Sdgs: An Action Plan - Overview
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2014, 56 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment

        This year’s World Investment Report offers a global action plan for galvanizing the role of businesses in achieving future sustainable development goals beyond 2015, and enhancing the private sector’s positive economic, social and environmental impacts. The report reveals an encouraging trend: after a decline in 2012, global foreign direct investment flows rose by 9 per cent in 2013, with growth expected to continue in the years to come. This demonstrates the great potential of international investment, along with other financial resources, to help reach the goals of a post-2015 agenda for sustainable development. The report also identifies the financing gap, especially in vulnerable economies, assesses the primary sources of funds for bridging the gap, and proposes policy options for the future.

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        World Tariff Profiles 2014 (English)
        Report by WTO, 2014, 204 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        World Tariff Profiles 2014 provides a unique collection of data on tariffs imposed by WTO members and other countries. It is jointly published by the WTO, the International Trade Centre (ITC) and the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). The first part of the publication provides summary tables showing the average tariffs imposed by individual countries. The second part provides a more detailed table for each country, listing the tariffs it imposes on imports (by product group) as well as the tariffs it faces for exports to major trading partners. The profiles show the maximum tariff rates that are legally “bound” in the WTO and the rates that countries actually apply. This edition of World Trade Profiles has anti-dumping measures as its special topic, and includes a compilation of frequently asked questions.

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        World Trade Report 2014 - Trade and development: recent trends and the role of the WTO (English)
        Report by WTO, 2014, 1 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The report examines how four recent major economic trends have changed how developing countries can use trade to facilitate their development. These trends are the economic rise of developing economies, the growing integration of global production through supply chains, the higher prices for agricultural goods and natural resources, and the increasing interdependence of the world economy. The Report also looks into the role that the WTO plays.

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        WTO Agreement Series: Technical Barriers to Trade (English)
        Book by WTO, 2014, 156 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The WTO’s agreements are the legal foundation for the international trading system that is used by the bulk of the world’s trading nations. This series offers a set of handy reference booklets on selected agreements. Each volume contains the text of one agreement, an explanation designed to help the user understand the text, and in some cases supplementary material. They are intended to be an authoritative aid for understanding the agreements, but because of the legal complexity of the agreements, the introductions cannot be taken as legal interpretations of the agreements.

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