A partnership with academia

Building knowledge for trade and development

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        Access To Financial Services As A Driver For The Post-2015 Development Agenda
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2015, 4 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, International Financial System, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This policy brief aims to highlight several components of a best-fit policy mix to expand financial inclusion. New technologies and innovative business models exhibit great potential to overcome access barriers. Governments have an important role in setting up sound regulatory frameworks and conditions to expand the supply and affordability of financial services, to ensure that such services remain supportive of the real economy, and to create an expanded demand for them, such as through financial education and empowerment. Actions towards financial inclusion could contribute to facilitated, speedier, safer and less costly transfer of remittances, the importance of which is also recognized within the sustainable development goals (SDGs).

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        Africa Capacity Report 2015: Capacity Imperatives for Domestic Resource Mobilization in Africa (English)
        Report by African Capacity Building Foundation, 2015, 184 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Related Capacity Building

        The objective of the Africa Capacity Report (ACR) is to measure and examine capacity in relation to the development agenda in African countries and this year’s theme focuses on the capacity development challenges in domestic resource mobilization. The report looks at the state of trends in domestic resource mobilization and illicit financial flows across the continent, and it identifies capacity gaps and requirements for countries to mobilize more resources domestically and reduce illicit financial flows abroad.

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        Africa Capacity Report 2015: Capacity Imperatives for Domestic Resource Mobilization in Africa - Overview (English)
        Summary by African Capacity Building Foundation, 2015, 8 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Related Capacity Building

        The objective of the Africa Capacity Report (ACR) is to measure and examine capacity in relation to the development agenda in African countries and this year’s theme focuses on the capacity development challenges in domestic resource mobilization. The report looks at the state of trends in domestic resource mobilization and illicit financial flows across the continent, and it identifies capacity gaps and requirements for countries to mobilize more resources domestically and reduce illicit financial flows abroad.

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        Asia -pacific Trade and Investment Report 2015, Supporting Participation in Value Chains
        Report by ESCAP, 2015, 211 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        The Asia-Pacific Trade and Investment Report 2015 published by the Trade and Investment Division of the United Nations, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific analyzes trends and developments in intra- and inter-regional trade in goods and services; foreign direct investment; trade facilitation measures; trade policy measures; and preferential trade policies and agreements in the region.

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        Asia-Pacific Trade and Investment Report 2015: Supporting Participation in Value Chains - Executive Summary (English)
        Also available in Russian, Chinese
        Summary by ESCAP, 2015, 26 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        The Asia-Pacific Trade and Investment Report 2015 published by the Trade and Investment Division of the United Nations, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific analyzes trends and developments in intra- and inter-regional trade in goods and services; foreign direct investment; trade facilitation measures; trade policy measures; and preferential trade policies and agreements in the region.

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        Broadening The Sources Of Growth In Africa: The Role Of Investment
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2015, 4 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This policy brief outlines some of the key messages and recommendations of the UNCTAD Economic Development in Africa Report 2014: Catalysing Investment for Transformative Growth in Africa. Achieving the African Union’s vision of an integrated, prosperous and peaceful Africa that can serve as a pole of global growth in the twenty-first century requires broadening the sources of growth on the continent to lay the foundation for sustained growth and poverty reduction. For this to happen, however, it is necessary to enhance the contribution of investment to the growth process.

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        Cabo Verde’s Creative Economy: Leveraging Culture and Creativity for Sustainable Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 77 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This report presents the potential of Cabo Verde to capitalize on its rich cultural expressions (music, festivals, handicrafts, gastronomy, tourism and cultural events) to achieve a real sustainable development through the small scale production of goods and services that favors fair income distribution systems, improves the quality of life of its population, and supports the desire of the youth to enter the contemporary job market while integrating cultural values and creativity.

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        Can Green Growth Really Work and What Are the True (socio-) Economics of Climate Change?
        Discussion paper by Hoffmann, Ulrich /UNCTAD, 2015, 31 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        This paper argues that growth, technological, population-expansion and governance constraints as well as some key systemic issues cast a very long shadow on the "green growth" hopes. Many economists and policymakers advocate a fundamental shift towards "green growth" as the new, qualitatively-different growth paradigm, largely based on enhanced material/resource/energy efficiency, structural changes towards a service-dominated economy and a switch in the energy mix favouring renewable forms of energy. However this paper states that such an evolutionary approach will not be sufficient to cope with the complexities of climate change.

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        Climate Change, Biodiversity and Livelihoods: Lessons Learned from UNCTAD Project Impletmentation (English)
        Report by Castro, Lorena/UNCTAD, 2015, 45 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Environment

        This publication highlights the contribution of biodiversity investment in fostering sustainable development through business opportunities in sectors such as agriculture, pharmaceuticals and housing. The report outlines the implementation of UNCTAD BioTrade and REDD+ projects, its outcomes, lessons and the way forward.

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        Closing the Distance - Partnerships for Sustainable and Resilient Transport Systems in Small Island Developing States
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 102 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The report informs about the maritime transport situation in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and underscores the strategic importance of this economic sector for SIDS economies and communities. The overall objective is to help raise awareness about the role of sustainable and resilient maritime transport infrastructure and services for the sustainable development prospects of SIDS. It presents data on relevant aspects, including shipping connectivity levels, direct and indirect shipping services, port issues, as well as trade structure and patterns. The report points to relevant opportunities which could be capitalised upon to support SIDS sustainable development and “blue growth”. Finally, it concludes with a number of suggestions and recommendations for the way forward.

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        Deep Regional Integration and Non-tariff Measures: A Methodology for Data Analysis (English)
        Discussion paper by Cadot, Olivier; Asprilla, Alan; Gourdon, Julien; Knebel, Christian; Peters, Ralf /UNCTAD, 2015, 37 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper develops tools for policymakers to advance deep regional integration with respect to non-tariff measures (NTMs). First, it develops a regulatory distance indicator to measure the similarity of NTM policies across countries and sectors. Secondly, it employs a price-gap based technique to estimate the price increasing effect of NTMs. The report also looks at the estimation residuals to trace back from AVEs to more concrete and specific cases. Lastly, the paper links AVEs to Kenyan household survey data on consumption patterns in order to evaluate welfare impacts.

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        Developing Business Linkages For Green Affordable Housing In Zambia
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 50 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Enterprise Development, Investment

        This report investigates the potential for building business linkages between micro, small and medium sized enterprises (MSMEs) in the construction industry in Zambia and large domestic and international companies and investors. It adopts a step-by-step methodology, taking international firms and property developers through the full process of doing business in the low and middle income housing sector in Zambia – highlighting opportunities to partner with local MSMEs and others stakeholders.

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        E-commerce Trends and Impacts Across Europe (English)
        Case study by Martin Falk; Eva Hagsten/UNCTAD, 2015, 31 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This study investigates the patterns and trends of e-commerce activities as well as their impact on labour productivity growth in a group of European countries. At hand for the exercise is a unique panel of micro-aggregated firm-level data for 14 European countries spanning over the years 2002 to 2010. The empirical approach is twofold: A static specification and a dynamic panel data model. The former is a difference specification estimated by OLS and the latter uses system GMM to account for endogeneity of e-commerce activities. This study adds to the literature by presenting patterns of and first insights into the productivity effects of e-commerce activities.

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        Economic Development in Africa Report 2015: Unlocking the Potential of Africa's Services Trade for Growth and Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 146 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        This report examines some of the major policy issues that underlie Africa’s services sector and provides policy guidance on how services could contribute to Africa’s regional integration and generate inclusive growth and employment. More broadly, it discusses how services can contribute to sustainable growth and development continent-wide, especially given the enabling role of services and their capacity to link with other sectors. The report makes specific and actionable policy recommendations on how to better leverage Africa’s services trade and the related development, employment and growth benefits.

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        Economic Report on Africa 2015: Industrializing Through Trade (English)
        Report by UNECA, 2015, 214 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        This Report examines and provides analysis on the critical elements of effectively fostering industrialization and hence structural transformation based on an extensive review of experience with industrialised countries and Africa’s post-independence attempt at industrialization. Ten country case studies were also conducted to shed light on industrializing through trade. The findings from this exercise informed the policy recommendations contained in this Report.

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        Eight Strategies for Development in Comparison (English)
        Article by Jan Priewe, 2015, 42 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy, VI Members Research

        The article provides a broad-based overview on competing development strategies and the economic performance of developing countries, mainly since the year 2000. Four traditional mainstream development strategies are discussed (Washington Consensus, neo-liberalism, “good governance” and MDGs) and three long-debated key strategic issues are reconsidered (inward or outward development with export-led growth, industrialisation or growth with predominant primary goods exports, foreign aid-based development). A heterodox approach to development with a focus on macroeconomic policies and structural change is added and discussed in more detail. Implicitly, this lays the groundwork for a macroeconomic theory of development.

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        Enhancing Linkages Between Tourism and the Sustainable Agriculture Sectors in the United Republic of Tanzania
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 58 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The main objective of this report is to enhance the understanding of linkages between tourism and agriculture, as well as propose suggestions for how they could be strengthened with the aim of promoting bottom-up sustainable development in the United Republic of Tanzania. In order to promote sustainable development, this report proposes a set of potential thematic strategies that can be used as stepping-stones for building an institutional framework able to link the tourism and agriculture sectors at multiple levels – country, regional, local and community.

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        Ensuring Gender-sensitive Implementation Of The Post-2015 Development Framework
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2015, 4 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Gender

        This policy brief offers stakeholders (government, civil society) some suggestions on elements and data that may help them to assess whether they are implementing the Post-2015 development framework in a gender-sensitive manner. The suggestions are linked to the proposed goals, targets and indicators and are meant to guide the implementation process once the post-2015 «package» is agreed upon by member States. While gender equality should be promoted throughout the goals, this brief offers suggestions on SDGs 1, 2, 5 and 17, the goals that are intimately related to the role of women as economic agents.

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        Escaping the “middle Income Trap”: the Divergent Experiences of the Republic of Korea and Brazil
        Policy brief by ARTNeT, 2015, 12 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This policy brief reviews the key drivers behind the successful catch-up through a comparative analysis of the Republic of Korea and Brazil. These two economies represent an interesting case in that until the 1980s, the GDP of Brazil was higher than that of Republic of Korea. Thereafter, the two economies took different paths, with Brazil becoming stuck in the “middle-income trap” and the Republic of Korea making a significant progress.

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        Estimating the Impact of Trade Specialization and Trade Policy on Poverty in Developing Countries- Trade and Poverty Paper Series No. 6 (English)
        Discussion paper by Santos-Paulino, Amelia and Thornquist, Disa/UNCTAD, 2015, 23 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Poverty

        The paper investigates the impact of trade specialization on reducing poverty in developing countries. It evaluates the contribution of agriculture in low-income economies as a primary source of income. It also examines how developing countries can move out from commodities to agriculture. The paper argues that agriculture has more potential benefits when placed with the right policy approach in relation to improving livelihoods, jobs, productive capacity, and enabling inclusive sustainable development.

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        Examen De La Politique D'investissement: République Du Congo
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 70 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The Investment Policy Review (IPR) of the Republic of the Congo analyses the role that foreign direct investment (FDI) can play in meeting the country's development goals and proposes concrete recommendations to address the policy, legal, regulatory and institutional barriers to investment. The IPR also analyses the potential role of FDI in addressing food security and poverty through agriculture development. It advises the Government to adopt a clear vision for the sector and to pay particular attention to the agricultural development model that is advocated. In particular, it stresses the important role of the Government to promoting inclusive agriculture development and the integration of local operators in FDI-led value chains as it can maximize the sustainable development impact of FDI projects. It also highlights the fact that regular monitoring and rigorous evaluation of projects, based on reliable indicators, are among the best tools to ensure good results.

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        Gains from Varieties: Analysis of the Benefits of Trade Agreements in South America
        Working paper by Orlando Monteiro da Silva; Jacqueline Silva Batista, 2015
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research

        This study analyzes the gains from imports and the contribution of Regional Trade Agreements to these gains in South America from 1995 to 2011. The results showed that there was a substantial increase in varieties of imported products and that smaller countries had benefited more from falling prices. Openness to international trade and participation in bilateral and regional trade agreements are the major factors leading to gains from importing varieties.

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        Gendered Dimensions of Development (English)
        Book by UNRISD, 2015, 463 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Gender

        This volume shed light on the multiple challenges of gender equity in an increasingly unequal world and invites reflection on the possibilities and pitfalls of integrating gender into development policy and practice. The collection is divided into two parts. The first part brings together a series of contributions that analyse development institutions, processes and policies from a gender perspective. The second part of the volume is concerned with the diverse manifestations of women’s agency, the strategies that have been deployed to produce gender-egalitarian change, and the complexities of individual and collective empowerment. It draws attention to the multiple sites of struggle as well as to the different facets of feminism as a transformative project.

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        Improving Market Access for the Least Developed Countries in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2015, 4 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This policy brief proposes a package of actions for attaining the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. In particular it addresses the goals of doubling the share of global exports of the least developed countries (LDCs) by 2020; and providing duty-free and quota-free (DFQF) market access to LDCs as one of the main pillars of international support for export expansion by LDCs.

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        Information Economy Report 2015 - Unlocking the Potential of E-commerce for Developing Countries  (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 136 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Enterprise Development, Science and Technology

        The 2015 edition of the Information Economy Report examines electronic commerce, and explores how information and communication technologies can be harnessed to support economic growth and sustainable development.The report demonstrates how some of the greatest dynamism in electronic commerce can be found in developing countries, but that potential is far from fully realized. It examines opportunities and challenges faced by enterprises in developing countries that wish to access and use e-commerce. Finally, the report highlights the latest market trends, benchmarks country performances with the UNCTAD E-commerce Index, reviews examples of e-commerce in rural areas and low-income countries, addresses relevant legal issues and provides policy recommendations.

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        Information Economy Report 2015: Unlocking the Potential of E-commerce for Developing Countries - Overview
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2015, 18 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology

        The 2015 edition of the Information Economy Report examines electronic commerce, and explores how information and communication technologies can be harnessed to support economic growth and sustainable development.The report demonstrates how some of the greatest dynamism in electronic commerce can be found in developing countries, but that potential is far from fully realized. It examines opportunities and challenges faced by enterprises in developing countries that wish to access and use e-commerce. Finally, the report highlights the latest market trends, benchmarks country performances with the UNCTAD E-commerce Index, reviews examples of e-commerce in rural areas and low-income countries, addresses relevant legal issues and provides policy recommendations.

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        Internet Broadband for an Inclusive Digital Society
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 38 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        This study provides an overview of key issues relating to broadband ICTs in the context of international objectives for socioeconomic development. The discussion summarizes recent research, policy developments and practices associated with broadband ICTs around the world and offers a set of frameworks for considering and developing new public and private initiatives to promote broadband development.

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        Joint Unrc Trade Facilitation and Paperless Trade Implementation Survey 2015 (English)
        Report by UNRC, 2015, 44 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation

        This report features the results of the first UNRC's Joint Survey on Trade Facilitation and Paperless Trade Implementation that was initiated in September 2014. The survey aims to enable countries and their development partners to better understand and monitor progress in trade facilitation, support evidence-based policy-making, identify good practices and define capacity building and technical assistance needs. It provides an overview of the current state of trade facilitation implementation in 119 economies across 8 regions worldwide, including some of the key trade facilitation measures featured in the WTO TFA Agreement, as well as more advanced cross-border paperless trade measures.

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        Key Statistics and Trends in Trade Policy 2014 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 34 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The purpose of this study is to provide a snapshot on policies affecting international trade over the recent and medium-term period. It is intended as a regular monitoring exercise so as to provide interested readers with informative data and analysis on a regular basis. The study is organized in several sections. The first part presents statistics related to tariffs. The second part focuses on preferential margins. The third section presents data related to tariff policy space. The fourth section illustrates selected statistics related to preferential trade agreements. The fifth part presents new data on non-tariff measures, and it is followed by a section on trade defence measures. The final section presents statistics on the exchange rate.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2015: Transforming Rural Economies (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 190 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The Least Developed Countries Report 2015 focuses on the transformation of rural economies. It assesses LDCs’ progress in agricultural productivity, the extent and nature of their rural economic diversification as well as gender issues in rural transformation. In order to eradicate poverty in rural areas of LDCs, the report proposes a new approach, articulated around a three-phase increase in infrastructure investment, and the combination of increasing agricultural productivity and promoting non-farm activities. In order to finance this, the report calls for donors to fulfill their commitments on the quality of aid as well as its quantity. Furthermore, it proposes an increase in the target for aid to LDCs to a level reflecting their share of global needs to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2015: Transforming Rural Economies - Overview (English)
        Also available in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian, Spanish
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2015, 26 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The Least Developed Countries Report 2015 focuses on the transformation of rural economies. It assesses LDCs’ progress in agricultural productivity, the extent and nature of their rural economic diversification as well as gender issues in rural transformation. In order to eradicate poverty in rural areas of LDCs, the report proposes a new approach, articulated around a three-phase increase in infrastructure investment, and the combination of increasing agricultural productivity and promoting non-farm activities. In order to finance this, the report calls for donors to fulfill their commitments on the quality of aid as well as its quantity. Furthermore, it proposes an increase in the target for aid to LDCs to a level reflecting their share of global needs to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.

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        Mainstreaming Trade in Africa: Lessons from Asia and the Way Forward (English)
        Discussion paper by Osakwe, Patrick N. / UNCTAD, 2015, 16 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        This paper examines the experiences of three Asian countries (China, the Republic of Korea and Singapore) that have successfully used trade to engender development and draws lessons from these experiences for Africa.

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        Making Regional Integration Work : Company Perspectives on Non-tariff Measures in Arab States
        Report by ITC, 2015, 74 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report is part of the ITC series of developing-country surveys on non-tariff measures (NTMs). It analyses four business surveys conducted by ITC in Egypt, Morocco, the State of Palestine and Tunisia. The surveys focus on NTMs imposed by governments; procedures that make compliance difficult; and inefficiencies in the trade-related business environment.The publication offers insights into what businesses perceive as their main challenges to trade, within and beyond the region, and suggests how to address these bottlenecks which hamper international and regional trade of the countries covered by the surveys.

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        Making Regional Trade Work for Africa: Turning Words into Deeds
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2015, 4 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        This policy brief deals with the implementation of regional trade agreements (RTAs) in Africa. A well-known characteristic of the regional integration process in Africa is the multiplicity of RTAs however the African continent is faced with a low rate of their implementation. This policy brief identifies some of the main barriers to implementation and proposes remedies for them. It identifies and examines specific policy measures that African Governments and their development partners should consider adopting to address the challenge of implementing RTAs in Africa.

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        Mining and Resource Mobilization for Social Development: The Case of Nicaragua (English)
        Working paper by Hilda María Gutiérrez Elizondo, 2015, 32 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        This paper seeks to contribute to the global debate on the political and institutional contexts that enable impoverished countries to mobilize domestic resources for social development. It analyses the impact of mining on resource mobilization for social development in Nicaragua. The mining industry in Nicaragua provides some economic benefits. However, these benefits have been overshadowed by setbacks related to social and environmental impacts. The paper also points out that current political and institutional aspects weaken the state’s ability to mobilize resources for social development from the mining industry.

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        Non-tariff Measures and Regional Integration in the Southern African Development Community (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 36 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This note provides an overview of the state of play of the political process on NTM policies in the SADC region and presents a non-technical summary of methodologies to assess the regulatory distance between members of a free trade agreement and the potential greater economic benefits from reducing NTMs. The note also contains a discussion of the potential way forward in the SADC region on NTMs.

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        O contencioso brasil-estados unidos sobre o algodão: um caso bem-sucedido de desenvolvimento de capacidades (English)
        Case study by Mário Ferreira Presser e Luciana Togeiro de Almeida, 2015, 6 pages
        Categories: Commodities, International Economic Law, VI Members Research

        Capacity Building Case Study - Brazil-US: Cotton

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        Rethinking Development Strategies After the Financial Crisis, Volume I: Making the Case for Policy Space
        Book by Alfredo Calcagno, Sebastian Dullien, Alejandro Márquez-Velázquez, Nicolas Maystre, Jan Priewe (ed), 2015, 118 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy

        The global financial crisis in 2008 marked a starting point for a comprehensive rethinking of economic theories and policies, reinforcing the importance of implementing strategies for development as opposed to leaving the economy to market forces. In this context, this publication explores the nature and consequences of the crisis, as well as the diversity of economic and social development among developing countries, and looks at the reasons behind the recent improvement in developing countries' performances and its potential for continuation after the financial crisis.

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        Review of Maritime Transport 2015 (English)
        Also available in Russian, Chinese
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 122 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Facilitation

        The Review of Maritime Transport aims to foster the transparency of maritime markets and analyzes relevant developments. The year 2015 is a milestone for sustainable development. The international community has a unique opportunity to strengthen its commitment to sustainable development and consider how best to mainstream sustainability principles across all economic activities and sectors, including maritime transport. In this context, in addition to the review of key economic and legal developments, the present edition of the Review of Maritime Transport highlights some issues that are at the interface of maritime transport and sustainability.

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        Revisiting Sustainable Development (English)
        Book by UNRISD, 2015, 412 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        This volume is divided into two sections. The first contains texts related to the integrative nature of development, that is, the connections between economic, social and environmental dimensions. The second deals more specifically with particular sectoral or thematic issues and case studies from developing countries. These address issues related to agricultural modernization, rural development, food policy, forest destruction and protection, biodiversity conservation, urban sustainability and corporate environmental responsibility.

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        The Role of Trade in Ending Poverty (English)
        Book by WTO; World Bank, 2015, 77 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty

        The publication examines trade and poverty across four dimensions: rural poverty, the informal economy, the impact of fragility and conflict and gender. It looks at how trade could make a greater contribution to ending poverty by increasing efforts to lower trade costs, improve the enabling environment, implement trade policy in conjunction with other areas of policy, better manage risks faced by the poor, and improve data used for policy-making.

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        Shey Dinayen's Cv
        Note by Shey Edward Dinayen, 2015
        Categories: VI Work Program

        My work experience of more than 20 years has been in human resources management, administration, rural development, human rights, gender issues, good governance, small and medium size enterprise development, legal advisory services, humanitarian services, staff recruitment, counseling, teaching/training/ research/ consultancy and electoral observation and supervision peace building and conflict resolution/ analysis. This has been done in the civil service of my country of Cameroon, and in some international organizations including the African Union Commission in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights in Arusha, Tanzania, The Community Humanitarian Emergency Board International based in Cameroon and the Central African Republic, the Pan-African Institute for Development, West Africa, The Carter Center, South Sudan. I have been working for several years at senior management level. I am currently a PhD Law student of International Human Rights with a focus on the Human Rights of the Victims of International Conflict. This has entailed a lot of working together as a team with others as senior staff, colleagues, collaborators and junior staff. We have on several occasions planned as a team .This has given me the opportunity of listening to the ideas of others, contributing convincingly, correcting my own view points when and where it is necessary. In some cases I have had to plan work for those under me or planned with them in order to enable them learn to work in my absence and in order to ensure succession in the organization. Sometimes I have delegated authority, thereby training as a mentor for future leadership. I would like to have these skills further improved for more efficiency and effectiveness in my country and other places where my services would subsequently be needed. Shey Edward dinayen

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        SME Competitiveness Outlook 2015: Connect, Compete and Change for Inclusive Growth (English)
        Report by ITC, 2015, 268 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Enterprise Development, Globalization and Development Strategies

        The report highlights the fundamental role SMEs have in addressing global income inequality and presents a new analytical framework to measure, identify and enhance SME competitiveness. It introduces a working definition of firm competitiveness and introduces the SME Competitiveness Grid as a tool to classify determinants of firm competitiveness according to how they affect competitiveness and according to the layer of the economy at which this determinant intervenes. The report provides 25 country profiles containing SME competitiveness pilot assessments. It informs ITC’s work in strengthening SMEs and trade and investment support institutions (TISIs). The case studies illustrate how ITC assistance fits within the wider evidence on SME competitiveness and describe practical steps to strengthen SME competitiveness at the firm level. Includes bibliographical references.

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        The State of Commodity Dependence 2014
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 202 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        The aim of The State of Commodity Dependence is to present an up-to-date overview of the commodity dependence in developing countries in a friendly and easy-to-understand manner. In fact, commodities represent an essential source of export revenues for developing countries, but they also contribute for the main part of households' and governments' income in exporting countries. Moreover, commodities are also an important problematic in terms of social and political stability as well as of development in developing countries. While the global notion of dependency is often well-known, its exact magnitude in developing countries and in the most vulnerable ones in particular, is not often well estimated. This is the purpose of the State of Commodity Dependence than to fill this information gap.

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        Strengthening The Private Sector To Boost Continental Trade And Integration In Africa
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2015, 4 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Policy Reviews and Briefs, VI Members Research

        Although regional trade has contributed to sustained growth, poverty reduction and inclusive development in Latin America and Asia. In Africa the expected results have been slow to come to the fore. The weakness of the African private sector may be one important factor.

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        A Sustainable Development Review Process
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2015, 4 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs

        In negotiating the post-2015 development agenda, it is crucial that the international community also seek a framework that will help countries to deliver that agenda. One of the steps will be to monitor and review results. By monitoring and reviewing, countries can assess, according to their own specificities, the effectiveness of policies and partnerships and ultimately the transformational impact of the sustainable development goals at the national, regional and global levels. This conceptualization of a review process can be converted into a tangible and workable framework within the United Nations system. This policy brief elaborates the objectives, guiding principles and organizational framework within the United Nations system of such a process.

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        Technology and Innovation Report 2015 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 142 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Science and Technology, Trade Related Capacity Building

        In the 2015 Technology and Innovation Report subtitled ‘Fostering Innovation Policies for Industrial Development’ addresses the urgency of building productive capacities and promoting sustainable industrialization in development. It analyzes the crucial role of technological learning and innovation capacity, and helps to address some of the questions that policymakers face when seeking to forge new paths to secure a prosperous future for their people. The report argues that sustainable industrialization is not solely limited to environmental sustainability, but refers to efforts that are technology-led, productivity enhancing and poverty-reducing. It is based on the understanding that no industrial policy is complete without an accompanying innovation policy.

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        Technology and Innovation Report 2015 (Overview) (English)
        Also available in Spanish, Russian
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 30 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade Related Capacity Building

        This overview of the 2015 Technology and Innovation Report subtitled ‘Fostering Innovation Policies for Industrial Development’ summarizes the key findings presented in the Report. It addresses the urgency of building productive capacities and promoting sustainable industrialization in development. It analyzes the crucial role of technological learning and innovation capacity, and helps to address some of the questions that policymakers face when seeking to forge new paths to secure a prosperous future for their people. The report argues that sustainable industrialization is not solely limited to environmental sustainability, but refers to efforts that are technology-led, productivity enhancing and poverty-reducing. It is based on the understanding that no industrial policy is complete without an accompanying innovation policy.

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        Technology in Action: Good Practices in Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for Women in South Asia (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 38 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade and Gender

        This report was elaborated based on a comprehensive analysis of secondary literature on programmes and policies on gender, STI and other sectors conducted in the region by local governments in collaboration with international agencies and other organizations. The experiences presented in this report show that STI policies usually contribute to improving the livelihoods of women and enhancing gender equality through the following mechanisms: introducing and diffusing technological and scientific developments that improve the life of women; creating and strengthening, both directly and indirectly, capacities related to STI; and introducing financial innovations such as microcredit and related skills for entrepreneurs.

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        Trade and Development Report 2013: Adjusting to the Changing Dynamic of the World Economy - Overview
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2015, 42 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Globalization and Development Strategies

        Overview of the world economy and financial situation in 2013 by major economic regions. It discusses their financial markets, commodity prices, growth and trade patterns. Discusses expected economic activity for the year which seems to have slowed down and has brought international trade into a halt. It also discusses the economic activity that developed and developing countries have had since the 2008 economic crisis.

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        Trade and Development Report 2015: Making the international financial architecture work for development (English)
        Also available in Chinese
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 221 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, International Financial System

        This report reviews recent trends in the global economy and focuses on ways to reform the international financial architecture. It warns that with a tepid recovery in developed countries and headwinds in many developing and transition economies, the global crisis is not over, and the risk of a prolonged stagnation persists. The report also identifies some of the critical issues to be addressed in order to establish a more stable and inclusive international monetary and financial system which can support the development challenges over the coming years. It considers existing shortcomings, analyses emerging vulnerabilities and examines proposals and initiatives for reform.

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        Trade and Development Report 2015: Making the international financial architecture work for development - Overview (English)
        Also available in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian, Spanish
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2015, 39 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, International Financial System

        This report reviews recent trends in the global economy and focuses on ways to reform the international financial architecture. It warns that with a tepid recovery in developed countries and headwinds in many developing and transition economies, the global crisis is not over, and the risk of a prolonged stagnation persists. The report also identifies some of the critical issues to be addressed in order to establish a more stable and inclusive international monetary and financial system which can support the development challenges over the coming years. It considers existing shortcomings, analyses emerging vulnerabilities and examines proposals and initiatives for reform.

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        Trade and Poverty Paper Series No.1. Transformative Regionalism, Trade and Challenge of Poverty Reduction in Africa (English)
        Report by Osakwe, Patrick/UNCTAD, 2015, 23 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade and Poverty

        The report argues that making regional integration work for Africa requires that African governments change their approach to economic integration and in particular shift emphasis from the current model of integration, which focuses mostly on trade reforms and processes and institutions of integration, to an alternative approach—Transformative Regionalism—in which regional integration promotes and also ensures progress in building productive capacities and achieving structural transformation for sustained development. This paper provides a framework for Transformative Regionalism, examines how it differs from the integration frameworks and strategies of African regional economic communities, and then discusses how to foster it in Africa. Therefore it is an interesting reading as it brings into focus new ideas in terms of development strategies and poverty reduction in Africa.

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        The Trade in Wildlife - A Framework to Improve Biodiversity and Livelihood Outcomes (English)
        Report by ITC, 2015, 46 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        Amid global concern about biodiversity loss and the surge in illegal trade of threatened species, international policy has turned its attention to trade restrictions, enforcement measures and demand-reduction strategies. This analytical framework recommends that policy decisions should balance factors related to the species and its habitat; governance and institutional settings; supply-chain structure; and markets. These factors include species resilience, distribution and accessibility; property rights and policies such as CITES listings, quotas and bans; production costs, intermediaries, monopolies and stockpiling; and market demand elasticity and size.

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        Trade Policy Framework: Jamaica (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 126 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This Trade Policy Framework was prepared at the request of Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade of Jamaica. It provides a review of the country’s overall national development objectives and recent economic trends, an analysis of linkages between existing strategies and plans in different spheres of policymaking and trade policy in both the goods and services sectors, and recommendations for integrated strategic approaches to achieving the country’s key vision and objectives for its trade policy.

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        UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics 2015 (English)
        Data by UNCTAD, 2015, 398 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics provides a collection of statistics and indicators relevant to the analysis of international trade, investment and development. The content of the book is in English and French.

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        Unlocking Markets for Women to Trade (English)
        Report by ITC, 2015, 80 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender

        The report shows where women-owned businesses are present, based on new ITC data from importers and exporters in 20 developing countries and case studies. It explains cultural and regulatory barriers as well as ways to facilitate access to finance, market information and networks. It outlines where the barriers to trade are, shares models of good public and private sector initiatives and provides recommendations for policymakers to engage women entrepreneurs more fully in the global economy.

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        Virtual Institute Teaching Material on Trade and Gender: Unfolding the Links (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD Virtual Institute, 2015, 215 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This teaching material aims to help academics from developing and transition countries strengthen their teaching and research capacities on trade and gender, and to enhance the capacity of relevant stakeholders to mainstream gender into trade policy. The first volume, entitled "Unfolding the links", provides readers with the knowledge needed to analyze the two-way relationship between trade and gender. The second volume, entitled "Empirical analysis of the trade and gender links", takes the readers through the three principal methodologies used for the quantitative analysis of the link between trade and gender: the microeconomic approach, the macroeconomic approach and the sectoral approach.

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        Who Is Benefiting From Trade Liberalization In Uruguay? A Gender Perspective
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 94 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender

        This report aims to assess the implications of Uruguay’s productive transformation, trade liberalization, and regional trade integration on women, especially in terms of their access to employment. While women play many roles in society, this report focuses on their role as workers. It encourages the reader to take into account the complexities of the trade and gender link and its numerous, and sometimes hidden, connections with the micro and macro components of economic and development processes. The research also highlights that Uruguay’s legal framework as well as social norms and stereotypes contribute to the role that women play in the labour market and society.

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        Why Geographical Indications for Least Developed Countries? (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2015, 77 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        Geographical Indications (GIS) are a trade-related intellectual property right under the WTO TRIPS Agreement. The link between the territory and the uniqueness of the product is the distinctive developmental nature of GIs with respect to other forms of TRIPs. Evidence from the market and literature shows that the promotion and protection of products under GIs may results in higher economics gains, fostering quality production and equitable distribution of profits for LDC rural communities. GIs encourage the preservation of biodiversity, traditional know-how and natural resources. Leveraging on biological and cultural diversification, the implementation of GIs may represent a unique opportunity to bring together the various players along the value chain supply, including producers, government authorities and researchers. This study is the result of activities carried out under the UNCTAD project TAAK on market access and trade laws funded by the Italian Government and the Development Account project entitled "Strengthening the capacity of rural communities in least developed countries to utilize the market access opportunities provided by duty-free quota-free and enhancing value added of their traditional products".

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        World Intellectual Property Report: Breakthrough Innovation and Economic Growth (English)
        Report by WIPO, 2015, 146 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This report endeavors to provide an analytical input into the debate about whether innovation can continue to deliver rates of growth matching those before the global financial crisis. It explores the channels through which innovation promotes growth, and the ecosystems in which innovation flourishes. In so doing, the report pays special attention to the role of the intellectual property (IP) system, which at its heart seeks to support innovative activity.

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        World Investment Report 2000: Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions and Development - Overview
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2015, 47 pages
        Categories: Investment

        An examination of the impact of cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As) on the structure of global business taking into account the concerns about the market power of transnational corporations (TNCs) and the potential anti-competitive implications of M&As. · Useful to anyone concerned with investments, transnational corporations, market structure and competition policy from the point of view of developing countries. including Valuable information to scholars specialized in international finance and investment as well as · Main contents: I: Global Trends: The Expanding International Production System, II: Regional Trend, III: The Largest Transnational Corporations, IV: Trends In Cross-Border Mergers & Acquisitions, V: Performance, Motivations And Outlook, VI: FDI And Development: Does Mode Of Entry Matter?

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        World Investment Report 2015: Reforming International Investment Governance
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 253 pages
        Categories: Investment

        This Report tackles the key challenges in international investment protection and promotion, including the right to regulate, investor-state dispute settlement, and investor responsibility. It examines the fiscal treatment of international investment, including contributions of multinational corporations in developing countries, fiscal leakage through tax avoidance, and the role of offshore investment links. Furthermore, it offers a menu of options for the reform of the international investment treaties regime, together with a roadmap to guide policymakers at the national, bilateral, regional and multilateral levels. Finally, the Report proposes a set of principles and guidelines to ensure coherence between international tax and investment policies.

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        World Investment Report 2015: Reforming International Investment Governance - Overview (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 66 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Investment

        This Report tackles the key challenges in international investment protection and promotion, including the right to regulate, investor-state dispute settlement, and investor responsibility. It examines the fiscal treatment of international investment, including contributions of multinational corporations in developing countries, fiscal leakage through tax avoidance, and the role of offshore investment links. Furthermore, it offers a menu of options for the reform of the international investment treaties regime, together with a roadmap to guide policymakers at the national, bilateral, regional and multilateral levels. Finally, the Report proposes a set of principles and guidelines to ensure coherence between international tax and investment policies.

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        The World Trade Report 2015 - Speeding Up Trade: Benefits and Challenges of Implementing the Wto Trade Facilitation Agreement (English)
        Also available in French, Spanish
        Report by WTO, 2015, 157 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The World Trade Report 2015 summarizes the trade situation in 2014 and early 2015 and examines the benefits and challenges of implementing the WTO’s Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA). The Report finds that developing countries will benefit significantly from the TFA, capturing a large part of the available gains. In addition, it identifies a range of other benefits from the TFA. These include diversification of exports from developing countries and least-developed countries to include new products and partners, increased involvement of these countries in global value chains, expanded participation of small and medium-sized enterprises in international trade, increased foreign direct investment, greater revenue collection and reduced incidence of corruption.

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