A partnership with academia

Building knowledge for trade and development

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        20 Years of Biotrade: Connecting People, the Planet and Markets (English)
        Report by Jaramillo Castro, Lorena/UNCTAD, 2016, 96 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This publication gives a brief overview of the work done by UNCTAD on BioTrade and the BioTrade Initiative since 1996. The BioTrade Initiative, which includes over 20 developing countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America, has been promoting trade and investment in biological resources to further sustainable development and aid in poverty alleviation.

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        An Advanced Guide to Trade Policy Analysis: the Structural Gravity Model (English)
        Book by WTO; UNCTAD, 2016, 144 pages
        Categories: Trade Negotiations, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The gravity model is one of the most successful frameworks in economics. Hundreds of papers have used the gravity model to study and quantify the effects of various factors on international trade. This book guides the reader through the challenges of applying the model and provides recommendations on how to obtain reliable partial equilibrium estimates for the effects of trade policy. The book has been written by experts who have rich practical experience in this field. It is aimed at government experts engaged in trade negotiations as well as graduate students and researchers involved in trade-related study or research.

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        African Continental Free Trade Area (English)
        Discussion paper by Agatiello, Osvaldo/UNCTAD, 2016, 52 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Facilitation

        The paper, African Continental Free Trade Area, subtitled 'Advancing Pan-African Integration (Some Considerations),' provides an overview of the opportunities and challenges for African continental economic integration through the Continental Free Trade Area (CFTA) initiative. It discusses complementary building blocks for intra-African trade to flourish within Africa when it is stimulated by the adoption and implementation of the CFTA, and provides guiding principles for approaching the CFTA and priority policy measures for adoption by African countries to ensure sustained trade growth and economic integration following the CFTA.

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        African Continental Free Trade Area: Developing and Strengthening Regional Value Chains (English)
        Discussion paper by Dairon, Emily/UNCTAD, 2016, 78 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Facilitation

        The paper, African Continental Free Trade Area, subtitled 'Developing and strengthening regional value chains in agricultural commodities and processed food products', comes after the African Union Assembly decided in an assembly in 2012 to boost intra-African trade and to fast track the Continental Free Trade Area (CFTA). The study aims to provide an analysis on requisite policies and measures needed for fostering the development and strengthening of regional supply and value chains in agricultural commodities and processed foods. Its aim is to contribute to the setting up and strengthening of regional agro-foods supply chains.

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        African Continental Free Trade Area: Policy and Negotiation Options for Trade in Goods (English)
        Discussion paper by Farahat, M/UNCTAD, 2016, 37 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Facilitation

        This discussion paper is part of the series on the 'African Continental Free Trade Area.' It continues the discussion by presenting an overview of the practical possibilities of an free trade area (FTA) on the African continent. The paper is divided in three main parts. Part I deals with the requirements for establishing FTAs in goods. Part II analyses the harmonization of macro-economic policies, the applicability of non-tariff measures and trade facilitation. Part II considers the negotiation process among key stakeholders and the leaders.

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        ASEAN Investment Report 2016 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 276 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Investment

        With the theme “Foreign Direct Investment and MSME Linkages”, this latest edition examines the drivers and motivations that underpin investments in ASEAN. It takes a closer look at MNE activities and operations in the ASEAN region. Specifically, it examines the case of two important sources of FDI to ASEAN, that of Korea and the United States, with useful insights on the approaches taken, and the success and challenges faced. An additional feature of this year’s report is the study and analysis on the investment activities of micro, small and medium enterprises (MSME) in ASEAN – namely on their linkages and internationalization strategies – why and how they do so. The Report analyses the role of ASEAN MSMEs in realizing the goals of the ASEAN Economic Community and in improving the overall investment environment. The Report is prepared under a technical cooperation arrangement between the ASEAN Secretariat and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD).

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        Benchmarking Productive Capacities in Least Developed Countries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 56 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty, Trade Facilitation

        At the thirteenth session of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD XIII), which took place in Doha, Qatar, in April 2012, member States requested UNCTAD to develop quantifiable indicators with a view to providing “an operational methodology and policy guidelines on how to mainstream productive capacities in national development policies and strategies in LDCs” (Doha Mandate, para. 65(e)). The present report, which is part of ongoing work by the secretariat and a response to the above-mentioned request, focuses on measuring and benchmarking productive capacities in least developed countries (LDCs): their current levels; how LDCs have performed in the recent past; and how the productive capacities in LDCs compare with the internationally agreed goals and targets and with other developing countries.

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        Bringing Smes onto the E-Commerce Highway (English)
        Report by International Trade Centre, 2016, 120 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty, Trade Facilitation

        This report is a starting point for public-private dialogue to address e-commerce bottlenecks, especially for small firms in developing countries. Small firms face policy challenges in four processes typical to all e-commerce: establishing online business, international e-payment, international delivery and aftersales. To improve competitiveness, challenges must be met within the firm, in the business environment and by governments. The report provides checklists for policy guidance, as well as case studies from e-commerce entrepreneurs in developing countries.

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        Competition Guidelines: Leniency Programmes (English)
        Also available in Arabic, French
        Policy brief by Brusick, Philippe/UNCTAD, 2016, 25 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Hard-core cartels constitute very serious violations of competition rules. However, they are often very difficult to detect and investigate without the cooperation of an insider. Accordingly, leniency programmes are designed to give incentives to cartel members to take the initiative to approach the competition authority, confess their participation in a cartel and cooperate with the competition law enforcers in exchange for total or partial immunity from sanctions. This publication, by the UNCTAD Secretariat, seeks to set specific guidelines for countries of the MENA region which envisage adoption or improvement of leniency programmes on competition. The view is to help them achieve a substantive degree of convergence in this field, as a practical way to increase the overall efficiency of the system in their struggle against hard core cartels. To this end, it draws attention to specific considerations for MENA Project countries, such as limits of leniency in small, less developed markets. It also reflects on how to make leniency programmes attractive for potential whistle-blowers, describes possible procedural guidelines along with cases deserving total or partial immunity, and lists some difficulties encountered in practice.

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        Data Protection Regulations and International Data Flows: Implications for Trade and Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 154 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology

        This study is a timely contribution to our understanding of how data protection regulations and international data flows affect international trade. It reviews the experience in different parts of the world and of different stakeholders. The study identifies key concerns that data protection and privacy legislation need to address. It also examines the present patchwork of global, regional and national frameworks to seek common ground and identify areas where different approaches tend to diverge. The last part of the study considers possible future policy options, taking the concerns of all stakeholders into account.

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        Data Protection Regulations and International Data Flows: Implications for Trade and Development (Executive Summary) (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2016, 17 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The study identifies key concerns that data protection and privacy legislation need to address. It goes on to examine the present patchwork of global, regional and national frameworks to seek common ground and areas where different approaches tend to diverge. The last part of the study considers possible future policy options, taking the concerns of all stakeholders into account while distorting international trade as little as possible.

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        Data Protection Regulations and International Data Flows: Implications for Trade and Development (Executive Summary) (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2016, 17 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Science and Technology

        The study includes some detailed guidance on the growing consensus around key conditions and limitations on surveillance initiated by governments. Most regional and global initiatives are silent on the issue of surveillance. It is essential that national laws and global and regional initiatives acknowledge the existence of surveillance issues and attempt to address these issues directly. While surveillance issues often have an international or cross-border dimension, the extraterritorial nature of data flows and surveillance, as it relates to state sovereignty, must be specifically addressed. The United Nations statement on digital rights may serve as a platform for considering the connection between data protection and surveillance.

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        Development and Globalization: Facts and Figures 2016 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 233 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This report presents achievements and prospects on the Sustainable Development Goals adopted by the United Nations in 2015. It organizes the goals into broad themes and targets using statistical graphs and figures. The report describes the evolution of developing countries in the context of globalization and presents economic growth and social indicators for developing countries.

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        Development Dimensions of Intellectual Property in Nepal (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 59 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy

        Divided in 5 parts, this report on the development dimension of intellectual property rights (DDIP) was developed in response to a technical assistance request from Nepal. Part 1 outlines the major framework for intellectual property (IP) policy in Nepal. Part 2 recommends a number of legislative, policy and practical steps to facilitate and enable the technological and innovation functions of IP protection. Part 3 examines the access to medicine regime of Nepal and recommends for Nepal to implement the transition period for the protection of pharmaceutical product patents and pharmaceutical test data that lasts until 2033. Part 4 analyses Nepal's access and benefit sharing regime, the interface between IP and biodiversity, and options for defensive and positive protection of genetic resources (GRs) and traditional knowledge (TK). The recommendations of this report have legislative and institutional dimensions that require capacity building, and in some cases, additional studies to develop specific action plans for implementation.

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        Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific 2016: Nurturing Productivity for Inclusive Growth and Sustainable Development (English)
        Report by Akhtar, Shamshad/ ESCAP; Hahm, Hongjoo/ ESCAP; Hasan, Aynul/ ESCAP, 2016, 172 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Trade and Poverty, Trade Facilitation

        The first chapter of the Survey contains an examination of the macroeconomic performance of and outlook for the Asia-Pacific region, analyzing the implications of some of the economic challenges that the region is facing. It also contains a discussion on several policy options, with emphasis on the importance of fiscal policy. The chapter also includes an examination of the impact of the recent economic slowdown in the Asia Pacific region in terms of its effects on poverty, inequality and employment prospects, along with challenges posed by an expanding middle class and rapid urbanization. In the second chapter, the diversity of the region is considered by providing a more disaggregated analysis of economic issues and challenges that each of the five sub regions is facing. In doing so, a distinct issue is the focus for each sub region, which provides an opportunity for increased understanding of a variety of experiences and policy considerations. Finally, the third chapter contains analyses on the importance of productivity in the Asia-Pacific region and a set of policy recommendations on how to strengthen productivity growth.

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        Economic Development in Africa Report 2016 (English)
        Also available in French
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 166 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        The Economic Development in Africa Report 2016, subtitled Debt Dynamics and Development Finance in Africa, examines some of the key policy issues that underlie Africa’s domestic and external debt, and provides policy guidance on the delicate balance required between financing development alternatives and overall debt sustainability. This report analyses Africa’s international debt exposure and how domestic debt is increasingly playing a role in some African countries as a development finance option. It also examines complementary financing options and how they relate to debt. The report makes relevant and actionable policy recommendations which address the roles that African Governments, external partners and the international community can play in ensuring that Africa’s public debt remains sustainable.

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        Facilitating Biotrade in a Challenging Access and Benefit Sharing Environment (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 45 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Macroeconomic Policy

        With the entering into force of the CBD Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization, there is a new opportunity to improve the synergies for access to genetic resources and benefit sharing (ABS) in the context of BioTrade, and in turn contribute to legal certainty on this particularly important matter in regards to sustainable use of biodiversity. Though historically BioTrade has moved in the realm of sustainable biodiversity businesses, particularly with biological resources and certain ecosystem services, questions remain regarding when and how genetic resources become part of BioTrade and most importantly, whether ABS policy and legal frameworks are applicable or not. The Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit Sharing is a new multilateral environmental agreement under the CBD, seeking to clarify definitions, issues of scope and coverage of ABS, and specific actions by user and provider countries of biodiversity resources. The rapid implementation of the Protocol within the European Union and Switzerland is placing considerable pressure on providing countries to adjust, develop and implement effective and efficient ABS frameworks at the national level to be consistent with the Protocol and also benefit from it.

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        Farm Support and Trade Rules: Towards a New Paradigm Under the 2030 Agenda (English)
        Report by Musselli, Irene/UNCTAD, 2016, 30 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Facilitation, Trade Related Capacity Building

        There is a need to move beyond existing metrics in agricultural trade governance. This on account of major changes in farm support policies and in the overall policy framework. The way ahead requires a pragmatic and ground-breaking approach. A comprehensive approach is needed to improve coherence between farm support policies and sustainability concerns. The boundaries of the Green Box have to be redefined accordingly. Specifically, Green Box transfers have to be made conditional on the respect of specific agri-environmental practices. Decoupled income support not subject to agrienvironmental “cross-compliance” conditions should only be available to low-income or resource-poor producers. It is also important to acknowledge the fact that different developing countries have different agricultural profiles and different needs for farm support, and to give operational meaning to these differences. Overall, trade policy in agriculture should be re-oriented towards context-specific, circumstantial assessments, informed by equitable considerations and sustainability imperatives.

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        Financing Organic Agriculture in Africa (English)
        Report by Kane, Malick and Pacini, Henrique/UNCTAD, 2016, 10 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty, Trade Related Capacity Building

        In recent years, there has been a steady reduction in the proportion of African government expenditure devoted to agriculture1. In view of the needs expressed by African OA stakeholders, UNCTAD sought to identify the needs, challenges and opportunities related to the funding of OA on the continent. Due to limitations in official data, a structured survey was conducted, with support from AfrONet2, among targeted OA stakeholders, including National Organic Agriculture Movements (NOAMs), farmers and exporters from 16 African countries. The results, presented in this technical paper, are in line with existing studies on both conventional and Organic Agriculture in Africa (FAO, 2012; UNCTAD, 2009). They highlight the existence of a persistent funding gap and the need to better address barriers faced by OA stakeholders in securing external capital to finance their activities.

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        Global Economic Prospects 2016 (English)
        Report by World Bank Group, 2016, 193 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        The 2016 Global Economic Prospects Report subtitled 'Divergences and Risks' argues growth prospects have weakened throughout the world economy. The report discusses the upcoming challenges to be faced by emerging market and developing economies, which include weaker growth among advanced economies and low commodity prices. It focuses on each region and highlight two main issues: the recent credit surge in historical context, and the quantifying uncertainties in global growth forecasts.

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        Good Governance Guidelines: Independence and Transparency (English)
        Also available in Arabic, French
        Policy brief by Brusick, Philippe/UNCTAD, 2016, 43 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Sound policy outcomes are better assured when decisions by the competition authority are not politicized, discriminatory or implemented on the basis of narrow goals of interest groups. Hence, it is widely accepted that competition authorities should be insulated from undue political interference. Thus, the independence of competition authorities is often defined as their distinct legal personality and structural separateness from Government. In addition to defining the authority’s structure, enabling legislation usually prescribes functions, powers, the manner in which members of management and staff are to be appointed, their tenure and removal, and how the authority is to be financed, often providing financial autonomy. This also includes its obligations with respect to transparency, confidentiality and the possibility of recourse. Even when the law is quite explicit, “de-facto” practice may deviate from the “de-jure” letter of the law. Independence should, therefore, be considered in terms of degrees of independence rather than as absolute independence. This publication examines the degree of independence and transparency which the MENA Project countries, which have competition laws, have inscribed within their legislation and to a certain extent, how this is implemented in actual enforcement practice, taking into consideration the general trends of this particular subject, as observed worldwide.

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        Handbook on the Special and Preferential Tariff Scheme of China for Least Developed Countries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 219 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Facilitation

        China started to grant duty-free treatment to LDCs with diplomatic relations with China in 2001. In China’s customs tariff schedules (that is, the Customs Tariff of Import and Export of the People’s Republic of China), “duty-free” is referred to as “special and preferential tariff treatment for least developed countries” (herein after referred to as the “LDC scheme”). In response to the WTO decision on DFQF for LDC exports adopted at the sixth Ministerial Conference in Hong Kong (China) in December 2005, China announced at the United Nations High-Level Event on Millennium Development Goals held in 2008 that it would increase gradually the coverage of its LDC scheme to reach 95 per cent of the country’s total tariff lines. As a further step to help boost LDC exports to China, in March 2013 at the BRICS1 Summit held in South Africa, China announced its decision to increase its duty-free coverage to 97 per cent by 2015. The decision was implemented on 1 January 2015. Thus, China became the first developing country in WTO to fully meet the tariff line coverage requirement set out in the sixth Ministerial Declaration.

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        Harnessing the Potential for Trade and Sustainable Growth in Zambia (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 73 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper sets out Zambia’s existing trade policy framework and identifies areas of possible reform and options for maximizing the contribution of trade to inclusive growth and sustainable development. It contains a review of the macroeconomic and trade performance of the economy between 1995 and 2013. It discusses the current trade policies and institutions so as to identify the major opportunities and challenges inherent in the Zambian economy and outlines the options for enhancing Zambia’s trade and sustainable real growth in the economy. Following a review of Zambia’s trade performance and the current tariff structure, the framework recommends a strategic trade policy calibrated to support industrial sector interests. Tariff-setting is an essential component of improving Zambia’s trade performance but is not the sole determinant. Other factors play a critical role in preventing the country from increasing its exports and ultimately the creation of employment, increased incomes and reduction of poverty, such as the cost of doing business and high trade costs.

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        Implementing Gender-Aware Ex Ante Evaluations to Maximize the Benefits of Trade Reforms for Women (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2016, 4 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender, Trade Facilitation

        This policy brief aims to provide stakeholders with an understanding of the scope of ex ante evaluations. It unpacks the complex relationship between trade policies and gender in terms of liberalization and policy reform. It states that ex ante impact assessments constitute a valuable tool for identifying the impact of trade policies on gender-related outcomes and can contribute to the formation of policies or accompanying measures that maximize benefits for women.

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        Innovation, Competitiveness and Regional Integration: Assessing Regional Integration in Africa Vii (English)
        Also available in French
        Report by UNECA/AUC/AfDb, 2016, 148 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Science and Technology

        This joint publication 'Assessing Regional Integration in Africa VII' reviews the relationship between regional integration, innovation and competitiveness. It argues that by knitting together networks of institutions, people and markets a loose connection between two or more nations is bound to facilitate innovation and related creative activities. The report presents chapters on innovation and global intellectual property regulations and science, technology and innovation policies, along with case studies from India and the Southeast Asian nations.

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        In Search of Cross-Border E-Commerce Trade Data: UNCTAD Technical Notes on Ict for Development N°6 (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2016, 31 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report explores possible sources of data for gauging cross-border e-commerce. Business-to-Business (B2B) e-commerce accounts for the dominant share of global e-commerce and is therefore also likely to be the most important component of cross-border sales online (UNCTAD 2015a). However, as data on B2B e-commerce are generally scarce, attention is also given to consumer-oriented shopping (i.e. Business to Consumer (B2C) and Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C)).

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        The Interface Between Access and Benefit-Sharing Rules and Biotrade in Vietnam (English)
        Report by Dr. Trang Thi Huong Tran/UNCTAD, 2016, 49 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report identifies and explores main regulatory challenges in Vie Nam; addresses issues of concern and policy options to develop in response to the challenges; assesses the country's national competent authorities ABS frameworks supportive of BioTrade, and considers the outlook for businesses and other relevant stakeholders in line with the new obligations under the Nagoya Protocol in Viet Nam.

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        Key Indicators and Trends in Trade Policy 2016 (English)
        Report by Nicita, Alessandro/UNCTAD, 2016, 35 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        This volume of Key Indicators and Trends in Trade Policy 2016, subtitled ‘G20 Policies and Least Developed Countries’ Export Performance’, analysis the outcomes of policies on least developed country growth strategies. It highlights trends in the use of trade policy instruments, movements in exchange rates, the application of sanitary and phytosanitary measures, the use of defensive trade mechanisms, and regional and bilateral economic integration. In describing the measures such as tariffs, antidumping, import restrictions, and preferential trade agreements, the report analysis these by country and region. This report is structured in two parts. The first part presents an overview of the effects of G20 policies on LDCs exports. The second part discusses trends in selected trade policy instruments including illustrative statistics. The second part is divided in five chapters: tariffs, trade agreements, non-tariff measures, trade defense measures, exchange rates and trade costs. Trade trends and statistics are provided at various levels of aggregation illustrating the use of the trade policy measures across economic sectors and geographic regions.

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        Key Indicators and Trends in Trade Policy 2016: a Bad Year for World Trade (English)
        Report by UNCTAD/DITC/TAB/2016/3, 2016, 30 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        This edition of Key Indicators and Trends in Trade Policy 2016, subtitled ‘A Bad Year for World Trade’, explains that the deteriorating trends in 2015 of weaker demand, a declined value of international trade, and an economic collapse carried on to 2016. This report is structured in two parts. The first part presents an overview of the trade collapse of 2015. The second part provides illustrative statistics on international trade in goods and services covering the last 10 years. The second part is divided in two sections. Section 1 provides trade statistics at various levels of aggregation illustrating the evolution of trade across economic sectors and geographic regions. Section 2 presents some of the most commonly used trade indicators at the country level, so as to illustrate trade performance across countries.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2016 (Overview) (English)
        Also available in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2016, 29 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        The 2016 Least Developed Countries (LDC) Report overview, subtitled 'The path to graduation and beyond: Making the most of the process' summarizes the key findings in the 2016 report. It outlines the deteriorating economic performance, the first steps to sustainable development, the priorities for graduation, and the need for international cooperation for development.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2016 - the Path to Graduation and Beyond: Making the Most of the Process (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 219 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        The 2016 Least Developed Countries (LDC) Report, subtitled 'The path to graduation and beyond: Making the most of the process' calls for more action to be taken by the international community on behalf of developing countries. The report argues the proportion of the global poor in the 48 LDCs has more than doubled since 1990, to well over 40 per cent, and the breaks down key priorities for graduation out of LDC status.

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        Making Trade Work for Least Developed Countries: a Handbook on Mainstreaming Trade (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 106 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        This handbook is the outcome of the workshops and research conducted under the project. It draws lessons from the experiences of the six countries that participated and provides fresh insights on how to design and implement an effective trade strategy in LDCs. It also provides clarity on the concept of mainstreaming trade and identifies criteria on how to measure success in this endeavour. The handbook should be useful to policymakers in developing countries, development analysts, academics, and students of development. In this regard, it is meant to be a guide to policy formulation and implementation in LDCs, with the understanding that its application will vary from country to country because of differences in economic structure, history, and social and political realities.

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        Policy Space in Agricultural Markets: Policy Issues in International Trade and Commodities Research Study Series No. 73 (English)
        Report by Alain McLaren, 2016, 26 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Macroeconomic Policy, Trade and Environment

        As an outcome of the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture, all agricultural products now have a bound tariff rate on their imports. This system of bound tariffs combines the rigidity of an upper limit that is independent of future economic conditions but discretion as governments have a whole array of choices in terms of applied tariffs as long as they are set below the bound rate. One recurring argument is that bound rates may limit countries’ policy flexibility, or policy space, in response to particular economic circumstances. This paper looks at the use and availability of this policy space in agricultural markets. This is first done in a descriptive setting, then by assessing what plays a role in determining this space using an empirical analysis.

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        The Political Economy of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (English)
        Discussion paper by VanGrasstek, Graig/UNCTAD, 2016, 40 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The TransPacific Partnership (TPP) is one of two current mega-regional initiatives that could jointly be the most consequential development in the trading system since the end of the Uruguay Round in 1994. Together with the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) negotiations that are still underway between the United States and the European Union, this agreement could redefine the landscape of the international trading system. The focus of this analysis is primarily upon the TPP, but where appropriate reference is made as well to the TTIP. The principal objective of the present study is to place the TPP in its larger political and economic context, and to define — but not definitively answer the questions that arise concerning its impact on the trading system. The main focus here is on one overarching question and two subsidiary questions. The overall question addressed here is, “What implications does the TPP hold for the evolution of the international trading system?” That system incorporates not just the multilateral agreements of the WTO, but also the larger body of trade law that includes inter alia bilateral and regional RTAs, plurilateral agreements, and other treaties and institutions. The evolution of that system is of interest to all countries no matter what their levels of economic development, trade strategies, or relationship to the TPP. Both of the subsidiary questions speak to important aspects of that overarching question. The paper does not attempt to provide definitive answers to any of these questions, but will instead seek to stimulate discussion. It does so by specifying each of these questions in greater detail, discussing their significance, and providing evidence and arguments on each side of the issue.

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        Promoting Green Foreign Direct Investment: Practices and Lessons from the Field (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2016, 8 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        Green technologies are becoming increasingly viable in commercial terms, making them bigger and better targets for investment promotion. UNCTAD describes green investment can be comprise of: investment in production processes with a reduced GHG impact; investment in clean energy generation; and investment in research and production facilities to manufacture GHG reducing products and provide related services. These are technology-intensive and often capital-intensive industries with technologies that are quickly evolving. In those developing countries, where green industries and practices are still nascent or non-existent, foreign companies are vital to jump-starting the low-carbon economy and should be more aggressively pursued. This note uses three case studies to extract lessons on how this can be done. It examines IPAs, including investment promotion and business development agencies from developed and emerging economies, in diverse locations and circumstances.

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        Proposal Required for Obtaining Capital Resources Focused on Small and Medium Enterprises Located in the Province of Guayas by Issuing Equity Tools Throughout the Ecuadorian Stock Market. (Spanish)
        Article by Renato Garzon, Mauricio Garzon, Mao Garzon, 2016
        Categories: Commodities, Finance for Development, Investment

        The following article looks forward to develop a new proposal focused in incrementing production and export oriented activities focused on Small and Medium Enterprises (SMES) located in the province of Guayas, coastal region of the Republic of Ecuador. The proposal involves raising new capital throughout the issue of equity documents negotiated in stock markets based in Guayaquil and Quito. In order to accomplish the proposal, a group of fellow researchers obtained a sample and gathered primary market data threw individual surveys. The information obtained, helped to construct variables such as how SME finance the acquisition of fixed/productive assets, amount of earnings generated in a year basis, products and services exported to countries where the Ecuadorian Government do have a Trade Office among other variables.

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        Rethinking Development Strategies After the Financial Crisis, Volume Ii: Countries Studies and International Comparisons (English)
        Report by Alfredo Calcagno, Sebastian Dullien, Alejandro Márquez-Velázquez, Nicolas Maystre, Jan Priewe (ed), 2016, 105 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Theoretical thinking on economic development largely relies on comparative analysis. In particular, it explores the reasons why some countries or regions have performed better than others in the long run. Essays in Volume II of this publication contribute to this approach, as well as examining why the performance in a given country or group of countries has improved or deteriorated in the long-term depending on changing development strategies.

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        Review of Maritime Transport 2016 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 118 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Facilitation

        The 2016 Review of Maritime Transport discusses long-term growth prospects for seaborne trade and maritime business. It argues these prospects are positive and that there are ample opportunities for developing countries to generate income and employment and help promote foreign trade.

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        Robots and Industrialization in Developing Countries (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2016, 4 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology, Trade Negotiations

        This publication, Robots and Industrialization in Developing Countries, discusses the contribution of advanced technologies on the manufacturing sector. It analysis trends on commodity growth and financial inflows with industrialization, with a primary focus on Africa and Latin America. It further summarizes the move towards the use of robots on developing countries in terms of its impacts and policy implications.

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        The Role of Ict in Implementation of the Wto Trade Facilitation Agreement: Some Preliminary Reflections (English)
        Policy brief by Lacey, Simon/ARTNet, 2016, 8 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This policy brief aims to highlight some ways that Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) will play a role in helping WTO members implement their commitments under the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA). It argues that there are ways ICT can be leveraged to enhance and facilitate WTO members in realizing the objectives inherent to the TFA.

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        Sand in the Wheels: Non-Tariff Measures and Regional Integration in Sadc (English)
        Report by Vanzetti et al/UNCTAD, 2016, 33 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Facilitation

        Non-tariff measures (NTMs) are policy measures, other than ordinary customs tariffs, that can potentially have an economic effect on international trade in goods, changing quantities traded, or prices or both. The most common NTMs in SADC are sanitary and phyto-sanitary restrictions, certification procedures, quantity control measures, other technical regulations, government procurement, investment restrictions and intellectual property rights. Some measures are legitimate, such as those relating to food safety and the introduction of invasive species, but other measures may be used to limit trade to protect domestic producers or trade restrictiveness unintentionally exceeds what is needed for the measure’s non-trade objectives. It is relatively simple to list the numerous non-tariff measures, but assessing their impact is more difficult. Two methods involve trying to measure the effect on quantity using a gravity model or by looking at the gap between world and domestic prices. To illustrate the methodology and potential impacts of reducing barriers, we assume SADC countries have similar NTMs as the average for Africa. The impacts on trade, output, employment and incomes of reducing these barriers are assessed using a global general equilibrium model. Depending on the initial trade flows and the magnitude and scope for removing the trade distorting effects of non-tariff measures, the increases in national exports are up to 2.2 per cent. National output, employment and incomes will also increase in all SADC countries

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        Science, Technology & Innovation Policy Review: Islamic Republic of Iran (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 112 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Science and Technology

        The Science, Technology & Innovation Policy Review (STIP Review) is a neutral and unbiased assessment of the effectiveness of government policies with regard to STI development and a pointer to the way ahead. It examines Iran’s National Innovation System, along with its oil, gas and petrochemical industries and biopharmaceuticals. The review observed that the national development policy was aiming to shift the country from a natural-resource-based economy to a more knowledge-based one; a need for economic diversification away from the predominant O&G industry through a process of industrialization; and an export-oriented economic approach. The Islamic Republic of Iran’s national policy documents, also includes the following countries: Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Egypt, Georgia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Oman, Palestine, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan and Yemen.

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        Services Liberalization in Transition Economies: the Case of North and Central Asia (English)
        Working paper by Soprana, Mata/ARTNet & UN ESCAP, 2016, 32 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Facilitation

        This paper offers a review, analysis and assessment of the status of services liberalization in North and Central Asia. This study provides an overview of the binding commitments undertaken by transition economies under the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and an evaluation of how they compare to domestic policy reform, with a focus on the three transition economies that most recently acceded to the WTO: Kazakhstan, the Russian Federation and Tajikistan. It proceeds to explore the scope of interest in services liberalization in North and Central Asia, highlighting the reasons behind the relative little attention so far received by the services sector in the region.

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        Sme Competitiveness Outlook 2016: Meeting the Standard for Trade (English)
        Report by International Trade Centre (ITC), 2016, 354 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Enterprise Development

        The report focuses on the role of standards and regulations in increasing the competitiveness of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The report combines data analysis, academic insights, thought leader opinions and case studies to provide guidance for policymakers, SME managers and standard setters. It discusses standards as different as food safety standards, environmental standards, container size standards, security technology standards for encrypted communication, labour standards, accounting standards and medical and wellness tourism standards; provides both general insights into the impact of standards and regulations on SME competitiveness, and targeted insights into specific channels through which individual standards and regulations affect SMEs. Based on the findings the report provides readers with: strategies for SME managers on how to select and implement standards and regulations, and an action plan for policymakers and TISIs.

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        The Statistical Tables on the Least Developed Countries 2016 (English)
        Data by UNCTAD, 2016, 33 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        The Statistical Tables on the Least Developed Countries 2016 provides a collection of statistics and indicators relevant to the analysis of development in the least developed countries (LDCs). Reliable statistical information is indispensable for formulating sound economic policies and recommendations. The tables provide policymakers, researchers, academics, officials from national governments or international organizations, journalists, executive managers and members of non-governmental organizations access to cross-comparable sets of data. The tables are available online in document and spreadsheet format.

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        Sustainable Fisheries: International Trade, Trade Policy and Regulatory Issues (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2016, 42 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This note proposes an agenda for sustainable fisheries that promotes the conservation and sustainable use of, and sustained trade in, fish by all and ensures that development benefits accrue to fishing nations and their populations, in developing countries in particular. It provides a stock-taking of the present situation regarding fish, and a forward-looking view on future actions that need to be supported by renewed mandates for action by governments, the private sector and other fisheries stakeholders.

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        Sustaining Peacebuilding and Post-Conflict Recovery Through Biotrade: Lessons from Indonesia and Colombia (English)
        Report by Castro, Lorena/UNCTAD, 2016, 35 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Biodiversity is life's foundation as it provides resources for basic human needs, environmental services such as protecting water sources, and natural raw materials that enable the development of products and services. Around 1.6 billion people depend on forests and non-timber forest products (NTFPs) for their livelihoods. The importance of biodiversity is also increasingly recognized in business. It is not only seen as a source of natural inputs for development but also a business opportunity for capturing consumer preferences for socially, environmentally and health-friendly products. This study discusses the different approaches being used by the BioTrade Initiative and its partners in the sustainable management of biodiversity, trading its derived products and services, and promoting peaceful and inclusive societies in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The first chapter highlights the linkages between trade, biodiversity and peaceful, inclusive societies which are important goals in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. It is followed by an analysis of the different methodologies used to promote BioTrade in support of peacebuilding efforts. The next two chapters analyse case studies and lessons learned from leveraging BioTrade in peacebuilding in Indonesia and Colombia, respectively. The final chapter concludes with some recommendations on strengthening the contribution BioTrade can make to peacebuilding efforts in post-conflict settings.

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        Sustaining Peacebuilding and Post-Conflict Recovery Through Biotrade: Lessons from Indonesia and Colombia (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 35 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Trade and Environment

        This study discusses the different approaches being used by the BioTrade Initiative and its partners in the sustainable management of biodiversity, trading its derived products and services, and promoting peaceful and inclusive societies in Africa, Asia and Latin America. The first chapter highlights the linkages between trade, biodiversity and peaceful, inclusive societies which are important goals in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (Secretariat of the CBD, 2015c). It is followed by an analysis of the different methodologies used to promote BioTrade in support of peacebuilding efforts. The two following chapters analyse case studies and lessons learned from leveraging BioTrade in peacebuilding in Indonesia and Colombia, respectively. The final chapter concludes with some recommendations on strengthening the contribution BioTrade can make to peacebuilding efforts in post-conflict settings.

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        Trade and Development Report 2016 (Overview): Structural Transformation for Inclusive and Sustained Growth (Overview) (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 34 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Facilitation

        The Trade and Development Report 2016: Structural Transformation for Inclusive and Sustained Growth (Overview) provides an introduction to the main Trade and Development Report. It outlines the policy challenges of the 2030 development agenda, and provides a synopsis of global trends and forecasts of the year ahead. The overview also summarizes the antinomies of globalization, the missing linkages, reconnecting trade to structural transformation, an unhealthy investment climate and the industrial policy redux addressed in the report.

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        Trade and Development Report 2016: Structural Transformation for Inclusive and Sustained Growth (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 251 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Facilitation

        The Trade and Development Report 2016: Structural Transformation for Inclusive and Sustained Growth, examines one of the big policy challenges at the center of the 2030 development agenda: how to establish strong linkages and complementary policies across the range of productive sectors needed to establish a virtuous circle of rising and shared prosperity. The Report addresses such issues as the "middle income trap", "premature deindustrialization" and the "natural resource curse" through an examination of trade specialization, investment financing and the effective use of industrial policies.

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        Trade and Environment Review 2016: Fish Trade (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 95 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Facilitation, Trade Related Capacity Building

        The 2016 Trade and Environment Review on fish trade examines issues pertinent to the promotion of sustainable use of living marine resources mainly fish in healthy oceans and seas. It focuses on trade in fish within the context of the oceans economy, often also referred to as the blue economy, in terms of challenges and opportunities for the global community in implementing Agenda 2030 and specifically SDG 14. The report is structured in three parts. Part I focuses on the international and regional (governance and legal) framework for oceans and sustainable fisheries and to future trade trends and prospects, including the potential impact of climate change. Part II of the TER provides a prognosis of international trade in fish and fish products by 2035. And Part III addresses the difficult matter of harmful incentives that facilitate overfishing and leads to fish stock depletion, primarily in terms of IUU fishing and fisheries subsidies.

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        Trade and Poverty Paper Series: Trade and Current Account Balances in Sub-Saharan Africa: Stylized Facts and Implications for Poverty (English)
        Report by Moussa, Nicole/ UNCTAD, 2016, 28 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty

        This paper examines the main components of Sub-Saharan Africa's balance of payments with a view to understanding the role that trade has played in the evolution of current account imbalances in the region. The paper finds that increasing trade openness in SSA has been accompanied by current account deficits in majority of the countries. The paper also finds that while at the aggregate level net income payments were the main source of the current account deficits in SSA, in the majority of countries the trade deficit was the main driver. Furthermore, the paper argues that the composition of the current account matters for employment and poverty and offers suggestions on how to make trade better work for SSA.

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        Trade, Gender and Development: Advocating Inclusive and Gender-Sensitive Economic Development on a Global Level (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2016, 12 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Gender

        This publication summarizes the role of UNCTAD in mainstreaming the relationship between gender and trade. It highlights the impact of research, workshops, conferences and other activities in promoting gender equality, and presents local perspectives from participants.

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        Trade Misinvoicing in Primary Commodities in Developing Countries: the Cases of Chile, Cote D’ivoire, Nigeria, South Africa and Zambia (English)
        Policy brief by Ndikumana, Léonce/UNCTAD, 2016, 38 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Investment, Trade Related Capacity Building

        This policy brief discusses features of the regulatory environment, notably tariffs, customs, export subsidies, exchange controls, coupled with imperfect monitoring and poor enforcement of regulations which may create incentives for trade misinvoicing by agents seeking to maximize profits and other gains such as access to foreign exchange out of control of the regulating authority. It argues these factors contribute to the undermining developing countries’ gains from commodity trade. This study specifically aims to contribute to research and policy debates by providing empirical evidence on the magnitude of trade misinvoicing in the particular case of primary commodity exports from a sample comprising four resource-dependent developing countries (Chile, Côte d’Ivoire, Nigeria and Zambia) and a more diversified resource-rich middle-income country (South Africa). This study describes in detail the process of using UN Comtrade data to identify major products and leading partners that will be the focus of the analysis based on the established statistical methodology for estimation of export misinvoicing at the product and partner levels.

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        Trade Policy Framework: Angola (English)
        Report by Chisanga, Edward/ UNCTAD; Mathew, Thomas/ UNCTAD, 2016, 92 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The study examines Angola’s participation in international trade and its existing trade policy, and seeks to recommend some areas of policy changes that may help the Government to improve its trade performance and bring about inclusive development. As regards merchandise trade, the study identifies several sectors that could be usefully explored for the country’s export diversification efforts, particularly through accelerated agro-based industries development. As regards trade services, the study identifies some key services sectors in which reforms and improvement in the supply side would be necessary to boost trade. For telecommunications services, it calls for raising funds to create a broadband infrastructure in order to connect all urban and rural geographic regions of the country and establish connections with the regional infrastructures supporting the development of telecommunications. For tourism services, it calls for development of the Angolan tourism services through quality products, incorporating the regional, cultural and natural diversity and to stimulate and facilitate the consumption of Angolan tourism products in the national, intraregional and international market.

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        Trading into Sustainable Development: Trade, Market Access and the Sustainable Development Goals (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 86 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Globalization and Development Strategies

        This report examines various interactions between trade policy, with a specific focus on market access conditions, and factors that constitute the basis for achieving sustainable development. Market access conditions vis-à- vis imports are determined by a combination of border measures and “behind the border” measures, both of which add costs to the price of an imported product. By generating significant impact upon consumer welfare and the competitiveness of domestic industries, market access conditions in international trade thus are a key determinant of the effectiveness of trade as a means of implementation.

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        Trips Flexibilities and Anti-Counterfeit Legislation in Kenya and the East African Community (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2016, 26 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Facilitation

        UNCTAD assists in the implementation of flexibilities in intellectual property (IP) rights available under the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). The full use of TRIPS flexibilities to protect public health, and, in particular, to provide access to medicines for all, is a target under Sustainable Development Goal 3 ("Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages").The availability of TRIPS flexibilities creates the legal space for the production of generic medicines, and may thus provide important incentives for foreign generic firms to invest in a country's domestic pharmaceutical sector. UNCTAD considers the use of TRIPS flexibilities as an important element to promote generic pharmaceutical investment and domestic enterprise development under sustainable investment policy frameworks.2 In order for such frameworks to be coherent and effective, policy makers should avoid discrepancies between the use of TRIPS flexibilities, the enforcement of intellectual property rights (IPRs), and domestic laws and policies on drug regulation. This paper aims to make a contribution to the ongoing debate in Kenya and the East African Community (EAC) about substandard drugs, access to medicines, local pharmaceutical production, and the role of IPRs enforcement and drug regulatory laws.

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        UNCTAD B2c E-Commerce Index 2016: UNCTAD Technical Notes on Ict for Development N°7 (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2016, 30 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report provides an update on the UNCTAD Business-to-Consumer (B2C) E-Commerce Index, first introduced in the Information Economy Report 2015: Unlocking the Potential of E-commerce for Developing Countries. It reviews the possibility of incorporating other indicators, tests the robustness of existing indicators and updates the Index with the latest available data.

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        UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics (English)
        Data by UNCTAD, 2016, 264 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics provides a collection of statistics and indicators relevant to the analysis of international trade, investment and development. Reliable statistical information is indispensable for formulating sound policies and recommendations that may commit countries for many years as they strive to integrate into the world economy and improve the living standards of their citizens.

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        UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics 2016 (English)
        Data by UNCTAD, 2016, 264 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics provides a collection of statistics and indicators relevant to the analysis of international trade, investment and development. The statistics provided can be used in formulating sound policies and recommendations for countries striving to integrate into the world economy and improve the living standards of their citizens. It features reliable and internationally comparable trade, financial and macroeconomic data, covering several decades and as many countries as possible.

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        Viewing the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement Through an Agriculture Lens (English)
        Discussion paper by Boonekamp, Clemens/UNCTAD, 2016, 56 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Related Capacity Building

        The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) trade agreement will be one of the most consequential trade agreements in twenty years, on par with the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) or China’s entry to the World Trade Organization (WTO).1 The TPP is deeper and broader than other agreements, containing 30 chapters that bind 12 member countries (Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, United States and Vietnam) together in ways that are often covered in less depth or are even carved out completely. Most the TPP takes effect immediately. As discussed in greater detail below, roughly 90 percent of all tariffs fall to zero on the date of entry into force of the agreement. All of the services and investment provisions kick in immediately. Much of the remainder of the agreement’s rule book also becomes active from the first day, with some flexibility for some of the rules in areas like intellectual property rights protections for countries like Vietnam. Once the TPP has been fully implemented, nearly all of the tariffs will be at zero for all of the TPP members moving goods between markets in the agreement. These provisions apply even to sensitive items like agriculture. The TPP could dramatically reconfigure supply chains in food and processed food items in ways that past trade agreements did not. The deep and broad commitments in the TPP sets up some interesting new dynamics. It is likely to exacerbate tensions in the global trading system that fall most acutely on the smallest, poorest states as companies increasingly “vote with their feet” and shift production, sales and services into TPP member markets and leave behind non-member markets in the region.

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        World Investment Report 2016 - Investor Nationality: Policy Challenges (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 232 pages
        Categories: Investment

        This latest edition of the World Investment Report is being issued as the world embarks on the crucial work of implementing the landmark 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Paris Agreement on climate change. The key findings and policy recommendations of the Report are far reaching and can contribute to our efforts to uphold the promise to leave no one behind and build a world of dignity for all. I therefore commend this Report to a wide global audience.

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        World Investment Report 2016: Key Messages and Overview (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2016, 52 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment

        This latest edition of the World Investment Report is being issued as the world embarks on the crucial work of implementing the landmark 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Paris Agreement on climate change. The key findings and policy recommendations of the Report are far reaching and can contribute to our efforts to uphold the promise to leave no one behind and build a world of dignity for all. I therefore commend this Report to a wide global audience.

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        World Tariff Profiles 2016 (English)
        Report by WTO, ITC, UNCTAD, 2016, 232 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        World Tariff Profiles 2016 provides summary tariff statistics for all countries and territories for all products, as well as a breakdown into agricultural and non-agricultural products. It also shows for each country a disaggregation by sectors and duty ranges. The report contains a section on the market on the market access conditions faced in their respective export markets, and a new section on the statistics of the impact on non-tariff measures. This edition also contains a special topic focusing on the 2017 version of the Harmonized System.

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        World Trade Report 2016 - Levelling the trading field for SMEs (English)
        Report by Auboin et al/WTO, 2016, 182 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Trade Facilitation, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The report provides a examines the participation of small and medium -sized enterprises (SMEs) in international trade. It examines how the international trade landscape is changing and what the multilateral trading system does and can do to encourage more widespread and inclusive SME participation in global markets.

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        World Trade Statistical Review 2016 (English)
        Report by WTO, 2016, 165 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The 2016 World Trade Statistical Review provides an overview of current trends in world trade and policy developments. This year's publication uses statistics within a global economic context to explain the reasons how and why global trade is changing. It provides comprehensive data with a particular focus on trade policy, the participation of developing economies in world trade and a more detailed look at selected goods and services.

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