A partnership with academia

Building knowledge for trade and development

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        Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals in the Least Developed Countries: a Compendium of Policy Options (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 223 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Related Capacity Building

        This Compendium reviews the policy recommendations derived from the analytical reports of UNCTAD’s Division for Africa, Least Developed Countries and Special Programmes over the past 14 years. It is primarily addressed to LDC policymakers, as an easily accessible reference, offering a comprehensive and coherent set of policy options which LDC governments may consider in their challenging undertaking of achieving the SDGs. At the same time, the Compendium also serves as an appeal to their development partners for collaborative support at the international level.

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        The African Continental Free Trade Area: the Day After the Kigali Summit (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2018, 4 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The African Continental Free Trade Area is a remarkable achievement. At a time when trade is questioned in some parts of the world, African leaders gathered in Kigali on 21 March 2018, and took a bold step in favour of trade and of the economic integration of the continent. This policy brief examines the expectations for the Free Trade Area and outlines areas that require prompt action by African nations for the agreement to deliver on its expectations. In the challenges that lie ahead, including the next chapter of the Kigali Agreement on the African Continental Free Trade Area, UNCTAD will continue supporting African nations.

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        Asean Investment Report 2018: Foreign Direct Investment and the Digital Economy in Asean (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 296 pages
        Categories: Investment

        The 2018 Report looks into the investment landscape and implications of digital economy and e-Commerce in ASEAN, and also discusses the policy options and digital economy strategy for the region. ASEAN needs to keep the momentum of rising investment in the ICT sector by intensifying its collective effort to narrow the digital divide, develop digital skills, address logistical bottlenecks and payment systems, and manage the potential risks of the digital revolution, as it moves forward to embrace the fourth industrial revolution (4IR).

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        The Big (Data) Bang: What Will It Mean for Compiling Sdg Indicators? (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 31 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This paper outlines the opportunities, challenges and governance issues involved with big data from the perspective of producing SDG indicators. In particular, the paper will examine some of the challenges surrounding access, and for confidentiality and privacy.

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        Building the Capacities of Least Developed Countries to Upgrade and Diversify Fish Exports: Training Manual (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2018, 85 pages
        Categories: Trade Related Capacity Building

        The manual combines information and knowledge from two areas: (1) export development and diversification, on the one hand, and (2) standards on fish safety and quality, on the other. It does not go deeply into the details of either field; instead, a premium is put on brevity and clarity to enable ease of understanding and to promote the effective implementation of the recommendations made. Additional sources are provided throughout the text for readers interested in further — and more detailed — explorations of the issues discussed.

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        Climate Policies, Economic Diversification and Trade (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 19 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        This paper explores two broad areas of policy that may hold some promise in terms of economic diversification. Section 2 asks whether the rise of global value chains as a mode of production offers any opportunities to foster economic diversity that leads to reduced response measure vulnerability. Section 3 then asks whether green industrial policy might similarly bring new light to the discussion.

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        Connecting Sustainable Development Goals 15 and 16: Biotrade Experiences in Colombia and Indonesia (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 50 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        This document aims to demonstrate how BioTrade is supporting countries to build sustainable and peaceful societies, thus illustrating the connection between the Sustainable Development Goals 15 (Life on land) and SDG16 (Peace, justice and strong institutions). It starts by providing an overview of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, and the linkages between trade, biodiversity and peaceful, inclusive societies. Secondly, BioTrade is analysed, particularly its principles, approaches and methodologies and how these can support peacebuilding and postconflict processes. Afterwards, case studies from Colombia and Indonesia are presented. Finally, the document provides general and specific conclusions and recommendations for developing post-conflict BioTrade initiatives and programmes.

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        Debt Vulnerabilities in Developing Countries: a New Debt Trap?- Volume I: Regional and Thematic Analyses (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 96 pages
        Categories: International Financial System

        Volume I brings together papers that analyse different regional aspects of evolving debt dynamics in the developing world, detailing many of the issues raised in this introduction in these specific contexts. It also introduces an additional, and often neglected, wider feature of these debt dynamics, namely the role of microdebt crises across the developing world and the bankruptcy of the microcredit model.

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        Financial Regulation and Management of the Legal Risk. the Case of Alternative Investment Funds in the Eu. (English)
        Working paper by Michele Barbieri, 2018, 48 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, International Financial System

        The last decade has witnessed a sharp increase of the regulatory requirements applicable to investment funds, in an attempt to ensure that their operations do not undermine financial stability but, on the contrary, might be beneficial to economic growth both in developing and developed countries. The increase of fund regulation, and of its complexity, has made it imperative for investment funds to develop appropriate systems and tools to properly manage legal risks. The paper presents a methodology that may be used to identify, in the alternative fund management industry, which are the main legal risks arising in each phase of the fund lifecycle. Furthermore, the paper indicates how these legal risks could be properly detected and mitigated.

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        Forging a Path Beyond Borders: the Global South (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 98 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation

        The report prepared by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), Forging a Path Beyond Borders: The Global South, analyses the rising global South – past and present – with an eye to reinvigorating this important and unique source of development cooperation. The report analyses the main challenges and opportunities in South–South trade, investment and finance and emphasizes growing opportunities for South–South cooperation on technology transfers and partnerships for technological innovation, as well as the suitable policies needed, to kick off innovative partnerships in key emerging areas such as “Industry 4.0”. It was informed by an earlier draft version, presented at an informal thematic consultation, held on 5 November 2018 and organized by UNCTAD in cooperation with the Permanent Mission of the Argentine Republic to the United Nations Office and other international organizations in Geneva. The outcome of the consultation and a set of non-binding recommendations are included in this final report.

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        Handbook of Statistics 2018 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 104 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics 2018 provides a wide range of statistics and indicators relevant to the analysis of international trade, investment, maritime transport and development. This year’s edition includes, for the first time in the history of the Handbook, short-term forecasts for a selection of key variables: the value of world merchandise exports (chapter 1), the value of world services exports (chapter 2), and world real gross domestic product (chapter 3). This innovation responds to an increased demand for up-to-date information to monitor global international trade, study the impact of economic or political developments, and guide policy responses. The presented forecasts are not derived from global macroeconomic models or exogenous scenarios on the future state of the global economy. They are applications of what is commonly referred to in the literature as a nowcast or contemporaneous forecast: a real-time evaluation of a variable based on a series of relevant and timely indicators. They are based on the latest data available in October 2018. A summary of the methodological approach applied is included in annex 6.3 Calculation methods.

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        Investment Policy Review of Cabo Verde (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 107 pages
        Categories: Investment

        The IPR of Cabo Verde was initiated at the request of the Government. It analyses the legal and regulatory framework for investment, and contains a strategic analysis on how to better utilize FDI in the tourism sector as a leverage for sustainable development. It is based on two fact-finding missions undertaken in July and December 2017 and information current at that time, as well as additional information made available to UNCTAD until May 2018. The mission received the full cooperation of the relevant ministries, departments and agencies, in particular Cabo Verde tradeInvest. The mission also benedited from the views of the private sector, both foreign and and domestic, as well as bilateral donors and development agencies. The Government and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in Cabo Verde provided substantive contributions as well as logistical support to the IPR process.

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        Key Statistics and Trends in Economic Integration: ACP Region (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 59 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report is structured into two parts. The first part briefly summarizes the history of the ACP group and presents an overview of ACP economies in the world economy and some challenges that member States face. The second part provides illustrative statistics on ACP countries' trade in goods and services during the last decade. The section includes various indicators of trade structure, services trade and investment flows, trade facilitation, tariffs and non-tariff measures as well as international competitiveness. While the section presents some of the most commonly used trade indicators for the ACP group as a whole, some other figures compare the structure and performance of three geographical regions of the ACP: Africa, Caribbean and Pacific.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2018 - Entrepreneurship for Structural Transformation: Beyond Business as Usual (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 190 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        The Least Developed Countries Report 2018 presents a compelling case for a structural transformation-centred approach to entrepreneurship policy in the least developed countries. The report underscores entrepreneurship policy based on a fundamental recognition of disparities in the contribution of different types of entrepreneurship to structural transformation and wealth creation. It establishes a more active and proactive stance for the State in steering the emergence of dynamic and transformational local entrepreneurship. Importantly, it calls upon the least developed countries not to overlook the pivotal and complementary role played by large enterprises, alongside medium-sized and smaller enterprises, with a view to the least developed countries formulating deliberate strategies to nurture entrepreneurship that has impact. By encouraging least developed country policymakers to avoid policies that might undervalue the benefits of entrepreneurship, this report makes an invaluable contribution to least developed country efforts to add value to their implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2018 (Overview) (English)
        Also available in Chinese, Spanish, French, Russian
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 29 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        The Least Developed Countries Report 2018 presents a compelling case for a structural transformation-centred approach to entrepreneurship policy in the least developed countries. The report underscores entrepreneurship policy based on a fundamental recognition of disparities in the contribution of different types of entrepreneurship to structural transformation and wealth creation. It establishes a more active and proactive stance for the State in steering the emergence of dynamic and transformational local entrepreneurship. Importantly, it calls upon the least developed countries not to overlook the pivotal and complementary role played by large enterprises, alongside medium-sized and smaller enterprises, with a view to the least developed countries formulating deliberate strategies to nurture entrepreneurship that has impact. By encouraging least developed country policymakers to avoid policies that might undervalue the benefits of entrepreneurship, this report makes an invaluable contribution to least developed country efforts to add value to their implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

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        Market Access, Trade and Sustainable Development: the Labour Market Channel (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 83 pages
        Categories: Trade Related Capacity Building

        This report provides guidance to trade-policy makers aiming to design employment-centered trade policies. The first chapter is a brief introduction to the issue at stake and underlines its relevance to the current debate about the role of international trade in facilitating the achievement of the SDGs. The second chapter of this report reviews the existing theoretical and empirical literature on the relationship between trade and labour market outcomes. Informality, which is an important feature of the labour market in most developing countries, and its role in framing the latter relationship are discussed in detail. The third chapter of the report presents a diagnostic tool constructed based on insights from the previous chapter, providing detailed information on data requirements and methodology. The diagnostic tool is designed to be used as a first step in assessing the potential employment implications of trade policy. It uses data to build evidence that provides qualitative guidance. It is complementary to simulation tools that estimate numerical outcomes under possible policy reform scenarios but rely on simplifying assumptions.

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        Misreported Trade (English)
        Working paper by Mohammad Farhad, Michael Jetter, Abu Siddique, Andrew Williams, 2018, 45 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper introduces a methodology to measure misreported trade in a consistent way across countries and over time. Our methodology does not require any assumptions about which countries may be more or less likely to misreport – rather, all indices are derived endogenously with available trade data. We derive seven specific indices related to overall misreporting, as well as over- and under-reporting of exports and imports. Applying this method to existing bilateral trade data on the HS 4-digit level from 1996-2015, we present several rankings and describe a few prominent cases, such as China. Overall, our indices can explain intuitive developments well and should help researchers to study countries’ trade misreporting in a global dimension that is comparable across countries and over time. We conclude the paper with an application, focusing on the role of tariff and VAT rates as predictors of import under-reporting. As predicted by economic theory, case studies, and economic intuition, we find positive correlations for both tariff and VAT rates with import under-reporting. These results are robust to the inclusion of potentially confounding factors, as well as country- and time-fixed effects.

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        National Green Export Review of Angola: Baseline Report (English)
        Also available in Spanish
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 39 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        This baseline report evaluates green sectors already in place in the Republic of Angola and works as a background document and a step-by-step guideline to support discussions at national level with local stakeholders. Evaluation and identification of sectors will take place initially using a Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) analysis of green sectors with expansion potential in Angola. In short, the baseline report aims to present a panorama of key issues related to local green sectors, with attention given to enhancing their regulatory, institutional and trade related performance. As such, the baseline report operates as a supporting document for discussion among local stakeholders on strategic approaches to further the development of Angola’s green products and services and their related sectors based on a collaborative, inter-sectoral, and strategic approach. It is important to mention that selected sectors covered in this baseline report include those sectors in which Angola has already achieved considerable experience, but further growth can be achieved. The intention is to use them as stepping-stones to prepare national consultant(s) and to promote local stakeholder workshops, which will serve as training activities and canvass a wide spectrum of viewpoints by collaboratively identifying and selecting new options of green products and services for Angola and develop sectoral action plans. In addition, they guarantee that this inter-sectoral forum will undertake follow-up measures for further implementation of the NGER process with UNCTAD’s support.

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        National Green Export Review of Ethiopia: Leather and Sesame Seeds (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 39 pages
        Categories: Trade Related Capacity Building

        This report reviews global trends in the leather and sesame sectors, their role to the national economy, and Ethiopia's export policy framework, performance, and competitiveness in these sectors. In addition, the report also presents SWOT analysis that indicates remaining challenges and barriers that constrain performance in these sectors.

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        Only Words? How Power in Trade Agreement Texts Affects International Trade Flows (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2018, 23 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Related Capacity Building

        The texts of international trade agreements are often recycled from previous treaties. Large and rich countries are more likely to act as "rulemakers" who have an internally consistent treaty network, while smaller and poorer countries are more likely to be "rule-takers" whose treaties resemble those of their partners more than their own. To study whether rule-makers benefit more from trade agreements than rule-takers, the paper uses a new text corpus of machine-readable trade agreement texts, Texts of Trade Agreements (ToTA). It builds indicators of textual similarity that capture how much an agreement resembles each party's previous agreements and introduce them into a gravity model of international trade. The results show that the exports of countries that had a greater influence on the treaty text increase more than their partners'. In an "average" situation, the rule-maker increases its exports by about 16.3%, while the rule-taker only increases its exports by about 8.8%.The effect is driven by the influence of the importer, suggesting that powerful countries effectively restrict access to their markets. The results demonstrate that the recycling of trade agreements has real economic effects, suggesting that countries should carefully assess text proposals when negotiating a trade agreement.

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        Policy Guide on Entrepreneurship for Migrants and Refugees (English)
        Report by UNCTAD; IOM; UNHCR, 2018, 179 pages
        Categories: Migration and Development

        This policy guide focuses on the role of entrepreneurship in enhancing the positive effects of migration on economic growth and development. It is a practical tool aimed at strengthening the humanitarian-development nexus urged by the World Humanitarian Summit in May 2016 and the New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants adopted at the 71st United Nations General Assembly in September 2016. In order to inform policy decisions and programming, UNCTAD, IOM and UNHCR have put together their forces to provide a fact-based guide, highlighting the positive social, cultural and economic contribution that migrants and refugees can make to their home and host countries.

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        Regional Integration and Non-Tariff Measures in the Economic Community of West African States (Ecowas) (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 49 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This study provides an institutional overview of NTMs and an assessment of its impacts on regional integration in West Africa. It is part of a global initiative titled the “Global Transparency in Trade Initiative” jointly implemented by the Bank, UNCTAD, ITC and the World Bank to improve transparency in and access to trade data. ECOWAS was the first region in Africa in which the partners systematically mapped, collected, organized and analyzed all NTM data, including non-tariff barriers and behind-the-border regulations such as SPS measures and TBTs. The report utilizes innovative methods to assess regulatory convergence and evaluate the impact of NTMs from an economic, legal and institutional perspective. From the analysis, clear policy recommendations are identified for policy makers in ECOWAS and their development partners.

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        Review of Maritime Transport 2018 - 50th Anniversary Edition (1968-2018) (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 116 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Maritime transport is the backbone of international trade and the global economy. Around 80 per cent of global trade by volume and over 70 per cent of global trade by value are carried by sea and are handled by ports worldwide. Global seaborne trade is doing well, supported by the 2017 upswing in the world economy. Expanding at 4 per cent, the fastest growth in five years, global maritime trade gathered momentum and raised sentiment in the shipping industry. While the prospects for seaborne trade are bright, downside risks such as increased inward-looking policies and the rise of trade protectionism are, nevertheless, weighing on the outlook. An immediate concern is the trade tensions between China and the United States of America, the world’s two largest economies, as well as those between Canada, Mexico, the United States and the European Union. Escalating trade frictions may lead to a trade war that could derail recovery, reshape global maritime trade patterns and dampen the outlook. Other factors driving uncertainty include the ongoing global energy transition, structural shifts in economies such as China, and shifts in global value chain development patterns. If leveraged effectively, game-changing trends, such as digitalization, electronic commerce (e-commerce) and the Belt and Road Initiative, the exact impact of which is yet to be fully understood, have the potential to add wind to the sails of global seaborne trade.

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        Selected Sustainable Development Trends in the Least Developed Countries 2018 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 33 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This document is a contribution to the United Nations system’s efforts to follow up and monitor the implementation of Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development, since it reviews recent progress against selected targets and indicators related explicitly to the 47 least developed countries (LDCs). Its conceptual starting point can be traced to paragraph 27 of the Agenda, and the stated commitment to “build strong economic foundations for all our countries (… and) strengthen the productive capacities of least developed countries in all sectors, including through structural transformation”. In line with the above, the document presents a brief assessment of recent economic trends and progress towards selected Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) targets and indicators in the LDCs. In doing so, it highlights some of LDCs’ key development challenges, which stem from their own domestic conditions, but also from the specific terms of their interdependence within the global economy. Far from providing a full-fledged country-specific assessment, this document emphasises predominantly the latter international dimension, consistently with the view, expressed in paragraph 3 of the Nairobi Maafikiano, that “while each country has primary responsibility for its own economic and social development, the support of an enabling international environment is integral to the success of national efforts”.

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        Solidarity and the South: Supporting the New Landscape of Long-Term Development Finance (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 27 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development

        This paper is structured in five sections. Part 1 introduces the many recent innovations in Southern-led development finance and their potential benefits, tempered with a reminder of lessons learned about the support these new institutions will need in the future. Part 2 charts the new landscape of development finance, identifying Southern-led and global mechanisms and resources that now potentially offer trillions of dollars' worth of support through foreign reserves, national development banks and sovereign wealth funds, southern regional banks and funds, plus the global multilateral World Bank and regional banks. It shows that the centre of gravity of development finance has moved firmly southwards. Part 3 assesses the extent to which the changes in bank ownership, mandates and governance means Southern-led banks are 'doing things differently', with respect to conditionality, scale and speed of loans. Amid these potentially positive developments. Part 4 warns that some things are not that different after all - including long-standing regional imbalances, the continued power of Credit Rating Agencies, and concerns about concessional lending. Part 5 concludes by suggesting how the development community can better support the new and expanded southern banks and funds, to build on their strengths and address their limitations.

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        Statistical Tables on the Least Developed Countries - 2018 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 36 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The Statistical Tables on the Least Developed Countries – 2018 provides a collection of statistics and indicators relevant to the analysis of development in the least developed countries (LDCs). Reliable statistical information is indispensable for formulating sound economic policies and recommendations. The tables provide policymakers, researchers, academics, officials from national governments or international organizations, journalists, executive managers and members of non-governmental organizations access to cross-comparable sets of data.

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        Technology and Innovation Report 2018: Harnessing Frontier Technologies for Sustainable Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 134 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        The Technology and Innovation Report 2018: Harnessing Frontier Technologies for Sustainable Development notes that change is becoming exponential thanks to the power of digital platforms and innovative combinations of different technologies that become possible every day. This opens exciting possibilities for the democratization of frontier technologies to materialize in development solutions. The Report proposes strategies and actions, some of them based on existing experiences in STI policy for development, and some more innovative ones to make technology an effective means of implementation of our common development agenda – nationally and globally.

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        Technology and Innovation Report 2018 - Harnessing Frontier Technologies for Sustainable Development - Overview (English)
        Also available in Arabic, French, Chinese
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 19 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        The Technology and Innovation Report 2018: Harnessing Frontier Technologies for Sustainable Development notes that change is becoming exponential thanks to the power of digital platforms and innovative combinations of different technologies that become possible every day. This opens exciting possibilities for the democratization of frontier technologies to materialize in development solutions. The Report proposes strategies and actions, some of them based on existing experiences in STI policy for development, and some more innovative ones to make technology an effective means of implementation of our common development agenda – nationally and globally.

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        Trade and Development Report 2018 - Power, Platforms and the Free Trade Delusion (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 162 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Related Capacity Building

        Managing structural transformation is a big challenge at all levels of development. In part, that is because the mixture of creative and destructive forces accompanying such a transformation do not automatically translate into a virtuous growth circle while the rents that are inevitably created in the process can be captured by a privileged group in ways that clog the economic arteries and increase the dangers of a political stroke. There are already signs of this happening with the digital revolution. However, this is not inevitable and if history is any guide, public policy, including industrial policy, can help to manage more inclusive and sustainable outcomes. This set out some elements of that agenda. It has argued that structural transformation will also need to be accompanied by infrastructure planning. It has suggested that the old debate between balanced and unbalanced growth provides a rich discussion for thinking about those techniques, skills and institutional requirements. The bottom line when it comes to infrastructure spending is that it is too important a development matter to be left to the sole responsibility of finance ministries.

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        Trade and Development Report 2018 - Power, Platforms and the Free Trade Delusion - Overview (English)
        Also available in Arabic, Chinese, Spanish, French, Russian
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 31 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Related Capacity Building

        Managing structural transformation is a big challenge at all levels of development. In part, that is because the mixture of creative and destructive forces accompanying such a transformation do not automatically translate into a virtuous growth circle while the rents that are inevitably created in the process can be captured by a privileged group in ways that clog the economic arteries and increase the dangers of a political stroke. There are already signs of this happening with the digital revolution. However, this is not inevitable and if history is any guide, public policy, including industrial policy, can help to manage more inclusive and sustainable outcomes. This set out some elements of that agenda. It has argued that structural transformation will also need to be accompanied by infrastructure planning. It has suggested that the old debate between balanced and unbalanced growth provides a rich discussion for thinking about those techniques, skills and institutional requirements. The bottom line when it comes to infrastructure spending is that it is too important a development matter to be left to the sole responsibility of finance ministries.

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        Voluntary Peer Review of Competition Law and Policy: Botswana (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 47 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This report is based on information gathered during a fact-finding mission to Botswana carried out in October 2017 and current information available from various sources, including Government Ministry websites. Legislative developments since the time of information collection have been considered in finalizing the report.

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        What Drives Export Diversification? New Evidence from a Panel of Developing Countries (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2018, 23 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, Trade Related Capacity Building

        This paper attempts to fill the existing gap in the literature. It uses a large sample of developing countries and different regression techniques to analyse the role of various factors on export diversification in developing countries, particularly those in Africa and LDCs. The key contribution of this paper to the extant literature is that it incorporates simultaneously the roles of domestic production structure, natural resource endowments, and energy infrastructure and services in export diversification in developing countries. The incorporation of measures of domestic production structure and energy infrastructure capture the well-known idea that poor energy services and weak domestic production structures are binding constraints to exports, diversification and development in Africa and LDCs. The incorporation of natural resource endowments is justified because many countries in Africa and LDCs are resource-rich and economic theory suggests that resource endowments play a role in the diversification process. The rest of the paper is organized as follows: section 2 describes the data while section 3 presents the empirical strategy and the regression analyses. Section 4 contains concluding remarks and policy implications.

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        World Economic Situation and Prospects 2018 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD; UN-Desa; ECA; ECE; ECLAC; ESCAP; ESCWA, 2018, 207 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The 2008 financial crisis laid bare the inadequacies in the rules we need for a stable and prosperous global economy. After a long period of stagnation, the world economy is finally strengthening. In 2017, global economic growth approached 3 per cent — the highest rate since 2011. As the World Economic Situation and Prospects 2018 demonstrates, current macroeconomic conditions offer policymakers greater scope to address some of the deeprooted systemic issues and short-term thinking that continue to hamper progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals. While acknowledging that many cyclical and longer-term risks and challenges persist, the report notes that, in many parts of the world, conditions have improved to support the significant investment necessary for delivering the goods and services a growing population needs. This paves the way to reorient policy towards longer-term issues, such as rehabilitating and protecting the environment, making economic growth more inclusive and tackling institutional obstacles to development.

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        World Investment Report 2018: Investment and New Industrial Policies (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 213 pages
        Categories: Investment

        The World Investment Report 2018 aims to provide a better understanding of the interaction between new industrial policies and investment policies. It provides an overview of industrial policy models – based on an inventory of industrial policies adopted by more than 100 countries over the last decade – and the role of investment policies within each model. The Report illustrates how investment policy instruments are used differently across various models and suggests ways to improve the impact of industrial policy through more effective and efficient investment policies. Finally, the Report offers recommendations to update existing investment policy instruments, including investment incentives, special economic zones, investment facilitation and foreign investment screening mechanisms.

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        World Investment Report 2018 - Investment and New Industrial Policies - Overview (English)
        Also available in Arabic, Chinese, Spanish, French, Russian
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 45 pages
        Categories: Investment

        The World Investment Report 2018 aims to provide a better understanding of the interaction between new industrial policies and investment policies. It provides an overview of industrial policy models – based on an inventory of industrial policies adopted by more than 100 countries over the last decade – and the role of investment policies within each model. The Report illustrates how investment policy instruments are used differently across various models and suggests ways to improve the impact of industrial policy through more effective and efficient investment policies. Finally, the Report offers recommendations to update existing investment policy instruments, including investment incentives, special economic zones, investment facilitation and foreign investment screening mechanisms.

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        World Tariff Profiles 2018 - Co-Publication of the Wto, Itc and UNCTAD (English)
        Report by UNCTAD; ITC; WTO, 2018, 236 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This publication is presented in five main parts. The first part shows summary tariff statistics for all countries and territories for all products, as well as a breakdown into agricultural and nonagricultural products. The second part shows for each of these countries and territories one full page with disaggregation by sectors and duty ranges. It also contains a section on the market access conditions faced in their respective major export markets. A new third part has been added to this edition to cover information on non-tariff measures which are of increasing importance in international trade. The fourth part contains the special topic which presents a new subject in each edition. The annexes are in part five and include the data sources and the compilation of “Frequently Asked Questions”.

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