A partnership with academia

Building knowledge for trade and development

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        Can Electronic Commerce be an Engine for Global Growth? (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Secretariat, 1999, 10 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: This paper deals with the role of electronic commerce for developing countries and for countries in transition. Despite the potential of electronic commerce as a source for international growth and trade in various fields, the access to e-commerce remains uneven. On the basis of so far accomplished work in respective field, further steps are being outlined in order to be able to better seize positive impacts of electronic commerce for developing countries and countries with economies in transition. Who: Useful for students or teachers looking for a review of the most important aspects of electronic commerce and its implications and challenges for developing countries. How: Can serve as an introduction on the role of E-commerce for development. Some issues could be used as starting points for general or group discussions.

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        Capital flows to developing countries and the reform of the international financial system (English)
        Discussion Paper by Yilmaz Akyuz and Andrew Cornford, 1999, 54 pages
        Categories: International Financial System

        Background discussion paper on the changes in the international financial system and on the need for adapted policies to deal with international financial instability; it argues that in the absence of measures at the international level, developing countries have to control capital flows. Interesting for anyone interested in the reform of financial system and policies responses to financial instability. It provides a good analysis but data and information need to be updated.

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        Investment Policy Review: Egypt (English)
        Review by UNCTAD, 1999, 119 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        At the time of the review, Egypt had the potential to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) of higher quantity and quality, commensurate with the fundamental strengths and opportunities that its economy offered. These strengths included a large domestic market, a wide industrial base, a skilled and competitively priced workforce and a strategic location in the region. The IPR recognized the efforts that the Government of Egypt had made to establish an adequate investment regulatory framework and improve the business environment. However, while current FDI inflows had been meeting the objectives of job creation and output expansion, most industrial projects had so far failed to boost exports. The IPR concluded that overcoming the limited involvement of TNCs in manufacturing sectors with export potential such as food, garments and electronics, would require a policy emphasis on the following: - Infrastructure investments relating to the physical, technological and educational infrastructure. - Specific sectors to promote clusters of related enterprises and self-sustaining development.

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        Trade and Development Report 1996, Chapter VI: Rethinking policies for development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 1999, 20 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy

        What: This chapter argues that development thinking and policies will need a radical review if developing countries are to be assured better growth prospects, narrow the income gap with the advanced industrial countries, and remove the scourge of widespread and persistent poverty. Policies need to be reoriented to regulate capital flows and establish competitive industries that will not only increase exports but also reduce the import content of growth. However, action by developing countries alone cannot provide the whole solution. Serious attention should also be paid to the systemic biases and asymmetries in the workings of the international trading system which limit their growth prospects. The successful pursuit of outward-oriented policies also requires greater openness of markets in industrial countries to their exports, all the more so in view of the current "aid fatigue" and the failure of private financial markets to provide adequate development finance. Who: For teachers, students and researchers focusing on development issues and strategies. How: Can be used as a background reading material or for research work on strategies and policies for development.

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        Trade and Development Report 1999, Chapter IV - Payment deficits, liberalization, and growth in developing countries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 1999, 20 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: This chapter re-examines the so-called two-gap approach to explain the link between external payments and economic growth in developing countries. Central to this approach is the notion that capital inflows enable developing countries to fill their foreign-exchange gap, allowing imports, investment, income and savings to be raised above the levels otherwise constrained by export earnings. This chapter also examines the evolution of the relationship between economic growth and external trade and payments in developing countries over the past three decades. It focuses its attention focuses on a number of common external factors which are believed to have influenced the trade and growth performance of a large number of developing countries, such as world demand, trends in the terms of trade, and trade and financial liberalization in developing countries. Who: For teachers, students and researchers focusing on payment deficits, liberalization and growth in developing countries. How: Can be used as a background reading material or for research work on payment, deficits, liberalization and development issues.

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        UNCTAD Trade and Development Report 1999, Chapter III - International financial markets: instability, trends and prospects (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 1999, 24 pages
        Categories: International Financial System

        What: Quantitative analysis of the effects of financial crises on international trade through a comparison between the Asian, Russian and Brazilian crises. Who: For anyone studying the financial system and particularly the consequences of financial deregulation. How: Key document to understand financial crises mechanisms that could be used as the basis of a student's work or a lecture.

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