A partnership with academia

Building knowledge for trade and development

      • Preview
        Aid, private capital flows and external debt: a review of trends (English)
        Report by Least Developed Countries Program, 2000, 28 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, International Financial System

        What: Based on the Least Developed Countries report from 2000, this is a clear and detailed presentation of external finance and how it contributes to finance development. Who: This document is a good introduction to the problem of external finance for anyone studying or teaching the subject. How: Could be used as a basis for a lecture on development finance.What: Based on the Least Developed Countries report from 2000, this is a clear and detailed presentation of external finance and how it contributes to finance development. Who: This document is a good introduction to the problem of external finance for anyone studying or teaching the subject. How: Could be used as a basis for a lecture on development finance.

      • Preview
        Building Confidence: Electronic Commerce and Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2000, 180 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: The report draws extensively on the discussions and conclusions of a number of expert meetings and workshops on e-commerce and developing countries. It provides a working definition of electronic commerce, examines selected cross-sectoral and sectoral issues such as fiscal and legal aspects of e-commerce, and e-commerce in transport services. A special chapter is dedicated to the development of e-commerce in Africa. The report concludes by proposing an agenda for action at the national, regional and international levels to foster e-commerce and its contribution to economic development. Who: Useful for anyone teaching electronic commerce. How: Can be used as a background reading on e-commerce and international trade.

      • Preview
        Commentary on the financial stability forum's report of the working group on capital flows (English)
        Discussion Paper by Andrew Cornford, 2000, 20 pages
        Categories: International Financial System

        What: A G-24 discussion paper on the threat to the gains of a liberal financial system by instability of capital flows. Focuses on possible changes in practices of recipient countries and how to manage risk and build institutional capacity. Who: Of interest to anyone looking critically at the subject of capital markets. How: Could be used to conduct a short analysis based on a working group's conclusions on capital flows.

      • Preview
        Creating an efficient environment for trade and transport (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2000, 25 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation

        What: Overview of the effects of globalization on trade facilitation and efficiency. The article also gives guidelines on how to promote trade efficiency. Who: Could be used by teachers as a summary/starting point. How: Interesting charts in the first two parts of the document.

      • Preview
        The debate on the international financial architecture: reforming the reformers (English)
        Discussion Paper by Yilmaz Akyuz, 2000, 24 pages
        Categories: International Financial System

        This discussion paper examines the progress made in the reform of the international financial architecture since the East Asian crisis and ends with a brief discussion of what developing countries could do at the national, regional and international level to prevent financial crises and to protect against financial instability.

      • Preview
        Debt relief, the new policy conditionality and poverty reduction strategies (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2000, 36 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, International Financial System

        Based on the LDCs report from 2000, this document is a detailed analysis of HIPC initiative and its relationship with poverty reduction strategies and conditional policies. Of interest to anyone who needs to understand modalities, changes and implications of debt relief on poverty reduction. This resource provides a high quality analysis of HIPC initiative with data, examples and case studies. Key text to understand debt mechanisms.

      • Preview
        E-Commerce and Tourism: New perspectives and challenges for developing countries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Commission on Enterprise, Business Facilitation and Development, 2000, 20 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology

        What: A cross-sectoral analysis of how ICTs can foster the development of tourism in developing countries. It shows the link between the old and the new economy and the possibility that developing countries have to maximize benefits from the tourism industry. Who: Students or teachers involved in tourism or ICTs applied to development How: This document can be a good background paper for an introduction on e-tourism. The annexes give excellent examples for case studies.

      • Preview
        E-Commerce, WTO and developing countries (English)
        Discussion Paper by Arvind Panagariya, University of Maryland, 2000, 32 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: The paper discusses policy issues that e-commerce raises for developing countries in the WTO context. With regard to the WTO rules, benefit developing countries would benefit if e-commerce is classified as trade in services with GATS discipline applied to it and Internet transactions as cross-border trade. Developing countries that have the capacity to export skilled services through Internet would gain if they negotiate market access with developed countries in the future WTO negotiations' in terms of liberalization of sectors in which they have a comparative advantage. Who: Useful for anyone teaching electronic commerce and WTO. How: A background reading on e-commerce and negotiations with WTO.

      • Preview
        Free trade or fair trade? An enquiry into the causes of failure in recent trade negotiations (English)
        Discussion paper by Mehdi Shafaeddin, UNCTAD, 2000, 44 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: Trade policy is at a crossroads. So is trade diplomacy. The failure of the traditional import substitution policies of the 1950s-1970s has been followed by the failure of trade liberalization in the 1980s and 1990s by developing countries. In particular, the deadlock in the negotiations during the recent meetings of WTO has demonstrated the severe differences among various groups of member countries. Focusing on frictions between developing countries and industrial economies in the particular area of trade in manufactured goods, this paper argues that the failure of the negotiations is related to a number of fallacies and contradictions surrounding the concepts and practices of universal trade liberalization and infant industry protection. Who: Can be used for course and/or research work on trade negotiations, policy and diplomacy, liberalization and WTO issues. How: As a background reading material on trade negotiations and WTO issues.

      • Preview
        Globalization and economic convergence: An assessment (English)
        Discussion Paper by Robert Rowthorn &Richard Kozul-Wright, 2000, 43 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: This paper offers a critical survey of a strong globalization thesis that predicts a direct link from more open trade and investment regimes to faster economic growth in developing countries and income convergence across the global economy. Its examination of recent experience suggests that while in a more open and integrated world economy both the quantity and the quality of investment are influenced by external factors. Who: For teachers and students of globalization issues. How: As a background reading paper on globalization and economic convergence.

      • Preview
        Investment Policy Review: Peru (English)
        Review by UNCTAD, 2000, 109 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        At the time of the IPR, Peru had been extremely successful in attracting foreign direct investment (FDI), although this was to some extent linked to its privatization programme. The challenge Peru faced was to build on its success to attract investments in new areas. The IPR recommended the following measures: - Fine-tuning the investment framework. - Strengthening investment promotion. - Strengthening Peru´s competitiveness and broadenening FDI. - Encouraging regional cooperation.

      • Preview
        Investment Policy Review: Uganda (English)
        Review by UNCTAD, 2000, 71 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The IPR revealed that Uganda had the essential conditions to attract FDI, including an exemplary investment policy framework, a diversified natural resource base and a growing regional market. But tapping these opportunities would require continued public efforts to improve the microeconomic environment, hampered by inadequate transport, electricity and telecommunications facilities. The central message of this report is that Uganda needs to continue the momentum of recovery to achieve sustainable development. The IPR makes the following recommendations: - To modernize the Investment Code and re-orient the Uganda Investment Agency firmly towards FDI promotion. - To promote FDI into core infrastructure and services. - To promote investment into natural-resource-based industries for the domestic, regional and international markets. - To adopt a "big push" strategy to ensure speedy implementation of projects on the ground and to implement innovative ways of overcoming institutional and structural obstacles.

      • Preview
        Markets, Politics and Globalization: Can the Global Economy be Civilized? (English)
        Presentation by Gerald Karl Helleiner, University of Toronto, 2000, 25 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: This paper looks at the rules and institutions that govern the functioning of the emerging global economy. The paper argues that the new and complex fabric of governance that globalization has created fails to meet the needs of developing countries. The paper examines the way in which global markets work, analyzing the critical role of politics in economic policy and highlighting the imperfections in the current system of global economic governance. The paper concludes with suggestions on changes that are needed for the system of global economic governance to be more equitable. Who: Can be used by a lecturer on a course on governance, globalization and general WTO issues. How: As a background reading material on issues of global economic governance.

      • Preview
        Orderly workouts for cross-border private debt (English)
        Presentation by Steven Radelet, 2000, 22 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development

        What: This paper examines a variety of proposals for international versions of the three basic components of a debt workout: a debt payments standstill, provisions for new finance, and the framework for restructuring. The paper addresses the question as to how standstills and workout arrangements can be designed that would help stop a panic and an overshooting of capital withdrawals from emerging markets, and subsequently provide a framework to close insolvent firms and reorganize more viable enterprises. Who: Useful for teachers and students focusing on international private sector debt and cross-border bankruptcies. How: Can be used as a background reading for courses on international debt and bankruptcy issues.

      • Preview
        Organic fruit and vegetables from the tropics: Market, certification and production information for producers and international trading companies (English)
        Discussion paper by Montek S. Ahluwalia, 2000, 26 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        What: The purpose of this discussion paper is to evaluate the impact of developments on the relative roles of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank in the future. Initially the paper provides a brief overview of the changing roles of the Fund and the Bank and it then summarizes why the crises of the 1990s are fundamentally different from earlier episodes of balance-of-payments difficulties and therefore calls for very different responses. It also discusses some of the main elements which have been proposed as part of the new financial architecture and examines their implications for the roles of the Fund and the Bank. Finally the paper presents a summary assessment of various proposals for improving coordination between the Fund and the Bank. Who: For a lecturer or research work on the roles of the international financial institutions. How: Can be used as a background reading material on the relative roles and overlaps of IMF and the World Bank.

      • Preview
        A positive agenda for developing countries: Issues for future trade negotiations (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2000, 518 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: The “positive agenda” programme was launched with a view to assisting developing countries to build their capacity to identify their interests, formulate trade objectives and pursue those objectives in international trade negotiations. The scope of multilateral obligations, the technical complexity and sheer volume of the issues covered have placed most developing countries in a situation where participation in the system, let alone attempting to shape its future course, is almost beyond their means. This book represents a compendium of papers which are meant to assist developing countries in their efforts to shape a multilateral trading system that serves the interests of all. Who: For teachers, students and researchers focusing on WTO issues. How: The various chapters covering a number of complex WTO issues can be used for background reading for courses that cover relevant topics.

      • Preview
        Tariffs, Taxes and Electronic Commerce: Revenue Implications for Developing Countries (English)
        Report by Susanne Teltscher, UNCTAD, 2000, 66 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: Within the last decade, cross-border electronic commerce has increased substantially. So far, it is operating in a tax- and tariff-free environment. Especially for developing countries a major concern is the potential loss in tax and tariff revenues. This paper offers a review on the classification of e-commerce and summarizes the debate on how to tax e-commerce. Data on potential revenue losses from import duties on goods that have formerly been traded physically and increasingly are imported digitally. The paper provides a solid review on some of the complex issues related to e-commerce taxation. Who: For anyone dealing with the topic on e-commerce taxation and its implications for developing countries. How: Can be used as a background reading. The annex offers excellent data for further research.

      • Preview
        Tax Incentives and Foreign Direct Investment, A Global Survey (English)
        Other by UNCTAD, 2000, 177 pages
        Categories: Investment

        A survey of tax incentive regimes in over 45 countries from all regions of the world. Nearly all countries surveyed offer incentives that target specific sectors and around 70% also offer regional incentives aimed at assisting the economic development of rural or underdeveloped areas. · Tax officials and managers, policymakers, and specialists who formulate or evaluate tax incentive programs will find the study beneficial, as will anyone interested in the economics of tax policy as a tool for investment promotion and economic development. · Main contents: I: Objectives of tax incentives, Issues relating to tax incentives, Classification, Design and administration, Home country measures and tax treaties; II: Survey: Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Europe and Economies in Transition, Latin America.

      • Preview
        Towards a new paradigm for development: Strategies, policies, and process (English)
        Presentation by Dr. Joseph E. Stiglitz, 2000, 30 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Finance for Development

        What: This lecture sets out the foundations of an alternative paradigm to the well-documented failures of the Washington consensus, one which is based on a broad conception of development, offering a different perspective on the role of international assistance and the ways in which it should be delivered. It starts by describing this broader vision and then goes on to explain why not only the Washington consensus but also earlier development paradigms failed: they viewed development too narrowly. It identifies some of the key factors including recent events in East Asia and the Russian Federation that helped us to realize the inadequacies of the old approaches. It outlines the key principles and major components of a development strategy based on this broader vision of development. It concludes with some general observations, focusing on the importance of trade and the work of UNCTAD in furthering development based on this new paradigm. Who: For teachers and students of development strategies. How: Can be used as a background reading material on development approaches and issues.

      • Preview
        Toyota's strategy towards SME suppliers (English)
        Case study by Yoshiaki Muramatsu, 2000
        Categories: Enterprise Development

        What: This paper analyses Toyota’s co-operation with SME suppliers in Thailand and its selection parameters are quality, cost, technological capabilities and reliability, as well as the entrepreneur’s ability to implement a kaizen strategy, which means the continued improvement and enhancement of products, services and management. Realising that the company’s success depends to a considerable extent on a strong network of quality suppliers, Toyota Thailand has played an active role in this restructuring process. Who: Useful for anyone teaching and/or studying synergies between TNCs and SMEs. How: Can be used as a background reading of a case study on a TNC's experience.

      • Preview
        Training Tools for Multilateral Trade Negotiations: Special and Differential Treatment (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD Division on International Trade in Goods and Services and Commodities, 2000, 38 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: This compilation of training tools on the special and differential treatment is provided for developing countries within the WTO context, and is designed with trainers and researchers in mind. It consists of a table summarising the WTO Special and Differential Treatment provisions as well as the main elements of the proposals tabled by developing countries during the preparatory process for the 3rd Ministerial Conference in 1999 and the current multilateral trade negotiations on services and agriculture; a background paper on Special and Differential Treatment in the context of globalization; selected bibliography for further analysis; and a presentation of an UNCTAD assessment on Special and Differential Treatment Who: For teachers and students specialising multilateral trade negotiations. How: Can be used as a training material.

      • Preview
        UNCTAD X High-level Round Table on Trade and Development: Directions for the Twenty-first Century: Economic Dependence on Commodities (English)
        Discussion paper by Alfred Maizels, Oxford University, United Kingdom/ UNCTAD, 2000, 20 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: Most of the population in developing countries depends on the production and export of primary commodities. Commodity prices fell sharply in the early 1980s, and have remained at depressed levels since then, leading to a huge trade loss. This has been a major factor in the large rise in the foreign debt of commodity-exporting countries. The paper argues that these problems of developing countries have received little, if any, attention in international forums for the past two decades. It aims to reverse this trend by examining various measures for each type of price problem. Who: For teachers, students and researchers studying developing countries economic dependence on primary commodities exports and price changes. How: Can be used as a background reading on international primary commodity price fluctuations and the effects on developing economies.

      • Preview
        The United Nations Set of Principles and Rules on Competition (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2000, 27 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy

        The UN Set is a multilateral agreement on competition policy that provides a set of equitable rules for the control of anti-competitive practices;recognizes the development dimension of competition law and policy; and provides a framework for international operation and exchange of best practices.

      • Preview
        World Investment Report 2000: Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions and Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2000, 368 pages
        Categories: Investment

        An examination of the impact of cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As) on the structure of global business taking into account the concerns about the market power of transnational corporations (TNCs) and the potential anti-competitive implications of M&As. · Useful to anyone concerned with investments, transnational corporations, market structure and competition policy from the point of view of developing countries. including Valuable information to scholars specialized in international finance and investment as well as · Main contents: I: Global Trends: The Expanding International Production System, II: Regional Trend, III: The Largest Transnational Corporations, IV: Trends In Cross-Border Mergers & Acquisitions, V: Performance, Motivations And Outlook, VI: FDI And Development: Does Mode Of Entry Matter?

Login