A partnership with academia

Building knowledge for trade and development

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        Compendium of trade facilitation recommendations (English)
        by UN/CEFACT, 2001, 74 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation

        What: This Compendium is intended to be used as a reference by those engaged in simplifying, harmonizing and rationalizing trade procedures and practices. The Compendium is also useful for industry, commerce, transport, administrations and organizations, to create awareness of the possibilities that exist in the area of facilitation and harmonization of trade and transport. It reviews the present situation in international trade regarding information flows, documentary requirements, electronic business, official requirements and payment procedures with a view to come to an increased efficiency through further harmonization, standardization and simplification. Who: Useful for anyone teaching trade facilitation and WTO issues. How: Can be used as a reference material on trade facilitation issues.

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        E-Commerce and Development Report 2001 - Trends and Executive Summary (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2001, 60 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: Over the past decade the emergence of electronic commerce has changed the economic environment substantially. The E-Commerce and Development Report 2001 provides a review on recent trends in the branch of ICT. It discusses what developing countries need to be aware of as they try to position their economies to take advantage of ICT and the Internet and to what extent ICT and the Internet affects the different sectors of their economies. The Report provides basic facts and figures about e-commerce. Furthermore, it makes exemplary suggestions in which way developing countries can build the infrastructure, capacities and legal framework in order to create an environment enabling beneficial use of ICT and e-commerce. Who: Excellent reading for anyone interested in the development trends of e-commerce and its implications for developing countries. How: Can be used as a background guide for classes and research on e-commerce and development. Various issues and proposals can be used to provoke discussions in class.

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        E-Finance and Small and Medium-Size Enterprises (SMEs) in Developing and Transition Economies (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2001, 41 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Science and Technology

        What: A presentation of the emergence of e-finance as well as an analysis of the experience in e-finance and of specific initiatives aiming at the development of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). The final part is an overview of coming challenges in the field. Who: People who teach or research on international finance, on the new economy or on SMEs How: An introductory course to e-finance and development, or case studies based on the experiences mentioned in part 2 and on the list of Websites provided

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        Electronic commerce and international transport services (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2001, 21 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: This document introduces some of the crucial issues relating to the wider use of electronic means of communication in international trade and transport services. It covers the impact of e-commerce on both the organization of transport and the current paper-based legal framework of international trade transactions. It highlights how e-commerce is already transforming relationships between transport service providers and users by making access to information more readily available to all. It also deals with the legal and documentary aspects, reviews the role of transport documents, particularly that of the negotiable bill of lading, in the functioning of international trade transactions. Who: Useful for anyone teaching electronic commerce. How: Can be used as a background reading on e-commerce and international trade.

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        Energy Services in International Trade: Development Implications (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2001, 25 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: Developing countries are faced with the challenge of, on the one hand, achieving more reliable and efficient access to energy, and on the other hand, of obtaining a greater share of the energy “business”. The pursuit of these goals requires access to knowledge, expertise, technology and managerial know-how. This discussion paper addresses the elements of an energy services sector strategy for developing countries. Who: For teachers and students specialising on energy services and their implications on development. How: Can be used as a background reading for courses on energy 'business' and the implications on development.

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        The Exchange Rate: Economic policy tool or market price? (English)
        Discussion paper by Heiner Flassbeck, UNCTAD, 2001, 52 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy

        There has been broad consensus among economists for decades that changes in the value of money over time cannot be used as an economic policy tool because people would quickly learn to adapt to any attempt to exploit the money illusion by inflationary policy. Paradoxically, the majority of economic analyses have never questioned the ability of policy makers to exploit money illusion over prolonged periods of time if the subject is the change in the value of money in space, i.e. exchange rate changes. The paper argues that the latter have to be treated in the same way as the former if economic theory is to be consistent. As a consequence, exchange rate changes can only be used to compensate for inflation differentials between countries, and nothing else. The paper draws on the European experience up to monetary union, as well as on experience in developing countries with different exchange rate regimes.

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        Growing micro and small enterprises in the LDCs -The "missing middle" in LDCs (English)
        Presentation by UNCTAD, 2001, 106 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development

        What: Dynamic medium-sized enterprises provide a competitive edge in two ways – as leading subcontractors and as venture firms in their own right. However, in many LDCs there is evidence of a “missing middle”: a shortage of middle-sized growth-oriented SMEs. Besides, the lack of a coherent policy for enterprise development, globalization and the opening of domestic markets has had an adverse impact on the enterprise structure in many LDCs. This paper presents a summary of the policy framework for small and medium-sized enterprise development in Burkina Faso, Nepal, Samoa and Zambia. Who: For anyone teaching LDCs' challenges in the expansion of growth-oriented SMEs. How: Can be used as a background reading for lessons on SMEs in developing economies.

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        Implementation of multimodal transport rules (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Trade and transport facilitation branch, 2001, 55 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Trade Facilitation

        Gives an overview of multimodal transport rules and international, regional and national legislations. It argues in favor of an harmonization of legislation and studies transport laws in selected regions and developing countries. Background reading for teachers and researchers of trade facilitation issues. Provides examples on regional agreements (MERCOSUR, ASEAN etc.) and developing countries (Argentina, China, India etc.)

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        Implementation of multimodal transport rules - Comparative Tables (English)
        Annex by UNCTAD Trade and transport facilitation branch, 2001, 18 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Facilitation

        Comparative tables based on the paper Implementation of multimodal transport rules. Good summary of legislation in different countries and regional agreements (Mercosur, Asean, India, China, Paraguay…)

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        International Cartel Enforcement: Lessons from the 1990s (English)
        Working paper by Simon J. Evenett, Margaret C. Levenstein, and Valerie Y. Suslow, 2001, 34 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy

        What: A study of international cartels and the possible measures that would prevent them from distorting the rules of developing countries' economies. Who: Researchers in competition and economic distortions, teachers in international economic relations/law. How: A good source of information for a course on international business or competition policy. Table 2 also gives ideas for possible case studies.

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        Investment policy review: Mauritius (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2001, 92 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        What: Mauritius is an economic success story. The economy has sustained high 6 per cent annual growth for two decades – first driven by sugar, then textiles and clothing, and tourism, and most recently by financial services. Economic growth and structural change were achieved while maintaining national stability and social cohesion. A generation of Mauritians has enjoyed a rise in living standards that few countries can match, reaching an income per capita of $4,000 today. What was once, only another commodity producer, today is the leading manufactures exporter in sub-Saharan Africa. Who: Useful for teachers and students focusing on a case study in investment. How: Can be used as a background reading and/or research work in investment policy and FDI in a

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        The Role of Agriculture in the Development of LDCs and their Integration into the World Economy: Thematic Session on Enhancing Productive Capacity: The Agriculture Sector and Food Security (English)
        Discussion Paper by UNCTAD, 2001, 64 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        What: This paper examines the link between poverty reduction, economic growth and agriculture in developing countries. It also reviews the opportunities and challenges for LDCs of trade liberalization in terms of diversification, food security… Who: Excellent background reading to understand the relationship between poverty alleviation and agriculture diversification. How: The appendices contain data on LDCS that need however to be updated

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        Survey of Best Practices in Investment Promotion (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2001, 50 pages
        Categories: Investment

        The objective of the survey forming the basis of this study was to provide comparative data on investment promotion practice in as large a number of countries as possible with differing economic strengths, developmental levels, resource endowments, geographical locations, policies and experiences. This study is a first step towards developing criteria regarding what constitutes best practice in investment promotion.

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        Survey of good practice in public-private sector dialogue (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2001, 42 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development

        What: An effective policy for the development of SMEs needs to focus on identifying real constraints and determine how these could be realistically addressed. The most productive and reliable way of identifying such constraints and possible solutions is through public–private sector interaction and dialogue. UNCTAD undertook a survey of good practice and set up a project entitled “Enhancing public–private sector dialogue in LDCs”. This survey aims to distil key principles of effective dialogue that will serve as benchmarks for evaluating the practice of public–private sector dialogue and interaction. Who: Useful for anyone teaching on how to strengthen public–private sector interaction. How: Can be used as by teachers to assign students to conduct surveys using this model.

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        Three Essays in Development Economics (English)
        Article by Ersado, Lire, 2001, 118 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Competitiveness, VI Members Research

        Dissertation exploring household risk and savings behavior in Zimbabwe, and agricultural technology adoption, and the impact of public investments on the economy and community health in Ethiopia.

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        Trade and Development Report 2001, Chapter V: Exchange rate regimes and the scope for regional cooperation (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2001, 21 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Macroeconomic Policy

        What: This chapter discusses the various choices and difficulties developing countries and economies in transition encounter in determining an appropriate exchange rate regime. According to the report the key question is whether there exists a viable and appropriate exchange rate regime for developing and transition economies that are closely integrated into global financial markets when major reserve currencies are subject to frequent gyrations and misalignments, and when the size and speed of international capital movements can very quickly overwhelm the authorities in such countries and narrow their policy options. It also reviews the recent debate on the reform of the international financial architecture in view of the contribution of developing countries and economies in transition to external vulnerability, and currency and financial crises. As arrangements at a global level for a stable system of exchange rates are not foreseeable in the near future, the report questions whether viable solutions can be found at the regional level by looking into the post-Bretton Woods experience of Europe. Who: For researchers, teachers and students on exchange rate regimes. How: An authoritative report that can be used as a background reading.

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        Trade and Development Report 2001, Chapter VI: Crisis management and burden sharing (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2001, 23 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy

        What: There is a growing body of opinion that effective management of financial crises in emerging markets requires a judicious combination of action on three fronts: a domestic macroeconomic policy response; timely and adequate provision of international liquidity; and the involvement of the private sector. The international policy response to the Asian crisis was far from optimal as an undue burden was placed on domestic policies; rather than restoring confidence and stabilizing markets, hikes in interest rates and fiscal austerity served to deepen the recession and aggravate the financial problems of private debtors. The issues of private sector involvement and provision of official assistance in crisis management and resolution have therefore been high on the agenda in the debate on reform of the international financial architecture and this chapter seeks to address this problem by defining the state of play, examining the issues that remain to be resolved and assessing various options proposed. Who: For teachers, students and researchers focusing on management of financial crisis. How: Can be used as a background reading material or for research work on international and national policy responses to financial crisis.

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        World Investment Report 2001: Promoting Linkages (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2001, 380 pages
        Categories: Investment

        Analysis of the linkages between foreign affiliates of multinational enterprises and local companies in developing countries and their impact on foreign direct investment (FDI) flows. · This report will appeal to a wide-range audience including international relations specialists and policy makers wanting to have a closer look at the patterns of international production and investment and the instruments that contribute to the diffusion of knowledge and skills from TNCs to local enterprise sectors. · Main contents: I: The Global Picture, II: Mapping International Production, III: The Largest Transnational Corporations, IV: Backward Linkages: Impact, Determinants And TNC Experience, V: Policies To Strengthen Linkages, VI: Key Elements Of A Linkage Promotion Programme.

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        World Investment Report 2001: Promoting Linkages - Overview
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2001, 31 pages
        Categories: Investment

        Analysis of the linkages between foreign affiliates of multinational enterprises and local companies in developing countries and their impact on foreign direct investment (FDI) flows. · This report will appeal to a wide-range audience including international relations specialists and policy makers wanting to have a closer look at the patterns of international production and investment and the instruments that contribute to the diffusion of knowledge and skills from TNCs to local enterprise sectors.

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        The World of Investment Promotion at Glance (English)
        Discussion Paper by UNCTAD, 2001, 80 pages
        Categories: Investment

        An overview of the organizational structures and operations of institutions that deal with inward investment promotion, commonly known as investment promotion agencies (IPAs). The study attempts to find a common denominator of different IPAs and to look at the different practices of IPAs in the promotion of foreign investment. - This report provides useful information for those engaged in the promotion of foreign investment as well as those wishing to gain an insight into current investment practices. - Main contents: I: Organizational structures of Investment Promotion Agencies, II: Techniques and Tools used in Promoting Investments; III: Comparative Profiles of Investment Promotion Agencies; IV: Survey Questionnaire.

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