A partnership with academia

Building knowledge for trade and development

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        Competition, Development and a Possible Multilateral Framework (English)
        Presentation by Philippe Brusick, Chief, Competition and Consumer Policies Branch, UNCTAD, 2002, 31 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy

        What: A PowerPoint presentation (in PDF format) defining competition policy and relating it to developing countries and to international cooperation. Who: Teachers in international relations, economics or law (especially competition law). How: A helpful layout for a course on competition policy. The presentation may also be adapted by the teacher according to the specificities of his course.

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        Competitiveness, Restructuring and FDI: an Analytical Framework (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2002, 24 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Investment

        What: This is a study of the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) on industrial restructuring in selected industries in some developing countries. The focus is on how FDI affects the ability of economic actors - directly, foreign affiliates, and indirectly, local firms or the economy at large - to compete better in a globalizing world, primarily by raising, upgrading and diversifying exports. It is about the impact of transnational corporations (TNCs) on the industrial competitiveness of host countries, an issue of growing concern in the developing world. Who: Useful for teachers and students focusing on FDI. How: Can be used as a background reading and/or research work on competitiveness, restructuring and FDI.

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        Domestic Climate Change Policies and the WTO (English)
        Discussion Paper by Lucas Assuncao and ZhongXiang Zhang, UNCTAD, 2002, 32 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This discussion paper describes how governments that signed the Kyoto Protocol may pursue domestic climate policies that conflict with WTO obligations and development and growth strategies and recommends potential solutions. Useful reading for students and lecturers interested in the relationship betweem environment and trade/trading system. The paper gives plenty of useful examples and is clear and comprehensible.

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        E-Commerce and Development Report 2002 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Secretariat, 2002, 282 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: This report examines in detail international trends related to e-commerce in 2002. It provides factual information and analysis in regard to a range of issues that influence the expansion of e-commerce in developing countries such as the Domain Name System or Gender Equality in regard to the use of e-commerce. Furthermore, the report includes policy and business options available to developing countries and it outlines policy recommendations in order to maximize the contribution of e-commerce to social and economic development. Who: Teachers and students in international economics or international relations that want to focus on the impact of e-commerce and ICT for development. How: Each chapter and its bibliography can be used independently to deal with selected issues of e-commerce. The whole report can serve as an excellent background reading for classes on e-commerce and development. The data in the report can also be used for further scientific analysis and investigation.

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        E-Commerce and Development Report 2002, Chapter 2 - The Domain Name System and Issues for Developing Countries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD E-Commerce Branch, 2002, 42 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: A presentation of the issues that developing countries have to take into account while designing their ICT development strategy, considering the Domain Name System as a prominent regulation framework of the digital economy. Who: Since it is not too technical, this reading is suitable for both students and teachers interested in regulation frameworks for the Internet or in the relations between the Internet and development. How: Specialised course on domain names, or research works and case studies (the document provides a bibliography that can be updated and a list of related forums on the Web). Some issues, such as the mission and functioning of the ICANN, provide helpful starting points for general or group discussions.

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        E-Commerce and Development Report 2002, Chapter 3 - Gender, E-commerce and Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD E-Commerce Branch, 2002, 28 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade and Gender

        What: Focusing on developing countries, the chapter mainly examines the accessibility of ICTs, the effect of E-commerce on the participation of women in the economy, the new employment opportunities for women. Who: Especially teachers and researchers on gender, economic, labour or development issues. How: Useful material for a course on ICTs and economic and social development, with manifold examples or extra explanations in the form of boxes, figures or tables (which may be used in presentation, exercises, discussions, etc.). Annex III gives food for thought for a possible group discussion on ICT policies.

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        E-Commerce and Development Report 2002, Chapter 8 - E-Insurance (English)
        Report by UNCTAD E-Commerce Branch, 2002, 29 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: An explanation of how E-insurance works and how it has developed, as well as an analysis of the issues raised by the application of ICTs to the distribution of insurance services. Who: Teachers or researchers on international insurance, e-finance. How: A complete introduction to E-insurance; textboxes also provide several valuable case studies that can lead to a more in-depth seminar on E-insurance.

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        Economic development in Africa 2002 - From Adjustment to Poverty Reduction: What is New? (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Division on Globalization and Development, 2002, 76 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        Focusing on Africa, this report from 2002 describes how the goal of development policy has shifted away from structural reform and towards poverty reduction however it argues that the emphasis is still on liberalization without a clear analysis of how pro-market policies in trade, finance and agriculture will actually benefit the poor. This could be useful for anyone debating Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers both in Africa and beyond. Raises some interesting, and controversial, discussion points about the benefits of liberalization.

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        Electronic Commerce Strategies for Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Commission on Enterprise, Business Facilitation and Development, 2002, 23 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology

        What: A synthetic overview of how developing countries can include the ICT dimension in their development strategies and create an enabling environment, so that the Internet and ICTs can effectively lead to economic and social development. Includes best practices and helpful instances of national e-strategies. Who: Anyone interested in the role of governments in fostering development through ICTs (especially e-commerce) How: Case studies, discussions or simulations based on the national policies outlined in the paper.

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        Experiences Gained so far on International Cooperation on Competition Policy and the Mechanisms used (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Commission on Investment, Technology and Related Financial Issues, 2002, 43 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy

        What: The paper looks through the typology of legal instruments for cooperation on competition policy, be they bilateral, regional or multilateral. It also describes experiences in such cooperation Who: Teachers interested in international legal instruments and in competition policy How: The examples of instruments for cooperation presented in the first chapter and on the cooperation between the EU and the US can be an introduction for case studies or group work.

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        FDI in Least Developed countries at a glance: 2002 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2002, 136 pages
        Categories: Investment

        What: With only 2 per cent of all FDI to developing countries or 0.5 per cent of the global total, the 49 least developed countries remain marginal recipients. This report initially depicts recent trends in FDI to least developed countries and changes that have taken place in relevant areas of the regulatory legal framework. The second part presents country profiles for each of the 49 least developed countries to enable the reader, at a glance, to get a general picture of the role of FDI in these countries. Who: Useful for teachers and students focusing on FDI in LDCs. How: Can be used as a background reading for courses on FDI and its role in LDCs.

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        Improving the competitiveness of SMEs in developing countries (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2002, 156 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Finance for Development

        What: Access to finance has been identified as a key element for SMEs to succeed in their drive to build productive capacity, to compete, to create jobs and to contribute to poverty alleviation in developing countries. Without finance, SMEs cannot acquire or absorb new technologies nor can they expand to compete in global markets or even strike business linkages with larger firms. This publication contains a background study which describes a number of innovations used by leading banks to improve the profitability of lending to SMEs. Who: Useful for teachers and students studying on improving SMEs' competitiveness. How: Can be used as a background reading for courses on access to finance for enterprise development.

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        Investment Policy Review: Tanzania (English)
        Review by UNCTAD, 2002, 109 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The United Republic of Tanzania was fast becoming a foreign direct investment (FDI) front-runner in Africa. As market reforms reached critical mass, Tanzania received a billion dollars of investment inflows in 1995-2000 compared with only $90 million during the preceding six years. The challenge at the time of review was to achieve higher levels of inflows and increase the scale and scope of their benefits. The IPR recommended that, as a short-term strategy, the Government should continue to focus on immediate FDI potential in mining, utilities and tourism. The long-term challenge would be to make Tanzania an attractive location for FDI in East and Southern Africa. To achieve this, the IPR suggests the following: - Completing the privatization programme. - Expanding and consolidating international market assess. - Enhancing competitiveness of human resources. - Building a dynamic private enterprise.

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        Key issues in biotechnology (English)
        Discussion Paper by UNCTAD, 2002, 21 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: This paper reviews several key issues surrounding modern gene technology and its application in the areas of crop agriculture and medicine, and presents the potential benefits and challenges associated with them. In particular, it addresses and provides information on biotechnology, with particular attention to genetically modified crops, health and intellectual property rights. It concludes with the major implications for policy makers. Who: Useful for teachers and students studying gene technology and its application on agriculture and medicine. How: Can be used as a background reading for courses on biotechnology.

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        Market access proposals for non-agricultural products (English)
        Presentation by Sam Laird, Santiago Fernandez de Cordoba and David Vanzetti, 2002, 39 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: This paper explains and analyses various proposals in the WTO non-agricultural market access negotiations using a global general equilibrium model. The results show that proposals involving deeper tariff cuts imply greater increases in imports and exports, but greater losses in tariff revenues that will need to be made up in some other way. They also show greater welfare gains in the longer term, resulting from the improved allocation of resources and changes in the terms of trade. Who: Useful for anyone focusing on WTO negotiations on non-agricultural products. How: Can be used as a background reading for courses on WTO negotiations.

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        Quantification of non-tariff measures (English)
        Discussion paper by Bijit Bora, Aki Kuwahara, Sam Laird - UNCTAD, 2002, 47 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        What: An UNCTAD discussion paper providing an extensive review of literature regarding the classification of non-tariff measures and quantification of their effects. Contains also an example of calculating NTM incidence using the UNCTAD Trade Analysis and Information System (TRAINS) database. Who: Teachers and students of international trade/trade policy, trade data analysis and anyone interested in learning more about NTBs. How: Can be used as a kind of a manual on the issue. Provides a well-structured and comprehensive overview of NTMs (classification in section II and an explanation in the Annex), and a detailed review of various approaches towards measuring their effects (inventory approach, modelling approaches, tariff and subsidy equivalents, trade restrictiveness index, effective protection). Particularly useful is an extensive list of references featuring main papers dealing with the issue.

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        Toward a Conceptual Framework and Public Policy agenda for the Information Society in Latin America (English)
        Case study by ECLAC Division of Production, Productivity and Management, 2002, 60 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: Both a conceptual analysis of what is the information society (knowledge and information, the development of ICTs, etc.) and a concrete presentation of how (through different steps) an information society could be built in Latin American countries. The latter chapter uses the concepts introduced in the former. Who: Students or teachers in ICT theory or ICT policies or in economics (especially interested in Latin America). How: A sound introduction to ICTs, following both a theoretical approach, and an applied one (a case study on policy-making on ICTs in Latin America).

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        Trade and Development Report 2002, Chapter IV: Competition and the fallacy of composition (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2002, 29 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: This chapter identifies the problems that developing countries face when they move to labour-intensive manufacturing exports, particularly of them becoming oversupplied, (the fallacy of composition) and highlights the appropriate policy responses in the design of export-oriented development strategies. This chapter also reviews the empirical evidence concerning the behaviour of manufacturing terms of trade of developing countries vis-à-vis industrial countries over the past two decades. The analysis in this chapter shows that trade barriers in industrial countries discriminate against developing country manufactures, and that their removal could greatly increase the demand for these products. Who: For teachers and/or researchers focusing on problems developing countries encounter in exporting their manufactures to developed economies. How: Can be used as a background reading on developing economies labour-intensive manufactures exports and trade barriers

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        Trade facilitation - An introduction (English)
        Presentation by Maxence Orthlieb, UNCTAD, 2002, 21 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation

        Presentation on how to improve transport services and promote trade efficiency in developing countries. It analyses the problems faced by developing countries, UNCTAD's work on trade facilitation and WTO rules. Could be used by teachers in their courses.

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        Transfer of Technology - A Case Study of the Brazilian Aircraft Manufacturer, Embraer (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2002, 64 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: The basic aim of this paper is to analyse the recent success of Embraer, the Brazilian aircraft manufacturer, as an example of how innovation systems have been used in a country that is still in its development stage. The paper discusses the development of the Brazilian aircraft industry and related innovation system from their origin in the mid-1940s till the early 1990s when structural changes in Brazil led to Embraer's privatization. This analysis shows that strong and continuous support by the federal Government and the state and a particular technological strategy were essential for the consolidation of the innovation system and the recent success of the company. Who: Useful for anyone teaching and/or studying transfer of technology and its effect on development. How: Can be used as a background reading of a case study on transfer of technology.

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        Transfer of technology for successful integration into the global economy - A case study of the pharmaceutical industry in India (English)
        Case study by Biswajit Dhar and C. Niranjan Rao, with inputs by Veena Gupta, 2002, 58 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: This study focuses on the performance of the India pharmaceutical industry, a sector that has been able to meet the challenges posed by the new policy regime with a degree of success. The Government provided a policy environment and the prime objective of the policy framework was to develop a viable domestic industry with adequate participation of Indian entrepreneurs. This paper initially presents a broad overview of the performance of the industry and then analyses the impact of the policies adopted through the three decades covering the 1970s to the 1990s. Who: Useful for teachers and students studying transfer of technology and its effect on development. How: Can be used as a background reading of a case study on transfer of technology.

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        Transfer of Technology for Successful Integration into the Global Economy - A case study of the South African automotive industry (English)
        Case study by Trudi Hartzenberg and Samson Muradzikwa, 2002, 38 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: This study discusses the factors that have shaped the formation of technological capability in the South African automotive industry. It then analyses the performance of the industry, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The quantitative assessment includes the investment behaviour of the assemblers, and the market and export performance. The qualitative assessment focuses on the inter-firms relationships, the learning processes and the levels of labour productivity. Finally it presents the stories of the successful integration into the global markets of two South African firms, Bosal Automotive and Volkswagen of South Africa. Who: Useful for teachers and students studying transfer of technology and its effect on development. How: Can be used as a background reading of a case study on transfer of technology.

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        Turning Losses into Gains: SIDS and Multilateral Trade Liberalization in Agriculture - The Indian Ocean Islands Case Study (English)
        Case study by Jean-Michel Salmon, 2002, 44 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: An analysis of the Indian Ocean Islands agriculture (Mauritius, Seychelles and the Comoros) Who: Case study extracted from the report "Turning losses into gains: SIDS and multilateral trade liberalization in agriculture" that could be used in teaching and in activities. How: Detailed analysis with data on the Indian Ocean Islands. The appendices contain useful tables on agricultural production.

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        World commodity trends and prospects (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2002, 13 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        What: Developing countries' share of world commodity exports increased slightly, although the share of African countries has continued to decrease. This report looks at how dependence on exports of a few commodities remains high and prices have continued their downward trend. The fall in prices of some commodities, including coffee, cotton and sugar, has been dramatic, causing large economic losses and increased poverty in several developing countries. Who: For anyone focusing on the international commodity market and its effects on developing and Least Developed Countries. How: Can be used for background reading in courses on commodities.

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        World Investment Report 2002: Transnational Corporations and Export Competitiveness (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2002, 347 pages
        Categories: Investment

        Enquiry into the decline of foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows in 2001 in light of a prolonged economic recession and a fall in cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As), which had been the driving force behind FDI flows.· Particularly relevant to social sciences scholars looking at FDI flows and the state of the global economy post-September 11th 2001. · This report introduces two new FDI benchmarking tools - the Inward FDI Performance Index and the Inward FDI Potential Index, which measure performance by standardizing a country’s inflows to the size of its economy, and measure potential by using a set of economic and policy factors of importance to foreign investors. Main contents: I: Global Trends, II: Benchmarking FDI Performance and Potential, III: Regional Trends, IV: The Largest Transnational Corporations, V: International Production System , VI: Patterns of Export Competitiveness.

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        World Investment Report 2002: Transnational Corporations and Export Competitiveness
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2002, 44 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Investment

        Enquiry into the decline of foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows in 2001 in light of a prolonged economic recession and a fall in cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As), which had been the driving force behind FDI flows.· Particularly relevant to social sciences scholars looking at FDI flows and the state of the global economy post-September 11th 2001. · This report introduces two new FDI benchmarking tools - the Inward FDI Performance Index and the Inward FDI Potential Index, which measure performance by standardizing a country’s inflows to the size of its economy, and measure potential by using a set of economic and policy factors of importance to foreign investors.

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