A partnership with academia

Building knowledge for trade and development

      • Preview
        Advanced Training Tools for Multilateral Trade Negotiations on Agriculture (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2003, 69 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This training module serves to inform trade experts and negotiators of developing countries of the major economic trends in agricultural trade and of the multilateral rules, which govern the trade in agricultural products. In so doing, it also serves to put the current WTO trade negotiations in agriculture in context.

      • Preview
        An Analysis of the Agricultural Domestic Support under the Uruguay Round Agreement: the Blue Box (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2003, 69 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: Domestic agricultural support is a sensitive issue for all countries producing agricultural commodities. Some countries grant large subsidies to producers, while others cannot afford such expensive policies. The Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture was a first step towards improving competition in the field of international agricultural trade. The new agenda of negotiations, agreed at the Doha Ministerial Conference, set new challenges for negotiators in terms of market access, export subsidies and domestic support. Although those three areas are linked to each other and are of importance, this short paper is not intended to address the whole problem but to focus on "Blue Box" measures in the context of domestic support. This paper will define the Blue Box, describe the type of subsidies used under it and briefly analyse its potential for trade distortion. Who: For teachers, students and researchers on agricultural subsidies and its effects on international trade. How: This study can be used as a background reading for issues on the effects of agricultural subsidies in international trade.

      • Preview
        Assessing Regional Integration in Africa (English)
        Report by UNECA, 2003, 281 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        What: The ARIA report provides the first comprehensive assessment of regional integration in Africa, analyzing all the sectoral and policy-issues. The report finds that the extent of integration is far below what should have been achieved given the amount of energy devoted to the issue. It recommends further analysis of the challenges facing Africa’s integration agenda. How: Background reading on regional integration in Africa. Who: Policy makers, researchers and lecturers dealing with regional integration in Africa.

      • Preview
        Assessing South-South regional integration: Same issues, many metrics (English)
        Discussion Paper by Lucian Cernat, UNCTAD, 2003, 33 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        What: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the impact of several Regional Trading Arrangements (RTAs) on the trade flows among participants and with third countries. It examines the possible trade effects of several South-South RTAs by using two different methodologies (the gravity model and CGE analysis). Owing to the differences in assumptions and methods, the results of each methodology do not easily lend themselves to comparison. The findings suggest that regional integration among developing countries can act as a practical instrument for their gradual integration into the global economy. In addition RTAs are very much part of a larger framework for regional cooperation aimed at promoting regional stability, sound and coordinated economic policies and a better regional economic infrastructure. Who: For teachers, students and researchers studying regional economic integration. How: Can be used as a background reading on a course on regional integration and globalization issues.

      • Preview
        Back to Basics: Market access issues in the Doha Agenda (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Division on International Trade in Goods and Services and Commodities , 2003, 73 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: This report reviews the problem of market access for developing countries. It provides an analysis of the impacts of tariff barriers by focusing on the potential gains of trade liberalization and the challenges for developing countries of the WTO negotiations on market access. Who: This paper is an excellent reading for anyone interested in market access for developing countries and particularly in commodities trade. Gives interesting up-to-date tables and charts. The bibliography provides references for further readings.

      • Preview
        Commerce, Environnement et Developpement (English)
        Note by CNUCED, Conseil du Commerce et du Developpement, 2003, 24 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        Quoi: Note d'information pour la Commission du commerce et des biens et services, et des produits de base, Geneve, 2004. La note donne un resume du programme de travail de Doha concernant les negociations sur les questions d'environnement et le Sommet mondial pour le developpement durable. Elle montre brievement les sujets importants sur le plan de commerce et environnement, entre eux par exemple biosecurite, savoirs traditionnels ou biens et services environnementaux. La note d'information est aussi disponible en anglais et espagnol. Qui: tous ceux qui veulent avoir un apercu general des developpements intergouvernementaux concernant le sujet de commerce et l'environnement, principaux points concernant les questions de commerce et de l'environnement et le role a jouer par la CNUCED. Comment: La note d'information sert seulement comme point de depart de l'analyse et comme resume bref. On aura besoin de lectures supplementaires.

      • Preview
        Compliance Bargaining in the WTO: Ecuador and the Banana Dispute (English)
        Discussion paper by James McCall Smith, 2003, 30 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        An analysis of Ecuador's tactics to ensure compliance with the WTO ruling in their favour (against the EU) in the banana case. The paper offers excellent detail of the specific strategies Ecuador used - both politically and economically and could be of interest to anyone concerned with the evolving jurisprudence on WTO law but also in how the rulings impact on the international trade regime.

      • Preview
        Dispute Settlement: State-State - UNCTAD Series on Issues in International Investment Agreements (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2003, 109 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law

        What: Provisions concerning the settlement of investment disputes are a central feature of international investment agreements (IIAs). This paper deals with provisions as they pertain to State-to-State disputes. Such disputes are relatively rare, in that the bulk of investment disputes arising under IIAs involve investor-State disputes. These are the subject of another paper in this Series. Who: Relevant for anyone teaching or learning state-to-state dispute settlements. How: Can be used for research or courses in dispute settlement.

      • Preview
        E-Commerce and Development Report 2003 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD E-Commerce Branch, 2003, 228 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: The report examines 2003 trends and previsions, as well as more specific issues related to E-commerce (e-finance, online dispute resolution, etc.). Who: Teachers in international affairs or international relations, interested in the impact of the Internet and ICTs on the economy and on development. How: Each chapter and its bibliographies may be used independently to cover specific aspects of E-commerce, or the whole document can be the basis of a course on E-commerce. Data, graphs and tables can be useful to design presentations or tests (document analysis, etc.)

      • Preview
        Economic development in Africa: Trade performance and commodity dependence (English)
        Report by UNCTAD/GDS Division, 2003, 84 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        A detailed analysis that presents major trends and issues in commodity trade in Africa such as market structure, market access and prices volatility, using examples and statistics. Useful for anyone interested in commodity trade particularly in Africa. Chapter 1 provides a good overview of issues in Africa's trade performance and the annex examines the issue of cotton subsidies from the point of view of Sub Saharan Africa.

      • Preview
        Economic Diplomacy Course: University of Campinas (English)
        Outline by Mário Ferreira Presser, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), 2003
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, Trade Related Capacity Building, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This document provides an overview of the course outline for a Master's degree including the rational for the programme, a description of target students and compulsory modules as well as information about elective options.

      • Preview
        Efficient transport and trade facilitation to improve participation by developing countries (English)
        Background note by UNCTAD Secretariat, 2003, 16 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation

        What: Article on how trade and production are affected by transports services. It highlights the importance of low cost and efficient services for trade and economic development. It also reviews the legislation on transports and its implications for developing countries. Who: Good introductory reading to the subject for anyone dealing with trade facilitation. How: Could be used as a starting point in a research/course.

      • Preview
        Electronic Commerce and Information and Communication Technologies for Development: Selected Issues (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Secretariat, 2003, 15 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: This paper provides an insight into selected developments and issues in ICT and e-commerce. Special focus is laid on the impact of ICT on economic performance, ICT policies and strategies, the measurement of ICT and e-commerce and the application of ICT to business. Key areas for future activities in order to assist developing countries to increase their participation in e-commerce and ICT are outlined. Who: For anyone interested in an overview on the role and the implications of ICT and e-commerce for development. How: Can be used as a background reading on the effects of e-commerce and ICT for development.

      • Preview
        Energy and Environmental Services - Negotiating Objectives and Development Priorities (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2003, 429 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: This study provides insight and analysis of the negotiating positions taken by the WTO Member countries on energy and environmental services within the ongoing GATS negotiations. Readers will get a better understanding of what is at stake in the negotiations by learning about the business trends, the major market players and the national strategies in these two service sectors which have a huge economic value and immediate links with economic growth and investment, country competitiveness and, ultimately, sustainable development. Who: Useful for teachers and students studying energy and environmental services. How: Can be used as a background reading for courses on energy and environmental services.

      • Preview
        FDI in Landlocked Developing Countries at a Glance (English)
        Working paper by Division on Investment, Technology and Enterprise Development, UNCTAD, 2003, 112 pages
        Categories: Investment

        This is an examination of national experiences and policy options for developing countries. Key data for selected developing countries are also given. Of interest to anyone teaching or researching investment and transfer of technology in developing countries This paper provides excellent tables, data and figures for several countries with special focus on LDCs

      • Preview
        FDI In South Asia - Do Incentives Work? (English)
        Presentation by S.K. Das and Manoj Pant, 2003
        Categories: Investment, VI Members Research

        What: The paper deals with the role and impact of incentives in attracting Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in South Asia. Studies on cost-benefit analysis of incentives are rare and hence only such focused studies can tell us which set of incentives are effective and thus should be offered. The studies on incentives in South Asia seem to identify such benefits as the increase in employment and/or wages, reduced prices or improved product quality, more revenues for the government and indirect benefits through professionalism, learning and technology diffusion. The latter is also the principal motivation for developing countries. Who: Relevant for anyone teaching or learning the role of incentives in attracting FDI in relation to developing economies. How: Can be used for research or courses on FDI.

      • Preview
        The international climate regime: towards consolidation or collapse? (English)
        Article by Pierre Berthaud, Denise Cavard and Patrick Criqui, 2003, 20 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        This article (in French) addresses the problem of collective action, drawing on the issues related to international climate negotiations. It focuses on the concept of "hegemony" from the perspective of the International Political Economy (IPE) and International Regime (IR) Theory.

      • Preview
        Investment and technology policies for competitiveness: review of successful country experiences (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD Division on Investment, Technology and Enterprise Development, 2003, 79 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Investment, Science and Technology

        Paper that discusses the role of foreign direct investment in the transfer of technology and policy options for developing countries. The annex provides good examples of FDI and development policies in South East Asia. Of interest for teacher/researcher interested in the issues of investment and technology transfer Gives interesting case studies of development policies through transfer of technology.

      • Preview
        Investment Policy Review: Botswana (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2003, 107 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        What: Botswana emerged from least developed country (LDC) status within one generation and is now a middle income country. Foreign direct investment (FDI) was a driving force in this dramatic change. The Government’s handling of the fiscal, social and economic pressures of this transformation could serve as a model for other resource-dependent economies. Who: Useful for teachers and students focusing on a case study in investment. How: Can be used as a background reading and/or research work in investment policy and FDI in resource rich developing economy.

      • Preview
        Report of the Expert Meeting on Definitions and Dimensions of Environmental Goods and Services in Trade and Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, Trade and Development Board, 2003, 20 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        What: This meeting report outlines experts' view on benefits and risks of liberalization of environmental goods and services (EGS) but gives also a good overview of the environmental industry. Discusses advantages and disadvantages of public/private providers, e.g. in water and waste management. Who: Background reading for students and lecturers interested in a summary of experts' opinions on the liberalization process of environmental goods and services as well as background information such as EGS and technology, specific constraints in developing countries, weaknesses of the GATS agreement with regard to EGS etc. The paper offers recommendations for actions at national/international level and UNCTAD's role can be used as starting point for further discussion.

      • Preview
        Road maps towards an information society in Latin America and the Caribbean (English)
        Case study by ECLAC, 2003, 119 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: A recent and systematic regional study of the development of ICTs and of the necessary public policies. It mixes basic concepts on the information society with a constant focus on the regional context. Who: People interested in Latin American geopolitics or economy How: A good handbook for students or complete guidelines for teachers to design a course on the information society in Latin America and the Caribbean. Helpful figures and data for presentations or exercises. The bibliography would be a good basis for a case study.

      • Preview
        SIDS and multilateral trade liberalisation in agriculture: Barbados (English)
        Case study by Gregg Rawlins / UNCTAD, 2003, 62 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        What: This resource examines how agricultural production and competitiveness affect SIDSs (Small Island Developing States) and in particular Barbados; it analyses domestic production and trade, and perspectives of the WTO negotiations on agriculture for Barbados. Who: Case study extracted from the report "Turning losses into gains: SIDSs and multilateral trade liberalization in agriculture" that could be used in teaching and in activities. How: Detailed analysis with data and a summary table of modalities for SIDSs in the WTO. The appendix contains useful tables on Barbados' agricultural production.

      • Preview
        SIDS and multilateral trade liberalisation in agriculture: the Indian Ocean Islands (English)
        Case study by Jean Michel Salomon / UNCTAD, 2003, 44 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        What: An analysis of the Indian Ocean Islands agriculture (Mauritius, Seychelles and the Comoros) Who: Case study extracted from the report "Turning losses into gains: SIDS and multilateral trade liberalization in agriculture" that could be used in teaching and in activities. How: Detailed analysis with data on the Indian Ocean Islands. The appendices contain useful tables on agricultural production.

      • Preview
        SIDS and multilateral trade liberalisation in agriculture: the Pacific Islands (English)
        Case study by Margaret B. Malua / UNCTAD, 2003, 34 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        What: Taken from a report "Turning losses into gains: SIDSs and multilateral trade liberalization in agriculture", this is an examination of the Pacific Islands economies and their agricultural sectors. Who: For anyone interested in SIDS issues. How: The paper provides data, key references in the fields of competitiveness and market access.

      • Preview
        SIDS and multilateral trade liberalisation in agriculture: The Windward Islands (English)
        Case study by Gary Melville / UNCTAD, 2003, 30 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        What: An analysis of the Windward Islands: agricultural sector, competitiveness and policy options in multilateral negotiations. Presentation of the agricultural sector in the Windward Islands and the impacts of trade policies on agriculture Who: For anyone interested in having information on SIDS and agriculture. How: Detailed analysis with data on the Windward Islands. The appendices contain useful tables on agricultural production.

      • Preview
        Subsidies to services sectors: a neo-protectionist distortion or a useful development tool (English)
        Report by Alberto Gabriele, UNCTAD, 2003, 43 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: Key document that examines from a conceptual and policy economy point of view the consequences of subsidies in services trade. It also presents a quantitative analysis of the effects of subsidies and the risks and opportunities for developing countries. Who: Essential document for a research or for further reading for students. How: Provides a high quality analysis based on conceptual and policy economy implications.

      • Preview
        Trade and Development Report 2003, Chapter V: Industrialization, Trade and Structural Change (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2003, 37 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: Long-term economic success depends on sustained improvements in productivity; each worker producing more from any given level of effort provides the basis for rising incomes and living standards. In this sense, it is productivity gains, and not simply additional jobs, that characterize a virtuous process of accumulation and growth. This chapter assesses how the main factors associated with building and maintaining industrial capacity, productivity and patterns of trade have changed in developing countries over the past two decades. Particular attention is given to changes in international specialization within the industrial sector through upgrading. The chapter compares and contrasts the performance of economies in East Asia and Latin America and, to a lesser extent, Africa, with respect to structural change, productivity growth, international competitiveness and trade. Who: For teachers, students and researchers focusing on industrialization, productivity and growth. How: Can be used as a background reading or for research work on strategies for sustainable development.

      • Preview
        Trade and Development Report 2003, Chapter VI - Policy reforms and economic performance: The Latin American experience (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2003, 24 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy

        What: This chapter argues that policy orientation in Latin American countries has failed to produce an appropriate macroeconomic environment for investors and firms to encourage and support the creation and expansion of productive capacity and the improvement of productivity and international competitiveness. Neither has it been able to provide effective policy interventions at the sectoral or micro levels of the kind practised in East Asia. This chapter examines the salient features of the policy reforms and economic performances of Latin American countries from a comparative historical perspective. It examines the evolution of economic policy in the region and analyses the dilemmas generated by the new policy approach with regard to macroeconomic management, structural adjustment and development. Finally, it discusses the options available for removing some key constraints on policy actions. Who: For teachers, students and researchers focusing on policy reform and economic performance in Latin America. How: As a background reading or for research work on the Latin American experience of structural adjustments, policy reforms and changes to their development strategy.

      • Preview
        Trade and Environment Review 2003, Article 3 - Environmental Goods and Services: Challenges/Opportunities for Central American and Caribbean Countries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2003, 33 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: UNCTAD has been providing assistance to five Central American and two Caribbean countries with a view to enhancing their ability to participate effectively in WTO negotiations on trade and environment and address key trade and sustainable development linkages. These countries have identified the examination of implications of trade liberalization and strengthening of domestic capacities in environmental goods and services (EGS) as a priority issue to be addressed under the project "Building Capacity for Improved Policy Making and Negotiation on Key Trade and Environment Issues". The activities carried out thus far have provided valuable lessons learned that are reflected in this article. Who: Useful for teachers and students studying WTO negotiations on environmental goods and services. How: Can be used as a background reading for courses on negotiations on environmental goods and services.

      • Preview
        Trade, Environment and Development (English)
        Background note by UNCTAD, Trade and Development Board, 2003, 17 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        What: Background note for the Commission on Trade and Goods in Services, and Commodities, Geneva 2004. The note gives a brief summary of the Doha work programme on negotiations on environmental issues and the World Summit on Sustainable Development. It outlines very briefly all relevant issues in the field of trade and environment, such as biosafety, traditional knowledge, environmental goods and services. The background note is also available in Spanish and French. Who: anyone who wants to get a quick overview about: intergovernmental developments related to the issue of trade and environment, key trade and environment issues as well as UNCTAD's related work. How: The background note serves only as a starting point/summary and needs additional readings.

      • Preview
        Transfer of technology for successful integration into the global economy (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2003, 217 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: The book focuses on successful cases of technology transfer and integration into the world economy. It identifies factors that could enable firms in developing countries to upgrade technologies or develop new technologies with a view to enhancing their productivity. It aims to provide concrete examples of best practices s in the context of technological capacity building. The book deals with sectors where selected developing countries have demonstrated their ability to create new productive capacities and successfully participate in the world market. Who: Useful for teachers and students studying cases of technology transfer and integration into the world economy. How: Can be used as a background reading for courses on transfer of technology.

      • Preview
        World Investment Report 2003: Fdi Policies for Development: National and International Perspectives
        Report by UNCTAD, 2003, 322 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Investment

        Analysis of the foreign direct investment (FDI) downturn, its reasons and the role of national policies and international investment agreements (IIA) in attracting FDI to a country and for a country to benefit from it. · A key reading for anyone interested in the global economy as this reports looks at the various institutional, micro and macroeconomic causes behind the most significant FDI downturn in three decades. · Main contents: I: FDI Down 21% Globally, II: Uneven Performance Across Regions, III: Key National FDI Policies And International Investment Agreements, IV: Eight Key Issues: National Experiences And International Approaches, V: The Importance of National Policy Space, VI: Home Countries and Investors.

      • Preview
        World Investment Report 2003: Fdi Policies for Development: National and International Perspectives - Overview (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2003, 48 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Investment

        Analysis of the foreign direct investment (FDI) downturn, its reasons and the role of national policies and international investment agreements (IIA) in attracting FDI to a country and for a country to benefit from it. · A key reading for anyone interested in the global economy as this reports looks at the various institutional, micro and macroeconomic causes behind the most significant FDI downturn in three decades.

Login