A partnership with academia

Building knowledge for trade and development

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        2004 Development and Globalization: Facts and Figures (English)
        Report by UNCTAD/GDS Division, 2004, 119 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Finance for Development, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This publication provides data on major economic trends in developing countries: finance and debt, international trade in commodities and manufactures, investment, information and communication technology.

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        Agriculture, Trade Reform and Poverty Reduction: Implications for Sub-Saharan Africa (English)
        Case study by Kym Anderson, CEPR and School of Economics and Centre for International Economic Studies, University of Adelaide, 2004, 37 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: An interesting study that explores the poverty implications of the post-Doha multilateral trade reform agenda of the WTO for Sub-Saharan countries. It addresses the effects of trade reform on poverty at three levels: first developing countries as a group; then on different types of developing countries and finally on different types of households within developing countries. Who: Relevant for anyone studying or teaching trade in an LDC context in relation to poverty reduction. How: Can be used as a background reading on the implications of the current WTO Multilateral Trade Negotiations (MTN) on low-income countries and offers a lot of relevant reference materials.

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        Assessment of Trade in Services and Development Gains (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2004
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: Liberalization of trade in services has become a main concern of many developing countries as it reaches out to areas previously considered as the exclusive domain of the public sector. The main challenge that developing countries are facing is how to strengthen domestic supply capacity in services and reconcile trade, development, social and equity considerations. The objective of this note is to identify questions and to provide some reflections on the methodology for undertaking assessment of services in their developmental and trade dimensions in developing countries. A purpose of the assessment is to identify the best policies that developing countries could pursue. Who: Useful for anyone teaching and/or studying liberalization of trade in services. How: Can be used as a background reading for courses on liberalization of trade in services in developing countries.

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        Commercial policies - Course syllabus (English)
        Outline by Amir Bakir, University of Jordan, Department of Economics, 2004
        Categories: Competition Policy, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The course analyzes trade policy tools in both perfect and imperfect competition. Trade restrictions are common in the world, so micro and macro-economics' trade tools are used to study the effects of these restrictions on the different countries of the world. Economic integrations (regionalism), world trade organization, and trade strategies for developing countries are among the topics of interest in this course.

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        Commodities under Neoliberalism: The Case of Cocoa (English)
        Discussion Paper by Irfan ul Haque, 2004, 35 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        What: This strongly argued paper examines the impacts of market liberalization on cocoa producers countries and argues that low prices and volatility, as a consequence of market liberalization, explain the declining share of developing countries in cocoa exports. Who: For anyone interested in commodities issues and who wants a controversial point of view on the subject. How: Could be used as a background reading for any course which looks at the political economy of commodity markets.

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        Competition, Competitiveness and Development: Lessons from Developing Countries, Chapter 1 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 90 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy, Competitiveness

        What: The paper tries to identify, at both the theoretical and applied level, the necessary political, institutional and economic background for developing countries to implement efficient competition policies. It includes in-depth case studies of Nepal or Thailand, or a course on the prerequisites for competition policy in developing countries.

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        Competition, Competitiveness and Development: Lessons from Developing Countries - Introduction (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 21 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy, Competitiveness

        This introduction to the report on competition, competitiveness and development covers the main issues, e.g. the need for competition policy, trade liberalisation, market regulation. Who: Students or teachers concerned with international law, international economics or the relationship between competition and development How: A general introduction on competition policy, including group discussion or group work on the issues raised in the document. A broad bibliography on the subject is also available.

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        Competition Policy as a Stimulus for Enterprise Development (CCD Report, Ch.3) (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 80 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy, Enterprise Development

        What: A paper dealing with such themes as market concentration, the relation of competition to privatisation, to investment and to SMEs, with many helpful instances. The second and third parts are whole case studies on South Africa and Korea. Who: Teachers in economics, law or development with a special interest in market regulation and competition policy. How: The first part would be relevant to a general course on competition policy and development, and can also lead to class discussions. The two last parts give all the necessary information and data for case studies.

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        Competition Policy, Supply Capacity and Export Competitiveness (CCD Report, ch.4) (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 73 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy

        What: A study of the effect of competition policy on productivity and economic performance based on the instances of Korea, Tanzania and Peru. Could be used by teachers of economics and economic development in case studies or group work

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        Compétitivité, globalisation et attractivité: Ce que l’on savait (ou pensait savoir) il y a 20 ans - Course on Analysis of International Competitiveness (English)
        Outline by Pierre Berthaud, Université Pierre Mendès France of Grenoble, 2004
        Categories: Competitiveness, Trade Related Capacity Building

        The material of the International Economics course on Analysis of International Competitiveness consists of a Table of Contents (structure) of the course, an Introduction putting competitiveness into the context of today's globalized world and an Assessment document explaining the assignments that the students have to accomplish during the course. The course outline, introduction and the assessment descriptions are in French.

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        Corporate strategies in R&D in financial services (English)
        Presentation by Harpreet Khurana, Columbia University, 2004, 28 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: The paper initially provides a definition in financial services and then compares the situation of the financial sector with R&D in industries such as telecommunications, computer system design etc. The presentations places emphasis on different strategies in R&D in financial services and finishes by presenting several case studies. Who: Relevant for anyone studying or teaching R&D. How: Can be used as a background reading.

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        Development, Trade and the WTO : A Handbook (English)
        Manual by Hoekman, Bernard; Mattoo, Aaditya; English, Philip/World Bank., 2004, 672 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Developing countries are increasingly confronted with the need to address trade policy related issues in international agreements, most prominently the World Trade Organization (WTO). New WTO negotiations on a broad range of subjects were launched in November 2001. Determining whether and how international trade agreements can support economic development is a major challenge. Stakeholders in developing countries must be informed on the issues and understand how their interests can be pursued through international cooperation. This handbook offers guidance on the design of trade policy reform, surveys key disciplines and the functioning of the World Trade Organization (WTO), and discusses numerous issues and options that confront developing countries in using international cooperation to improve domestic policy and obtain access to export markets. Many of the issues discussed are also relevant in the context of regional integration agreements. Separate sections of the handbook summarize what constitutes sound trade policy; the major aspects of the WTO from a development perspective; policy issues in the area of merchandise trade and the liberalization of international transactions in services; protection of intellectual property rights and economic development; new regulatory subjects that are emerging in the agenda of trade talks; and enhancing participation of developing countries in the global trading system.

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        Drivers of Industrial Competitiveness in Tanzania: A Capability and Sectoral Approach (English)
        Presentation by Manuel Albaladejo, Queen Elizabeth House University of Oxford , 2004, 23 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: A presentation made in 2003 to an UNCTAD Expert Meeting giving an analysis of the competitiveness of different sectors in Tanzania. It gives an overview of growth in both the manufacturing and other sectors in Tanzania before looking at some of the reasons for underperformance and suggesting possible capacity upgrading strategies. Who: Useful to anyone concerned with economic development in Tanzania but also African LDCs more generally, particularly regarding policy options How: This presentation provides a good example of how to use empirical data to draw out specific policy inclusions and with additional background reading on could be the basis of an excellent country case study.

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        E-Commerce Strategies for Development: Selected Trade and Development Aspects of ICT (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Commission on Enterprise, Business Facilitation and Development, 2004, 12 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: A sound summary of the very recent research work carried out by UNCTAD on ICTs and their adoption by enterprises, on free and open source software and on e-commerce. Who: Anyone interested in ICTs or microeconomics (especially researchers who will find the data very useful). How: A valuable source of information or update for any course on ICTs, especially if it focuses on development and SMEs; also a possible basis for discussion (in particular the conclusion part) after an introductory course on the subject.

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        Economic Development in Africa 2004 - Debt Sustainability: Oasis or Mirage? (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 98 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development

        What: Debt sustainability is basically a relative concept. The questions that beg for a response are: what level of debt is sustainable for countries in which the vast majority of the population lives on under $1 a day per person? Have debt sustainability criteria been based on internationally recognized benchmarks such as those of the MDGs, or on objectively and theoretically verifiable criteria? What is the relationship between Africa's total external debt stocks and the actual amount of debt serviced? Is complete debt write-off a moral hazard or a "moral imperative"? The report tries to put these and other related issues in perspective and makes a number of recommendations on how to deal with Africa's debt. Who: For teachers, students and researchers studying Africa's debt problems, poverty reduction and development challenges. How: Can be used as a background reading or for research work on debt sustainability and development in Africa.

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        Economic feasibility study course syllabus (English)
        Outline by Amir Bakir, University of Jordan, Department of Economics, 2004
        Categories: Trade Related Capacity Building

        This course is primarily concerned with the appraisal of projects/investments from the view points of the entrepreneur and the national economy. It starts with the financial evaluation of the inflows and outflows, and next a series of adjustments for any external effect to reflect the social costs and benefits to the country as a whole, is developed. Finally, risk analysis is introduced to deal with the problems of uncertainty.

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        Economic Policy Challenges in an Open Economy: Coherence between Trade and Finance (English)
        Presentation by Heiner Flassbeck, UNCTAD, 2004
        Categories: Competitiveness, Macroeconomic Policy

        What: This paper emphasizes the importance of understanding competitiveness from the perspective of interdependence and analyses its applicability to developing countries. It explores the possibility and policy implications of using currency undervaluation as a general solution to maintaining competitiveness. Who: Can be used for a course on competitiveness. How: For a course on competition and competition policy in developing countries.

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        Economics development (English)
        Outline by Abed Kharabsheh, University of Jordan, Department of Economics, 2004
        Categories: Trade Related Capacity Building

        This course explains the concepts and theories related to social and economic development and deals with the identification of appropriate policies that help developing countries in their way towards modernization. It also analyzes economic development in Jordan as a case study. Overview of the course on Economics Development includes course outline and a reading list.

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        Entrée sur les marches des produits de base : le rôle du financement des échanges et investissements (French)
        Background note by UNCTAD, 2004, 27 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        Quoi : Une analyse des problèmes que rencontrent les producteurs des PED à pénétrer les marches des produits de base. Ce papier étudie les obstacles au financement et l'impact sur les PED. Il donne également des recommandations en matière d'action publique. Qui : Pour quiconque intéresse par les questions des produits de base, et particulièrement en Afrique. Comment : Donne des exemples de financement réussi (Philippines, Inde et Zambie).

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        Environmental Goods and Services: Defining Negotiations or Negotiating Definitions? (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 29 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: This article from the Trade and Environment Review 2003 emphasizes the lack of agreed definitions and classifications concerning environmental goods and services and questions the goal of a win-win scenario in WTO negotiations (positive outcomes for both trade and environmental aspects), e.g. will environmental benefits go to one set of countries and trade gains to another? How to balance market access with public services? How:The article presents a good overview of negotiations in environmental goods and services, can be used as key reading for course related to trade and environment.

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        Environmental/Health requirements, Market Access and Export Competitiveness: Trends, Problems and Approaches (English)
        Presentation by Ulrich Hoffmann, UNCTAD, 2004, 5 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Trade and Environment

        What: Presentation defines environmental/health requirements by outlining their nature, range and some important trends. Main part of the presentation analyses then both policy and capacity issues concerning health/environmental requirements at WTO level, international level and national level (with special focus on developing countries). Good summary of key problems, e.g. lack of international standards Who: Anyone who wants a very quick overview about key issues in health/environmental requirements/use it as summary. How: Only bullet points, previous knowledge needed or has to be complemented with additional readings, e.g. corresponding paper "Environmental/Health Requirements, Market Access and Export Competitiveness - What is the Problem for Developing Countries and what can be the Answers?"

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        Exports of services and economic growth in developing countries (English)
        Report by Alberto Gabriele, UNCTAD, 2004, 45 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        What: This paper illustrates the main trends in international trade in services during the last two decades of the last century, and explores quantitatively the nexus between GDP growth and exports of services, focusing particularly on developing and transition countries. Who: Relevant for anyone studying or teaching exports in services in developing countries and in economies in transition. How: Can be used as a background reading on international trade on services in developing countries. The paper uses several data and provides a number of reference materials.

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        FDI participant activity workbook and reading list (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD Virtual Institute, Investment Division, 2004
        Categories: Investment

        This activity workbook and reading list complements other presentations on FDI covered in the investment section. This simulation exercise provides students with an opportunity to synthesize their learning by preparing FDI proposals based on particular country profiles. The reading list covers a wide range of publications that deal with FDI and related topics.

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        Financial economics course syllabus (English)
        Outline by Talib M. Awad, University of Jordan, Department of Economics, 2004
        Categories: Trade Related Capacity Building

        The course covers the basics of financial economics, valuation of individual firm, bonds and fixed income fundamentals, bond valuation and investment, market efficiency, investor's behaviours toward risk and capital market theory, and measures of portfolio performance.

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        Financial Liberalization and Economic Policy Options: Brazil 1994-2003 (English)
        Presentation by Maria Alejandra Caporale Madi, 2004
        Categories: Finance for Development, Macroeconomic Policy

        What: The paper focuses on the consequences of financial liberalization and recessive macroeconomic adjustment in Brazil covering the period from 1994 to 2003. The orthodox therapy has proved to create a "financial trap", reinforcing the inability to achieve sustainable economic development. Emphasis is given to the crucial economic issues in the agenda of President Cardoso (1995-2002). Finally, the continuity of the "financial trap" after President Lula's election and the challenges to develop a long-term financial system are discussed. Who: Relevant for anyone teaching or studying financial liberalization and its consequences in Brazil. How: Can be used for a background reading as a case study on financial liberalization.

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        The Flying Geese Paradigm: a Critical Study of its Application to East Asian Regional Development (English)
        Discussion paper by Shigehisa Kasahara, 2004, 34 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        What: A discussion paper outlining the different versions of the flying gees paradigm of dynamic comparative advantage that try to provide a conceptual underpinning to the process of regional integration through transfer of technology and foreign direct investment in East Asia. The author analyzes the paradigm in the light of current developments in the region and makes some critical conclusions about its applicability. Who: Teachers and students of courses dealing with trade, regional integration, transfer of technology and foreign direct investment. Anyone interested in East Asian experience. How: Can serve as background reading to provide basic knowledge of the theory (good explanation with a graphical presentation), and to stimulate a discussion about its merits and shortcoming, its relevance to the current situation in the region and possibly also other regions.

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        Free and Open-Source Software: Policy and Development Implications (English)
        Discussion Paper by UNCTAD, 2004, 20 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: The paper gives basic definitions, discusses the "free and open source software" (FOSS) phenomenon from a policy perspective, develops a brief discussion of possible opportunities for deployment in public and commercial activities, clarifies the intellectual property context of FOSS and provides an overview of development issues where FOSS has had a conceptual impact, besides practical use and deployment. Who: Useful for anyone teaching electronic commerce. How: Can be used as a background reading on FOSS.

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        Globalization Reloaded: An UNCTAD Perspective (English)
        Discussion paper by Richard Kozul-Wright and Paul Rayment, 2004, 56 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This provocative paper questions the idea of the inevitability of globalization and argues that the form in which it has developed is the result of policy choices. Looking at trade and then finance they argue that for developing countries to remain committed to the international system, the rules and framework governing international economy must be more balanced and just This paper could be used as background reading for any course or presentation on the processes of economic globalization

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        The impact of FDI on Development: Globalization of R&D by TNCs (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2004, 16 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Investment, Science and Technology

        What: A note prepared by UNCTAD identifying key issues related to the trends in the globalization of R&D and its implications for developing countries. Who: Relevant for anyone studying or teaching FDI and development, and its impact on processes of globalization. How: Background reading for courses on FDI, globalization. Also offers a lot of relevant reference materials.

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        Improving the Trade-Poverty Relationship through the International Trade Regime (English)
        Presentation by Michael Herrmann, UNCTAD, 2004, 20 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty

        A clear presentation that uses key data to question some of the central issues regarding the relationship between trade and poverty. Based on the UNCTAD Least Developed Countries Report, 2004 This is relevant for anyone studying or teaching trade in an LDC context concerned with poverty issues The data from the presentation be used as the basis of a lecture or seminar on trade and poverty

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        Incentives - UNCTAD Series on Issues in International Investment Agreements (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 108 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Investment

        What: Incentives are frequently used as a policy instrument to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) and to benefit more from it. They can be classified as financial, fiscal or other (including regulatory) incentives. The issue of incentives is a relatively new phenomenon in international investment agreements (IIAs). Up to now, the great majority of IIAs have not contained specific provisions related to them. Who: Relevant for anyone researching or teaching the new trend of incentives in international investment agreements. How: Can be used for research or lectures on incentives to attract FDI.

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        Industrialization in developing countries: Some evidence from a new economic geography perspective (English)
        Discussion Paper by Jörg Mayer, 2004, 37 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: This paper shows how the current process of globalization has had a crucial effect on the geographical location of industrial activities and goes on to discuss some of the important empirical questions as to the impact of the current wave of globalization on development. The paper provides a number of reference materials for more in-depth reading. Who: Teachers, students and researchers of new economic geography models in particular or in globalization and industrialization issues in general. How: The paper contains discussions of some of the key data and measurement issues that are invariably involved in this kind of research. This paper could be used as an example of the application of trade analysis techniques.

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        International Accounting and Reporting Issues, 2003 Review (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2004, 271 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development

        What: This volume highlights important topics with respect to corporate governance disclosure, including case studies on Brazil, France, Kenya, the Russian Federation and the United States, as well as current trends and issues in reporting on the impact of corporations on society. Each case study discusses the institutional and legislative framework for disclosure, including stock exchanges; codes of conduct and company practices; assessment of the extent to which best practices are reflected in the disclosure requirements of selected countries and how enterprises generally comply with these requirements; and overview of implementation challenges. Who: Useful for anyone teaching international accounting and reporting issues. How: Some of the case studies can be used for courses on accounting and reporting.

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        International finance course syllabus (English)
        Outline by Talib M. Awad, University of Jordan, Department of Economics, 2004
        Categories: Trade Related Capacity Building

        This course examines international trade, finance and investment. Essential topics include: the international balance of payments, foreign exchange with emphasis on exchange rate determination, exchange risk, hedging, and interest arbitrage, international money and capital markets, international financing, and international portfolio management.

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        Key terms and concepts in International Investment Agreements (IIAs): A glossary (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2004, 231 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law

        This glossary aims to provide brief explanatory commentaries on the main terms and concepts used in International Investment Agreements (IIAs). These terms and concepts have mainly a legal connotation and have been selected because they provide a broad coverage of the principal issues that are dealt with in IIAs. Each entry in this glossary provides a short definition of the term, followed by examples of relevant provisions in IIAs

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2004, Ch. 1: Recent Economic Trends (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 24 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development

        What: A thorough overview of the background, consequences and political implications of Africa's debt crisis with a focus of the Highly Indebted Poor Countries Initiative (HIPC). Divided into 4 chapters looking at the key issues involved in the HIPC, eligibility and sustainability, debt after debt-relief and new approaches to attaining sustainable debt. Who: Relevant to development economists or anyone interested in both HIPC and wider debt issues and their impact on development. How: In its entirety, could be used as background reading. Discreet chapters could also be of relevance for specific discussions or assignments. Chapter 4 on new approaches provides ideas for alternative policy approaches.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2004, Ch. 2: Selected recent social trends: Population growth, human development goals, the HIV/AIDS epidemic (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 23 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: An analysis of recent social trends in LDCs. Includes data tables on population growth, human development goals and HIV/AIDS. Who: Useful background data for anyone studying or researching general social and economic development. How: The data contained in this resource can be used in a number of different ways to support and substantiate research and presentations on economic and social development in LDCs.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2004, Ch. 5: Trade liberalization and poverty reduction in the LDCs (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 40 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty

        The chapter focuses on the major trade policy — trade liberalization — that LDC Governments have adopted in recent years, and examines whether or not the implementation of this policy is likely to link international trade more effectively to poverty reduction in the LDCs.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2004, Ch. 7: Improving the Trade-Poverty Relationship through National Development Strategies (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 45 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        What: This chapter examines how trade can be integrated into national development strategies in a way that supports poverty reduction. Who: Anyone teaching or researching the links between trade and poverty as well as anyone interested in the national trade policy processes in LDCs. How: Good, detailed background reading that clearly explains a range of interconnected issues relating to trade and poverty. This report provides well-presented data in the form of tables and charts. It also provides a number of reference materials for more in-depth reading. It is highly recommend that anyone who is in interested in this chapter should also look at the chapter entitled "Improving the Trade-Poverty Relationship through the International Trade Regime".

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2004: Improving the Trade-Poverty Relationship through the International Trade Regime (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 2004, 52 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: LDC Report 2004 Part 2, Chapter 6. An argument for how international trade can be made a more effective mechanism for poverty reduction for LDCs focusing on the international trade regime in a holistic sense not limited to the WTO but demonstrating the importance of the world commodity economy and market access issues. Who: Anyone teaching or researching the links between trade and poverty as well as anyone interested in the structure of international trade. How: Good, detailed background reading that clearly explains a range of interconnected issues relating to trade and poverty. For a more detailed presentation on the issue, the bibliography offers a number of reference materials. It is highly recommend that anyone who is in interested in this chapter should also look at the chapter entitled "Improving the Trade-Poverty Relationship through National Development Strategies".

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2004 - Overview (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2004, 39 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty

        What: This Overview examines the relationship between trade and poverty in the LDCs. The central questions that the report seeks to answer are: What is the potential role of international trade in poverty reduction in the LDCs? How does the relationship between international trade and poverty work in practice in the LDCs? What are the national and international policies that can make international trade a more effective mechanism for poverty reduction in the LDCs? Who: Anyone teaching or researching trade and poverty in LDCs. How: Useful background reading on issues and relations between trade and poverty.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2004, Part 1, Chapter 1: Recent Economic Trends (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 24 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, International Financial System

        What: A thorough overview of the background, consequences and political implications of Africa's debt crisis with a focus of the Highly Indebted Poor Countries Initiative (HIPC). Divided into 4 chapters looking at the key issues involved in the HIPC, eligibility and sustainability, debt after debt-relief and new approaches to attaining sustainable debt. Who: Relevant to development economists or anyone interested in both HIPC and wider debt issues and their impact on development. How: In its entirety, could be used as background reading. Discreet chapters could also be of relevance for specific discussions or assignments. Chapter 4 on new approaches provides ideas for alternative policy approaches.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2004, Part 1, Chapter 3 - Selected Recent Policy Trends: Accession of LDCs to the WTO (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 17 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: A descriptive overview of the issues and challenges involved in LDC accession to the WTO followed by three brief country case studies of Cambodia, Vanuatu and Nepal (detailing their systemic commitments, proposed bound tariffs rates and proposals on services). Additionally the chapter offers a comparative analysis amongst accession countries as well as existing WTO members. Who: Anyone teaching or researching LDC accession to the WTO. How: Useful background reading on issues and challenges of WTO membership.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2004, Part 2 Chapter 2 - The Potential Role of International Trade in Poverty Reduction in the LDCs (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Special Programme for LDCs, 2004, 27 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty

        This resource examines the role that international trade could play in poverty reduction looking empirically at the relationship between growth and poverty reduction before focusing on the importance of exports, arguing that export orientated growth must be inclusive as well as sustained. This chapter provides well-presented data in the form of tables and charts on the link between trade and growth that could be used in a lecture or seminar.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2004, Part 2, Chapter 3 - How the Trade-Poverty Relationship works in practice (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Special Programme for LDCs, 2004, 39 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty

        What: Provides a realistic and empirically grounded analysis of three key areas where trade is not working to reduce poverty: trade performance; trade-growth linkages and the form of economic growth associated with export expansion. Who: Anyone teaching or researching the links between trade and poverty How: This chapter makes a strong argument about the trade-off between resource mobilization and poverty reduction. Could be used to stimulate discussion on why trade doesn't necessarily lead to poverty reduction. Useful annex providing indices of exports and private consumption per capita in LDCs on a country by country basis. The report provides a number of reference materials.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2004, Part 2, Chapter 4 - Civil Conflict and the Trade–Poverty Relationship (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 18 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty

        What: Given the high incidence of conflict in LDCs, this chapter examines the association between conflict and low levels of income before concentrating on the important issue of how conflict affects the trade-poverty relationship Who: Anyone teaching or researching the links between trade and poverty as well as students/teachers of the political economy of conflict and development How: A solid introduction to some of the complex issues related to poverty, conflict and trade. For a more detailed presentation on the issue, the bibliography offers a lot of excellent reference materials.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2004, Part Two, Chapter 1 - Trade and Poverty from a Development Perspective (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 31 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty

        An introduction as to why a development perspective is necessary for examining the links between trade and poverty. This resource offers an analytical framework that goes beyond the relationship between trade liberalization and poverty to look at the issue more widely in particular the importance of efficient development and utilization of productive capacity. Useful for anyone teaching, researching or writing on the links between trade and poverty A good general overview of the links between trade and poverty which could make an excellent introductory reading on the subject. Useful 'boxes' and tables could also be used as seminar or lecture resources.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2004 - Statistical Annex (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 49 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Basic data on the Least Developed Countries for 2004

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        Market Entry for Commodities: The Role of Trade and Investment Finance (English)
        Working paper by UNCTAD secretariat, 2004, 22 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Finance for Development

        An analysis on the difficulty of developing countries' producers entering international commodity markets and on the role of finance as a requisite to establish and maintain competitiveness. This paper studies the impacts of obstacles to obtaining commodity finance on developing countries and gives a few recommendations on the role of governments, international organizations and civil society. Of interest to anyone interested in commodity issues and particularly in Africa. The paper gives examples of successful countries in agricultural finance (The Philippines, India, and Zambia)

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        Model Law on Competition (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2004, 107 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy

        This is a revised version of the 1999 UN model law which incorporates changes in legislation.

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        Multilateral Trade Rules Governing Environmental and Health Requirements: The TBT and SPS Agreement (English)
        Presentation by Ulrich Hoffmann, UNCTAD, 2004, 8 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This presentation describes the objectives, definitions, scope, and principles of the WTO Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT Agreement) and the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phyto-sanitary Measures (SPS Agreement).

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        Negociações em agricultura na OMC (English)
        Summary by Mário Ferreira Presser, Frederico Quaresma Madureira, Wolfgang Lenk, 2004
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper (in Portuguese) provides a general overview of agricultural trade negotiations at the WTO through Doha, Cancun and beyond. Also contains a glossary of key terms.

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        Not Totally Naked: Textiles and Clothing Trade in a Quota Free Environment (English)
        Discussion paper by Jörg Mayer, 2004, 55 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: A very good discussion paper that deals with quota regulations and tariff protection in textiles and clothing trade focusing mainly on China. It discusses at length the effects of the implementation of the Termination of the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC). The paper uses several data and provides selected number of reference materials. Who: Relevant for anyone studying or teaching trade - quota regulations and tariff protection on textiles and clothing. How: The discussion paper can be used for a lecture or a seminar to teach the trade effects on the termination of ATC on both developed and developing countries.

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        Policy Alternatives in Reforming Power Utilities in Developing Countries: A Critical Survey (English)
        Discussion paper by Alberto Gabriele / UNCTAD, 2004, 25 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Competition Policy

        What: Given the importance of energy to all aspects of development, this paper examines the liberalization and privatization of energy utilities before going on to suggest some alternative policies based on the experiences of a number of countries. The paper provides short case studies of energy reforms including Chile, Brazil, Argentina, China and India. The paper also provides a number of reference materials for more in-depth reading. Who: Anyone interested in the impact of liberalization on development in particular key public utilities. How: Could be used as a key reading or the basis of a presentation on reform of the energy sector and the impact of liberalization.

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        Postgraduate Diploma in International Trade and Economic Diplomacy, University of Mauritius (English)
        Outline by University of Mauritius, Faculty of Social Studies and Humanities, 2004
        Categories: Trade Related Capacity Building

        An overview of the post-graduate course which includes detailed information about the content of the module.

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        Promoting the Export Competitiveness of SMEs (English)
        Discussion Paper by UNCTAD, 2004, 17 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Enterprise Development

        What: This paper examines policies and actions that could help improve the export competitiveness of SMEs in developing countries. Linkages with transnational corporations deserve special attention, as these private actors are increasingly playing a leading role in world production, trade and finance. The paper summarizes possible ways for SMEs to gain access to international markets and discusses the rationality of SME export promotion through foreign direct investment and business linkages. Then it suggests policy recommendations for the various private and public stakeholders responsible for enabling SMEs to export successfully. Who: Useful for anyone teaching on export competitiveness of SMEs. How: Can be used for courses on how to strengthen SMEs export competitiveness.

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        Regulatory Design and Competition Policy Implementation (CCD Report, Ch.2) (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 60 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy

        What: An in-depth study of competition policy implementation through the analysis of some sample sectors of the economy in Brazil and in Latin America. It looks at the impact of regulatory design on competitiveness and at specific policies that could be designed according to specific industries Includes case studies on sample sectors in Brazil and on the Latin America beer sector

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        Selected Issues Concerning the Multilateral Trading System (English)
        Discussion Paper by Rohini Acharya, Michael Daly, 2004, 43 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: Since the establishment of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), a growing international community has sought to promote the liberalization of international trade. With the creation of the permanent World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1994, which replaces the GATT, originally a temporary structure, this aim has become more institutionalized. The paper outlines details of selected issues of special concern for developing countries within the WTO negotiations. Section 2 examines causes for trade imbalances. In section 3 some unfinished business concerning tariffs, such as tariff escalation or tariff "peaks", are summarized. Section 4 evaluates the high level of support for the agricultural sector. In section 5, market access concerns of developing countries in textiles and clothing are analyzed. Section 6 deals with the effects of non-tariff barriers such as anti-dumping and technical standards. Market access issues on services are outlined in section 7. The final section offers some concluding remarks. Who: For teachers and students of multilateral trade who want to focus on specific technical aspects of the WTO negotiations such as causes for account imbalances or details on the unfinished business of tariff reductions. How: An excellent reading on some of the most contentious aspects within the WTO trade negotiations. The Annex provides very interesting and detailed data and figures on tariff structures in selected countries. However, since the paper was written in 2004, progress has taken place within the WTO negotiations. Therefore, in order to have an up-to-date standard of knowledge, the paper should be complemented by additional reading.

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        Some Issues in the Determination of Dumping and Injury Under China\\'s Antidumping Regulations (English)
        Article by LI, Yang/UIBE, 2004, 17 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System, VI Members Research

        This paper makes case studies of Chinese antidumping practices concerning the determination of dumping and injury, which can be considered the two key aspects in the rendering of all antidumping determinations, to see whether they are in compliance with the standards of the WTO Antidumping Agreement.

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        Specific Trade Obligations in Multilateral Environmental Agreements (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 33 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: the article (Trade and Environment Review 2003, Article 1) gives background information for a discussion on the relationship between specific trade obligations (STOs) in multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) and WTO rules. What objectives do developing countries pursue in negotiations? What happens if STOs are not compatible with WTO rules? Who: anyone involved in research or policy-making related to environmental goods and trade. How: previous knowledge on WTO negotiations is needed, if the article is used as background reading for a course on trade and environment.

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        Swimming in the spaghetti bowl: challenges for developing countries under the "new regionalism" (English)
        Other by Luis Abugattas Majluf, 2004, 34 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: This paper present the new challenges for developing countries in the context of regional integration and multilateral negotiations and the implications for their development perspectives. It focuses on the issue of preferential trade in services to study its compatibility with the GATS provisions. Who: Students and teachers interested in the new regionalism and its consequences. How: Presentation of new regionalism and opportunities for developing countries that could be used as a basis for a course.

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        Trade alone is not enough (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2004
        Categories: Trade and Poverty, Vi Meetings

        An information note from UNCTAD about the Least Developed Countries Report 2004 and its focus on poverty reduction. This note provides additional background to the presentation and paper of Charles Gore at the VI member meeting July 2004.

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        Trade and Development Report 2004, Chapter 1 - The World Economy: Performance and prospects (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 44 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        What: This chapter of UNCTAD's flagship annual Report on Trade and Development 2004 analyses the performance of the world economy in 2003 and its prospects for the future. According to the report, industrial production growth has been especially important in emerging-market economies in Asia but it has been weak in the euro area, the United States and Latin America. The Chinese economy is surging, and India is on a high and stable growth path while most of the other emerging-market economies are following close behind. This region is not entirely dependent on the performance of the developed world; rather, it has generated a dynamic that would allow it to push ahead even while the rest of the world still struggles with cyclical and structural problems. Who: A very authoritative report for anyone teaching and researching world-wide trade, investment and development performances and prospects. How: A chapter that can be used to teach and/or undertake research work on economic trends and issues.

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        Trade and Development Report 2004, Chapter II: International Trade and Finance (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 32 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, International Financial System

        What: This chapter analyses international trade and financial and monetary systems. The report asserts that global trade increased significantly in 2003, after sluggish growth in 2002 and a slight contraction in 2001. However, the trade expansion was mainly the result of high export volumes and the growth rate in 2003 was characterized by a surge in the unit value of exports. In addition, the report examines how the international trading relations are affected by the international monetary and financial systems, and shows that monetary and financial instability can have a serious impact on the ability of developing countries to participate successfully in the international trading system and reap the benefits of globalization. Who: or anyone teaching and researching international trade and global monetary and financial systems. How: A chapter that can be used to teach and/or undertake research work on international trade, finance and monetary issues.

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        Trade and Development Report 2004, Chapter III: Openness, Integration and National Policy Space, (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 28 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: This chapter deals with the issues of unrestricted cross-border flows of goods, services and capital that has always been one of the principles of globalization. The report states that if improved institutional quality and technology spillover are added, trade and capital openness should automatically allow for catch-up growth in poorer countries and bring about income convergence at the global level. But the empirical evidence supporting this approach has been elusive. In fact, most of the evidence suggests that the impact of trade openness has been highly uneven, and contingent on a variety of institutional factors. Who: An important chapter for anyone teaching and/or researching globalization issues. How: A chapter that can be used to teach and/or undertake research as well as a background reading on integration and national policy issues.

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        Trade and Development Report 2004, Chapter IV: Fostering Coherence between the International Trading, Monetary and Financial Systems (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 52 pages
        Categories: International Financial System

        What: This chapter examines the problem of insufficient coherence between the international trading, monetary and financial systems, and how it affects the formulation and successful implementation of national development strategies. Finally, the chapter draws some conclusions on how developing-country policy-makers can avoid a situation where insufficient coherence in the international monetary and financial system jeopardizes the successful implementation of national development strategies designed to foster domestic supply capacities. In addition, this chapter has two annexes dealing with "The Concept of Competitiveness" and "The Set-up of Econometric Estimates of the Impact of Exchange Rate Changes on Trade Performance". Who: For anyone teaching and/or researching international trading, monetary and financial systems. How: Can be used to teach and/or undertake research as well as a background reading on coherence between the international trading, monetary and financial systems.

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        Trade and Development Report 2004: Conclusions and Policy Challenges (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 10 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, International Financial System

        What: The Trade and Development Report 2004, Part Two, in its concluding remarks, raises a number of policy issues and challenges as to, for instance. how to reinforce coherence between national development strategies and global processes and disciplines, as well as policy coherence among and within the various aspects/sectors of the global economy that impact on development prospects of developing countries. Of particular importance, the report notes, is the interface between the international trading system and the international monetary and financial systems. Who: For teachers focusing on international trading, monetary and financial systems. How: The various issues and proposals can be used to provoke discussions in class.

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        Trade and Development Report 2004: Policy coherence, development strategies and integration into the world economy (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 188 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Macroeconomic Policy, Trade and Poverty

        What: This year's Trade and Development Report is intended to contribute to the debate on policy coherence. It examines how international trading relations are affected by the international monetary and financial systems, and shows that monetary and financial instability can have serious impact on the ability of developing countries to participate successfully in the international trading system. The report stresses the importance of building a truly multilateral monetary system, in which all countries, not just a few, have a voice in the decision making. The report also discusses exchange-rate management at the national and international levels, and shows how it can contribute significantly to job creation and poverty reduction. Who: A very authoritative report for anyone teaching and researching global trade, investment and development issues. How: A lot of the chapters, data and charts from this report can be used for lectures, research work and background reading.

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        Trade, Environment and Development:The Brazilian Experience (English)
        Discussion Paper by Luciana Togeiro de Almeida, Mario Ferreira Presser and Stela Luiza de Mattos Ansa, 2004, 38 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, VI Members Research

        This paper argues that there is a need for reconsideration of the conventional methodologies applied to the study of the relationships of mutual causality involving trade, environment and development, giving priority to historical-inductive approaches

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        Training module on the WTO agreement on sanitary and phytosanitary measures (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2004
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This training module aims to provide materials and inputs for developing countries’ trainers, lecturers and government officials involved in training and research tasks on the multilateral rules governing the application of sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures in international trade.

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        Transparency - UNCTAD Series on Issues in International Investment Agreements (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 118 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law

        What: The aim of this paper is to examine how transparency issues have been addressed in international investment agreements (IIAs) and other relevant instruments dealing with international investment. The concept of transparency is closely associated with promotion and protection in the field of international investment. The paper identifies some of the main issues that influence State and corporate approaches to the question of transparency in international investment relations. Who: Relevant for anyone researching or teaching the concept of transparency. How: Can be used for research or lectures on transparency issues.

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        Variable Geometry for the WTO: Concepts and Precedents (English)
        Discussion paper by Andrew Cornford, 2004, 21 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: this discussion paper provides detailed review of the concpet and history of variable geometry at the WTO - that is the WTO as an umbrella framework for different arrangements that wouldn't require the signature of all members.It also takes a preliminary look at what a framework of variable geometry might involve and considers some of the benefits and problems likely to be associated with a multi-tier WTO. Who: of interest to anyone involved in researching (or negotiating) WTO issues and regional integration.

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        Who is the master? Who is the servant? Market or Government? - An alternative approach: Towards a coordination system (English)
        Discussion Paper by S.M. Shafaeddin, 2004, 35 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: A strongly argued paper that discusses the limitations of the market-based approaches to economic development and the risks of government failure. It presents an alternative approach on coordination of economic activities through the idea of a "coordination system". Who: Teachers, researchers and students of globalization and development economics. How: Could be used as background reading for any course or presentation on the relative roles of the state and the market in economic processes.

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        World Investment Report, 2004: The Shift Towards Services (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 468 pages
        Categories: Investment

        A thorough examination of the global and regional trends in foreign direct investment (FDI) particularly regarding the shifting patterns of FDI towards services and an assessment of the challenges and opportunities that arise for development. : Valuable information to scholars specialized in international finance and investment as well as to those focusing on the service economy. : Main Contents: I Global FDI Growth Set To Resume, Regional FDI Trends: A Mixed Picture, III The Growth Of FDI In Services And Its Implications, IV The Off shoring Of Corporate Service Functions: The Next Global Shift?, V National Policies, VI National And International Policies: A Complex And Dynamic Interaction. It also includes a substantial statistical annex.

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        World Investment Report, 2004: The Shift Towards Services - Overview
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2004, 54 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment

        A thorough examination of the global and regional trends in foreign direct investment (FDI) particularly regarding the shifting patterns of FDI towards services and an assessment of the challenges and opportunities that arise for development. : Valuable information to scholars specialized in international finance and investment as well as to those focusing on the service economy.

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        The WTO negotiations on financial services: Current issues and future directions (English)
        Discussion Paper by Andrew Cornford, 2004, 29 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: A descriptive discussion paper that presents main issues of financial services negotiations: special and differential measures, laws and regulations, international capital movements and financial instability. Who: Anyone researching or teaching WTO negotiations or services liberalization. How: This discussion paper gives a historical background on financial services negotiations and contains a list of useful references.

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