A partnership with academia

Building knowledge for trade and development

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        Labour Migration and Human Development 2011 Annual Report
        Report by IOM, 2012, 70 pages
        Categories: Migration and Development

        The report presents an overview of labour migration and development dynamics in the framework of IOM’s vision and strategy. It includes examples of best practices and highlights relevant projects implemented by IOM’s offices around the globe with respect to global and local issues in commitment with migrants’ interests. In addition, the report outlines anticipated programmatic trends for 2012.

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        Labour Standards and ILO’s Effectiveness in the Governance of Globalization (English)
        Discussion paper by Onida, Fabrizio - Università Bocconi, 2008
        Categories: VI Members Research

        The paper reviews International Labor Office (ILO)’s historical milestones, covering the main Conventions on labour standards. Then the paper focuses on ILO’s main duties as a supervisor of labour markets conditions and as an agent and direct player with local governments: designing appropriate policies for a “decent work” agenda in the world, pushing for the widest possible adoption of the Conventions themselves by member countries, monitoring compliance of those standards, promoting bilateral and multilateral actions with governments aimed at correcting major violations of these standards. Special emphasis is given to possible improvements in the effectiveness of ILO’s procedures and initiatives, under the assumption that actions based on positive incentives are far more plausible and effective than negative sanctions. The final section summarizes major conclusions and recommendations that have been approved by CNEL's (National Council of Economy and Labour) general assembly on June 5, 2008, also in view of the annual meeting of AICESIS (International Association of Economic and Social Councils) held in Rome on June 12, 2008.

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        La Gobernanza Versus GlobalizaciÓn: Estudio De Caso Isa
        Article by Carlos Manuel Jiménez Aguilar* Catherine Pereira Villa**, 2011, 21 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research

        This article explores the contemporary debate on globalization and governance, in order to study processes of regional integration from networks of cross-border governance in the region. The processes of privatization of the electric sector in Latin America increased public-private coordination and cross-sector partnerships: this is the case of Colombia’s energy sector and the company of electrical interconnection (ISA). This work suggests that the case of ISA can be characterized as one of interactive governance that has connected three countries of the Andean region and one member of Mercosur through a linear infrastructure of more than 35,000 km. This infrastructure has spatially integrated a region characterized by incomplete integration processes. This study analyses ISA’s model and its contribution to the cross-border governance based on information provided by the company and a series of interviews with ISA’s management.

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        La Política Comercial En América Latina Durante La Crisis: Algunas Observaciones Preliminares (English)
        Policy brief by Durán Lima, José; Herreros, Sebastián/ LATN, 2010, 5 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs

        En el marco de la coordinación regional de Global Trade Alert, LATN presenta este brief donde se analiza la diversidad de medidas implementadas en materia de política comercial a lo largo América Latina tras el desencadenamiento de la crisis financiera internacional.

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        Las Cascaras Del Banano (English)
        Article by Gustavo Guzman, 2007
        Categories: Commodities, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research

        Análisis de la controversia por el tratamiento a las importaciones de banano en la Union Europea y su impacto social.

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        Las Políticas Para La Seguridad Alimentaria Ante Un Escenario Global Más Complejo (English)
        Working paper by Pomareda, Carlos, 2011, 18 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        La inseguridad alimentaria tiene múltiples dimensiones, y tanto los gobiernos como las agencias de cooperación (ONGs y organismos internacionales) la abordan en diferente forma. El resultado de tal abordaje es un gran desorden en los esfuerzos de los gobiernos y de las agencias, poniendo en tela de juicio la efectividad de las medidas que se toman. La situación tiende a complicarse a medida que pasa el tiempo y no se resuelven problemas estructurales y a raíz de nuevos elementos que hacen más difícil que la seguridad alimentaria, como objetivo de desarrollo, sea alcanzada. De no tenerse en cuenta el agravante contexto, continuará el desperdicio de recursos y la profundización de los problemas. Estas notas tienen el propósito de contribuir a identificar vacíos en los que se requiere profundizar el conocimiento y por lo tanto reconsiderar los factores que influencian las condiciones de inseguridad alimentaria y las alternativas para superar la situación, a raíz de un escenario cambiante que tiene influencia en la inseguridad alimentaria global, aunque con implicaciones particulares para los diferentes países. El documento toma en cuenta los diferentes niveles en los que se manifiesta la inseguridad alimentaria y sus vínculos con otros temas como la pobreza, el hambre y la desnutrición. Plantea la necesidad de revisar los enfoques a la luz de las complicaciones en el escenario global de inestabilidad; y los compromisos y oportunidades en el comercio internacional. El documento ofrece una revisión de estos aspectos para motivar el diálogo en un tema amplio y complejo.

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        Las Propuestas De Quito (English)
        Article by Gustavo Guzman, 2007
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        Análisis sobre las posibilidades de integración de Suramérica, a partir de los acuerdos de integración de la región. UNASUR.

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        Las TIC Como Instrumento Para Acceder Al Mercado Mundial (English)
        Policy brief by Osterlof Obregón, Doris, 2011, 6 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Science and Technology

        Las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (TIC) cada vez más se han convertido en un instrumento para facilitar la competitividad de las exportaciones en el comercio mundial. Asimismo, pueden servir para incrementar la productividad de las empresas. Son instrumentos habilitadores del desarrollo de un país y, por lo tanto, su utilización incide en el crecimiento de los diversos sectores productivos. A la vez, son también en sí mismas una oportunidad de negocios.

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        Latest Developments In Investor-state Dispute Settlement (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2012, 21 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        In 2011, the number of known treaty-based investor-State dispute settlement (ISDS) cases filed under international investment agreements (IIAs) grew by at least 46, bringing the total number of known treatybased cases to 450 by the end of 2011 (figure 1).1 This constitutes the highest number of known treatybased disputes ever filed in one year. Since most arbitration forums do not maintain a public registry of claims, the total number of actual treatybased cases is likely to be higher.

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        Latin America And The Caribbean As Tailwinds Recede: In Search Of Higher Growth (English)
        Report by The World Bank, 2013, 60 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This semiannual report examines the short and medium-term challenges for Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) as the external factors instrumental in the region’s recent performance. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the global economy and its implications for the short and medium-term prospects of the LAC region. Chapter 2 provides a detailed analysis of the general patterns of domestic demand and supply observed in LAC over the last decade.

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        Latin American Experience in Wto Dispute Settlement: Recommendations for Russia
        Working paper by St. Petersburg State University, 2013
        Categories: VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The article analyses the experience of Latin American countries (LAC) with regards to their participation in various economic dispute settlement mechanisms. On the basis of this analysis, the paper makes some recommendations for the Russian Federation as a new member of the organization that may use the World Trade Organization dispute settlement mechanism in order to defend its economic interests.

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        LATN Brief April 2007: Economies of China, Colombia and Peru - Impact on Growth and Income (English)
        Policy brief by Ferrari, César, 2007, 4 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Trade and Poverty, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        China has managed to reduce poverty levels considerably over the past decades, albeit at the cost of increasing inequality. Many Latin American countries in contrast have lived through a period of stagnation and have not been able to reduce poverty and inequality levels. The last brief published by the Latin American Trade Network (LATN) summarizes the results of a study on the factors underlying the different growth, poverty reduction, trade, and investment experiences of China, Colombia and Peru. In addition, the study sets up a dynamic Computable General Equilibrium model to examine the consequences of enhanced trade and investment relationships between Colombia and China. The findings of the study suggest positive effects on the Colombian growth rate and wages, but negative impacts on the levels of employment and inequality. The brief is available in Spanish.

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        LDC Export Diversification, Employment Generation and the “green Economy”: What Roles for Tourism Linkages? (English)
        Working paper by Honeck, Dale / WTO, 2012, 117 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        Taking export diversification, employment generation and the "green economy" in turn, the working paper analyzes feasible LDC alternatives, reaching the conclusion that -- in contrast with the current overemphasis on agriculture and manufacturing -- green tourism is demonstrably one of the areas of greatest current comparative advantage and development potential for the majority of LDCs.

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        LDC Services Exports: Trends and Success Stories (English)
        Working paper by ITC, 2013, 39 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Paper focuses on recent trends in the Least Developed Countries ( LDCs) exports of commercial services targeted at trade support institutions and the Aid for Trade community. It describes the LDCs current services export performance based on the UNCTAD-WTO Trade in Services Statistics for 2011 and provides a collection of services exporter case stories featuring case studies from Bangladesh, Cambodia, Rwanda, Senegal, Uganda, Vanuatu. The paper discusses lessons learned on the drivers of competitiveness in services and offers initial suggestions for what needs to be done to enhance LDC services enterprises' competitiveness.

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        Learning from the Chinese Miracle: Development Lessons for Sub-saharan Africa
        Report by Zafar, Ali/World Bank, 2010, 38 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation

        A notable contrast in modern economic history has been the rapid economic growth of China and the slower and volatile economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. As the engagement between the two continues to grows, there will be a greater cross-fertilization of experiences. Total factor productivity comparisons suggest that capital accumulation in China coupled with more efficient factor usage explains the differential with Africa. Although the two have similar populations and patterns of inequality, their growth trajectories have been divergent. What can Africa learn from China? Although the lessons vary depending on country location and resource endowment, seven basic lessons are visible. First, the political economy of Chinese reforms and the shared gains between political elites and the private sector can be partially transplanted to the African context. Second, the Chinese used diaspora capital and knowledge in the early reform years. Third, rural reforms in China helped accelerate economic takeoff through a restructuring of property rights and a boost to both savings rates and output. Fourth, Chinese growth has taken place in the context of a competitive exchange rate. Five, port governance in China has been exemplary, and African landlocked economies can benefit significantly from port reform in the coastal countries. Six, China has experimented with a degree of decentralization that could yield benefits for many Sub-Saharan African countries. Seventh, Africa can learn from China's policies toward autonomous areas and ethnic minorities to stave off conflict. Africa can learn from China's experiences and conduct developmental experiments for poverty alleviation goals.

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        The Least Developed Countries 2010: Towards a New International Development Architecture for LDCs (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 298 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development

        As discussed in previous LDC Reports, the LDCs have remained marginal in the world economy owing to their structural weaknesses and the form of their integration into the global economy. Unless both these aspects are directly addressed, they will remain marginal and their vulnerability to external shocks and pressures will persist. The basic message of this Report is that for achieving accelerated development and poverty reduction in LDCs, there is need not only for improved international support mechanisms (ISMs) which are specifically targeted at the LDCs but also for a new international development architecture (NIDA) for the LDCs. The Report proposes five major pillars for the NIDA: finance, trade, commodities, technology, and climate change adaptation and mitigation.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2004, Ch. 1: Recent Economic Trends (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 24 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development

        What: A thorough overview of the background, consequences and political implications of Africa's debt crisis with a focus of the Highly Indebted Poor Countries Initiative (HIPC). Divided into 4 chapters looking at the key issues involved in the HIPC, eligibility and sustainability, debt after debt-relief and new approaches to attaining sustainable debt. Who: Relevant to development economists or anyone interested in both HIPC and wider debt issues and their impact on development. How: In its entirety, could be used as background reading. Discreet chapters could also be of relevance for specific discussions or assignments. Chapter 4 on new approaches provides ideas for alternative policy approaches.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2004, Ch. 2: Selected recent social trends: Population growth, human development goals, the HIV/AIDS epidemic (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 23 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: An analysis of recent social trends in LDCs. Includes data tables on population growth, human development goals and HIV/AIDS. Who: Useful background data for anyone studying or researching general social and economic development. How: The data contained in this resource can be used in a number of different ways to support and substantiate research and presentations on economic and social development in LDCs.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2004, Ch. 5: Trade liberalization and poverty reduction in the LDCs (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 40 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty

        The chapter focuses on the major trade policy — trade liberalization — that LDC Governments have adopted in recent years, and examines whether or not the implementation of this policy is likely to link international trade more effectively to poverty reduction in the LDCs.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2004, Ch. 7: Improving the Trade-Poverty Relationship through National Development Strategies (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 45 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        What: This chapter examines how trade can be integrated into national development strategies in a way that supports poverty reduction. Who: Anyone teaching or researching the links between trade and poverty as well as anyone interested in the national trade policy processes in LDCs. How: Good, detailed background reading that clearly explains a range of interconnected issues relating to trade and poverty. This report provides well-presented data in the form of tables and charts. It also provides a number of reference materials for more in-depth reading. It is highly recommend that anyone who is in interested in this chapter should also look at the chapter entitled "Improving the Trade-Poverty Relationship through the International Trade Regime".

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2004: Improving the Trade-Poverty Relationship through the International Trade Regime (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 2004, 52 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: LDC Report 2004 Part 2, Chapter 6. An argument for how international trade can be made a more effective mechanism for poverty reduction for LDCs focusing on the international trade regime in a holistic sense not limited to the WTO but demonstrating the importance of the world commodity economy and market access issues. Who: Anyone teaching or researching the links between trade and poverty as well as anyone interested in the structure of international trade. How: Good, detailed background reading that clearly explains a range of interconnected issues relating to trade and poverty. For a more detailed presentation on the issue, the bibliography offers a number of reference materials. It is highly recommend that anyone who is in interested in this chapter should also look at the chapter entitled "Improving the Trade-Poverty Relationship through National Development Strategies".

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2004 - Overview (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2004, 39 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty

        What: This Overview examines the relationship between trade and poverty in the LDCs. The central questions that the report seeks to answer are: What is the potential role of international trade in poverty reduction in the LDCs? How does the relationship between international trade and poverty work in practice in the LDCs? What are the national and international policies that can make international trade a more effective mechanism for poverty reduction in the LDCs? Who: Anyone teaching or researching trade and poverty in LDCs. How: Useful background reading on issues and relations between trade and poverty.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2004, Part 1, Chapter 1: Recent Economic Trends (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 24 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, International Financial System

        What: A thorough overview of the background, consequences and political implications of Africa's debt crisis with a focus of the Highly Indebted Poor Countries Initiative (HIPC). Divided into 4 chapters looking at the key issues involved in the HIPC, eligibility and sustainability, debt after debt-relief and new approaches to attaining sustainable debt. Who: Relevant to development economists or anyone interested in both HIPC and wider debt issues and their impact on development. How: In its entirety, could be used as background reading. Discreet chapters could also be of relevance for specific discussions or assignments. Chapter 4 on new approaches provides ideas for alternative policy approaches.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2004, Part 1, Chapter 3 - Selected Recent Policy Trends: Accession of LDCs to the WTO (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 17 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: A descriptive overview of the issues and challenges involved in LDC accession to the WTO followed by three brief country case studies of Cambodia, Vanuatu and Nepal (detailing their systemic commitments, proposed bound tariffs rates and proposals on services). Additionally the chapter offers a comparative analysis amongst accession countries as well as existing WTO members. Who: Anyone teaching or researching LDC accession to the WTO. How: Useful background reading on issues and challenges of WTO membership.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2004, Part 2 Chapter 2 - The Potential Role of International Trade in Poverty Reduction in the LDCs (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Special Programme for LDCs, 2004, 27 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty

        This resource examines the role that international trade could play in poverty reduction looking empirically at the relationship between growth and poverty reduction before focusing on the importance of exports, arguing that export orientated growth must be inclusive as well as sustained. This chapter provides well-presented data in the form of tables and charts on the link between trade and growth that could be used in a lecture or seminar.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2004, Part 2, Chapter 3 - How the Trade-Poverty Relationship works in practice (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Special Programme for LDCs, 2004, 39 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty

        What: Provides a realistic and empirically grounded analysis of three key areas where trade is not working to reduce poverty: trade performance; trade-growth linkages and the form of economic growth associated with export expansion. Who: Anyone teaching or researching the links between trade and poverty How: This chapter makes a strong argument about the trade-off between resource mobilization and poverty reduction. Could be used to stimulate discussion on why trade doesn't necessarily lead to poverty reduction. Useful annex providing indices of exports and private consumption per capita in LDCs on a country by country basis. The report provides a number of reference materials.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2004, Part 2, Chapter 4 - Civil Conflict and the Trade–Poverty Relationship (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 18 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty

        What: Given the high incidence of conflict in LDCs, this chapter examines the association between conflict and low levels of income before concentrating on the important issue of how conflict affects the trade-poverty relationship Who: Anyone teaching or researching the links between trade and poverty as well as students/teachers of the political economy of conflict and development How: A solid introduction to some of the complex issues related to poverty, conflict and trade. For a more detailed presentation on the issue, the bibliography offers a lot of excellent reference materials.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2004, Part Two, Chapter 1 - Trade and Poverty from a Development Perspective (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 31 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty

        An introduction as to why a development perspective is necessary for examining the links between trade and poverty. This resource offers an analytical framework that goes beyond the relationship between trade liberalization and poverty to look at the issue more widely in particular the importance of efficient development and utilization of productive capacity. Useful for anyone teaching, researching or writing on the links between trade and poverty A good general overview of the links between trade and poverty which could make an excellent introductory reading on the subject. Useful 'boxes' and tables could also be used as seminar or lecture resources.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2004 - Statistical Annex (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 49 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Basic data on the Least Developed Countries for 2004

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2007: Knowledge, Technological Learning and Innovation for Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2007, 221 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: The LDC report 2007 looks at the role of technology, knowledge and innovation for creating employment and stimulating economic growth in Least Developed Countries. The report begins by examining the potential of various international market linkages, e.g. trade, FDI, etc., to build technological capacities, finding that transfer of foreign technology to LDCs has been very limited, despite the generally high levels of trade and FDI integration. The report goes on to analyse How national policies could promote technological learning and innovation, and concludes that science and technology policies and targets are insufficiently integrated in national development strategies and Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs). The report recommends that economic aid should be targeted more specifically at the knowledge capacities of developing countries and emphasizes the use of more appropriate Intellectual Property regimes to stimulate innovation. Migration of persons possessing specific skills and knowledge represents another means of international knowledge and technology transfer that affects the knowledge accumulation in developing countries. The report highlights several policies that could reverse the 'brain drain' trend and allow developing countries to take advantage of a 'brain gain'. Such policy recommendations include mechanisms to facilitate temporary rather than permanent migration; the retention of skilled persons; and assistance to promote return migration. How: Useful for any course dealing with the issue of innovation and knowledge for low-income countries. Who: Researchers and lecturers dealing with LDC issues or technology, knowledge and innovation in a low-income country context.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2007: Overview (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2007, 35 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: The LDC report 2007 looks at the role of technology, knowledge and innovation for creating employment and stimulating economic growth in Least Developed Countries. The report begins by examining the potential of various international market linkages, e.g. trade, FDI, etc., to build technological capacities, finding that transfer of foreign technology to LDCs has been very limited, despite the generally high levels of trade and FDI integration. The report goes on to analyse How national policies could promote technological learning and innovation, and concludes that science and technology policies and targets are insufficiently integrated in national development strategies and Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs). The report recommends that economic aid should be targeted more specifically at the knowledge capacities of developing countries and emphasizes the use of more appropriate Intellectual Property regimes to stimulate innovation. Migration of persons possessing specific skills and knowledge represents another means of international knowledge and technology transfer that affects the knowledge accumulation in developing countries. The report highlights several policies that could reverse the 'brain drain' trend and allow developing countries to take advantage of a 'brain gain'. Such policy recommendations include mechanisms to facilitate temporary rather than permanent migration; the retention of skilled persons; and assistance to promote return migration. How: Useful for any course dealing with the issue of innovation and knowledge for low-income countries. Who: Researchers and lecturers dealing with LDC issues or technology, knowledge and innovation in a low-income country context.

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        Least Developed Countries Report 2008 - Growth, Poverty and the Terms of Development Partnership (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2008, 197 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        Examining the sustainability of recent economic growth of LDCs, the report finds the type of growth taking place is strongly affected by trends in international markets and, in particular, commodity prices. Coupled with heavy dependence on external sources of finance, and without a positive process of diversification and structural change, LDCs remain particularly vulnerable to trade shocks due to the volatility of commodity prices, affecting both exports and imports. The prevailing development policy paradigm expects that investment in productive sectors would come from the international private sector through access to international capital markets or inflows of foreign direct investment (FDI), but LDCs remain almost entirely marginalized from these sources of finance, and FDI inflows have concentrated on a few LDCs and have often been weakly linked with the rest of the economy. In spite of rapid economic growth, the report found a weak correlation between growth and poverty alleviation, and calls for effective national development strategies, effective development aid and development-friendly international regimes for trade, investment and technology.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2008: Growth, Poverty and the Terms of Development Partnership - Overview (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2008, 23 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        This Report considers three issues: Firstly, it assesses how sustainable economic growth is in the LDCs and examines how many LDCs are participating in the growth surge. Secondly, it considers the extent to which economic growth is leading to improvements in human well-being, and in particular to accelerated poverty reduction and improved progress towards the Millennium Development Goals. Thirdly, it assesses progress towards country-owned development strategies in LDCs and the role of recipient-led aid management policies at the country level as a practical policy mechanism to strengthen country ownership.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2009: The State and Development Governance (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2009, 209 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Finance for Development

        This year's report suggests LDCs should focus their macroeconomic policies long-term on boosting the productive capacities of their economies and on establishing the infrastructure -- such as roads, bridges and electricity supply -- that empowers such progress. It adds that they should nurture and steer their fledgling private banking sectors into investing in productive activities instead of government portfolios and real estate.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2010: Towards a New International Development Architecture for Ldcs (overview) (English)
        Outline by UNCTAD, 2010, 52 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Trade and Poverty

        As discussed in previous LDC Reports, the LDCs have remained marginal in the world economy owing to their structural weaknesses and the form of their integration into the global economy. Unless both these aspects are directly addressed, they will remain marginal and their vulnerability to external shocks and pressures will persist. The basic message of this Report is that for achieving accelerated development and poverty reduction in LDCs, there is need not only for improved international support mechanisms (ISMs) which are specifically targeted at the LDCs but also for a new international development architecture (NIDA) for the LDCs.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2011 - Overview (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 29 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Trade and Poverty

        The Least Developed Countries Report 2011 puts forward a policy framework for enhancing the development impact of South–South cooperation, and proposes ways to leverage South–South financial cooperation for development in the LDCs.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2011 - The Potential Role of South-South Cooperation for Inclusive and Sustainable Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 194 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation

        The Least Developed Countries Report 2011 puts forward a policy framework for enhancing the development impact of South–South cooperation, and proposes ways to leverage South–South financial cooperation for development in the LDCs.

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        Least Developed Countries Report 2012 - Harnessing Remittances and Diaspora Knowledge to Build Productive Capacities
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 190 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Migration and Development

        The Least Developed Countries Report 2012 focuses on the issue of remittances from a wider perspective. It examines the potential role of migrants or diasporas at large from LDCs as sources of development finance and also as channels of knowledge transfer and as facilitators of trade and market access opportunities in the host countries. The Report identifies policies, including policy lessons from other countries, that LDCs may wish to consider in designing policy frameworks for harnessing remittances and diaspora knowledge to build productive capacities.

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        Least Developed Countries Report 2012 - Harnessing Remittances and Diaspora Knowledge to Build Productive Capacities - Overview
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2012, 27 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Migration and Development

        The Least Developed Countries Report 2012 focuses on the issue of remittances from a wider perspective. It examines the potential role of migrants or diasporas at large from LDCs as sources of development finance and also as channels of knowledge transfer and as facilitators of trade and market access opportunities in the host countries. The Report identifies policies, including policy lessons from other countries, that LDCs may wish to consider in designing policy frameworks for harnessing remittances and diaspora knowledge to build productive capacities.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2013: Growth with employment for inclusive and sustainable development (English)
        Report by Collardeau-Angleys, Agnès; Davis, Junior; Encontre, Pierre; Paunovic, Igor; Rajalingam, Madasamyraja; Traeger, Rolf and Wicks, Heather/UNCTAD, 2013, 218 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This Report examines the link between investment, growth and employment. More specifically, it considers how LDCs can promote growth that generates an adequate number of quality jobs and that enables them to reach what UNCTAD believes are their most urgent and pivotal goals, both now and in the post-2015 development agenda: poverty reduction, inclusive growth and sustainable development.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2014 - Growth with structural transformation: A post-2015 development agenda (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 198 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The Least Developed Countries Report 2014 examines the linkages between structural transformation, economic growth and human development. It argues that LDCs cannot, and should not, focus only on aggregate growth; they also need to pay attention to the type of growth pattern and its main drivers. The Report also considers what LDCs can do to transform their economies in order to foster economic growth and achieve the MDGs and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) which are planned to succeed them, and what the international community can do to support LDCs in their structural transformation and in their efforts to achieve the SDGs.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2014: Growth with structural transformation: A post-2015 development agenda - Overview
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 27 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The Least Developed Countries Report 2014 examines the linkages between structural transformation, economic growth and human development. It argues that LDCs cannot, and should not, focus only on aggregate growth; they also need to pay attention to the type of growth pattern and its main drivers. The Report also considers what LDCs can do to transform their economies in order to foster economic growth and achieve the MDGs and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) which are planned to succeed them, and what the international community can do to support LDCs in their structural transformation and in their efforts to achieve the SDGs.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2015: Transforming Rural Economies (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 190 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The Least Developed Countries Report 2015 focuses on the transformation of rural economies. It assesses LDCs’ progress in agricultural productivity, the extent and nature of their rural economic diversification as well as gender issues in rural transformation. In order to eradicate poverty in rural areas of LDCs, the report proposes a new approach, articulated around a three-phase increase in infrastructure investment, and the combination of increasing agricultural productivity and promoting non-farm activities. In order to finance this, the report calls for donors to fulfill their commitments on the quality of aid as well as its quantity. Furthermore, it proposes an increase in the target for aid to LDCs to a level reflecting their share of global needs to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2015: Transforming Rural Economies - Overview (English)
        Also available in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian, Spanish
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2015, 26 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The Least Developed Countries Report 2015 focuses on the transformation of rural economies. It assesses LDCs’ progress in agricultural productivity, the extent and nature of their rural economic diversification as well as gender issues in rural transformation. In order to eradicate poverty in rural areas of LDCs, the report proposes a new approach, articulated around a three-phase increase in infrastructure investment, and the combination of increasing agricultural productivity and promoting non-farm activities. In order to finance this, the report calls for donors to fulfill their commitments on the quality of aid as well as its quantity. Furthermore, it proposes an increase in the target for aid to LDCs to a level reflecting their share of global needs to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2016 (Overview) (English)
        Also available in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2016, 29 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        The 2016 Least Developed Countries (LDC) Report overview, subtitled 'The path to graduation and beyond: Making the most of the process' summarizes the key findings in the 2016 report. It outlines the deteriorating economic performance, the first steps to sustainable development, the priorities for graduation, and the need for international cooperation for development.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2016 - the Path to Graduation and Beyond: Making the Most of the Process (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 219 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        The 2016 Least Developed Countries (LDC) Report, subtitled 'The path to graduation and beyond: Making the most of the process' calls for more action to be taken by the international community on behalf of developing countries. The report argues the proportion of the global poor in the 48 LDCs has more than doubled since 1990, to well over 40 per cent, and the breaks down key priorities for graduation out of LDC status.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2017: Transformational Energy Access (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 192 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This report focuses on transformational energy access for the LDCs, where 62 per cent of people have no access to electricity, compared with 10 per cent across other developing countries. Today, the majority of people worldwide who lack access to electricity live in LDCs — a proportion that has grown steadily from less than one third in 1990. It finds that “energy for all” in LDCs requires more than access to energy for basic household needs. It requires that access to energy in LDCs also serves productive capacities directly, by powering the structural transformation of LDC economies and the development of more productive, modern activities and sectors with adequate and reliable energy supplies. Structural transformation, in turn, has a role in increasing energy access, by generating sufficient additional demand for electricity for productive uses to make viable the infrastructure investments required for universal access more broadly. Yet strengthening this energy-transformation nexus remains a massive challenge, given that installed generating capacity per person in LDCs is barely one twelfth of that even in other developing countries, and one fiftieth of that in developed countries.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2017: Transformational Energy Access - Overview (English)
        Also available in Arabic, Chinese, Spanish, French, Russian
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 26 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This report focuses on transformational energy access for the LDCs, where 62 per cent of people have no access to electricity, compared with 10 per cent across other developing countries. Today, the majority of people worldwide who lack access to electricity live in LDCs — a proportion that has grown steadily from less than one third in 1990. It finds that “energy for all” in LDCs requires more than access to energy for basic household needs. It requires that access to energy in LDCs also serves productive capacities directly, by powering the structural transformation of LDC economies and the development of more productive, modern activities and sectors with adequate and reliable energy supplies. Structural transformation, in turn, has a role in increasing energy access, by generating sufficient additional demand for electricity for productive uses to make viable the infrastructure investments required for universal access more broadly. Yet strengthening this energy-transformation nexus remains a massive challenge, given that installed generating capacity per person in LDCs is barely one twelfth of that even in other developing countries, and one fiftieth of that in developed countries.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2018 - Entrepreneurship for Structural Transformation: Beyond Business as Usual (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 190 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        The Least Developed Countries Report 2018 presents a compelling case for a structural transformation-centred approach to entrepreneurship policy in the least developed countries. The report underscores entrepreneurship policy based on a fundamental recognition of disparities in the contribution of different types of entrepreneurship to structural transformation and wealth creation. It establishes a more active and proactive stance for the State in steering the emergence of dynamic and transformational local entrepreneurship. Importantly, it calls upon the least developed countries not to overlook the pivotal and complementary role played by large enterprises, alongside medium-sized and smaller enterprises, with a view to the least developed countries formulating deliberate strategies to nurture entrepreneurship that has impact. By encouraging least developed country policymakers to avoid policies that might undervalue the benefits of entrepreneurship, this report makes an invaluable contribution to least developed country efforts to add value to their implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

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        The Least Developed Countries Report 2018 (Overview) (English)
        Also available in Chinese, Spanish, French, Russian
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 29 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        The Least Developed Countries Report 2018 presents a compelling case for a structural transformation-centred approach to entrepreneurship policy in the least developed countries. The report underscores entrepreneurship policy based on a fundamental recognition of disparities in the contribution of different types of entrepreneurship to structural transformation and wealth creation. It establishes a more active and proactive stance for the State in steering the emergence of dynamic and transformational local entrepreneurship. Importantly, it calls upon the least developed countries not to overlook the pivotal and complementary role played by large enterprises, alongside medium-sized and smaller enterprises, with a view to the least developed countries formulating deliberate strategies to nurture entrepreneurship that has impact. By encouraging least developed country policymakers to avoid policies that might undervalue the benefits of entrepreneurship, this report makes an invaluable contribution to least developed country efforts to add value to their implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

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        Legitimidad Empresarial, Conflicto De Tierras Y Producción Palmera En Colombia* (English)
        Article by Pereira-Villa, Catherine, 2011, 20 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment, VI Members Research

        This article analyzes the land conflict that took place in 2009 in the south of Bolivar (Colombia), between the Daabon Group – world leader in the production of organic palm oil – and 123 peasant families who were evicted. Specifically, this paper analyzes the ways in which the Group responded to the incident, to vindicate its legitimacy, internationally challenged as a result of the conflict. Once the profile of Daabon Group and the local context in which it operates are described, some thoughts are formulated on that business group’s handling of issues associated with forced displacement, legal uncertainty and biodiversity. This study argues that in a Colombian context, a company under international scrutiny should manage its legitimacy not only on legal considerations but also on social and political aspects.

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        Le Mali et Le Système Commercial Multilatéral: L’impact Des Accords De L’OMC, Négociation et Mise En Oeuvre (French)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2006, 114 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        La mondialisation des économies, puisqu’il c’est d’elle qu’il s’agit, apparaît désormais comme une fatalité avec ses revers et ses effets pervers, mais aussi, au-delà de ses exigences, ses avantages et ses espoirs d’un lendemain meilleur. Avec ses inconvénients et ses avantages, la mondialisation des économies est acceptée par tous à l’exception de quelques irréductibles et s’avère comme la seule issue possible de l’avenir du genre humain dans sa quête d’un mieux être constant. Dans un tel contexte de rigueur caractérisé par une compétitivité internationale accrue et en poursuivant des objectifs de prospérité généralisée, les pays comme le Mali qui apparaissent comme des acteurs émergeants de la scène mondiale, cherchent à prendre pied sur le marché mondial pour vendre et acheter à meilleur compte. Cette insertion dynamique dans le processus de la mondialisation comporte des défis et des opportunités. C’est dans le cadre de ces défis et la recherche des opportunités offertes par le commerce mondial, que le Mali a adhéré à l’OMC en 1995 et commencé à appliquer les accords de cette institution tout en participant dans toute la mesure du possible aux négociations commerciales multilatérales. Quel a été l’impact de l’application des règles de l’OMC au niveau de l’économie nationale du Mali ? La présente étude tente de répondre à cette question

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        Les Marches D'informations Et Le E-commerce Au Cameroun /informations Markets And E-commerce In Cameroon
        Case study by kenou Liwuitekong Stephan, 2011
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Science and Technology, Trade Facilitation

        The digital revolution, like all technological revolutions that already transformed several times the economic and social environment is of actuality in our societies were they either developed or under-developed. Besides it could not let us indifferent, so this study were carried, and where we collected a number of information which allowed us to define what is an information market, E-commerce, and all concepts around the question as: the E - economy, the E - management, the new economy etc. So, in the goal to discern the level of information society and ICT impact on the degree of the E – Commerce uses, at the level of Cameroon, we proceeded by the primary and secondary data analysis. This permitted us to understand that the Cameroonian internet user was not sensitized enough about the E - Commerce and that the whole logistics as well as the infrastructure that goes with, was not yet enough developed. To this effect, a certain number of measures or actions have been suggested, as: more of sensitization, reduction of the costs of Internet, development of the infrastructures of telecommunications, etc. Nevertheless, one could hope of the best following days in this domain, seen the efforts that are provided by the Cameroonian government, in the popularization of the NTICS, as well as the slogan “Internet for all”. It is whereas the Cameroonian enterprises of all sizes as well as the consumers will be able to experiment in their way to manage their resources the kindness of the E – Commerce.

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        Lessons from European Union Policies for Regional Development (English)
        Working paper by Shankar, Raja; Shah, Anwar / The World Bank, 2009, 47 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The neglect of regional disparities may create the potential for disunity and disintegration in any country. Hence, most countries aim at helping lagging regions catch up with faster growing regions. However, it is useful to discern what type of policies work and why. The experience of the European Union (EU) may be particularly instructive in this context. This paper reviews the impact of EU policies for regional development and draws lessons that can be of interest to other countries pursuing similar goals. The paper concludes that policies that serve to create an internal common market by creating a level playing field have the best potential to advance regional income convergence. In this context, the main policy priorities for regional development include the removal of barriers to trade and factor mobility, and providing enhanced access to information and technology to the lagging regions.

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        Lessons From The First Two Decades Of Trade Policy Reviews In The Americas (English)
        Working paper by Valdés, Raymundo, 2010, 59 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The Trade Policy Reviews conducted in the Western Hemisphere over 1989-2009 contain a wealth of information that puts in clear evidence the considerable improvements achieved in most American countries during the first two decades of operation of the Trade Policy Review Mechanism. Those Reviews show that trade liberalization came hand-in-hand with internal reforms, and was generally of an autonomous nature and an intrinsic component of improved economic management. Trade liberalization slowed down during the second decade under review, with tariffs having come down mostly during the earlier years. The use of non-tariff barriers also fell over time although at a slow pace in some of the smallest Members, which found it difficult to implement the more complex trade policy instrument applied by larger countries. Export and other government assistance schemes proliferated throughout the continent but were often characterized by a lack of unity in the criteria used to assign and apply them. The review period also witnessed enormous changes in the services sectors, where reforms usually proved more complex than in the goods area. The multilateral and other international trade agreements contributed to the stability of trade policies and the general rejection of protectionism, although backtracking did occur in a number of cases. Because the commitments made during the Uruguay Round negotiation now fall short of the more liberal trade regimes that came to be over the review period, most Members in the Americas could presently raise trade and investment barriers without violating multilateral rules. Thus, the pressing need to conclude the Doha Development Agenda in order to lock in the considerable trade policy liberalization achieved during past years, and to strengthen the multilateral trading system.

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        Le Sénégal et Le Système Commercial Multilatéral: L´impact Des Accords De L´OMC, Négociation et Mise En Oeuvre (French)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005, 63 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        En 1994, les pays africains ont signé les Accords de l’OMC. Puis, tout au long du Cycle d’Uruguay (CU), ils se sont efforcés de les appliquer et de participer activement aux négociations. Pour se faire, les pays africains et singulièrement le Sénégal, ont initié un large processus de réforme, d’un coût social parfois élevé, de leur politique macroéconomique, de leur politique commerciale, de leur dispositif institutionnel, ou encore de leur environnement légal et réglementaire, afin d’être conforme tant à la lettre qu’à l’esprit de ces Accords. Aussi, la présente étude a-t-elle pour objet i) d’évaluer l´impact des règles commerciales multilatérales et régionales sur l´économie et le commerce extérieur du Sénégal, ii) d’évaluer la mesure dans laquelle le Sénégal a été capable de profiter et de bénéficier de sa participation dans l´OMC et d´adapter et d´ajuster sa législation nationale pour mettre en oeuvre ses obligations dans le cadre de l´OMC, iii) d’identifier les stratégies de négociation pour une participation effective du Sénégal aux négociations de Doha et les façonner en fonction des objectifs commerciaux, de développement et de réduction de la pauvreté du pays. La présente étude constitue une synthèse de l’ensemble des travaux d’ores et déjà effectués et des documents d’analyse existants. Elle se réfère aux principaux documents de stratégie de développement dont la mise en oeuvre est en cours (document de stratégie de développement du secteur privé, document de stratégie de réduction de la pauvreté, document de stratégie de croissance accélérée, document de stratégie de développement des exportations). Elle prend également en compte un certain nombre d’études et d’analyses portant sur des aspects spécifiques (par secteur d’activité) du commerce extérieur du Sénégal.

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        Liability and Compensation for Ship-source Oil Pollution: An Overview of the International Legal Framework for Oil Pollution Damage from Tankers (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 76 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Trade and Environment

        While large oil pollution incidents have reduced both in number and in size over recent decades, the potential threat of environmental damage and economic loss associated with the carriage of oil remains disconcerting. In particular, for coastal developing countries and small island developing States with economies heavily dependent on income from fisheries and tourism, exposure to damage arising from ship-source oil pollution incidents poses a potentially significant economic threat. This report has been prepared to assist policymakers, in particular in developing countries, in their understanding of the existing legal framework and in assessing the merits of accession to the relevant international legal instruments.

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        Liberalizing Agriculture by OECD Countries : Welfare, Growth and Distributional Impact in Developing Countries (English)
        Report by Hossain, Sharif M., 2011, 10 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research

        Although it is often argued that liberalization provides opportunities for growth and development in all over the world, there are divergent views about the effects of agricultural trade liberalization on growth and income distribution in developing countries. The developing countries’ main complaint in this regard is that trade distorting activities in agriculture by developed countries adversely affecting their exports and consequently growth, and income and employment of the people therein. There is a general perception among the policymakers and academia that the developing countries would gain much from the removal of existing distortion in the agricultural market because of the tremendous importance of the agricultural sector in their economies. The current paper has analyzed the effect of trade liberalization in agriculture on welfare, growth and income distribution in developing countries, using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model and indicates that the effect is not similar for all the developing countries.

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        Linking International Trade with Poverty Reduction (English)
        Presentation by Charles Gore, UNCTAD, 2005, 8 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty

        What: The presentation is an analytical examination of the relationship between trade and poverty and the national and international policy implications to linking international trade more effectively with poverty reduction in LDCs. Who: Relevant for anyone studying or teaching international trade and poverty reduction. How: A very good presentation that can trigger discussions on international trade and its effects on poverty reduction.

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        List of issues for teaching materials (English)
        Outline by Virtual Institute, UNCTAD, 2005
        Categories: Vi Meetings

        The first draft of the list from the Vi members of subjects of interest to develop joint teaching materials/research.

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        The Little Data Book on Information and Communication Technology 2013
        Book by World Bank, 2013, 245 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        Like the rest of this series on little data books, it is organized by regional and income group data. It provides data on access to information and communication technologies (ICTs) which have seen tremendous growth. The usage of the internet, mobile phones will continue rising. The number of individuals using the Internet will reach an estimated 2.7 billion while the number of fixed (wired) broadband subscriptions will reach almost 700 million at the end of 2013. This publication is important because investment in information and communication technologies is associated with economic benefits as higher productivity, lower costs, new economic opportunities, job creation, innovation, and increased trade. This publication provides comparable statistics on the sector for 2005 and 2011 across a range of indicators, enabling readers to readily compare economies. Such indicators cover the economic and social context structure of the information and communication technology sector, sector efficiency and capacity, and sector performance related to access, usage, quality, affordability, trade, and applications.

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        The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development 2013 (English)
        Book by World Bank, 2013, 246 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development

        The book contains reliable cross-country data on private sector development. It is meant to make informed decisions when formulating responses to economic crises. Specially in the case of downturns which affect exports, investment, and growth negatively. It contains data on the investment climate by regions and by income groups. Data from the World Bank Group’s Doing Business project, Enterprise Surveys, Entrepreneurship Snapshots was also included. Some of the indicators included are on the economic and social context such as the investment climate, private sector investment, finance and banking, and infrastructure.

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        The Little Green Data Book 2013
        Book by World Bank, 2013, 250 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        This book contains data related to development and environment. Its main goal is to provide information to countries on the state of their environment and natural resources It contains more than 50 indicators for more than 200 countries critical to the post-2015 development dialogue. The chosen indicators are based on the Millennium Development Goals. Issues currently being discussed for SDGs and cover the three pillars of sustainability (economic, social, and environmental).

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        Local Content Requirements and The Green Economy (English)
        Report by Trade Environment, Climate Change and Sustainable Development Branch, DITC, UNCTAD, 2014, 46 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        The study was prepared at a time when the “green economy” concept moved from theory to practice, with a range of developed and developing countries placing local content at the heart of their green economy strategies, and their green economy plans at the heart of their industrial policies. It reflects developing countries’ increasing emphasis on the “sustainable” element of traditional development objectives, such as rural development, urban planning and industrialization.

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        Local Production of Pharmaceuticals and Related Technology Transfer in Developing Countries (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2012, 326 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        This series of case studies examine the transfer of technology and local production of pharmaceuticals in different regions, highlighting different characteristics such as firm structure, the means by which local producers obtained and developed the technological capacity to produce medicines, and the types of product handled.

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        The Long-term (English)
        Discussion paper by Nassif, André; Feijó, Carmem; Araújo, Eliane, 2011, 34 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy

        Using the structuralist-Keynesian theoretical approach, the paper affirms that, instead of macroeconomic fundamentals, the long-term trend of the real exchange rate level should not only be determined by structural forces and long-term economic policies, but also short-term macroeconomic policies and their indirect effects on other short-term economic variables. It also proposes an original concept of a long-term “optimal” real exchange rate for open emerging economies.

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        Looking at Trade Policy Through a “Gender Lens”: Summary of Seven Country Case Studies Conducted by Unctad (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 32 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender

        This paper presents the findings of seven country case studies which examine the impact of trade liberalization and facilitation on gender equality and women's well-being. The countries reviewed are: Angola, Bhutan, Cape Verde, the Gambia, Lesotho, Rwanda and Uruguay. The case studies highlight the ways in which a gender perspective can contribute to a deeper and richer understanding of trade policy and performance by challenging the mainly aggregate focus of conventional trade policy analysis that overshadows the redistributive effects of trade at the country level. It brings to the forefront of the analysis intersecting patterns of inequality (e.g. sex, income, race, and spatial location) and integrates social and cultural factors into the economic analysis.

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        Low-Income Countries' Access to Private Debt Markets (English)
        Working paper by Hostland, Doug /World Bank, 2009, 34 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development

        Private debt flows to developing countries surged to record levels over the period 2003-07. A few low-income countries have gained access to the international bond market but the bulk of the flows have continued to go to just a few large middle-income countries. Most low-income countries still heavily depend on concessional loans and grants from the official sector to meet their financing needs. The paper provides an overview of low-income countries' access to cross-border bank lending and bond issuance in the international market over the past few decades. It highlights some stylized facts that characterize salient features of low-income countries' experience in external borrowing from the private sector and discusses the various factors that influence governments' and corporations' decisions to seek external financing along with creditors' decisions to provide the financing. The paper concludes by assessing the prospects for low-income countries' access to private debt markets over the medium term.

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