A partnership with academia

Building knowledge for trade and development

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        Madagascar: Company Perspectives – An Itc Series on Non-tariff Measures
        Policy brief by ITC, 2013, 136 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The majority of trade obstacles in Madagascar involve the high number and complexity of national controls and inspections as well as cumbersome and opaque Malagasy administrative procedures.A recent survey on non-tariff measures conducted with 400 exporters and importers in Madagascar also reveals that companies have difficulty meeting stringent quality and certification requirements imposed by partner countries. These obstacles underline the need for the government to strengthen its national quality strategy by streamlining and upgrading national inspection and certification procedures and infrastructure.

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        Mainstreaming Trade in Africa: Lessons from Asia and the Way Forward (English)
        Discussion paper by Osakwe, Patrick N. / UNCTAD, 2015, 16 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        This paper examines the experiences of three Asian countries (China, the Republic of Korea and Singapore) that have successfully used trade to engender development and draws lessons from these experiences for Africa.

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        Making Climate Change and Trade Mutually Supportive
        Policy brief by Messerlin, Patrick/ ARTNeT, 2010, 4 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        A few years ago, the relations between the climate and trade communities were marked by mutual ignorance at best, and more often by deep hostility. Now things are changing. The trade community is realizing that climate change concerns will be high on the political agenda for a long time to come. The climate community is realizing that climate policies will face fierce opposition from four-fifths of human kind if it costs too much in terms of growth and of trade, its main channel. However, many fears and doubts still abound. This policy brief reviews what the trade community and the climate community have in common, and what the possibilities offered to them are, but also the challenges they will have to face.

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        Making Data Meaningful Part 1: A Guide to Writing Stories About Numbers (English)
        Manual by UNECE, 2009, 28 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The first in a series from the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, the guide is intended as a practical tool to help use text, tables, graphics and other information to bring statistics to life using effective writing techniques.

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        Making Data Meaningful Part 2: A Guide to Presenting Statistics (English)
        Manual by UNECE, 2009, 58 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The second in a series from the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, this guide aims to help readers find the best way to get their\\nmessage across to non-specialists, using the most suitable set of tools and skills now available from an array of communication methods.

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        Making Globalization Socially Sustainable (English)
        Report by WTO, ILO, 2011, 337 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        "Making Globalization Socially Sustainable" underlines globalization’s potential to stimulate productivity and growth but highlights the importance of pursuing trade, employment and social policies together in order to harness this potential. The book contains contributions from leading academic experts who analyse the various channels through which globalization affects jobs and wages. The publication reasserts the positive role that trade liberalization can play in improving efficiency and thus growth. It emphasizes the important role for governments in investing in public goods and in strengthening the functioning of markets that are crucial for globalization to be growth-enhancing. The key role of social protection is highlighted, as is the need to adjust social protection systems to local conditions.

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        Making Globalization Work for the Least Developed Countries (English)
        Report by United Nations Ministerial Conference, 2007, 172 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The United Nations Ministerial Conference of the Least Developed Countries sought to discuss ways of harnessing globalization’s potential for development, to draw attention to LDCs in the global economy and to promote South-South cooperation between LDCs and other developing countries as well as between the LDCs themselves. This paper analyses how LDCs are affected by the current process of globalization, and considers what policies LDCs and the international community can implement to increase the share of benefits they receive in this process, while minimizing the costs and risks they bear.

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        Making Regional Integration Work : Company Perspectives on Non-tariff Measures in Arab States
        Report by ITC, 2015, 74 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report is part of the ITC series of developing-country surveys on non-tariff measures (NTMs). It analyses four business surveys conducted by ITC in Egypt, Morocco, the State of Palestine and Tunisia. The surveys focus on NTMs imposed by governments; procedures that make compliance difficult; and inefficiencies in the trade-related business environment.The publication offers insights into what businesses perceive as their main challenges to trade, within and beyond the region, and suggests how to address these bottlenecks which hamper international and regional trade of the countries covered by the surveys.

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        Making Regional Trade Work for Africa: Turning Words into Deeds
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2015, 4 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        This policy brief deals with the implementation of regional trade agreements (RTAs) in Africa. A well-known characteristic of the regional integration process in Africa is the multiplicity of RTAs however the African continent is faced with a low rate of their implementation. This policy brief identifies some of the main barriers to implementation and proposes remedies for them. It identifies and examines specific policy measures that African Governments and their development partners should consider adopting to address the challenge of implementing RTAs in Africa.

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        Making Trade Work for Least Developed Countries: a Handbook on Mainstreaming Trade (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 106 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        This handbook is the outcome of the workshops and research conducted under the project. It draws lessons from the experiences of the six countries that participated and provides fresh insights on how to design and implement an effective trade strategy in LDCs. It also provides clarity on the concept of mainstreaming trade and identifies criteria on how to measure success in this endeavour. The handbook should be useful to policymakers in developing countries, development analysts, academics, and students of development. In this regard, it is meant to be a guide to policy formulation and implementation in LDCs, with the understanding that its application will vary from country to country because of differences in economic structure, history, and social and political realities.

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        Malawi: Company Perspectives - An ITC Series on Non-Tariff Measures (English)
        Report by ITC, 2013, 107 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This survey of exporters and importers in Malawi reveals that their main challenges to access markets abroad are twofold in relation to non-tariff measures. First, product certification is problematic: companies have difficulties to meet international standards. In addition, Malawi lacks an internationally accredited facility to certify products. Second, export licensing is a real challenge due to the many institutions involved, which contributes to inefficiency in issuing licenses. This report presents and analyses the survey results, including trade policy implications for Malawi. It also outlines the recommendations established in a public-private dialogue on the survey results.

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        Managing "Request-Offer" Negotiations under the GATS: The Case of Energy Services (English)
        Working paper by UNCTAD, 2006, 33 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: This paper gives, at first, an introduction to the international energy services market, by analyzing its scope, size, major players and trade flows. Then, the treatment of energy services in the GATS is analyzed, including the future negotiation topics. The advantages and drawbacks of liberalizing trade in energy services are investigated, particularly from developing countries' perspective. Conversely, the paper also discusses domestic regulations on energy services. Particular attention is devoted to negotiations on energy services trade. Thus, the author provides a list of recent country-by-country negotiation proposals and a comprehensive negotiating checklist. How: Primarily, useful for training courses on trade negotiations. Besides, the paper can be used as a background reading in international trade courses. Who: The paper should be particularly interesting for trade negotiators and policy-makers, but also for trade researchers and students.

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        Managing Risk and Creating Value with Microfinance (English)
        Report by Goldberg, Mike, Palladini, Eric, 2010, 147 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development

        This report presents issues directly related to microfinance institutional sustainability. The first part includes chapters on risk management systems, good governance, interest rates, and micro-insurance. The second part is devoted to topics in new product development and efficient delivery methodologies such as housing microfinance, micro-leasing, disaster preparedness products and systems as well as new technologies. The objectives of the report is to strengthen microfinance institutions (MFIs) by disseminating innovative approaches in risk management; to promote a South-South exchange of experiences and greater ties between MFIs and government regulators, and to highlight the Bank's ability to mobilize international technical expertise in microfinance.

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        Managing the Request-Offer Negotiations Under the GATS: Construction & Related Engineering Services (English)
        Presentation by UNCTAD, 2006, 10 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: This presentation gives, at first, an introduction to the international construction services market, by analyzing its scope, size, major players and trade flows. Then, the treatment of construction and related services in the GATS is analyzed, including the future negotiation topics. The advantages and drawbacks of liberalizing trade in construction services are investigated, particularly from developing countries' perspective. Conversely, the paper also discusses domestic regulations on construction services. Particular attention is devoted to negotiations on construction services trade. Thus, the author provides a list of recent country-by-country negotiation proposals and a comprehensive negotiating checklist. How: Primarily, useful for training courses on trade negotiations. Who: The presentation should be particularly interesting for trade negotiators and policy-makers, but also for trade researchers and students.

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        MANAGING THE REQUEST-OFFER NEGOTIATIONS UNDER THE GATS: LOGISTICS SERVICES (English)
        Working paper by UNCTAD, 2006, 47 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The aim of this paper is to identify issues of relevance to current negotiations on logistics services under the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). The paper also seeks to provide the World Trade Organization (WTO) Members with suggestions on how they can approach the negotiations. Achieving meaningful liberalization, commensurate with their individual level of development, will require informed participation by WTO Members, based on their market access interests and their regulatory, infrastructural and institutional constraints. A precondition to increased participation in world trade will be to ensure the development of the logistics services sector in developing countries and the competitiveness of their exports in this area.

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        Manual for the Production of Statistics on the Information Economy (2009 Revised Edition) (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2009, 188 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This is the second edition of the Manual for the Production of Statistics on the Information Economy. The Manual is a tool for staff of national statistical organizations responsible for measuring the information economy. It is intended to guide statisticians from developing countries in all steps involved in the production and dissemination of business ICT statistics. This second edition of the Manual is a valuable tool in our common efforts towards enhancing the availability of internationally comparable indicators of the information economy.

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        Manual on Consumer Protection (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2017, 151 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Trade Related Capacity Building

        The UNCTAD Manual on Consumer Protection 2017 edition is the first comprehensive international reference in this field, aiming to support developing countries and economies in transition in their choice of policies and providing practical tools to assist policy makers in enhancing capacities while implementing the recently revised United Nations Guidelines for Consumer Protection. With this manual, UNCTAD is contributing to spreading good practices and enhancing the capacities of developing countries and economies in transition to step up the protection of their consumers.

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        Mapping the Tariff Waters (English)
        Working paper by Diakantoni, Antonia, Escaith, Hubert, 2009, 31 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Tariff water –the difference between bound and applied duties– provides relevant information on domestic trade policy and WTO trade negotiations. This paper examines the general and sectoral tariff structure of 120 economies, using exploratory data analysis.

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        Maritime Piracy Part I: An Overview of Trends, Costs and Trade-related Implications
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 47 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation

        The report considers the costs and trade-related implications of maritime piracy and takes stock of regulatory and other initiatives pursued by the international community in an effort to combat piracy. Part I of the report presents overall trends in maritime piracy and related crimes, and highlights some of the key issues at stake by focusing on its costs and broader trade-related implications.

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        Maritime Piracy (part Ii): An Overview of the International Legal Framework and of Multilateral Cooperation to Combat Piracy
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 82 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation

        The report considers the costs and trade-related implications of maritime piracy and takes stock of regulatory and other initiatives pursued by the international community in an effort to combat piracy. Part II of the report provides an overview of the contemporary international legal regime for countering piracy and identifies key examples of international cooperation and multilateral initiatives to combat the phenomenon.

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        Maritime Security: Elements of an Analytical Framework for Compliance Measurement and Risk Assessment (English)
        Working paper by UNCTAD, 2006, 16 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Trade Facilitation

        What: This paper analyzes the impact of new maritime security measures, most notably the International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code, on international trade. In particular, the paper discusses risk assessment and management techniques within the maritime security framework. After identifying drawbacks of the existing framework, the paper introduces an alternative approach. Most notably, it differs from the old framework in not concentrating on the security of facilities but in seeking to ensure supply chain security of maritime transports. How: Can be used in a course on international trade as a reading on transport regulations. Besides, the paper could be used as a reading for a course on international economic law. Who: Researchers, students, and policy-makers interested in maritime transport regulations.

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        Maritime Security: ISPS Code Implementation, Costs and Related Financing (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2006, 51 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation

        On 1 July 2004, the 2002 amendments to the 1974 International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) and the new International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (ISPS Code), entered into force and became mandatory for all SOLAS Member States. The SOLAS amendments and the ISPS Code (hereinafter the ISPS Code) impose wide-ranging obligations on governments, shipping companies, and port facilities. Implementing these obligations entails costs and potential economic implications. Against this background, UNCTAD conducted a global study based on a set of questionnaires designed to obtain first hand information from all affected parties. The main objective was to establish the range and order of magnitude of the ISPS Code-related expenditures made from 2003 through 2005 and to gain insight into the financing mechanisms adopted or envisaged. In addition the study sought to clarify matters relating to the implementation process, level of compliance and other less easily quantifiable impacts. Due to limited responses received from the shipping sector the report presents responses received from ports and governments only.

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        Market Access, Export Performance and Survival Evidence from Peruvian Firms (English)
        Working paper by Marco Fugazza, Alain McLaren, 2013, 39 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The paper provides an empirical assessment of the impact of changes in tariff-wise market access conditions for Peru using firm-level customs data over the period 2002–2008.It uses two indicators of tariff-wise market access. One is the average tariff level corrected for the responsiveness of foreign demand and the other one reflects relative market access conditions.

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        Market Access for Trade in Goods in Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) (English)
        Report by South Centre, 2008, 31 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade and Poverty

        This Fact Sheet Nb.7 overviews market access provisions related to the liberalisation of merchandise trade under the Interim Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) that were initialed in the end of 2007 between the EU and 35 countries in Africa, the Caribbean and Pacific (ACP). It is part of a series of Fact Sheets designed to improve stakeholders’ understanding of the legal, economic and developmental implications of specific provisions in the texts agreed to as well as to suggest options for improvement, particularly for the ACP countries and regions which are in the process of finalizing an EPA text.

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        Market access proposals for non-agricultural products (English)
        Presentation by Sam Laird, Santiago Fernandez de Cordoba and David Vanzetti, 2002, 39 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: This paper explains and analyses various proposals in the WTO non-agricultural market access negotiations using a global general equilibrium model. The results show that proposals involving deeper tariff cuts imply greater increases in imports and exports, but greater losses in tariff revenues that will need to be made up in some other way. They also show greater welfare gains in the longer term, resulting from the improved allocation of resources and changes in the terms of trade. Who: Useful for anyone focusing on WTO negotiations on non-agricultural products. How: Can be used as a background reading for courses on WTO negotiations.

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        Market Access, Trade and Sustainable Development: the Labour Market Channel (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 83 pages
        Categories: Trade Related Capacity Building

        This report provides guidance to trade-policy makers aiming to design employment-centered trade policies. The first chapter is a brief introduction to the issue at stake and underlines its relevance to the current debate about the role of international trade in facilitating the achievement of the SDGs. The second chapter of this report reviews the existing theoretical and empirical literature on the relationship between trade and labour market outcomes. Informality, which is an important feature of the labour market in most developing countries, and its role in framing the latter relationship are discussed in detail. The third chapter of the report presents a diagnostic tool constructed based on insights from the previous chapter, providing detailed information on data requirements and methodology. The diagnostic tool is designed to be used as a first step in assessing the potential employment implications of trade policy. It uses data to build evidence that provides qualitative guidance. It is complementary to simulation tools that estimate numerical outcomes under possible policy reform scenarios but rely on simplifying assumptions.

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        Market Access, Trasparency and Fairness in Global Trade: Export Impact for Good 2010 (English)
        Report by ITC, 2010, 160 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Improving market access and market entry for developing countries will improve fairness in global trade because it will contribute to reducing global poverty. Developing countries need to export more in order to boost growth and reduce poverty and provide opportunities for wealth creation in their domestic markets, which are typically small.Moreover, across developing countries a large share of the growth will be needed for investments in infrastructure in order to build up competitive advantages. Hence, developing countries will typically only realize slow domestic consumption growth in the short and medium term – but export development can boost growth prospects. This report discusses trade transparency and fairness in the context of global trade;highlights key market access issues for developing countries; examines the relationship between export development and poverty reduction, and outlines implications for both developing country policies as well as international measures to improve markets.

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        Market Entry for Commodities: The Role of Trade and Investment Finance (English)
        Working paper by UNCTAD secretariat, 2004, 22 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Finance for Development

        An analysis on the difficulty of developing countries' producers entering international commodity markets and on the role of finance as a requisite to establish and maintain competitiveness. This paper studies the impacts of obstacles to obtaining commodity finance on developing countries and gives a few recommendations on the role of governments, international organizations and civil society. Of interest to anyone interested in commodity issues and particularly in Africa. The paper gives examples of successful countries in agricultural finance (The Philippines, India, and Zambia)

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        Markets, Politics and Globalization: Can the Global Economy be Civilized? (English)
        Presentation by Gerald Karl Helleiner, University of Toronto, 2000, 25 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: This paper looks at the rules and institutions that govern the functioning of the emerging global economy. The paper argues that the new and complex fabric of governance that globalization has created fails to meet the needs of developing countries. The paper examines the way in which global markets work, analyzing the critical role of politics in economic policy and highlighting the imperfections in the current system of global economic governance. The paper concludes with suggestions on changes that are needed for the system of global economic governance to be more equitable. Who: Can be used by a lecturer on a course on governance, globalization and general WTO issues. How: As a background reading material on issues of global economic governance.

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        Maroc: Perspectives Des Entreprises - Série de l'ITC sur les Mesures Non Tarifaires (English)
        Report by ICT, 2012, 107 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Rapport faisant partie d'une série de publications qui identifient les principaux obstacles relatifs aux mesures non tarifaires (MNT), auxquels le secteur privé est confronté – analyse l'expérience des entreprises exportatrices et importatrices au Maroc, à travers une enquête directe de grande échelle; identifie les principaux obstacles MNT d'ordre réglementaire et procédurale, imposés par les pays partenaires ainsi que par le Maroc; fournit une analyse sectorielle des problèmes relatifs aux MNT dans le secteur agricole et manufacturier; les appendices incluent : la méthodologie globale des enquêtes sur les MNT, les principaux résultats des entretiens face à face par secteur, une liste des obstacles procéduraux, et les références bibliographiques.

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        Mauritius: Company Perspectives – An ITC Series on Non-tariff Measures (English)
        Report by ITC, 2014, 132 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This country report analyses survey findings from the ITC business surveys on non-tariff measures (NTM) and compares them to other sources on NTMs to identify regulatory, procedural and infrastructural obstacles in Mauritius and its partner countries covering food and agro-based products, textiles and clothing, manufacturing sectors and intellectual property issues before outlining policy options.

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        Mauritius: Company Perspectives – An Itc Series on Non-tariff Measures
        Policy brief by ITC, 2014, 132 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Mauritian exporters claim to be less affected by trade barriers than many other countries that have participated in the ITC business surveys on non-tariff measures. Among the 400 Mauritian firms surveyed, 27% of exporters were adversely affected by non-tariff measures; 36% of importing firms reported they were affected by non-tariff measures.The main concern is conformity assessment for the European Union, the largest market for Mauritian exports. In addition, companies reported a disproportionate share of measures related to the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). COMESA countries comprise only 6% of Mauritian agricultural exports, however, they accounted for 29% of company concerns related to non-tariff measures. Among other countries surveyed by ITC that report higher barriers due to non-tariff measures are: Paraguay (69%), Peru (42%), Sri Lanka (70%), and Uruguay (56%).

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        MDG Report 2012: Assessing Progress in Africa Toward the Millennium Development Goals (English)
        Report by AUC, UNECA, AfDB, UNDP, 2012, 184 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        This report looks at the situation in Africa three years to the MDG 2015 deadline. It shows that progress has been made in primary school enrolment, gender parity in primary school enrolment, the proportion of seats held by women in national parliament and HIV and AIDS prevalence rates. It notes a slow decline in child mortality and highlights important gains in the areas of health and education, but these are hindered by poor quality and access. In spite of this progress, Africa still faces the challenges of addressing pervasive income inequalities, creating decent jobs, access to health and sanitation services. The report concludes by presenting the emerging perspectives on the post-2015 agenda.

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        Measuring Financial Access Around the World (English)
        Working paper by Kendall, Jake; Mylenko, Nataliya; Ponce, Alejandro/World Bank, 2010, 67 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development

        This paper introduces a new set of financial access indicators for 139 countries across the globe and describes the results of a preliminary analysis of this data set. The new data set builds on previous work using a similar methodology. The new data set features broader country coverage and greater disaggregation by type of financial product and by type of institution supplying the product -- commercial banks, specialized state run savings and development banks, banks with mutual ownership structure (such as cooperatives), and microfinance institutions. The authors use the data set to conduct a rough estimation of the number of bank accounts in the world (6.2 billion) as well as the number of banked and unbanked individuals. In developed countries, they estimate 3.2 accounts per adult and 81 percent of adults banked. By contrast, in developing countries, they estimate only 0.9 accounts per adult and 28 percent banked. In regression analysis, they find that measures of development and physical infrastructure are positively associated with the indicators of deposit account, loan, and branch penetration.

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        Measuring Monetary Policy in Open Economies
        Working paper by Cerdeiro, Diego A., 2010, 35 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy

        The paper extends Bernanke and Mihov's [6] closed-economy strategy for identification of monetary policy shocks to open-economy settings, accounting for the simultaneity between interest-rate and exchange-rate innovations. The methodology allows a separate treatment of two distinct monetary policy shocks, one that operates through open market operations, and another one that takes place through interventions in the foreign exchange market. Implementation of this strategy to the case of Argentina provides the stylized facts necessary to choose among competing theoretical models of this economy. In addition to studying the effects of monetary policy innovations, the present study sheds light on the endogenous component of monetary policy. In this regard, the paper finds that, notwithstanding the relative stability of the exchange rate and the accumulation of large amounts of international reserves, the central bank in Argentina has been far from absorbing balance of payments shocks in a currency-board fashion. The growing level of international reserves can be rationalized, instead, as the monetary authority's response to terms of trade, supply and domestic currency demand shocks.

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        Measuring the Impacts of Information and Communication Technology for Development
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 31 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology

        This paper explores why measuring the impacts of information and communication technology (ICT) is important for development – and why it is statistically challenging. Measuring impacts in any field is difficult, but for ICT there are added complications because of its diversity and rapidly changing nature. A number of impact areas are identified in section 1, and their relationships explored, in the context of their place in the social, economic and environmental realms. The result is a complex web of relationships between individual impact areas, such as economic growth and poverty alleviation, and background factors, such as a country’s level of education and government regulation.

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        Measuring the Relative Strenght of Preferential Market Access (English)
        Discussion paper by Alessandro Nicita, 2011, 29 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper provides two new indices aimed to assessing the value of preferential margin to calculate the strength of existing or future trade agreements and the preference erosion that third parties trade agreements may cause. The first index is the Relative Preferential Margin (RPM) and measures the relative value of preferential regimes on actual exports flows. The second index is the Potential Preferential Margin (PPM) and measures the potential value of the preferential regime. Finally, it also provides changes in these indices both for members and non-members consequent to the implementation of an FTA among East Asian countries. The results point to a large variance of benefit and losses.

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        Measuring the Relative Strength of Preferential Market Access (English)
        Report by Nicita, Alessandro / UNCTAD, 2011, 29 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        In the past 20 years, tariffs imposed on international trade have been decreasing both in virtue of multilateral agreements under the auspices of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and of the proliferation of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) at the regional and bilateral level. The consequence of the large number of PTAs is that an increasing share of international trade is not subject to the most favoured nation tariffs, but enters markets through preferential access. Preferential access can be thought of as a policy given comparative advantage where countries discriminate across trading partners by providing some countries with a relative advantage. As the number of PTAs increases, it becomes more difficult to assess the tariff advantage originating from an existing or future trade agreement. This paper proposes two new indices aimed at assessing the value of the preferential margin. The first index measures the relative value of preferential regimes on actual exports flows. It provides the tariff advan age to the exports originating from a given country relative to similar exports originating elsewhere. The second index measures the potential value of the preferential regime and it is calculated not on observed but on “potential” export flows. These indices are useful for calculating both the strength of existing or future trade agreements as well as the preference erosion that a third-parties trade agreement may cause.

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        Medical and Wellness Tourism: Lessons from Asia
        Working paper by ITC, 2014, 44 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation

        This paper reviews current trends in global medical tourism. It draws on the experience of four Asian countries – India, Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines – to extract lessons and the best practices for another Asian country, Sri Lanka that demonstrates considerable potential in medical and wellness tourism given its traditional knowledge of ayurvedic treatments. It concludes by highlighting the role that international organizations can play in helping developing countries grow their domestic capabilities and join the global health tourism industry.

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        Meeting Trade and Development Challenges in an Era of High and Volatile Energy Prices: Oil and Gas in LDCs and African Countries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2006, 40 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy

        This report is divided into four chapters. Chapter I describes trends in global consumption of oil and Africa’s production and consumption levels. Chapter II discusses the macro- and microeconomic impacts of oil price volatility. It reviews some of the strategies used in dealing with impacts and recommends policy measures to mitigate risks related to the sector. Chapter III examines the challenges facing importers in their procurement of crude oil and its derivatives and also looks at possible import financing methods. The paper concludes with a discussion on possible cooperation strategies aimed at improving access to oil and gas for African countries and ways to ensure that revenue from oil and gas exports meet the development needs of current and future generations.

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        Mercosur in South-south Agreements: In the Middle of Two Models of Regionalism
        Study by Celli, Umberto; Salles, Marcus; Tussie, Diana; Peixoto, Juliana, 2010, 72 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research

        The objective of this paper is to analyse the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) as the case of a regional integration process in transition between different moments: the 1990s neoliberal moment (which concentrated solely on trade liberalization) and the present neo-developmental phase, which now includes structural policies as a new pillar for integration. The pull of each contrasting mindset leads to tensions in both the internal and external agendas. In this analysis, we focus on three specific issues: asymmetries, trade in services and investments. All three have loomed large in the North-South agenda, but as regional agreements make progress and a new mindset emerges they now cast a shadow on South-South relations.

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        Methodologies, Classifications, Quantification and Development Impacts of Non-Tariff Barriers (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, Trade Analysis Branch, 2005, 22 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        What: Background note on non-tariff barriers (NTBs) as instruments of protection and regulation of trade that gain in importance with the overall decline of tariffs. Reviews recent trends in NTB utilization (shift from core to non-core technical measures), in particular with regard to developing countries' concerns, discusses classification of NTBs and looks into different methods of quantifying the use and impact of NTBs. Who: Relevant for teachers and students of international trade/trade policy courses, both from the policy view and trade data analysis. Also for anyone interested in both analytical and policy aspects of recent trends in the use of trade policy instruments, in particular NTBs. How: Overview of the issue, classification of NTBs, data about trends in the use of NTBs (globally and by regions), brief explanation of approaches (including econometric modelling) towards measuring NTBs and their impact.

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        Mexico’s Agriculture Development: Perspectives and Outlook (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 209 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies

        This work addresses key issues affecting agricultural production and trade of those commodities identified by the Mexican authorities as being of strategic importance for the country. It encompasses both macro- and micro-economic issues with links to commodities, trade policy and trade agreements, competition and competitiveness, and food and energy security. It also identifies complementary measures and enabling policies, such as infrastructural investment, research and development, and trade facilitation. Furthermore, the study demonstrates a close integration with the national development outlook of Mexico, which ensures an ongoing consistency with overall national development priorities, including enhancing food security, and reducing poverty, consistent with the UN Millennium Development Goal 1.

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        Migration, Remittances, Poverty, and Human Capital: Conceptual and Empirical Challenges (English)
        Working paper by McKenzie, David; Sasin, Marcin / Worldbank, 2007, 16 pages
        Categories: Migration and Development, Trade and Poverty

        This paper reviews common challenges faced by researchers interested in measuring the impact of migration and remittances on income poverty, inequality and human capital (or, in general, welfare) as well as difficulties confronting development practitioners in converting this research into policy advice. On the analytical side, the paper discusses the proper formulation of a research question, the choice of the analytical tools as well as the interpretation of the results, in the presence of pervasive endogeneity in all decisions surrounding migration. Particular attention is given to the use of instrumental variables in migration research. On the policy side, the paper argues that the private nature of migration and remittances implies a need to carefully spell out the rationale for interventions. It also notices the lack of good migration data and proper evaluations of migration-related government policies. The paper focuses mainly on microeconomic evidence about international migration, but much of the discussion extends to other settings as well.

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        Mining and Resource Mobilization for Social Development: The Case of Nicaragua (English)
        Working paper by Hilda María Gutiérrez Elizondo, 2015, 32 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        This paper seeks to contribute to the global debate on the political and institutional contexts that enable impoverished countries to mobilize domestic resources for social development. It analyses the impact of mining on resource mobilization for social development in Nicaragua. The mining industry in Nicaragua provides some economic benefits. However, these benefits have been overshadowed by setbacks related to social and environmental impacts. The paper also points out that current political and institutional aspects weaken the state’s ability to mobilize resources for social development from the mining industry.

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        Misreported Trade (English)
        Working paper by Mohammad Farhad, Michael Jetter, Abu Siddique, Andrew Williams, 2018, 45 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper introduces a methodology to measure misreported trade in a consistent way across countries and over time. Our methodology does not require any assumptions about which countries may be more or less likely to misreport – rather, all indices are derived endogenously with available trade data. We derive seven specific indices related to overall misreporting, as well as over- and under-reporting of exports and imports. Applying this method to existing bilateral trade data on the HS 4-digit level from 1996-2015, we present several rankings and describe a few prominent cases, such as China. Overall, our indices can explain intuitive developments well and should help researchers to study countries’ trade misreporting in a global dimension that is comparable across countries and over time. We conclude the paper with an application, focusing on the role of tariff and VAT rates as predictors of import under-reporting. As predicted by economic theory, case studies, and economic intuition, we find positive correlations for both tariff and VAT rates with import under-reporting. These results are robust to the inclusion of potentially confounding factors, as well as country- and time-fixed effects.

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        Mobile Money for Business Development in the East African Community - A Comparative Study of Existing Platforms and Regulations (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 66 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Science and Technology

        This report is a survey of mobile money services across East African Community (EAC), providing an analysis and comparison between the different platforms currently on offer. The report is organized as follows: Section A provides a background to mobile money across EAC. Section B examines the different mobile money service offerings along with their associated fees. Section C looks at some salient features of the services currently on offer across EAC and identifies some usability issues such as access channels, security, registration and transaction limits, agent networks and consumer awareness and support. Section D provides an analysis of regulatory issues structured around the different functions embedded in a mobile money service. Section E draws on lessons across EAC to make policy recommendations to help direct the development of mobile money in a way that is inclusive and that also favours mobile money use amongst small businesses. Country profiles in the Annex provide in-depth detail and comparison across mobile money platforms within each country in EAC.

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        Mobilizing Business for Trade in Services (English)
        Book by ITC, 2013, 156 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The book summarizes key arguments on the role of services in development, providing analysis and explanation of the regulatory reforms and trade negotiations needed to foster a vibrant services sector in developing countries. It provides an overview of how policymakers and people working in business can work together to develop specific services sectors, such as tourism; transport and logistics; communications; audiovisual; computer and business process outsourcing; financial services; professional and other business services; construction; distribution; and cultural and recreational services.

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        Model Contracts for Small Firms: Legal Guidance for Doing International Business
        Book by ITC, 2010, 162 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law

        This book contains the main international commercial contracts that small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) will need in their trade transactions. All contracts are harmonized in structure as well as in content through the insertion in each of identical boilerplate or recurring clauses. The nine model forms and the boilerplate clauses were selected on the basis of a worldwide survey of representative institutions of SMEs.

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        Model Law on Competition (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2010, 114 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy

        The Intergovernmental Group of Experts on Competition Law and Policy, at its tenth session (7–9 July 2009),requested the UNCTAD secretariat to prepare a further revised and updated version of the Model Law on Competition, on the basis of submissions to be received from member States no later than 30 May 2010. In addition, the secretariat was asked to redesign the format of the presentation and its updates. The design of the Model Law 2010 has been made more “reader-friendly” in that recent developments in legislation, case law and commentaries are contained in comparative tables indicating the types of laws or solutions adopted by countries for different aspects of the competition issues.

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        Model Law on Competition (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2004, 107 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy

        This is a revised version of the 1999 UN model law which incorporates changes in legislation.

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        More Stringent BITs, Less Ambiguous Effects on FDI? Not a Bit! (English)
        Working paper by Berger, Axel, Busse, Matthias, Nunnenkamp, Peter, Roy, Martin, 2010, 14 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Investment

        In this paper, we focus on investor-state dispute settlement provisions contained in various, though far from all, bilateral investment treaties as a possible determinant of BIT-related effects on bilateral FDI flows. Our estimation results prove to be sensitive to the specification of these provisions as well as the inclusion of transition countries in the sample. Stricter dispute settlement provisions do not necessarily result in higher FDI inflows so that the effectiveness of BITs as a credible commitment device remains elusive.

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        Most-favoured Nation Treatment (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 157 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law

        The inclusion of most-favoured-nation (MFN) treatment provisions in international investment agreements (IIAs) followed its use in the context of international trade and was meant to address commitments made by States in free trade agreements (FTA) to grant preferential treatment to goods and services regarding market access. However, in the context of international investment that takes place behind borders, MFN clauses work differently. In early BITs, as national treatment (NT) was not granted systematically, the inclusion of MFN treatment clauses was generalized in order to ensure that the host States, while not granting NT, would accord a covered foreign investor a treatment that is no less favourable than that it accords to a third foreign investor and would benefit from NT as soon as the country would grant it. Nowadays the overwhelming majority of IIAs have a MFN provision that goes alongside NT, mostly in a single provision.

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        Muere La Union Aduanera Andina (English)
        Article by Gustavo Guzman, 2007
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        Opinión sobre los efectos de la Decision 669 de la Comision de la Comunidad Andina en el proceso de integración comunitario.

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        Multilateral Indexed Loans And Debt Sustainability
        Discussion paper by Alessandro Missale, Emanuele Bacchiocchi, 2012, 50 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, International Financial System

        This study focuses on the potential for introducing indexation on loans provided by multilateral lenders to low income countries (LICs) and examines whether a reform of their lending policy is feasible and economically justified. It provides new evidence for a group of 40 international development association (IDA) countries over the 1990–2010 period for three types of debt: (i) foreign currency loans indexed to real gross domestic product (GDP); (ii) foreign currency loans indexed to the dollar value of exports; and (iii) inflation-indexed loans denominated in local currency. The study finds that both GDP indexation and domestic currency lending are feasible policies. However, the analysis shows that ‘one size fits all solution’ does not exist to the problem of stabilizing the debt ratio, making a reform of multilateral lending, desirable to all LICs, difficult to implement.

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        Multilateralism and Regionalism: The New Interface (English)
        Book by Mashayekhi, Mina and Ito, Taisuke /UNCTAD, 2005, 205 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        There is a resurgence of regionalism in today’s international trading system. Regional trade agreements have multiplied worldwide; almost all countries are members of at least one agreement and many are party to multiple agreements. Existing agreements are re-invigorated and expanded while new ones are being negotiated and formed. What: The volume contains papers delivered at a pre-UNCTAD XI Forum on “Multilateralism and Regionalism: The New Interface” held on 8 June 2004 at the BNDES, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, organized during the Rio Trade Week. The publication starts with some initial perspectives on the new interface between the post-WTO multilateralism, with a view to identifying ways and means of addressing important policy challenges. It further provides more in depth-analysis of RTA issues including Rules of Origin, Notification to the WTO of a RTA, New North-South and South-South Models, Market Access and Competition Policy. How: Ideal background paper for regional trade agreements of for further reading purposes. Who: Trade Policy Classes at a higher level.

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        Multilateralism in Crisis (English)
        Working paper by Peter Lloyd, 2012, 30 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper examines multilateralism by looking at the two most important current efforts to devise new multilateral rules binding all nations - the negotiations in the World Trade Organization (WTO) about trade rules and the negotioations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) to devise rules restricting the annual emissions of greenhouse gases. Both negotiations have failed after several years of intensive effort.

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        Multilateral Trade Rules Governing Environmental and Health Requirements: The TBT and SPS Agreement (English)
        Presentation by Ulrich Hoffmann, UNCTAD, 2004, 8 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This presentation describes the objectives, definitions, scope, and principles of the WTO Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT Agreement) and the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phyto-sanitary Measures (SPS Agreement).

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        My Experience in Teaching English content course in Finances (English)
        Article by Restrepo,Jorge/universidad de La Sabana, 2007
        Categories: Trade Related Capacity Building

        This paper presents a brief description of English Content Based Instruction (CBI) as a process in which the student gains mastery of the language (procedural knowledge) and mastery of the subject learned ( declarative knowledge) along with the characteristics of the integration of the teaching process. Also, the author describes his experiences in planning and teaching a course in Financial Analysis using the techniques of CBI and student-centered learning in addition to the tools and procedures used in performing this task. Furthermore the experiences of other universities in giving CBI courses are analyzed in light of this experience. The result of a survey about the perception of the course among a representative sample of the students is presented and discussed. Finally the paper presents an analysis of a survey which suggests the importance of the CBI approach in teaching finance in English.

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