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Building knowledge for trade and development

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        National Green Export Review of Angola: Baseline Report (English)
        Also available in Spanish
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 39 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        This baseline report evaluates green sectors already in place in the Republic of Angola and works as a background document and a step-by-step guideline to support discussions at national level with local stakeholders. Evaluation and identification of sectors will take place initially using a Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) analysis of green sectors with expansion potential in Angola. In short, the baseline report aims to present a panorama of key issues related to local green sectors, with attention given to enhancing their regulatory, institutional and trade related performance. As such, the baseline report operates as a supporting document for discussion among local stakeholders on strategic approaches to further the development of Angola’s green products and services and their related sectors based on a collaborative, inter-sectoral, and strategic approach. It is important to mention that selected sectors covered in this baseline report include those sectors in which Angola has already achieved considerable experience, but further growth can be achieved. The intention is to use them as stepping-stones to prepare national consultant(s) and to promote local stakeholder workshops, which will serve as training activities and canvass a wide spectrum of viewpoints by collaboratively identifying and selecting new options of green products and services for Angola and develop sectoral action plans. In addition, they guarantee that this inter-sectoral forum will undertake follow-up measures for further implementation of the NGER process with UNCTAD’s support.

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        National Green Export Review of Ethiopia: Leather and Sesame Seeds (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 39 pages
        Categories: Trade Related Capacity Building

        This report reviews global trends in the leather and sesame sectors, their role to the national economy, and Ethiopia's export policy framework, performance, and competitiveness in these sectors. In addition, the report also presents SWOT analysis that indicates remaining challenges and barriers that constrain performance in these sectors.

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        National Services Policy Review - Uganda (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2011, 107 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This publication presents the results of the National Services Policy Review (NSPR) undertaken by the Government of Uganda in cooperation with UNCTAD

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        National Trade Policy for Export Success (English)
        Report by ITC, 2011, 176 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Enterprise Development

        This study presents a trade policy framework developed by ITC. It provides the trade policy instruments that governments can use to support the competitiveness of firms at each stage of the supply chain and outlines how trade policy options can influence national export competitiveness. The study also discusses in detail the trade policy instruments corresponding to each of the following objectives: creating competitive infrastructure services; promoting exports and foreign investment; moving goods across borders effectively; addressing export market issues and improving inputs and capital goods. It also considers how to tackle the overriding constraints faced by both public and private sectors, related to every stage of production and distribution of goods and services for export.

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        Natural Resource Abundance, Growth, and Diversification in the Middle East and North Africa
        Book by The World Bank, 2012, 228 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies

        Investigates the effect of natural resources dependence and the role of policies in achieving sustained growth and diversification away from oil.

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        Natural Resources and Non-cooperative Trade Policy (English)
        Working paper by Latina, Joelle, Piermartini, Roberta, Ruta, Michele / WTO, 2011, 29 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        When looking at the conditions of trade in natural resources the world appears upside down: tariff protection in natural resources sectors is generally lower than for overall merchandise trade, while export restrictions are twice as likely as in other sectors. On the other hand, tariff escalation is significant in natural resources sectors, where materials in their raw state face, on average, lower duties than in their processed form. In this paper, we discuss how export taxes and tariff escalation may be the result of an uncooperative trade policy. Specifically, tariff escalation and export taxes can be "beggar-thy-neighbor" policies because governments may be tempted to use them to alter the relative price of exports to their advantage (terms-of-trade effect) or to expand the domestic processing industry at the expenses of foreign production (production relocation effect). In equilibrium, these policies offset each other in a Prisoners' Dilemma situation, where trade is inefficiently low.

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        Negociación De Un Acuerdo Comercial Con La Ue: Impactos Estimados De Pobreza En Ecuador (English)
        Policy brief by Wong, Sara/ LATN, 2010, 4 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade and Poverty

        En este brief se analizan los posibles resultados de un acuerdo comercial entre la Unión Europea y Ecuador recurriendo a un modelo de micro-simulaciones y considerando los impactos potenciales sobre los índices de pobreza.

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        Negociações em agricultura na OMC (English)
        Summary by Mário Ferreira Presser, Frederico Quaresma Madureira, Wolfgang Lenk, 2004
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper (in Portuguese) provides a general overview of agricultural trade negotiations at the WTO through Doha, Cancun and beyond. Also contains a glossary of key terms.

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        Negotiating for food security - Glossary of trade negotiation terms (English)
        Manual by Virtual Institute, UNCTAD, 2005, 4 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        An explanation of some key trade negotiation terms, particularly as they apply to the negotiations on agriculture at the WTO. A useful handout for any course dealing with the multinational trading system.

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        Negotiating for food security - Simulation of multilateral trade negotiations on agriculture (English)
        Simulation by Virtual Institute, UNCTAD, 2005, 33 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        A simulation exercise based on WTO agricultural negotiations. The resources for the simulation include a sample negotiating text, suggested agenda, detailed instructions, and background information on the countries involved in the negotiations. Additionally, tips on how to manage the exercise are included for teachers or facilitators. With proper preparation and background information the simulation can be used to give students an introduction to basic negotiating techniques and provides an excellent practical opportunity for them to extend and deepen their knowledge on the WTO Agreement on Agriculture.

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        Negotiating for food security - What makes a successful negotiator: Skills for negotiators (English)
        Note by Virtual Institute, UNCTAD, 2005, 2 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, Trade Related Capacity Building, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        A brief overview of some of the skills and behaviours that a successful negotiator requires. A useful background document for any simulation exercise or wider discussion of the function and role of negotiations.

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        Negotiating Services Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) with the European Union: Some Issues for Developing Countries to Consider (English)
        Note by South Centre, 2009, 31 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        This Analytical Note explores the options available to developing countries in negotiating agreements establishing Free Trade Areas (FTAs) involving a trade in services component with the European Union (EU). It examines the issues that are challenging for development in the EU proposals which include amongst other things the EU negotiating template, Mode 4 limitations, the domestic regulatory framework and the MFN clause. Secondly it identifies the options available to developing countries. These include cooperation arrangements with the EU, respect for regional initiatives, recognition of special treatment for LDCs and retaining the GATS architecture and flexibilities.

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        Negotiations on Transport and Logistics Services: Issues to Consider (English)
        Working paper by UNCTAD, 2006, 29 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: This paper analyzes the proposals by a group of WTO members to consider multimodal transports and logistics services in the Doha Round GATS-negotiations. First, the paper discusses current trends in trade and transport. Then, the transport and logistics services regulations under the GATS are examined, hereby particularly considering recent developments. The paper discusses at length which aspects need to be considered by developing countries in GATS-negotiations and how developing countries can contribute to these negotiations in the best possible way. How: The paper is particularly useful for training courses for trade negotiators and policy-makers. Who: Should be very informative for trade negotiators and policy-makers. Could also be a useful reading for students and researchers dealing with trade negotiations.

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        Negotiation theory - An overview (English)
        Summary by Virtual Institute, UNCTAD, 2006
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What:this paper is a brief introduction to the theory of negotiations containing links to more detailed resources on negotiations posted on the Vi site. The paper describes the strategies and tactics used in negotiations and some of the skills required for negotiation. Who: the paper provides an overview for anyone studying negotiations and could be used by teachers to introduce students to the field. How: as a background reading on negotiations defining the scope of the field and linking to more detailed resources for further reading.

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        Net Food-importing Developing Countries - Who They Are, and Policy Options for Global Price Volatility
        Study by ICTSD, 2012, 29 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        This paper discusses net food-importing developing countries – the most vulnerable – in the light of the recent commodity price spikes: who they are, and policy options for dealing with global price volatility. From the 2007-2008 episode of rapid commodity price increases, there are three considerations to highlight for future policies. The first is that price spikes harm in proportion to the level of net food imports, a concern for the majority of developing countries. The second policy consideration is the heterogeneity within farming. The poor are the smallest farmers, and most often are net food buyers. The third consideration is that price spikes hit major commodities more than food generally. The paper also presents a brief review of the national policy responses to the price spike during 2007- 08.

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        New and Traditional Trade Flows and the Economic Crisis (English)
        Report by Nicita, Alessandro, Tumurchudur-Klok, Bolormaa, 2011, 24 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        In terms of economic development, it makes a difference whether export increases at the extensive (new trade flows) or intensive margin (traditional, well-established trade flows). Similarly, a decline in international trade may affect new flows relatively more than traditional ones. A more severe impact on new trade flows could impose additional obstacles to recovery for those countries relying on export diversification for their economic development. This paper seeks to determine whether the recent decline in international trade has affected relatively more trade at the extensive margin or at the intensive margin. The overall results indicate that the economic crisis of 2008 and 2009 has had more severe implications for those bilateral trade flows that did not exist before 2006. New bilateral flows have a lower probability of surviving the fall in demand and relatively higher negative effects on their volumes of trade. Consequently, the economic crisis may also affect the global economy by producing delays in the international product cycle, with traditional and larger exporters holding ground in a relatively better way than new entrants.

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        New Century,old Disparities: Gender And Ethnic Earnings Gaps In Latin America And The Caribbean (English)
        Book by Hugo Ñopo/IDB/WB, 2012, 356 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This book adopts an econometric methodology for measuring earnings gaps and applies it consistently across and within countries to measure gender and racial or ethnic differences. It offers insights on economic and political strategies that could be adopted to reduce inequality.

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        The New Frontier of Competitiveness in Developing Countries - Implementing Trade Facilitation
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 62 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation

        This report consolidates results from 26 national implementation plans (comprise of LDCs, middle income developing economies, landlocked countries, and small island economies in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, and Latin America.) to help assess the progress thus far achieved in the implementation of the trade facilitation agreement (TFA) as negotiated at the WTO. The report is intended to serve as a guidance tool for trade facilitation policy makers at the national, regional, and multilateral levels in both developed and developing countries.

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        New Innovation Approaches to Support the Implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 51 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        This study presents several new and emerging innovation approaches, highlights how they may contribute to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals and discusses some of the policy implications in harnessing such approaches. It provides an overview of particular issues and considerations that need to be taken into account in coming years to maximize the contribution of new innovation approaches to sustainable development.

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        The New Microfinance Handbook : A Financial Market System Perspective (English)
        Book by Ledgerwood, Joanna, 2013, 532 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development

        The new edition of Microfinance Handbook takes a market systems approach to financial inclusion, oriented by client needs. The book addresses the wider financial ecosystem, moving beyond the traditional meaning of microfinance to inclusive financial systems, with a particular focus on understanding the needs of poor households. It reflects the multidisciplinary intersection of finance, technology, and development with specified topics such as mobile operators, microfinance institutions and community networks.

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        New Thinking Surrounding Remittances and Development (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2011, 193 pages
        Categories: Migration and Development

        The present publication seeks to gather main experiences and proposals made by policy makers, delegates, experts, intergovernmental organisation and civil society representatives during the 2011 UNCTAD Single Year Expert meeting on “Maximizing the development impact of remittances”. It is also a tool for consolidating state of the art knowledge on remittances trends, providing new thinking on the role that remittances play on development, and enabling stakeholders in better designing comprehensive policy and institutional frameworks in the intersection between migration, remittances, financial services and labour mobility issues.

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        A "new" Trade Theory of GATT/WTO Negotiations (English)
        Working paper by Ossa, Ralph, 2009, 51 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        A novel theory of GATT/WTO negotiations that provides new answers to two prominent questions in the trade policy literature: First, what is the purpose of trade negotiations? And second, what is the role played by the fundamental GATT/WTO principles of reciprocity and nondiscrimination? Relative to the standard terms-of-trade theory of GATT/WTO negotiations, my theory makes two main contributions: First, it builds on a "new trade" model rather than the neoclassical trade model and therefore sheds new light on GATT/WTO negotiations between similar countries. Second, it relies on a production relocation externality rather than the terms-of-trade externality and therefore demonstrates that the terms-of-trade externality is not the only trade policy externality, which can be internalized in GATT/WTO negotiations.

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        Nondiscrimination in GATT/WTO: Was There Anything to Begin with and is There Anything Left? (English)
        Discussion paper by T.N. Srinivasan, 2005, 27 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: Non-discriminatory treatment is one of the main principles of the World Trade Organization (WTO). Under normal circumstances countries cannot discriminate between their trading partners: they must accord the same preferences to one country as they do to all their trading partners (Most Favoured Nation Principle [MFN]). Under WTO rules foreigners and locals also have to be treated equally in domestic markets (National Treatment [NT]). However, exceptions to non-discriminatory treatment are outlined in the WTO articles relating to customs unions and free trade areas, antidumping and safeguards. In this paper the author argues that these exceptions have become dominant over the past few years causing an erosion of the non-discrimination principle. In Section 2, non-discriminatory treatment, as mandated in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), is outlined. Section 3 summarizes the exceptions to non-discrimination in the WTO. Section 4 examines the role of MFN and reciprocity as a means of self-enforcement of the GATT contract. In section 5 aspects of MFN and NT are analyzed with a simple theoretical model. Section 6 offers a conclusion on the role of non-discrimination in GATT/WTO. Who: For anyone dealing with the non-discrimination principle of the WTO. How: Can serve as an additional reading for anyone dealing with the non-discrimination principle of the WTO. Preliminary knowledge of the principles of non-discrimination and of economic theory would be an asset.

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        Non-Tariff Barriers in Computable General Equilibrium Modelling (English)
        Report by Fugazza, Marco/UNCTAD, 2008, 25 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        With diminishing tariffs, the focus of trade policy makers and analysts is logically turning towards non-tariff barriers (NTBs), but there much remains to be done. It is well-know that tackling NTBs poses many challenges for the analyst because of their diverse and complex nature, and the lack of available evidence. NTBs pose also particular difficulties to computable/applied general equilibrium (CGE) modelling, traditionally more comfortable with policies whose impact can be interpreted into direct effects on prices. This research provides a quantification of the impact of NTBs at the global level. The model we use is significantly larger than in previous studies, and to our knowledge, the first truly global one. The main focus of this research, however, is to discuss and question the various treatments of NTBs in CGE models with a specific application of the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) standard model, the workhorse of trade policy CGE analysis. We find that serious estimation and modelling efforts remain to be undertaken in order to make CGE modelling a useful policy tool to analyze NTBs. Casual policy inferences from loose specifications may indeed lead to serious analytical mistakes. We show that while using the same robust estimates.

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        Non-tariff Measures and Regional Integration in the Southern African Development Community (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 36 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This note provides an overview of the state of play of the political process on NTM policies in the SADC region and presents a non-technical summary of methodologies to assess the regulatory distance between members of a free trade agreement and the potential greater economic benefits from reducing NTMs. The note also contains a discussion of the potential way forward in the SADC region on NTMs.

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        Non-tariff Measures and the Fight Against Malaria - Obstacles to Trade in Anti-malarial Commodities (English)
        Review by ITC, 2011, 34 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper focuses on specific non-tariff measures (NTMs) that could negatively affect the affordability and accessibility of anti-malarial commodities - it introduces non-tariff measures and other obstacles to trade. It presents the results of a business-perception survey, conducted by ITC, on NTMs faced by importers and exporters of anti-malarial commodities (medicines for treating/preventing of malaria, diagnostic tests, mosquito nets, insecticides for indoor residual spraying, and pumps for spraying indoor insecticides). The paper is structured as follows: Section 1 introduces non-tariff measures and other obstacles to trade. In addition it presents the NTM classification and methodology underlying this paper. Furthermore section 2 and 3 provide the survey results and section 4 presents the conclusions.

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        Non-tariff Measures and the WTO (English)
        Working paper by Staiger, Robert W., 2012, 47 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        In this paper I sketch out the rough contours of the challenge faced by the WTO in dealing with non-tariff measures (NTMs) as seen from the economic theories of trade agreements. The key questions for the WTO - the answers to which largely dictate the choice between shallow and deep approaches to integration - appear to be two: (1) Is it the terms-of-trade problem or the commitment problem that WTO member governments seek to solve with their WTO membership?; and (2) Is it market clearing or offshoring/bilateral bargaining that is now the most prominent mechanism for the determination of international prices? I suggest that evidence on the …rst question points to the terms-of-trade theory and hence toward shallow integration, but that answering the second question may be the key to identifying the best way forward on NTMs for the WTO.

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        Non-tariff Measures: Evidence from Selected Developing Countries and Future Research Agenda
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 166 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The severe contraction of world trade volume during the current global economic and financial crisis – the steepest since the Great Depression – put pressure on the trade policies of many importing and exporting countries around the world. One result of the crisis in developed and developing countries has been the contemplation or use of trade policy instruments, mainly taking the form of non-tariff measures (NTMs), to protect domestic producers.The present publication brings to a culmination a four-year multi-agency effort to better understand NTMs. It will provide practical help to UNCTAD member States, particularly developing countries. Such help can strengthen their capacity to understand non-tariff measures and the potentially negative spill-over eff ects of NTMs in trade, as well as support countries in formulating and implementing sound trade and development policies and strategies.

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        Non-tariff Measures To Trade: Economic and Policy Issues for Developing Countries
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 124 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This study provides an analysis of the utilization, methods of quantification and impacts of Non-Tariff Measures (NTMs), and illustrates some aspects of NTMs and the policy responses Governments and the international community might deploy to address some of the complexities arising from their use.

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        Not Totally Naked: Textiles and Clothing Trade in a Quota Free Environment (English)
        Discussion paper by Jörg Mayer, 2004, 55 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: A very good discussion paper that deals with quota regulations and tariff protection in textiles and clothing trade focusing mainly on China. It discusses at length the effects of the implementation of the Termination of the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC). The paper uses several data and provides selected number of reference materials. Who: Relevant for anyone studying or teaching trade - quota regulations and tariff protection on textiles and clothing. How: The discussion paper can be used for a lecture or a seminar to teach the trade effects on the termination of ATC on both developed and developing countries.