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Building knowledge for trade and development

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        Pacific Alliance: An Ongoing Negotiation
        Working paper by Dorotea López; Felipe Muñoz/ University of Chile, 2013
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research

        The new integration scheme that arises in Latin America is known as the Pacific Alliance (PA). It brings together Latin American countries which economies are oriented towards trade liberalization like Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru. This article considers that this alliance is an innovative strategy focused on responding to the objectives initially defined by its members. It reviews its construction and status before presenting the specificities of the PA.

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        The Palestinian Economy in East Jerusalem: Endurin Annexation, Isolation and Disintegration (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 76 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        Overview on the political, physical and economic cghanges caused by segregation since 1967 (armistice line). The document describes the changing demographics, civil rights, industries that affected the occupied Palestinian Territory.Descripcion of the diminished social conditions, impoverishment and restricted access to public services such as education and health.

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        Pan-african Cotton Road Map: A Continental Strategy to Strengthen Regional Cotton Value Chains for Poverty Reduction and Food Security (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 30 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Competitiveness

        The subject of this report, the Pan-African Road Map, was sketched out at the June, 2011 Pan-African meeting in Cotonou that gave participants the opportunity to outline details and expectations with regards to the cotton sector. The report aims to provide a common framework at the Pan-African level that addresses the three existing strategies (in the areas of productivity, marketing and value-addition) and national and regional policies from a Pan-African perspective.

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        Paraguay: Company Perspectives – An Itc Series on Non-tariff Measures
        Policy brief by ITC, 2013, 135 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Non-tariff measures (NTMs) affect Paraguayan companies more than those in other Latin American countries, an ITC survey reveals.Of 406 exporters and importers, 62% report problems linked to burdensome NTMs, particularly testing and product certification requirements. Taxes and charges and quantity control measures are hampering regional integration in MERCOSUR. Procedural obstacles, such as inefficiencies in institutions, make export and import processes more complex. The report outlines policy recommendations to overcome the negative impacts of identified NTMs.

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        Paraguay: Company Perspectives – An Itc Series on Non-tariff Measures (English)
        Report by ITC, 2013, 135 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        According to an ITC survey, non-tariff measures (NTMs) affect Paraguayan companies more than those in other Latin American countries. This report outlines policy recommendations to overcome the negative impacts of identified burdensome NTMs, particularly testing and product certification requirements, taxes and charges, quantity control measures and procedural obstacles which make export and import processes more complex.

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        Participation Of Non-state Actors In Formulation Of Trade Policy In Vietnam (English)
        Working paper by Dao Ngoc Tien, Nguyen Quynh Huong, Nguyen Thu Hang, Ngo Chi Le, 2013, 70 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, VI Members Research

        Vietnam has laid the initial legal foundation for consultation in trade policy development. The current consultation of trade policy in Vietnam can be divided into 3 layers, based on relationships between the bodies. The core layer with frequent and effective consultation includes those currently working in state sector, including government research institutes. At the centre of this core layer is the operation of MoIT as the main ministry relating to trade policy and NCIEC as the inter-ministries coordinating agency. However, this should not be considered as the consultation as all the actors are government with different policy making authority. Expanding from this core, the second layer will includes those are former governmental officials (head of business associations) and VCCI, which has a “special” relation with government. It is a part of business-focus consultation as it only allows indirect interaction rather than direct between enterprises and government.

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        Patents and Clean Energy: Bridging the Gap Between Evidence and Policy (English)
        Report by UNEP/EPO/ICTSD, 2010, 50 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Trade and Environment

        Technology development and its rapid diffusion are considered crucial for tackling the climate change challenge. In particular, enhancing technology transfer towards developing countries has been an integral part of the global climate change regime since the inception of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The role of intellectual property rights (IPRs) in the transfer of climate change technologies has emerged as a particularly contentious issue in the past two years. Against this background, the United Nations Environment Programme(UNEP), the European Patent Office (EPO) and the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development(ICTSD) joined forces to undertake an empirical study on the role of patents in the transfer of clean energy technologies(CETs).

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        Paths to 2015: MDG Priorities in Asia and the Pacific (English)
        Report by ESCAP, ADB and UNDP, 2010, 70 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development

        Impending deadlines tend to focus the mind. Back in 2000 the year 2015, which is the target date for the Millennium Development Goals, seemed some way off. Now two thirds of the way towards the finishing line, it is beginning to look uncomfortably close. The year 2010 is therefore an appropriate point to take stock – to assess some of the likely outcomes on present trends, identify some of the weakest areas of performance,and identify priorities for action.This 2010/11 report refreshes the signals to reflect the latest information from the United Nations MDG database to assess which countries and subregions are likely to miss or achieve the Goals. But rather than addressing a new theme, this more concise report attempts to encapsulate and update the discussions and recommendations of the earlier reports. The report Paths to 2015 emphasises the inter relationships between MDGs by identifying some overall priorities and opportunities that countries can consider for achieving all the goals. Then it focuses specifically on three areas: hunger and food security; health and basic services – areas where the Asia-Pacific region as a whole appears to be falling short; and on improvement of basic infrastructure which is often neglected but is critical if the region is to achieve the MDGs.

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        Pathways to African Export Sustainability (English)
        Report by The World Bank, 2012, 140 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Enterprise Development

        African exporters suffer from low survival in international markets.Is this really the case? This report shows that the answer is “no.” When survival performance is controlled for by observable country characteristics such as—among other things—the level of income, Africa is no outlier. African exports have short life expectancies, but not any shorter than comparable countries. Beyond income levels, short export survival is largely explained by the difficult business environment in which African exporters operate. Once measures of this environment are taken into account, African countries are by no means “below the regression line” in terms of export survival. To give an overview of the report: Chapter 1 sets the stage by putting Africa’s export-survival performance into perspective and proposing a framework that will guide the interpretation of empirical evidence throughout the report. Chapter 2 covers country-level determinants of export sustainability at origin and destination, including the exporting country’s business environment. Chapter 3 explores some of the firm-level evidence on what drives export sustainability, including uncertainty, incomplete contracts, learning, and networks. Finally, chapter 4 offers tentative policy implications.

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        Peru: Company Perspectives – An ITC Series on Non-tariff Measures (English)
        Report by ITC, 2012, 134 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        A recent ITC survey of 960 Peruvian companies shows that 40% face challenges related to non-tariff measures, mostly in their major export markets in the USA, the EU and some countries in Latin America. This report outlines survey results and policy options discussed at a national roundtable in Peru in February 2012. While Peru’s exports doubled in five years, resources of specialized technical agencies have not increased accordingly. Certification and inspection have thus become a bottleneck. Information systems about NTMs need strengthening, as many issues faced particularly by small and medium-sized firms emerged from their lack of knowledge about regulations.

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        The Petroleum Industry in Zambia. A Study on Market Structure and Competition (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2011, 119 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Competition Policy

        The objective of this study is to evaluate the context, the structure and the functioning of the sector from the competition point of view. The energy sector is one of the key sectors of the Zambian economy, in particular the petroleum industry. Petroleum is the only energy source that is 100 per cent imported in Zambia. Hence, in agreement with the Competition and Consumer Protection Commission, the petroleum sector has been identified as a special sector which requires analysis.

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        Poison In The Wine? Tracing GATS-minus Commitments In Regional Trade Agreements (English)
        Working paper by Adlung, Rudolf, Miroudot, Sébastien, 2012, 25 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Commitments in regional trade agreements (RTAs) that fall short of the same countries'obligations under the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) are a relatively frequent phenomenon. However, they have gone widely unnoticed in the literature to date and drawn very little attention in relevant WTO fora either. Nevertheless, 'minus commitments' are potentially poisonous and, for various reasons, would deserve close attention. Given the broad definitional scope of the GATS, extending inter alia to commercial presence, such commitments may impinge upon the rights of third-country investors in the RTA economies. Their existence casts doubts on the legal status of the respective agreements under the GATS and can have severe implications for the trading system overall. If not complemented by comprehensive Most-favoured-Nation clauses, the RTAs concerned are disconnected from the WTO and virtually impossible to multilateralize. Based on a review of some 80,000 commitments in 66 agreements, this study seeks to develop a reasonably comprehensive picture of the frequency of 'minus commitments' and their dosage in terms of sectors, measures and modes of supply. It also discusses potential remedies from a WTO perspective.

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        Policy Alternatives in Reforming Power Utilities in Developing Countries: A Critical Survey (English)
        Discussion paper by Alberto Gabriele / UNCTAD, 2004, 25 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Competition Policy

        What: Given the importance of energy to all aspects of development, this paper examines the liberalization and privatization of energy utilities before going on to suggest some alternative policies based on the experiences of a number of countries. The paper provides short case studies of energy reforms including Chile, Brazil, Argentina, China and India. The paper also provides a number of reference materials for more in-depth reading. Who: Anyone interested in the impact of liberalization on development in particular key public utilities. How: Could be used as a key reading or the basis of a presentation on reform of the energy sector and the impact of liberalization.

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        Policy Coherence and Coordination for Trade Facilitation: Integrated Border Management, Single-Windows and Other Options for Developing Countries (English)
        Working paper by Alburo, Florian / ARTNet, 2008, 22 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation

        There is now increasing recognition of the critical importance of trade facilitation to further international commerce, accelerate growth, and enhance welfare if not alleviate poverty among trading nations. But there is also increasing appreciation that it is not just attention to the barriers and bottlenecks behind-the-border that are involved in trade facilitation (TF), it also calls for coherence between policies and regulations at the border and inside the border. It is argued here that while policy coherence and coordination are important for TF, integrated border management (IBM) and single-windows (SW) are not the only ways for achieving them. Indeed the IBM and SW may actually be the special cases given the limited experiences around. The next section highlights the difference between policy coherence for trade facilitation and the narrower issue of coordination for trade facilitation through a discussion of the relationship between domestic interests and trade. The third section looks at IBM and SW and the extent to which they reflect policy coherence and coordination. A final section considers alternative solutions to policy coherence and coordination in TF than IBM and SW.

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        Policy Guide on Entrepreneurship for Migrants and Refugees (English)
        Report by UNCTAD; IOM; UNHCR, 2018, 179 pages
        Categories: Migration and Development

        This policy guide focuses on the role of entrepreneurship in enhancing the positive effects of migration on economic growth and development. It is a practical tool aimed at strengthening the humanitarian-development nexus urged by the World Humanitarian Summit in May 2016 and the New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants adopted at the 71st United Nations General Assembly in September 2016. In order to inform policy decisions and programming, UNCTAD, IOM and UNHCR have put together their forces to provide a fact-based guide, highlighting the positive social, cultural and economic contribution that migrants and refugees can make to their home and host countries.

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        Policy Responses to the Global Financial Crisis: Key Issues for Developing Countries (English)
        Working paper by Akyüz, Yilmaz / South Centre, 2009, 34 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Macroeconomic Policy

        This working paper discusses the two types of challenges that developing and developed economies face, due to the current economic and financial crisis: First, the need for immediate policy responses, that aim at stabilizing financial markets and the economy as such, and second, the need for a fundamental reform of the international financial system. The paper discusses the constraints developing and emerging economies (DEEs) are facing in responding to deflationary and destabilizing impulses from the crisis. It proposes that the reform of the international financial architecture should concentrate on crisis prevention and crisis intervention and resolution. The discussion focuses on issues that are viewed as of particular importance for stability and growth in DEEs. This paper was produced by the South Centre to contribute to the better participation of developing countries in international negotiations.

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        Policy Space in Agricultural Markets: Policy Issues in International Trade and Commodities Research Study Series No. 73 (English)
        Report by Alain McLaren, 2016, 26 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Macroeconomic Policy, Trade and Environment

        As an outcome of the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture, all agricultural products now have a bound tariff rate on their imports. This system of bound tariffs combines the rigidity of an upper limit that is independent of future economic conditions but discretion as governments have a whole array of choices in terms of applied tariffs as long as they are set below the bound rate. One recurring argument is that bound rates may limit countries’ policy flexibility, or policy space, in response to particular economic circumstances. This paper looks at the use and availability of this policy space in agricultural markets. This is first done in a descriptive setting, then by assessing what plays a role in determining this space using an empirical analysis.

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        Policy Space to Prevent and Mitigate Financial Crises in Trade and Investment Agreements (English)
        Discussion paper by Gallagher, Kevin P., 2010, 34 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Macroeconomic Policy

        Do nations have the policy space to deploy capital controls in order to prevent and mitigate financial crises? This paper examines the extent to which measures to mitigate this crisis and prevent future crises are permissible under a variety of bilateral, regional and multilateral trade and investment agreements. It is found that the United States trade and investment agreements, and to a lesser extent the WTO, leave little room to manoeuvre when it comes to capital controls. This is the case despite the increasing economic evidence showing that certain capital controls can be useful in preventing or mitigating financial crises. It also stands in contrast with investment rules under the IMF, OECD and the treaties of most capital exporting nations which allow for at least the temporary use of capital controls as a safeguard measure. Drawing on the comparative analysis conducted in the paper, the author offers a range of policies that could be deployed to make the United States investment rules more consistent with the rules of its peers and the economic realities of the 21st century.

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        Policy Space: What, for What, and Where?, Discussion Paper No. 191 (English)
        Discussion paper by Mayer, Jörg /UNCTAD, 2008, 30 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The paper examines how developing countries can use existing policy space, and enlarge it, without opting out of international commitments. It argues that: (i) a meaningful context for policy space must extend beyond trade policy and include macroeconomic and exchange-rate policies that will achieve developmental goals more effectively; (ii) policy space depends not only on international rules but also on the impact of international market conditions and policy decisions taken in other countries on the effectiveness of national policy instruments; and (iii) international integration affects policy space through several factors that pull in opposite directions; whether it increases or reduces policy space differs by country and type of integration.

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        The Political Economy of Green Growth in India (English)
        Report by Banerjee, Payal, Sood, Atul, 2012, 20 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        This paper analyses how emerging economies like India have responded to the opposing demands of inclusive growth and more equitable development aimed at closing social divides, and explores the politics of green growth with a case study of two seemingly contradictory development trajectories: the Green Mission and the hydroelectric power (HEP) projects and dams on the river Teesta in India’s northeastern Himalayan region.

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        The Political Economy of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (English)
        Discussion paper by VanGrasstek, Graig/UNCTAD, 2016, 40 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The TransPacific Partnership (TPP) is one of two current mega-regional initiatives that could jointly be the most consequential development in the trading system since the end of the Uruguay Round in 1994. Together with the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) negotiations that are still underway between the United States and the European Union, this agreement could redefine the landscape of the international trading system. The focus of this analysis is primarily upon the TPP, but where appropriate reference is made as well to the TTIP. The principal objective of the present study is to place the TPP in its larger political and economic context, and to define — but not definitively answer the questions that arise concerning its impact on the trading system. The main focus here is on one overarching question and two subsidiary questions. The overall question addressed here is, “What implications does the TPP hold for the evolution of the international trading system?” That system incorporates not just the multilateral agreements of the WTO, but also the larger body of trade law that includes inter alia bilateral and regional RTAs, plurilateral agreements, and other treaties and institutions. The evolution of that system is of interest to all countries no matter what their levels of economic development, trade strategies, or relationship to the TPP. Both of the subsidiary questions speak to important aspects of that overarching question. The paper does not attempt to provide definitive answers to any of these questions, but will instead seek to stimulate discussion. It does so by specifying each of these questions in greater detail, discussing their significance, and providing evidence and arguments on each side of the issue.

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        Port Industry Survey on Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 66 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        The report is comprised of a survey sample which collectively handle more than 16 % of global seaborne trade and can be considered as representative. Although the majority of respondents had been impacted by weather/climate related events, including by extremes, the study revealed important gaps in terms of relevant information available to seaports of all sizes and across regions, with implications for effective climate risk assessment and adaptation planning.

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        A positive agenda for developing countries: Issues for future trade negotiations (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2000, 518 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: The “positive agenda” programme was launched with a view to assisting developing countries to build their capacity to identify their interests, formulate trade objectives and pursue those objectives in international trade negotiations. The scope of multilateral obligations, the technical complexity and sheer volume of the issues covered have placed most developing countries in a situation where participation in the system, let alone attempting to shape its future course, is almost beyond their means. This book represents a compendium of papers which are meant to assist developing countries in their efforts to shape a multilateral trading system that serves the interests of all. Who: For teachers, students and researchers focusing on WTO issues. How: The various chapters covering a number of complex WTO issues can be used for background reading for courses that cover relevant topics.

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        Possible Approaches for the Accession of Iran to WTO (English)
        Book by Fakheri, Mehdi/SIR, 2007
        Categories: VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The book has been writen for policy makers involved in the process of the Iranian accession and can be useful for other developing countries

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        Postgraduate Diploma in International Trade and Economic Diplomacy, University of Mauritius (English)
        Outline by University of Mauritius, Faculty of Social Studies and Humanities, 2004
        Categories: Trade Related Capacity Building

        An overview of the post-graduate course which includes detailed information about the content of the module.

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        Potential and Prospects for Trade and Investment Between Developing Countries and Transition Economies (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2008
        Categories: Investment, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        What: The note, prepared for the UNCTAD XII, analyses the expansion of trade between transition economies and developing countries, especially in the Commonwealth of Independent States and developing Asia. In the first part, through graphics and tables, the document points the main import and export sectors, tariffs applied and a short prospect. The second part is dedicated to Foreign Direct Investments' expansion in developing countries and transition economies and the role of Transnational Corporations (TNC). The document notes the importance of regional integration schemes and gives a prospect for South-South FDI. How: Background document on trade and FDI between developing countries and transition economies. Who: Policy makers, researchers and lecturers dealing with south-south trade and FDI.

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        Potential Impact of Proposed 2012 Farm Bill Commodity Programs on Developing Countries (English)
        Discussion paper by Babcock, Bruce / Iowa State University, Paulson, Nick / University of Illinois, 2012, 37 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        In this paper, Bruce Babcock and Nick Paulson offer an analysis of how production of key farm goods will change due to proposals on the Farm Bill. They offer insights on the development of US agricultural policy and the particularities of the current House and Senate proposals, including the proposed resolution of the Upland Cotton dispute between the US and Brazil through the Stacked Income Protection Plan.

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        The Potential Impact of the Aid for Trade Initiative (English)
        Discussion paper by Page, Sheila/UNCTAD, 2006, 54 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Trade Related Capacity Building, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: The paper analyzes the situation of the Aid for Trade initiative and gives recommendations for the actors involved. The initiative marked international acceptance of the limitations of trade as a tool for development for some countries, as they need infrastructure, institutions, technical capacity, and investment in order to trade, and to respond to liberalization. Aid for Trade as an issue in the Doha Round was driven by the need to find benefits for all countries. By the time the Round stalled, it had acquired sufficient support to go forward independently of the Round. When it was part of the negotiations, there was pressure to define a new structure for trade aid, outside normal aid mechanisms and parallel to those for other international concerns such as health or the environment. Without the need to secure developing countries’ support for a trade settlement, there is now a risk that it will be absorbed into normal aid programmes. The paper argues that to ensure that Aid for Trade reflects trade priorities and decisions made in the WTO; countries must require donors and the international financial institutions to accept priority for trade and the obligation of coherence with the WTO. How: Background information for policy-making in the area of multilateral trade. Who: Trade policy-makers, particularly from developing countries.

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        Potential Supply Chains in Textiles and Clothing Sector in South Asia. An Exploratory Study (English)
        Case study by Das, Abhijit, Banga, Rashmi, Kumar, Dinesh, Razzaque, M.A., Ratna, R.S., Moitra, Snighda, 2010, 147 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        The main objective of this study is to identify at HS six digit codes the potential supply chains that can be formed in the T&C sector (HS Chapters 50-63) within South Asia, which will enable South Asia to lower its cost of production and improve its global competitiveness. The analysis is undertaken for the four major economies of the region,namely Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The benefits of regional integration in developing potential supply chains in South Asia are also addressed.

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        The Poverty and Welfare Impacts of Climate Change Quantifying the Effects, Identifying the Adaptation Strategies (English)
        Report by The World Bank, 2012, 146 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        This report examines the effects of climate change on welfare and poverty. Chapter one describes the general implications of climate change for poverty reduction. Chapter 2 provides a forecast for poverty, by introducing heterogeneity, a microeconomic approach. Chapter 3 deals with the welfare impacts of rainfall shocks in rural Indonesia. Chapter 4 looks at the effects of wheater shocks on houshold welfare in rural Mexico, while chapter 5 deals with the climate variability and its relation to children's height in the same region.

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        Practical Considerations in Managing Trade Disputes (English)
        Note by ICTSD, 2012, 22 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This note presents the main findings and recommendations from the “South-South Dialogue on Managing Trade Disputes”, facilitated by the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD), the WTO and the Advisory Centre on WTO Law (ACWL). Aimed at identifying lessons and best-practices, the dialogue focused on developing countries’ experiences with managing disputes at the domestic level.

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        A Practical Guide to Trade Policy Analysis
        Book by UNCTAD/WTO, 2012, 236 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The book starts with the quantification of trade flows and trade policies (Chapters 1 and 2), which allows to describe, compare or follow the evolution of policies between sectors or countries or over time, and provides indispensable input into the modelling exercises presented in the following chapters. Chapter 3 presents the gravity models, which are useful for understanding the determinants and patterns of trade and for assessing the trade effects of certain trade policies, such as WTO accessions or the signing of preferential trade agreements. Chapters 4-6 cover a number of simulation methodologies (partial equilibrium, general equilibrium) which can be used to "predict" the effects of trade and trade-related policies on trade flows, welfare, and the distribution of income. The accompanying DVD contains datasets and command files allowing for hands-on practice. The book and the empirical material can also be downloaded from http://vi.unctad.org/tpa.

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        Practical Implementation of International Financial Reporting Standards: Lessons Learned (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2008, 153 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development

        Since 2005, UNCTAD’s Intergovernmental Working Group of Experts on International Standards of Accounting and Reporting (ISAR) has been deliberating on practical implementation challenges of international financial reporting standards (IFRS). The first chapter of this publication contains details of major practical implementation challenges and lessons learned from the experiences of members States that have embarked on the implementation process of IFRS. The remaining chapters, i.e., II–IX, contain country case studies of Brazil, Germany, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Pakistan, South Africa and Turkey.

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        Practical Solution for Cameroonian SMEs Financing Issue / Solutions Pratiques Au Problème De Financement Des Pme Au Cameroun (English)
        Policy brief by Christian Lambert NGUENA, 2013, 5 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Finance for Development, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Le rôle des petites et moyennes entreprises (PME) dans la lutte contre le chômage et la relance de l’activité économique n’est plus à démontrer. Le Cameroun souffre jusqu’à nos jours d’un secteur privé à plus de 90 % constitué de PME peu viables faute de financement, situation qui tend à s’accentuer avec l’avènement des crises financières. L’essor des PME demande donc la mise en oeuvre d’un mécanisme efficace pour leur financement, pierre angulaire de leur santé et de leur épanouissement. Fort de ce constat, ce policy brief, basé sur une étude, propose différentes actions que les acteurs peuvent engager pour résoudre le problème de déficit de financement dont souffrent les PME camerounaises. Ainsi : • L’État devrait développer et maintenir une politique d’assainissement et de facilitation des mécanismes de financement des PME ; • Les promoteurs des PME et entrepreneurs devraient remettre en cause et corriger leurs comportements préjudiciables à la recherche de financement ; • Et enfin les institutions financières devraient, à l’instar de l’État, faciliter le processus de financement des PME.

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        A Preliminary Analysis on Newly Collected Data on Non-tariff Measures (English)
        Working paper by Nicita, Alessandro / UNCTAD and Gourdon, Julien / World Bank, 2013, 32 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper makes use of data newly collected by UNCTAD and the World Bank to investigate the use of non-tariff measures (NTMs) in about 26 countries. The analysis is based on simple inventory methods: frequency indices and coverage ratios. The results indicate that the use of NTMs is extensive and increasing, especially with regard to technical measures.

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        Price Formation in Financialized Commodity Markets - The Role of Information (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 80 pages
        Categories: Commodities, International Financial System

        This study asserts that the role of information is crucial for price developments in commodity derivative markets. It demonstrates that the traditional approach of efficient market hypothesis (EMH)does not apply for present commodity futures markets. Trading decisions are taken in an environment of considerable uncertainty, where traders engage in "intentional herding" and do not base their transactions on information about fundamentals. This analysis also advocates several policy responses to improve market functioning such as increased transparency with respect to fundamentals, increased transparency in the exchanges and OTC markets, tighter regulation of financial players and the introduction of a transaction tax system.

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        Price Levels and Economic Growth: Making Sense of the PPP Changes Between ICP Rounds (English)
        Working paper by Ravallion, Martin/World Bank, 2010, 25 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy

        To the surprise of many observers, the 2005 International Comparison Program (ICP) found substantially higher purchasing power parity (PPP) rates, relative to market exchange rates, in most developing countries. For example, China’s price level index -- the ratio of its PPP to its exchange rate -- doubled between the 1993 and 2005 rounds of the ICP. The paper tries to explain the observed changes in PPPs. Consistently with the Balassa-Samuelson model, evidence is found of a "dynamic Penn effect," whereby more rapidly growing economies experience steeper increases in their price level index. This effect has been even stronger for initially poorer countries. Thus the widely-observed static (cross-sectional) Penn effect has been attenuated over time. On also taking account of exchange rate changes and prior participation in the ICP’s price surveys, 99 percent of the variance in the observed changes in PPPs is explicable. Using a nested test, the World Bank’s longstanding method of extrapolating PPPs between ICP rounds using inflation rates alone is out performed by the model proposed in this paper.

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        Price Volatility in Food and Agricultural Markets: Policy Responses (English)
        Report by FAO, IFAD, IMF,OECD, UNCTAD, WFP, World Bank, the WTO, IFPRI, UN HLTF, 2011, 66 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        This joint report, prepared as a result of the November 2010 G20 summit in , aims at providing options for G20 consideration on how to better mitigate and manage the risks associated with the price volatility of food and other agriculture commodities, without distorting market behaviour, ultimately to protect the most vulnerable.

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        Principio De Acumulacion De Origen En Acuerdos De Integración (English)
        Discussion paper by Gustavo Guzman, 2007
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        Análisis detallado del principio de acumulación de reglas de origen en América Latina y propuestas para su homologación en la región

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        Principles for TNC-SME cooperation: The experiences of UNILEVER (English)
        Case study by André R. van Heemstra
        Categories: Enterprise Development

        What: Based on the experiences of Unilever, this paper maintains that there are a number of pre-conditions to ensure proper delivery of mutual benefits for both TNCs and SMEs. TNCs should focus on the long-term horizon in order to bring about an appropriate balance between give and take. On the taking side, there are the profits which are often remitted to shareholders far away.. On the giving side, there are the products and services which TNCs provide, employment creation, and the transfer of skills and technology. As far as SMEs are concerned, they should display a hunger for upgrading and should be eager to pick up those activities which TNCs are prepared to shed. Who: Useful for anyone teaching and/or studying synergy between TNCs and SMEs. How: Can be used as a background reading of a TNC's experience.

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        Private-Sector Standards and National Schemes for Good Agricultural Practices: Implications for Exports of Fresh Fruit and Vegetables from Sub-Saharan Africa Experiences of Ghana, Kenya, and Uganda (English)
        Working paper by UNCTAD, 2008, 127 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment

        This study synthesizes the main findings of many country-case studies analyzing the challenges and opportunities of the new breed of private-sector standards on environmental, food-safety, health and social standards for producers and exporters of fresh fruit and vegetables of developing countries. In particular, it summarizes the situation in Africa, dwelling on country studies for Ghana, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and Zambia.

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        Proactive Intellectual Property (IP) Strategies for Local Creation of IP Assets (English)
        Presentation by Olga Spasic, 2005, 19 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Science and Technology

        What: A power point presentation on what Intellectual Property (IP) assets are and why IP assets matter? It then goes to deal with the benefits of IP assets and how it can be developed. Who: Relevant for anyone teaching or learning Intellectual Property strategies. How: Can be used for a lesson on strategies for creation of IP assets.

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        Production Methods in the WTO: Considerations for Colombian Biotrade (English)
        Working paper by Calle-Saldarriaga, Maria Alejandra, 2011, 50 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper aims to identify the role of consumers as catalysts of trade policy actions and regulations when implementing bioethical concerns embedded in process and production methods (PPMs), traditionally considered as Non Tariff Barriers and incompatible with the purpose of WTO member states obligations, especially taking the Colombian biotrade initiatives as an example.

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        Programme of the First Virtual Institute Meeting 2005 (English)
        Outline by Virtual Institute, 2005, 3 pages
        Categories: Vi Meetings

        A detailed programme of the meeting, including titles and timing for individual sessions, titles of presentations/speeches and names of speakers.

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        Promoting Access to Medical Technologies and Innovation: Intersections Between Public Health, Intellectual Property and Trade (English)
        Study by WHO, WIPO, WTO, 2012, 253 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        This joint study by the World Health Organization, the World Intellectual Property Organization and World Trade Organization examines the interplay between public health, trade and intellectual property, and how these policy domains affect medical innovation and access to medical technologies.

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        Promoting Foreign Investment in Tourism
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 78 pages
        Categories: Investment

        Tourism is a key sector for economic development: it is a fast-growing and labour-intensive industry that involves many economic activities. Available data indicate that FDI in tourism is still quite limited, and that non-equity forms of investment are more frequently used as a mode of entry for transnational corporations (TNCs). Furthermore, tourism-related FDI is concentrated in a few activities, mostly accommodation, restaurants and car rentals. There is little FDI in high-profile activities such as tour operations, reservations systems and airlines. Investment promotion agencies (IPAs) can play an important role in the development of a country’s tourism industry.

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        Promoting Green Foreign Direct Investment: Practices and Lessons from the Field (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2016, 8 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        Green technologies are becoming increasingly viable in commercial terms, making them bigger and better targets for investment promotion. UNCTAD describes green investment can be comprise of: investment in production processes with a reduced GHG impact; investment in clean energy generation; and investment in research and production facilities to manufacture GHG reducing products and provide related services. These are technology-intensive and often capital-intensive industries with technologies that are quickly evolving. In those developing countries, where green industries and practices are still nascent or non-existent, foreign companies are vital to jump-starting the low-carbon economy and should be more aggressively pursued. This note uses three case studies to extract lessons on how this can be done. It examines IPAs, including investment promotion and business development agencies from developed and emerging economies, in diverse locations and circumstances.

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        Promoting Local IT Sector Development Through Public Procurement (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 80 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        This study seeks to address the link between public procurement and local IT sector development in developing and emerging economies, and to provide decision makers with an improved basis for understanding when and how public procurement can be leveraged for the development of a vibrant IT sector. The report proposes measures to promote ICT sector development and build local ICT capacities in developing and emerging economies.

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        Promoting Low-carbon Investment (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 75 pages
        Categories: Investment, Trade and Environment

        The Investment Advisory Series provides practical advice and case studies of best policy practice for attracting and benefiting from foreign direct investment (FDI), in line with national development strategies. The Series draws on the experiences gained in, and lessons learned through, UNCTAD’s capacity and institution building work in developing countries and countries with economies in transition. This Series deals with issues related to investment promotion and facilitation and to the work of investment promotion agencies (IPAs) and other institutions that promote FDI and provide information and services to investors. The publication is intended to be pragmatic, with a how-to focus, and includes toolkits and handbooks. The prime target audience for it is practitioners in the field of investment promotion and facilitation, mainly in IPAs.

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        Promoting the Development of the South in the Trade and Climate Regimes (English)
        Note by South Centre, 2008, 13 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Trade and Environment

        This South Centre Analytical Note stresses that addressing the challenges of development and climate change requires an integrated approach. Both the trade and climate regimes have a role to play. In each case, a development perspective must guide discussions to ensure an outcome that advances the needs and aspirations of developing countries and their peoples. The shift to a low-carbon economy requires a range of measures to support developing countries, and sufficient development policy space to allow those countries to tailor approaches to their national contexts. In particular, developed countries must fulfil their existing international obligations in both the trade and climate regimes, and ensure that their development-related rhetoric is matched by the reality of their actions. This paper identifies a number of areas where developed countries are falling short in promoting development-oriented outcomes on trade and climate issues, and where further efforts should be made.

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        Promoting the Export Competitiveness of SMEs (English)
        Discussion Paper by UNCTAD, 2004, 17 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Enterprise Development

        What: This paper examines policies and actions that could help improve the export competitiveness of SMEs in developing countries. Linkages with transnational corporations deserve special attention, as these private actors are increasingly playing a leading role in world production, trade and finance. The paper summarizes possible ways for SMEs to gain access to international markets and discusses the rationality of SME export promotion through foreign direct investment and business linkages. Then it suggests policy recommendations for the various private and public stakeholders responsible for enabling SMEs to export successfully. Who: Useful for anyone teaching on export competitiveness of SMEs. How: Can be used for courses on how to strengthen SMEs export competitiveness.

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        Promotion of Investment into Infrastructure: a Survey of Investment Promotion Agencies (English)
        Note by UNCTAD - CNUCED, 2008, 25 pages
        Categories: Investment

        This note describes the results of a survey of TNCs carried out by UNCTAD and the World Association of Investment Promotion Agencies (WAIPA) to determine the extent to which investment promotion agencies (IPAs) are targeting TNCs in the infrastructure sector. The note was originally used as an input to UNCTAD's 2008 World Investment Report, and concludes that competition for foreign investment means IPAs are increasingly targeting TNCs for investment in infrastructure, especially in the sub-sectors of electricity generation and internet services.

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        Proposal Required for Obtaining Capital Resources Focused on Small and Medium Enterprises Located in the Province of Guayas by Issuing Equity Tools Throughout the Ecuadorian Stock Market. (Spanish)
        Article by Renato Garzon, Mauricio Garzon, Mao Garzon, 2016
        Categories: Commodities, Finance for Development, Investment

        The following article looks forward to develop a new proposal focused in incrementing production and export oriented activities focused on Small and Medium Enterprises (SMES) located in the province of Guayas, coastal region of the Republic of Ecuador. The proposal involves raising new capital throughout the issue of equity documents negotiated in stock markets based in Guayaquil and Quito. In order to accomplish the proposal, a group of fellow researchers obtained a sample and gathered primary market data threw individual surveys. The information obtained, helped to construct variables such as how SME finance the acquisition of fixed/productive assets, amount of earnings generated in a year basis, products and services exported to countries where the Ecuadorian Government do have a Trade Office among other variables.

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        Prospects for the WTO Hong Kong Ministerial: An Agenda for Trade and Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        A report from a seminar on July 21 2005 at at the Graduate School for International Studies in Geneva with: Paulo Mesquita Deputy Permanent Representative of Brazil to the WTO; Peter Thompson Deputy Head of Delegation, ECropean Commission, Rufus Yerxa, Deputy Director General, WTO; Tony Miller Permanent Representative of Hong Kong, China to the WTO Good background information on the status of the Doha round useful to students and teachers.

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        Prospects of the Bali Ministerial (English)
        Working paper by Dhar, Biswajit and Kishore, Roshan/ARTNeT, 2013, 22 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper looks at the possibilities of a concluding “Bali package” on the issues that are currently engaging the WTO Members. It gives an account of the discussions currently taking place on each of the three areas and makes an assessment whether it is possible for the key countries to arrive at a consensus in time for the Ministers to give their endorsement in Bali.

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        Protecting Shared Traditional Knowledge (English)
        Working paper by Muller, Manuel/ICTSD, 2013, 38 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Science and Technology, Trade and Poverty

        This paper offers some initial suggestions on how to address issues concerning the traditional knowledge (TK) of indigenous peoples, which is shared and distributed widely among communities and beyond. In a scenario where there is growing international and national interest to legally protect TK related to biodiversity, the question of how to achieve this when TK is shared is particularly complicated. Who has rights, who consents to access and use of TK, how are benefits shared and between whom, are just some of the vexing questions that must be addressed to advance and inform policymaking and the development of legal standards. The study reviews some of the legal and policy options that exist for the protection of shared and widely distributed TK.

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        Public Consultation and International Trade Policy (English)
        Discussion Paper by Centre for Trade Policy and Law, 2005, 25 pages
        Categories: VI Members Research, Trade Related Capacity Building

        This paper provides an overview of the rationale for public consultation in trade policy formulation and various methods. Canada and United States are presented as models. It is a useful for anyone interested in the relationship between domestic governance and international policy formation.

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        Public Debt and Economic Growth : Is There a Causal Effect? (English)
        Working paper by Panizza, Ugo, Panizza, Presbitero, Andrea F., 2012, 48 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy

        This paper uses an instrumental variable approach to study whether public debt has a causal effect on economic growth in a sample of OECD countries. The results are consistent with the existing literature that has found a negative correlation between debt and growth. However, the link between debt and growth disappears once we instrument debt with a variable that captures valuation effects brought about by the interaction between foreign currency debt and exchange rate volatility. We conduct a battery of robustness tests and show that our results are not affected by weak instrument problems and are robust to relaxing our exclusion restriction.

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        Public-private Collaboration for Export Success: Case Studies from Barbados, Ghana, India, Thailand and Malaysia (English)
        Report by ITC, 2011, 116 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Enterprise Development

        This guide demonstrates the value of business advocacy on trade policy issues featuring the Barbadian tourism industry, customs services in Ghana, Thailand’s automotive industry, Penang, Malaysia’s export hub for electronics, and India’s textile parks.

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