A partnership with academia

Building knowledge for trade and development

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        Quantification of non-tariff measures (English)
        Discussion paper by Bijit Bora, Aki Kuwahara, Sam Laird - UNCTAD, 2002, 47 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        What: An UNCTAD discussion paper providing an extensive review of literature regarding the classification of non-tariff measures and quantification of their effects. Contains also an example of calculating NTM incidence using the UNCTAD Trade Analysis and Information System (TRAINS) database. Who: Teachers and students of international trade/trade policy, trade data analysis and anyone interested in learning more about NTBs. How: Can be used as a kind of a manual on the issue. Provides a well-structured and comprehensive overview of NTMs (classification in section II and an explanation in the Annex), and a detailed review of various approaches towards measuring their effects (inventory approach, modelling approaches, tariff and subsidy equivalents, trade restrictiveness index, effective protection). Particularly useful is an extensive list of references featuring main papers dealing with the issue.

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        Quantification of the High Level of Endogeneity and of Structural Regime Shifts in Commodity Markets (English)
        Discussion paper by Filimonov,Vladimir; Bicchetti, David; Maystre, Nicolas; Sornette ,Didier, 2013, 46 pages
        Categories: Commodities, International Financial System

        This paper proposes a “reflexivity” index that quantifies the relative importance of short-term endogeneity/reflexivity for several commodity futures markets (corn, oil, soybeans, sugar, and wheat) and a benchmark equity futures market. The authors use a reflexivity index that is defined as the average ratio of the number of price moves that are due to endogenous interactions to the total number of all price changes, which also include exogenous events. Estimated reflexivity levels are obtained by calibrating the Hawkes self-excited conditional Poisson model on time series of price changes. The Hawkes model accounts simultaneously for the co-existence and interplay between the exogenous impact of news and the endogenous mechanism by which past price changes may influence future price changes. Robustness tests show that the index provides a ‘pure’ measure of endogeneity that is independent of the rate of activity, order size, volume or volatility. The authors find an overall increase of the reflexivity index since the middle of the first decade of the 21st century to October 2012, which implies that, on a monthly basis, at least 60–70 per cent of commodity price changes are now due to self-generated activities rather than novel information, compared to 20–30 per cent earlier. While their reflexivity index is defined on short-time windows (10 minutes) and thus does not capture long-term memory, they discover striking coincidence between its dynamics and that of the price hikes and abrupt falls that developed since 2006 and culminated in early 2009.

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        R&D in the Network of International Trade: Multilateral Versus Regional Trade Agreements (English)
        Working paper by Teteryatnikova, Mariya / European University Institute, 2008, 34 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Science and Technology

        This paper argues that different types of trade liberalization - multilateral versus regional - may lead to different R&D and productivity levels of firms. Trade agreements between countries are modelled with a network: nodes represent countries and a link between the nodes indicates the existence of a trade agreement. In this framework, the multilateral trade agreement is represented by the complete network while the overlap of regional trade agreements is represented by the hub-and-spoke trade system. Trade liberalization, which increases the network of trade agreements, reinforces the incentives for firms to invest in R&D through the creation of new markets (scale effect) but it may also dampen these incentives through the emergence of new competitors (competition effect). The joint action of these two effects within the multilateral and the regional trade systems gives rise to the result that, for the same number of direct trade partners, the R&D effort of a country in the multilateral agreement is lower than the R&D effort of a hub but higher than the R&D effort of a spoke. This suggests that a “core” country within the regional trade system has higher R&D and productivity level than a country with the same number of trade agreements within the multilateral system whereas the opposite is true for a “periphery” country. Additionally, the paper finds that while multilateral trade liberalization boosts productivity of all countries, regional trade liberalization increases productivity of core economies but may decrease productivity of periphery economies if the level of competition in the new trade partner countries of the periphery economy is “too high”. Furthermore, the aggregate level of R&D activities within the multilateral trade agreement exceeds that in the star - the simplest representative of the hub-and-spoke trade system.

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        R&D-related FDI in developing countries - Implications for host countries (English)
        Presentation by Prasada Reddy, 2005, 11 pages
        Categories: Investment, Science and Technology

        What: The paper categorizes R&D activities and then outlines the historical evolution of the internationalization of R&D. It describes the implications for host countries in the developing world. Finally it deals with the spill over effects of globalization of R&D. Who: Relevant for anyone studying or teaching FDI and globalization of innovation. How: Can be used as a background reading for a course on FDI and globalization of innovation. The paper also offers a lot of relevant reference materials.

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        Rebalancing the Supply Chain (English)
        Study by South Centre; Traidcraft, 2008, 17 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Competition Policy

        This paper is an attempt to explore the extent to which competition policy can be used to address problems caused by corporate concentration and the exercise of 'buyer power' in agricultural commodity markets. It assesses the conceptual and practical opportunities of current competition policy to tackle this phenomenon and also highlights its limitations.

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        A re-examination of the architecture of the international economic system in a global setting: issues and proposals (English)
        Discussion paper by Sakbani, Michael / UNCTAD, 2006, 32 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, International Financial System

        The globalization of the world economy poses major challenges to the prevailing international economic system. The recent trade-investment system raises the issues of the marginalization of countries, firms, and agents if they are not capable to compete with large successful entities. The system engenders conflicts of interest in its interfacing with sovereign domains. In numerous cases such as employment and mutual trade benefits, it can produce zero sum outcomes. Consequently, significant segments of public opinion in many countries have mobilized against it. In the monetary and financial area, the system has from 1945 evolved on a piecemeal and ad hoc basis. In recent years, it has not been able to predict, prevent or effectively deal with financial crisis. It demonstrates a lacuna in global financial governance especially with respect to enforcing its rules on the major countries and bringing the private sector therein. The central institution, the IMF, is shown to be in need of basic reforms involving forging a global vision, reconsidering and updating conditionality, further democratization of political governance, and revamping the exchange rates and surveillance functions.

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        Reform of Investor-state Dispute Settlement: In Search of a Roadmap (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2013, 12 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law

        This issues note by the UNCTAD secretariat outlines five paths for reform of the investor-State dispute settlement (ISDS) regime, which is plagued by concerns related to perceived deficit of legitimacy and transparency; contradictions between arbitral awards; difficulties in correcting erroneous arbitral decisions; questions about the independence and impartiality of arbitrators, and costs and time of arbitral procedures.

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        Regional Approaches in Central Asia to Technical Barriers to Trade (English)
        Case study by UNESCAP, 2008, 55 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The aim of the study is to identify key SPS and TBT issues in the Central Asian Subregion and suggest options for regional approaches to address these issues. Countries included in the study are Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. The study provides a brief overview of the present status of SPS and TBT capacity and identifies key issues for enterprises – including SMEs – and Governments in Central Asia. In the light of good practices at the national and regional level for facilitating effective WTO compliance and taking advantage of WTO rights related to technical barriers to trade both in Central Asia and elsewhere, options are discussed as to how ESCAP can use its comparative advantage to facilitate regional approaches to address the key issues.

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        Regional Arrangements To Support Growth And Macro-policy Coordination In Mercosur (English)
        Discussion paper by Fanelli, José María /UNCTAD, 2007, 42 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Macroeconomic Policy, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        The main goal of the paper is to discuss the problem of macroeconomic policy coordination in MERCOSUR and how it could contribute to sustaining growth. In the first part, the paper reviews the macroeconomic situation of MERCOSUR, emphasizing the role of the developments that followed the regime change in Brazil in 1999 and in other member countries afterwards. The second part analyses the characteristics of macroeconomic fluctuations in the region. The last section addresses what member countries can do to support growth, macro-policy coordination, and financial integration.

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        Regional Cooperation and Integration in Sub-Saharan Africa (English)
        Discussion paper by Metzger, Martina/UNCTAD, 2008, 42 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        Africa has a long tradition of regional cooperation, its trade and monetary integration schemes being the oldest in the developing world. This paper analyses the state of regional integration with respect to trade and financial relations in selected regional schemes in Central, Southern and West Africa. The paper concludes that in particular regional monetary integration offers advantages in terms of monetary stability, growth, competitiveness, deepening of financial markets and ownership compared with an indiscriminately integration of individual countries into the global economy. Thus, great significance must attached to cooperation between Member States. Although trade and financial integration can be mutually enforcing, a minimum level of regional activities is required to set this process in motion. Until the necessary threshold is achieved, Member States have a vital role in organizing and delivering regional activities, e.g. the development of bond markets or the promotion of production networks.

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        Regional Integration and Non-Tariff Measures in the Economic Community of West African States (Ecowas) (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 49 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This study provides an institutional overview of NTMs and an assessment of its impacts on regional integration in West Africa. It is part of a global initiative titled the “Global Transparency in Trade Initiative” jointly implemented by the Bank, UNCTAD, ITC and the World Bank to improve transparency in and access to trade data. ECOWAS was the first region in Africa in which the partners systematically mapped, collected, organized and analyzed all NTM data, including non-tariff barriers and behind-the-border regulations such as SPS measures and TBTs. The report utilizes innovative methods to assess regulatory convergence and evaluate the impact of NTMs from an economic, legal and institutional perspective. From the analysis, clear policy recommendations are identified for policy makers in ECOWAS and their development partners.

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        Regional Integration, Growth and Concentration (English)
        Working paper by Dirk Willem Te Velde/ODI, 2007, 61 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This study aims to examine the circumstances under which different types of regional integration leads to convergence and growth, and how such integration could best be fostered. It will cover regions across the world, but the empirics will focus on developing country regions and Africa in particular.

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        Regional Integration in South Asia: What Role for Trade Facilitation? (English)
        Working paper by Wilson, John S.; Otsuki, Tsunehiro /World Bank, 2007, 37 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Facilitation

        The trade performance of countries in South Asia over the past two decades has been poor relative to other regions. Exports from South Asia have doubled over the past 20 years to approximately USD 100 billion. In contrast, East Asia's exports grew ten times over the same period. The low level of intraregional trade has contributed to weak export performance in South Asia. The empirical analysis in this paper demonstrates gains to trade in the region from reform and capacity building in trade facilitation at the regional level. When considering intraregional trade, if countries in South Asia raise capacity halfway to East Asia's average, trade is estimated to rise by USD 2.6 billion. This is approximately 60 percent of the total intraregional trade in South Asia. Countries in the region also have a stake in the success of efforts to promote capacity building outside its borders. If South Asia and the rest of the world were to raise their levels of trade facilitation halfway to the East Asian average, the gains to the region would be estimated at USD 36 billion. Out of those gains, about 87 percent of the total would be generated from South Asia's own efforts (leaving the rest of the world unchanged). In summary, we find that the South Asian region's expansion of trade can be substantially advanced with programs of concrete action to address barriers to trade facilitation to advance regional goals.

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        Regionalism and Trade Facilitation: a Primer (English)
        Working paper by Maur, Jean-Christophe / World Bank, 2008, 40 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Facilitation

        This paper investigates when trade facilitation reform should be undertaken at the regional level. First, looking at both efficiency and implementation considerations, it confirms the perception that the regional dimension matters. Investigating where efficiency gains can be made, this research explains why national markets alone fail to produce the full scale economies and positive externalities of trade facilitation reform. Second, because trade facilitation policies need to address coordination and capacity failures, and because of the operational complexity challenge, the choice of the adequate platform for delivering reform is crucial. The lessons are that regional trade agreements offer good prospects of comprehensive and effective reform and can effectively complement multilateral and national initiatives. However, examples of implementation of trade facilitation reform in regional agreements do not seem to indicate that regional integration approaches have been more successful than trade facilitation through specific cooperation agreements or other efforts, multilateral or unilateral. Customs unions may be an exception here, and the author suggests reasons why this could be the case.

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        Regional Monetary Cooperation and Growth-enhancing Policies: the New Challenges for Latin America and the Caribbean (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2011, 84 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Macroeconomic Policy, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        Using the SUCRE initiative as a starting point, this study aims at raising awareness and building consensus on the issue of regional monetary cooperation and its links to growth and development.

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        Regional Trade Agreements example: the UK and the EU (English)
        Summary by Virtual Institute, UNCTAD, 2005
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        This is a working document giving an example of some of the key issues involved, on a national level, regarding membership in an RTA. The purpose of this example is to provide a "model" for other national examples so that we can compile a series of Factsheets on different RTAs and their relationships with national and international policies.

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        Regional Trade Agreements Template (English)
        Outline by Virtual Institute, UNCTAD, 2005
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        A loose template to use in developing collaborative teaching materials on Regional Trade Agreements. Can be used for compiling information about RTAs that our countries are involved in.

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        Regional Trade Integrations: A Comparative Study - The Cases of GAFTA, COMESA, and SAPTA/SAFTA (English)
        Case study by Awad, Talib; Bakir, Amir; Mehra, Meeta Keswani; Pant, Manoj; Rojid, Sawkut; Sannassee, Vinesh; Seetanah, Boopen; Suraj, Fowdar, 2008, 92 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research

        The study analyzes and compares three regional integration schemes in terms of their impact on intra-regional trade: the Great Arab Free Trade Area (GAFTA), the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), and the South Asia Preferential Trade Agreement (SAPTA). Using revealed comparative advantage and regression analyses, the study finds that there is very limited potential for intra-regional trade within each of the three regions; that there was no substitution effect of the trade agreements between intra-regional trade and trade with the rest of the world; that there was not much trade created by the agreements; and that intra trade was characterized by a high level of geographical concentration, mainly among neighboring countries. A number of obstacles to trade are identified, which are somewhat similar across regions. Finally, policy recommendations are given to tackle these obstacles, which stem from political, economic, administrative, tariff and non-tariff, transportation and external factors. The study will be useful for scholars with an interst in the effectiveness of regional trade agreements, particularly in the three compared regions and might provide useful illustrations for relevant economics classes.

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        Regulatory Cooperation, Aid for Trade and the General Agreement on Trade in Services (English)
        Working paper by Hoekman, Bernard; Mattoo, Aaditya /World Bank, 2007, 28 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper discusses what could be done to expand services trade and investment through a multilateral agreement in the World Trade Organization. A distinction is made between market access liberalization and the regulatory preconditions for benefiting from market opening. The authors argue that prospects for multilateral services liberalization would be enhanced by making national treatment the objective of World Trade Organization services negotiations, thereby clarifying the scope of World Trade Organization commitments for regulators. Moreover, liberalization by smaller and poorer members of the World Trade Organization would be facilitated by complementary actions to strengthen regulatory capacity. If pursued as part of the operationalization of the World Trade Organization's 2006 Aid for Trade taskforce report, the World Trade Organization could become more relevant in promoting not just services liberalization but, more importantly, domestic reforms of services policies.

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        Regulatory Design and Competition Policy Implementation (CCD Report, Ch.2) (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 60 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy

        What: An in-depth study of competition policy implementation through the analysis of some sample sectors of the economy in Brazil and in Latin America. It looks at the impact of regulatory design on competitiveness and at specific policies that could be designed according to specific industries Includes case studies on sample sectors in Brazil and on the Latin America beer sector

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        A Regulação Do Comércio Internacional Agrícola: Histórico E Perspectivas
        Discussion paper by Machado Oliveira, Ivan Tiago, 2011, 36 pages
        Categories: VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper analyzes the multilateral regulation of international trade in agriculture from the GATT/1947 to the Doha Round, under the auspices of the WTO. From a historical-analytical perspective, the international context in which the multilateral system has been built is presented taking into account how the agricultural agenda has been introduced in the system. Furthermore, the conflicts and negotiations among developing and developed countries are analyzed in order to observe the relationship between international agricultural trade and economic development. Finally, we discuss the current round of multilateral negotiations, the Doha Round, and its relevance for developing countries, focusing on agricultural negotiations, considered the center of the multilateral negotiating process. Este texto analisa a regulação multilateral do comércio internacional agrícola desde o GATT/1947 até a Rodada Doha, já sob os auspícios da OMC. Sob uma ótica históricoanalítica, faz-se uma apresentação do contexto internacional no qual o sistema multilateral foi construído e identificam-se as interações entre a formação do sistema e a inserção da temática agrícola nas regras multilaterais no pós-Segunda Guerra Mundial. Ademais, uma análise das lógicas de conflitos e negociação entre os países em desenvolvimento e os desenvolvidos é apresentada no sentido de se observar a relação entre o comércio internacional agrícola e o desenvolvimento econômico. Por fim, são realizadas análises sobre a atual rodada de negociações multilaterais, a Rodada Doha, e sua relevância na ótica dos países em desenvolvimento, tendo em vista as negociações agrícolas, colocadas no centro do processo negociador multilateral.

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        The Renaissance of China and India: Implications for the Advanced Economies (English)
        Discussion paper by Rowthorn, Robert, 2006, 32 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation

        Using simple convergence equations, this paper projects that by mid-century per capita incomes in China and India will on average be about half the US level. In terms of total production, both countries should overtake the USA by 2050. Such developments will affect the advanced economies through several channels. The terms of trade of these economies will deteriorate as labour intensive imports, such as clothing or holidays, become more expensive when ultra-cheap supplies from China (and later India) dry up. Resource-based imports may also become more expensive in response to rising demand from China and India. Orders of magnitude suggest that such terms of trade losses may be fairly easy to absorb if they are spread over many years. On the positive side, as China and India develop they will become major innovators in their own right and the advanced countries will benefit by importing technology from them. The development of China and India may also affect the internal distribution of income within the advanced economies. If transnational corporations can earn higher profits by moving production to China and India they may use this as a credible threat to extract concessions from their existing workers in the advanced economies. An appendix to the paper presents a simple mathematical model and some numerical examples that inform the discussion in the text.

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        Renewable Energy Technologies for Rural Development
        Study by Johnson, Oliver; Watson, Jim / University of Sussex; Wu, Dong /UNCTAD, 2010, 41 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology

        The paper provides an overview of some of the issues surrounding the use of renewable energy technologies (RETs) to increase access to modern energy services in rural areas. This paper reviews current international commitments to RET use and rural development and examine the literature connecting RETs with rural development; it looks at RET options and some potential benefits and challenges to deploying them; it investigates, using a number of case studies, how RETs have been used to promote rural development and how innovative project/programme design can help overcome some of the barriers inherent to RET deployment in the market. The last chapter presents conclusions and recommendations.

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        Report of the Commission of Experts of the President of the United Nations General Assembly on Reforms of the International Monetary and Financial System (Stiglitz Report) (English)
        Report by United Nations, 2009, 140 pages
        Categories: International Financial System

        The essential insight of the report is that our multiple crises are not the result of a failure or failures of the system. Rather, the system itself – its organization and principles, and its distorted and flawed institutional mechanisms – is the cause of many these failures. The major focus of this report is on short-term measures and the longer-term reforms of the international financial system that support the developing countries and their aspirations for development. This report thus calls for a substantial increase in resources available to developing countries, not just to undertake stimulus measures, but to cope with the negative impact of the crisis.

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        Report of the Expert Meeting on Definitions and Dimensions of Environmental Goods and Services in Trade and Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, Trade and Development Board, 2003, 20 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        What: This meeting report outlines experts' view on benefits and risks of liberalization of environmental goods and services (EGS) but gives also a good overview of the environmental industry. Discusses advantages and disadvantages of public/private providers, e.g. in water and waste management. Who: Background reading for students and lecturers interested in a summary of experts' opinions on the liberalization process of environmental goods and services as well as background information such as EGS and technology, specific constraints in developing countries, weaknesses of the GATS agreement with regard to EGS etc. The paper offers recommendations for actions at national/international level and UNCTAD's role can be used as starting point for further discussion.

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        Report of the First Virtual Institute Meeting 2005 (English)
        Report by Virtual Institute, 2005
        Categories: Vi Meetings

        An account of the objectives of the meeting and the activities that members undertook during the meeting (networking, knowledge building and action planning). Shows how Vi member universities moved ahead in their understanding of the role of the network, getting to know one another and committing themselves to working together in areas of common interest in the coming year. Contains a number of examples of teaching and research activities in member universities, including the challenges faced in their implementation, and information about topical areas of trade research.

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        Report on the Implementation of the Investment Policy Review - United Republic of Tanzania (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 58 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This report is a review of the progress made in implementing the Investment Policy Review of the United Republic of Tanzania (IPR), published in 2002. The report notes that there has been a great deal of activity related to improving the investment climate in the United Republic of Tanzania since the completion of the IPR. However, progress implementing the recommendations has ben mixed.

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        Responding to the Challenges Posed by the Global Economic Crisis to Debt and Development Finance
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 120 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, International Financial System

        This report is submitted to the General Assembly in accordance with paragraph 4 of Assembly resolution. It includes a comprehensive analysis of the external debt situation and debt-servicing problems of developing countries and transition economies. It aims to describe new developments and key trends in external debt and related areas of development finance and to provide a basis for deliberation of related policy issues.

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        Responsible Sovereign Lending and Borrowing (English)
        Discussion paper by Buchheit, Lee C., Gulati, G. Mitu/ UNCTAD, 2010, 32 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development

        There are three reasons for attempting to reach a common understanding of the responsibilities of sovereign borrowers and their lenders. First, the flow of capital to sovereign debtors is exceptionally important to the world economy. Second, sovereign finance is uniquely unforgiving of mistakes. Third, the human cost of prodigal sovereign borrowing, reckless sovereign lending or incompetent sovereign debt restructuring is incalculable. This paper shows that a consensus about the responsibilities of sovereign borrowers and lenders, together with improvements in the way in which sovereign loans are planned, executed, documented and, when necessary, restructured, will directly affect the lives of most of the people that live on this planet.

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        Restoring Trade Finance During A Period Of Financial Crisis : Stock-taking Of Recent Initiatives (English)
        Working paper by Auboin, Marc, 2009, 25 pages
        Categories: International Financial System

        While a number of public-institutions mobilized financial resources for trade finance in the fall of 2008, this has not been enough to bridge the gap between supply and demand of trade finance worldwide. As the market situation continued to deteriorate in the first quarter of 2009, G-20 leaders in London (April 2009) adopted a wider package for injecting additional liquidity and bringing public guarantees in support of $250 billion of trade transactions in 2009 and 2010. Ahead of the Pittsburgh Meetings, experts reported that more than the targeted amount had been mobilized. In the meantime, through the summer and the fall of 2009, the market situation seemed to have eased – although in many countries, access to trade finance by the smaller traders had become either significantly more expensive or had simply disappeared. One can expect the trade finance market to have its up and downs for some time, because lending for trade is a function of the general lending situation of commercial banks. The paper discusses longer-term initiatives aimed at improving the resilience of the trade finance market to short-term and longer-term shocks.

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        Rethinking Development Strategies After the Financial Crisis, Volume Ii: Countries Studies and International Comparisons (English)
        Report by Alfredo Calcagno, Sebastian Dullien, Alejandro Márquez-Velázquez, Nicolas Maystre, Jan Priewe (ed), 2016, 105 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Theoretical thinking on economic development largely relies on comparative analysis. In particular, it explores the reasons why some countries or regions have performed better than others in the long run. Essays in Volume II of this publication contribute to this approach, as well as examining why the performance in a given country or group of countries has improved or deteriorated in the long-term depending on changing development strategies.

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        Rethinking Development Strategies After the Financial Crisis, Volume I: Making the Case for Policy Space
        Book by Alfredo Calcagno, Sebastian Dullien, Alejandro Márquez-Velázquez, Nicolas Maystre, Jan Priewe (ed), 2015, 118 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy

        The global financial crisis in 2008 marked a starting point for a comprehensive rethinking of economic theories and policies, reinforcing the importance of implementing strategies for development as opposed to leaving the economy to market forces. In this context, this publication explores the nature and consequences of the crisis, as well as the diversity of economic and social development among developing countries, and looks at the reasons behind the recent improvement in developing countries' performances and its potential for continuation after the financial crisis.

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        Rethinking Industrial Policy (English)
        Discussion paper by Ul Haque, Ifran, 2007, 20 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness

        What: The context for the design of industrial policy has profoundly changed as a result of new rules governing international trade, the rise of global value chains and marketing networks, and other aspects of globalization. Traditionally, the case for industrial policy has been framed in terms of “market failures” but the paper argues that that is not a sufficient basis. After addressing the traditional points of criticism, an attempt is made to outline the “domains” of industrial policy in the current circumstances, especially for industrially lagging countries. As country contexts differ widely there are no satisfactory blueprints for policy making that countries can readily adopt. As in production decisions, considerable ingenuity and innovation is needed in designing policies. This is all the more necessary as the WTO rules have become increasingly stringent and the rise of international trading networks has created new barriers for young firms to enter the world market. These developments have changed the context but not the importance of policy in industrial development. The paper identifies areas where government intervention is needed and can still make a positive difference. How: Background reading to get a quick introduction in industrial policies for developing countries. Who: Researchers interested in getting to know the field of industrial policies.

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        Rethinking Maritime Cabotage for Improved Connectivity (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 42 pages
        Categories: Trade Related Capacity Building

        This report analyses and discusses various considerations relating to maritime cabotage and the ways in which these can influence the liner shipping connectivity of developing countries, to assist policy makers in identifying and analysing relevant options that could help leverage maritime cabotage in support of enhanced liner connectivity levels.

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        Rethinking Pro-growth Monetary Policy in Africa: Monetarist Versus Keynesian Approach / Repenser La Politique Monétaire Pour La Croissance En Afrique: Approche Monétariste Versus Keynesienne (English)
        Policy brief by Christian Lambert NGUENA, 2013, 8 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, VI Members Research

        The relative positive economic growth experienced by most African countries in the recent decade has come with insufficient demand stimulation. The concern of poverty at the forefront of economic policy, the need for inclusive growth and sustainable development, inter alia, brings forward the inevitable question of the monetary policy responsibility. Accordingly, the monetarist theory that focuses on price stability inherently neglects the demand stimulation aspect of economic prosperity. Since the mid 1980s, the monetarist school driven by its central aim of fighting inflation and maintaining credibility in markets and economic agents has been priority for monetary authorities (especially in Africa). To this effect, while good results in terms of inflation targeting has been achieved in many African countries; economic growth has sometimes been low. Hence, in light of the above, using a statistical and theoretical debate method, the Credible Monetary Policy (CMP)1 paradox is traceable to Africa. Accordingly, with the promising economic environment in Africa, we recommend the promotion of a monetary policy oriented toward improving economic growth under the constraint of price stability. In light of the above view, there are some note worthy signs such the recent decision by the two CFA zone central banks to either maintain interest rates at a low level or reduce it despite tightening measures of monetary policy taken by the European Central Bank (ECB) earlier in the year. In the same vein, the central bank of South Africa has maintained its policy of low interest rates with an objective of economic expansion. Since, the 2008 financial crisis, the consolidation of the Federal Reserve’s declared final objective of lowering interest rates and making emergency loans is an eloquent example to reassure African central banks in the choice of the pro-growth monetary policy option.

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        Revealed Factor Intensity Indices at the Product Level
        Study by UNCTAD, 2010, 59 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The process of export diversification has long been a major research issue in international economics. In recent years, there has been renewed interest in the nature and the process of export diversification. This study aims to provide a tool to fill the gap between traditional, theory-based approaches and newer eclectic ones by developing a time-series database of the indices of revealed factor intensity (RFI) of export products, using a wealth of raw data accumulated in the last two decades.

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        Review of Analytical Tools for Assessing Trade and Climate Change Linkages
        Working paper by Truong, Truong P./ ARTNeT, 2010, 35 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        This paper briefly refers to the essential elements underlying the theoretical linkages between trade, economic development, and climate change, and reviews the analytical tools which are used to describe these linkages. The author looks specifically at a particular type of analytical tool called computable general equilibrium (CGE) models, and considers their strengths and limitations when used as a tool for the analysis of these trade and climate change linkages. The paper finds that the tool have been more useful than ‘misused’, and this explains for the popularity of its use in the past.

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        Review of developments and issues in the post-Doha work programme of concern to developing countries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005, 18 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: A concise update of the state of WTO negotiations following the July package and in preparation of the Hong Kong ministerial, focusing on the interests of developing countries. An overview of the broader context of negotiations, including the recommendations of the Commission for Africa and the G8 Summit at Gleneagles. Brief discussion of the adjustment support to developing countries to accompany trade liberalization. Explanations of issues at stake and details of negotiated proposals in specific areas, such as agriculture (including cotton), NAMA, services, SDT, commodities, trade facilitation, rules, TRIPS, and dispute settlement. Well documented with figures assessing the impact of different policy measures and options. Argues for the need to realize an equitable and fair deal in negotiations for developing countries. Who: University teachers/researchers and students of advanced trade policy courses. Anyone who follows closely the ongoing WTO negotiations. How: The paper offers a detailed technical explanation of different issues related to the DDR WTO negotiations and pre-supposes that the users have the necessary basic background knowledge of these negotiations and master the terms used in them. Very informative and suitable for users with advanced knowledge of the subject matter.

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        Review of Maritime Transport 2005 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Secretariat, 2005, 144 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation

        What: A report on the main issues in maritime transport: international seaborne trade, world shipping markets, trade and freight markets, port development, trade and transport efficiency. Who: For teacher and researcher interested in the transport facilitation issues particularly maritime transport How: Detailed analysis with up-to-date data and case study on Asia (chapter 7).

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        Review of Maritime Transport 2007 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2007, 167 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation

        The latest edition of this publication provides statistical information on international trade and transport, particularly maritime transport and related services. In addition to information on the world fleet, ports, trade and freight markets, this year's review also contains special chapters on legal and regulatory developments, and on Asia . The review should be of interest to researchers and lecturers dealing with economic or legal issues of maritime transport, not only due to the large amount of data provided, but also for its analysis of regulatory developments and other relevant developments in the field of transport and supply chain security.

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        Review of Maritime Transport 2009
        Report by UNCTAD, 2009, 219 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation

        Description: The year 2008 marked a major turning point in the history of the world economy and trade. Growth in the world economy slowed abruptly in the last part of 2008, with the deepening of the global financial crisis. Growth in developing economies and countries with economies in transition has turned out to be less resilient than expected. In tandem with the global economic downturn and reduced trade, growth in international seaborne trade decelerated in 2008, expanding by 3.6 per cent as compared with 4.5 per cent in 2007. The volume of international seaborne trade in 2008 was estimated as 8.17 billion tons reflection a sharp decline in demand for consumption goods, as well as a fall in industrial production in major economies and reduced energy demand, the deceleration in seaborne volumes affected all shipping sectors. Existing forecasts suggest that the outlook for seaborne trade is uncertain and that some challenging times lie ahead for shipping and international seaborne trade. These challenges are further compounded by other developments, including maritime security at sea and the need to address the climate change challenge.

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        Review of Maritime Transport 2010 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 213 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, International Economic Law

        The Review of Maritime Transport is a recurrent publication prepared by the UNCTAD secretariat since 1968 with the aim of fostering the transparency of maritime markets and analysing relevant developments. It is divided into seven chapters. The first chapter "Development in International Seaborne Trade" reviews the overall performance of the global economy in 2009, considers developments in world seaborne trade volumes and highlights some emerging global challenges which are affecting maritime transport. It also looks more closely at developments affecting energy-related bulk cargoes, namely oil, gas and coal. The second chapter "Structure, Ownership and Registration of the World Fleet" presents the supply-side dynamics of the world maritime industry. The third chapter "Productivity of the World Fleet, and Supply and Demand in World Shipping" provides information on the operational productivity of the world fleet and an analysis of the balance between supply and demand for tonnage and container-carrying capacity. Chapter four "Freight Rates" covers freight rates in the tanker market, the major dry bulk cargo markets and the liner shipping market. Each section contains information on recent developments in that area, followed by an analysis of how freight rates have performed over the course of 2009 and into 2010. Chapter five "Port and Multimodal Trasport Developments" covers some of the major port development projects under way in developing countries, container throughput, liner shipping connectivity, improvements in port performance, and multimodal transportation in the areas of road, rail, and inland waterways. The sixth chapter "Legal Issues and Regulatory Developments" provides information on some important legal issues and recent regulatory developments in the fields of transport and trade facilitation, together with information on the status of ratification of some of the main maritime conventions. The last chapter "Review of Regional Developments in Asia and the Pacific" follows up on the developments in international transport and trade in the Asia-Pacific region reported in the Review of Maritime Transport 2007. It examines regional developments from 2007 to 2009, and gives special consideration to landlocked developing countries in the region.

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        The Review of Maritime Transport 2011
        Review by UNCTAD, 2011, 233 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation

        This annual report closely monitors developments affecting world seaborne trade, freight rates, ports, surface transport and logistics services, as well as trends in ship ownership and control and fleet age, tonnage supply and productivity. In addition, the RMT contains a chapter on legal and regulatory developments and a special chapter analysing the participation of developing countries in different maritime businesses.

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        Review of Maritime Transport 2013
        Review by UNCTAD, 2013, 204 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Globalization and Development Strategies

        The 2013 edition of the Review of Maritime Transport estimates global seaborne trade to have increased by 4.3 per cent, with the total reaching over 9 billion tons in 2012 for the first time ever. Driven in particular by growing domestic demand in China and increased intra-Asian and South-South trade, seaborne trade nevertheless remains subject to persistent downside risks facing the world economy and trade. Freight rates have remained low and volatile in the various market segments (container, liquid and dry bulk).The Review proposes a new paradigm for transit based on a conveyor-belt concept, which aims at achieving a continuous supply of transit transport services, supported by institutional frameworks and infrastructure. The argument proposed here is that a regular, reliable and secure transit system is the simple, straightforward goal to pursue in order to guarantee access for landlocked developing countries to global shipping networks on the basis of non-penalizing conditions. Given the review of the Almaty Programme of Action that is to take place in 2014, this proposal could be part of the actions within a new agenda for landlocked and transit developing countries

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        Review of Maritime Transport 2014: Special Chapter on Small Island Developing States
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 136 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation

        The Review of Maritime Transport provides an analysis of structural and cyclical changes affecting seaborne trade, ports and shipping, as well as an extensive collection of statistical information. The 2014 edition provides data and insights on the issue of seaborne trade, the world fleet, freight rates, seaports and the legal and regulatory developments.

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        Review of Maritime Transport 2015 (English)
        Also available in Russian, Chinese
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 122 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Facilitation

        The Review of Maritime Transport aims to foster the transparency of maritime markets and analyzes relevant developments. The year 2015 is a milestone for sustainable development. The international community has a unique opportunity to strengthen its commitment to sustainable development and consider how best to mainstream sustainability principles across all economic activities and sectors, including maritime transport. In this context, in addition to the review of key economic and legal developments, the present edition of the Review of Maritime Transport highlights some issues that are at the interface of maritime transport and sustainability.

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        Review of Maritime Transport 2016 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 118 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Facilitation

        The 2016 Review of Maritime Transport discusses long-term growth prospects for seaborne trade and maritime business. It argues these prospects are positive and that there are ample opportunities for developing countries to generate income and employment and help promote foreign trade.

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        Review of Maritime Transport 2017 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 130 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The Review of Maritime Transport 2017 presents key developments in the world economy and international trade and related impacts on shipping demand and supply, and freight and charter markets in 2016 and early 2017, as well as seaports and the regulatory and legal framework. In addition, this year’s Review features a special chapter on maritime transport connectivity, reflecting the prominence of physical and electronic connectivity as a priority area in the trade and development policy agenda.

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        Review of Maritime Transport 2018 - 50th Anniversary Edition (1968-2018) (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 116 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Maritime transport is the backbone of international trade and the global economy. Around 80 per cent of global trade by volume and over 70 per cent of global trade by value are carried by sea and are handled by ports worldwide. Global seaborne trade is doing well, supported by the 2017 upswing in the world economy. Expanding at 4 per cent, the fastest growth in five years, global maritime trade gathered momentum and raised sentiment in the shipping industry. While the prospects for seaborne trade are bright, downside risks such as increased inward-looking policies and the rise of trade protectionism are, nevertheless, weighing on the outlook. An immediate concern is the trade tensions between China and the United States of America, the world’s two largest economies, as well as those between Canada, Mexico, the United States and the European Union. Escalating trade frictions may lead to a trade war that could derail recovery, reshape global maritime trade patterns and dampen the outlook. Other factors driving uncertainty include the ongoing global energy transition, structural shifts in economies such as China, and shifts in global value chain development patterns. If leveraged effectively, game-changing trends, such as digitalization, electronic commerce (e-commerce) and the Belt and Road Initiative, the exact impact of which is yet to be fully understood, have the potential to add wind to the sails of global seaborne trade.

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        Revisiting Sustainable Development (English)
        Book by UNRISD, 2015, 412 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        This volume is divided into two sections. The first contains texts related to the integrative nature of development, that is, the connections between economic, social and environmental dimensions. The second deals more specifically with particular sectoral or thematic issues and case studies from developing countries. These address issues related to agricultural modernization, rural development, food policy, forest destruction and protection, biodiversity conservation, urban sustainability and corporate environmental responsibility.

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        Risk Assessment in the International Food Safety Policy Arena - Can the Multilateral Institutions Encourage Unbiased Outcomes? (English)
        Working paper by Jackson, Lee Ann; Jansen, Marion / WTO, 2009, 25 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        In this paper we provide a description of how food safety related scientific evidence is generated and how it is used in the context of risk assessment for international standard-setting at CODEX and in WTO trade disputes. In particular, we discuss the processes leading to policy conclusions on the basis of scientific evidence, with a focus on the interactions involved between private and public sector actors and those between “scientific experts” and others. We identify weaknesses in the current institutional set-up and provide suggestions on how to improve the interaction between different players at the national and international level so as to strengthen the existing system and increase its cost efficiency.

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        Risk Factors in International Financial Crises: Early Lessons from the 2008-2009 Turmoil
        Working paper by Dullien, Sebastian/ HTW, 2010, 21 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy

        This paper analyses the global transmission of the recent economic and financial crisis as a function of macroeconomic factors such as per capita gross domestic product, current-account positions prior to the crisis, exchange-rate regimes, inflation prior to the crisis and financial openness. It finds that large current-account imbalances (both surpluses and deficits) were a risk factor in the current global economic turmoil. It also finds that countries that use currency boards have suffered much more from the crisis than countries with other exchange-rate regimes. Financial openness appears to have increased the risk of experiencing a deep recession, while higher inflation prior to the crisis seems to have mitigated its impact.

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        The Road from Rio+20: Towards Sustainable Development Goals
        Paper by UNCTAD, 2014, 60 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        This fourth issue of the Rio+20 Journal, articulates some perspectives on post-2015 sustainable development goals and the contribution of international trade. The Journal includes views from several leading personalities on aspects of the development framework in the post-2015 period. In addition, this journal is aimed to help Governments and other stakeholders navigate the multitude of global issues facing the international community today and define a sustainable development framework that can have a major impact on poverty eradication across the globe in the years ahead.

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        Road maps towards an information society in Latin America and the Caribbean (English)
        Case study by ECLAC, 2003, 119 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: A recent and systematic regional study of the development of ICTs and of the necessary public policies. It mixes basic concepts on the information society with a constant focus on the regional context. Who: People interested in Latin American geopolitics or economy How: A good handbook for students or complete guidelines for teachers to design a course on the information society in Latin America and the Caribbean. Helpful figures and data for presentations or exercises. The bibliography would be a good basis for a case study.

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        Road Safety - Considerations in Support of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 55 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The report concentrates on the relevant international regulatory framework, highlights the potential relevance of implementing existing conventions and other international legal instruments in the field of road safety, and overall, underlines the importance of a supportive legal and regulatory framework as a means for improving the achievement of the sustainable development goals. It highlights a number of worldwide international legal instruments that aim to facilitate international road traffic by means of adoption of uniform road traffic rules, documents, signs and signals, construction and technical inspection of vehicles, road infrastructure, driving times and rest periods for professional drivers, and safe transport of dangerous goods and hazardous materials. Their implementation would bring safer mobility and behavior of road users, safer roads and safer vehicles. The report presents an overview of developing countries membership to these worldwide instruments, explains their legally binding nature among States that become Parties to them, and encourages their wide adoption and full application, in order to advance the swift implementation of targets related to road safety.

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        The Road to Rio+20 - For a Development-led Green Economy: Volume 1 (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2011, 108 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        This volume of essays provides a series of real world references for governments, businesses and civil society on approaches to the Green Economy. This issue also addresses gaps in implementation with one essay providing a 'historical perspective' tracing four decades of high and low points in the environment and development debate.

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        The Road to Rio+20 - For a Development-led Green Economy: Volume 2 (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2011, 100 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        The green economy, within the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication, is one of the two themes of the 2012 Conference on Sustainable Development, to be held in Rio de Janeiro. It encompasses some of the most important challenges we face today: eradicating poverty, improving our relationship with the environment, addressing the potential negative impacts of global climate change, and creating a new path for sustainable development.

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        Robots and Industrialization in Developing Countries (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2016, 4 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology, Trade Negotiations

        This publication, Robots and Industrialization in Developing Countries, discusses the contribution of advanced technologies on the manufacturing sector. It analysis trends on commodity growth and financial inflows with industrialization, with a primary focus on Africa and Latin America. It further summarizes the move towards the use of robots on developing countries in terms of its impacts and policy implications.

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        The Role of Agriculture in the Development of LDCs and their Integration into the World Economy: Thematic Session on Enhancing Productive Capacity: The Agriculture Sector and Food Security (English)
        Discussion Paper by UNCTAD, 2001, 64 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        What: This paper examines the link between poverty reduction, economic growth and agriculture in developing countries. It also reviews the opportunities and challenges for LDCs of trade liberalization in terms of diversification, food security… Who: Excellent background reading to understand the relationship between poverty alleviation and agriculture diversification. How: The appendices contain data on LDCS that need however to be updated

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        The Role of Ict in Implementation of the Wto Trade Facilitation Agreement: Some Preliminary Reflections (English)
        Policy brief by Lacey, Simon/ARTNet, 2016, 8 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This policy brief aims to highlight some ways that Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) will play a role in helping WTO members implement their commitments under the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA). It argues that there are ways ICT can be leveraged to enhance and facilitate WTO members in realizing the objectives inherent to the TFA.

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        The role of in economic research and policy analysis for development: how can UNCTAD work with universities? (English)
        Summary by Vi staff, 2005
        Categories: Vi Meetings

        Background notes from Mr Carlos Fortin's, OIC UNCTAD, keynote presentation to the first meeting of the Vi.

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        The Role of International Trade in Climate Change Adaptation (English)
        Note by Nelson, Gerald; Palazzo, Amanda; Ringler, Claudia; Sulser, Timothy; Batka, Miroslav/UNCTAD, 2009, 24 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Environment

        Early studies on the potential impacts of climate change indicated that agriculture was not likely to be severely affected, as carbon fertilization and trade flows were thought to be able to compensate for any productivity declines related to climate change. Recent work, however, has raised doubts about whether carbon fertilization laboratory test results can be replicated in the field. With the effects of carbon fertilization in question, the role of trade in the context of climate change becomes even more important. Climate change is anticipated to increase the incidence of food insecurity around the world, but trade has the potential to help counteract this effect by delivering agricultural goods to areas experiencing productivity declines. This ICTSD-IPC Platform on Climate Change, Agriculture and Trade paper by Gerald Nelson and his colleagues at the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) builds on IFPRI’s important work on estimating the costs of adaptation, and projects a significant increase in agricultural trade flows, in particular from developed to developing countries. In its\\n recommendations to policymakers released in October, the ICTSD-IPC Platform on Climate Change, Agriculture and Trade emphasized that an open and equitable agricultural trade system is necessary to address both climate change and food security concerns. Yet, as this paper also argues, it would be unwise to rely solely on trade to help us adjust to climate change. Alongside ongoing efforts to maintain an open and equitable global food system, the international community must also importantly commit to sustained investment in agricultural productivity. We are pleased to release this paper, trusting that it will enhance the Platform’s efforts to increase understanding of the linkages between climate change, agricultural production, trade and food security, which in turn will yield greater policy coherence among these issues.

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        The Role of International Trade, Technology and Structural Change in Shifting Labour Demands in South Africa (English)
        Working paper by Haroon Bhorat, et al./ UNCTAD, 2010, 71 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        South Africa’s relatively peaceful transition from minority rule to majority rule in 1994 masked the challenges that lay ahead in terms of dealing with the economic vestiges of the system of racial exclusivity. The post-apartheid labour market challenge is twofold: firstly, South Africa has one of the highest unemployment rates in the world – officially at 26.7 percent and 38.8 percent when discouraged workers are included. Secondly, alongside this excess supply of labour, the economy for a variety of historical reasons has experienced a rapid increase in the demand for educated workers – the upshot of which has been an ongoing and severe skills shortage. The core of the paper is a detailed attempt at outlining the key factors that have shaped the economy’s chronic labour market crisis. In particular, it focuses on the different forces that have shaped labour demand trends in the apartheid and post-1994 period. It seeks to explain the relative contributions of structural shifts in the economy, technology and international trade,respectively, in determining the labour demand trajectory of the economy over the last three and a half decades. Moreover, the paper provides a descriptive analysis of the impact of the global economic and financial crisis on South Africa’s employment performance.

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        The Role of Primary Commodities in Economic Development: Sub-Saharan Africa Versus the Rest of the World (English)
        Discussion paper by Carmignani, Fabrizio and Chowdhury, Abdur/ UNECE, 2007, 20 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies

        This paper analyses the impact of the dependence on primary commodities for economic development within the framework of growth regressions. While there is no evidence of a generalized primary commodity curse, reliance on primary commodities does retard growth in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Which factor account for this SSA specificity? Some suggest that SSA specializes in commodities that are not conducive to economic growth and that SSA depends on primaty commodities more deeply than the rest of the world. These explanations are not strongly supported by the data. The key to the SSA specific curse appears to lie in the interaction between institutions and primary commodities.

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        The Role of Science, Technology and Innovation in Ensuring Food Security by 2030 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 55 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        The report provides an introduction to the challenge of ensuring food security, highlighting the geography of food insecurity, specific socioeconomic, environmental and political challenges that exacerbate food insecurity, and the role of the Sustainable Development Goals in ensuring "Zero Hunger" by 2030. It discusses how various scientific and technological applications can address the four dimensions of food security, namely availability, access, use/utilization and stability. The report also explores how countries can reimagine their food systems as innovation systems with attention to the building of local innovative capabilities, enabling infrastructure for agricultural innovation, developing coherent policies and strengthening knowledge flows to facilitate technology dissemination. Finally, it presents policy considerations and strategic recommendations for national Governments, the private sector, agricultural research institutions and other stakeholders.

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        The Role of Technology and Human Capital in the EPZ Life-cycle (UNCTAD Transnational Corporations, Vol. 17/No.1) (English)
        Article by Omar, Karima; Stoever, William A., 2008, 26 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment, Science and Technology

        This article proposes an alternative perspective for examining export processing zones (EPZs) by modifying the life-cycle approach. It highlights the two crucial aspects of a successful EPZ development, namely the nature of backward linkages and gradual integration into the rest of the host economy. It argues that successful EPZs can be a catalyst for structural transformation of the wider economy and discusses what policy measures are needed to achieve such outcome. The article concludes by identifying venues for future research.

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        The Role of the IMF in Debt Restructurings: Lending into Arrears, Moral Hazard and Sustainability Concerns (English)
        Discussion paper by Simpson, Lucio /University of Buenos Aires, 2006, 40 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, International Financial System

        This paper will discuss the role that the IMF plays in sovereign debt restructurings and its views regarding the various components of the framework for crisis prevention and resolution, with a special emphasis on LIA policy and the issue of debt sustainability. Because the SDRM was originally intended to be one of the pillars of such framework and because of the consequences of the debate it generated, the first section examines the reasons that explain the failure of the SDRM project to make progress. The second section comments on the recent widespread adoption of CACs, to a large extent as a result of the threat posed by the possible implementation of the SDRM. Sections three to six deal with LIA policy. They explain the objectives and implications of LIA policy as well as its evolution over time, discussing the suitability of the criteria that regulate its implementation, how the policy has been applied in practice and the relevance of the moral hazard problems that it might generate. In section seven, and against the background of the trade-off between investor-friendliness and debt sustainability, the potential positive role that the IMF could play in debt restructurings is discussed and is contrasted with the Fund’s failed experience in Argentina and its bailout of Uruguay, which was clearly inconsistent with its own rules.

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        The Role of Trade in Ending Poverty (English)
        Book by WTO; World Bank, 2015, 77 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty

        The publication examines trade and poverty across four dimensions: rural poverty, the informal economy, the impact of fragility and conflict and gender. It looks at how trade could make a greater contribution to ending poverty by increasing efforts to lower trade costs, improve the enabling environment, implement trade policy in conjunction with other areas of policy, better manage risks faced by the poor, and improve data used for policy-making.

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        Rules of Origin and the Web of East Asian Free Trade Agreements (English)
        Working paper by Manchin, Miriam; Pelkmans-Balaoing, Annette O. /World Bank, 2007, 29 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The authors provide an overview of the preferential rules of origin in East Asia, highlighting the aspects that might possibly generate some trade-chilling effects. They review characteristics of existing preferential trade agreements with special emphasis on lessons from the European experience, and analyze some important features of the existing rules of origin in East and South-East Asian regional integration agreements. The empirical analysis of the effectiveness of preferentialism on intra-regional trade flows focuses on the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA), with the aim of providing a rough estimate of the costs of requesting preferences. The results suggest that preferential tariffs favorably affect intra-regional imports only at very high margins (around 25 percentage points). This points to the likelihood of high administrative costs attached to the exploitation of preferences, particularly with regard to the compliance with AFTA's rules of origin.

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        Rules of Origin in Services: A Case Study of Five ASEAN Countries (English)
        Working paper by Fink, Carsten; Nikomborirak, Deunden /World Bank, 2007, 26 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        An important question in the design of bilateral and regional free trade agreements (FTAs) covering services is to what extent non-members benefit from the trade preferences that are negotiated among members. This question is resolved through services rules of origin. The restrictiveness of rules of origin determines the degree of preferences entailed in market opening commitments, shaping the bargaining incentives of FTAs and their eventual economic effects. Even though the number of FTAs in services has increased rapidly in recent years, hardly any research is available that can guide policymakers on the economic implications of different rules of origin. After outlining the key economic tradeoffs and options for rules of origin in services, the paper summarizes the main findings of a research project that has assessed the rules of origin question for five countries in the ASEAN region. For selected service sub sectors and a number of criteria for rules or origin, simulation exercises evaluated which service providers would or would not be eligible for preferences negotiated under a FTA. Among other findings, the simulation results point to the binding nature of a domestic ownership or control requirement and, for the specific case of financial services, a requirement of incorporation.

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        Russian WTO Accession: What Has Been Accomplished, What Can Be Expected (English)
        Working paper by Tarr, David /World Bank, 2007, 20 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper summarizes the principal reform commitments that Russia has undertaken as part of its World Trade Organization (WTO) accession negotiations, providing detailed assessments in banking, insurance, and agriculture. The paper assesses the gains to the Russian economy from these commitments, based on a summary of several modeling efforts undertaken by the author and his colleagues. The author compares Russian commitments with those of other countries that have recently acceded to the WTO to assess the claim that the demands on Russia are excessive due to political considerations. He explains why Russian WTO accession will result in the elimination of the Jackson-Vanik Amendment against Russia. Finally, he discusses the remaining issues in the negotiations and the time frame for Russian accession as of the fall of 2007.

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        Russia's Accession to the WTO: Major Commitments, Possible Implications (English)
        Article by St Petersburg State University, 2012, 35 pages
        Categories: VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The article provides insights into the terms of Russia’s accession to the WTO in the area of trade in goods and services, as well as domestic reforms of the economy that have been undertaken. The paper shows both advantages and disadvantages of Accession for Russia's economic entities. It includes more focused sections on business implications of Russia’s WTO Accession commitments in the sectors of automobile manufacturing, production of meat and meat products, financial services, and energy services.

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        Rwanda: Company Perspectives – An ITC Series on Non-tariff Measures (English)
        Report by ITC, 2014, 110 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report is part of a series of publications assessing the impact of non-tariff measures (NTMs) on the business sector, based on a large-scale survey conducted in Rwanda with companies directly reporting burdensome NTMs and the reasons why they consider them to be trade barriers. It analyses survey findings and compares them to other sources on NTMs to identify regulatory, procedural and infrastructural obstacles in Rwanda, its partner countries and transit countries and covers food and agro based products including coffee, tea, pyrethrum, other agricultural and agro-based products and chemicals, rubber-based products and other manufactures.

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