A partnership with academia

Building knowledge for trade and development

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        Sand in the Wheels: Non-Tariff Measures and Regional Integration in Sadc (English)
        Report by Vanzetti et al/UNCTAD, 2016, 33 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Facilitation

        Non-tariff measures (NTMs) are policy measures, other than ordinary customs tariffs, that can potentially have an economic effect on international trade in goods, changing quantities traded, or prices or both. The most common NTMs in SADC are sanitary and phyto-sanitary restrictions, certification procedures, quantity control measures, other technical regulations, government procurement, investment restrictions and intellectual property rights. Some measures are legitimate, such as those relating to food safety and the introduction of invasive species, but other measures may be used to limit trade to protect domestic producers or trade restrictiveness unintentionally exceeds what is needed for the measure’s non-trade objectives. It is relatively simple to list the numerous non-tariff measures, but assessing their impact is more difficult. Two methods involve trying to measure the effect on quantity using a gravity model or by looking at the gap between world and domestic prices. To illustrate the methodology and potential impacts of reducing barriers, we assume SADC countries have similar NTMs as the average for Africa. The impacts on trade, output, employment and incomes of reducing these barriers are assessed using a global general equilibrium model. Depending on the initial trade flows and the magnitude and scope for removing the trade distorting effects of non-tariff measures, the increases in national exports are up to 2.2 per cent. National output, employment and incomes will also increase in all SADC countries

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        Scaling Up Finance for the Sustainable Development Goals - Experimenting with Models of Multilateral Development Banking (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 28 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Investment

        This report discusses some of the new modalities MDBs have been adopting or considering for adoption to relax their lending constraints. It explores, in particular, the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) model for scaling up as a new experiment that may provide significant sums of development finance, as well as inject new ideas for operational improvements in other banks. It focuses on AIIB’s articles of agreement and argues that such articles give the bank a potential institutional mechanism to become an important intermediary in channeling sizeable amounts of official (but also private) resources to development-oriented projects around the world.

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        Science and Technology Promotion, Advice and Application for the Achievement of the MDGs (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Secretariat, 2005, 25 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: An analysis on the use of science and technology in achieving Millennium Development Goals (MGDs) with special focus on building capacity in developing countries and strengthening partnership to make science and technology serve the needs of development. Who: For anyone interested in the subject of access to science and technology in developing countries and how to achieve the Millennium goals. How: This formal document is an essential reading on the link between science and technology and development.

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        Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Review: Ghana (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 169 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Science and Technology

        The Science, Technology and Innovation Policy (STIP) Review of Ghana was prepared at the request of the Government of Ghana. The Review is meant to offer an objective and critical look at the country’s STI capacities and assess how these capacities are being translated into innovations that help meet the country’s socioeconomic development objectives, including supporting economic growth and poverty reduction as well as structural transformation of the economy. It sets out specific recommendations for practical actions and policy reforms to build STI capacity and to create a more dynamic economy that will move more quickly towards middle-income levels. The Review argues that policy action to promote STI development is required if Ghana is to achieve faster, more sustainable growth and development.

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        Science, Technology and Innovation Policy - Review of Mauritania (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2010, 147 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Science and Technology

        This Science Technology and Innovation Policy (STIP) Review provides an outline and assessment of the country’s current science, technology and innovation (STI) capabilities, their STI policies and the effectiveness of their national systems of innovation (NSIs) and knowledge systems in improving the productivity of enterprises and national economic performance, as well as in helping the country to address various economic, social and environmental challenges. It seeks to analyse how these have evolved in recent years, to provide an independent evaluation of whether these capabilities and the NSI need to be strengthened, how they might fit into the country’s development strategy, and suggest how policymakers in Mauritania might go about doing this. It also compares the progress made in upgrading these capabilities in relation to progress made in strengthening the other main elements that contribute to promoting economic growth and development in the country. The main finding of the Review is that STI capabilities, and the ability of enterprises and the public sector to effectively harness them for innovation, are currently inadequate to address the challenges that the country faces.

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        Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Review - Peru (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 184 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Science and Technology

        The ultimate objective of the science, technology and innovation policy review of Peru is to provide the Peruvian Government with an up-to-date diagnostic analysis of the effectiveness of its science, technology and innovation-related policies and measures, and strengthen these policies and measures by integrating them in the national development process, and improve technological capacity, encourage innovation and incorporate greater added value into production

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        Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Review - The Islamic Republic of Iran (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005, 118 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Science and Technology

        A policy review which was discussed during the commission on science and technology.It gives assistance to the country in formulating policies to strengthen the role of science and technology in national capacities and in competitiveness. Can be used by teachers and researchers in science and technology promotion in developing countries. The text contains a lot of information on Iran that can be used as a case study.

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        Science, Technology & Innovation Policy Review - Dominican Republic (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 116 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Science and Technology

        This document has three fundamental goals: first, to offer the Government and Dominican society an up-dated diagnosis of the effectiveness of STI policies, programmes and instruments; second, to facilitate the strengthening of those policies and measures by integrating them into the national development process; and third, to contribute to improve technological capacity, encourage innovation and incorporate greater added value into production.

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        Science, Technology & Innovation Policy Review : El Salvador (English)
        Report by Miroux, Anne, Hamdi, Mongi, Pérez Cusó, Marta, Hernández, René, López Martínez, Roberto, Huidobro, Eduardo, 2011, 181 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Science and Technology

        This review is intended to be a tool for learning and reflection, not a rating mechanism but an analytical tool that examines a series of proposals from a neutral external viewpoint. The ultimate objective of the science, technology and innovation policy review of El Salvador is to provide the Salvadorian Government with an up-to-date diagnostic analysis of the effectiveness of its science, technology and innovation-related policies and measures, and strengthen these policies and measures by integrating them in the national development process. It also seeks to improve technological capacity, encourage innovation and incorporate greater added value into production processes.

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        Science, Technology & Innovation Policy Review: Islamic Republic of Iran (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 112 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Science and Technology

        The Science, Technology & Innovation Policy Review (STIP Review) is a neutral and unbiased assessment of the effectiveness of government policies with regard to STI development and a pointer to the way ahead. It examines Iran’s National Innovation System, along with its oil, gas and petrochemical industries and biopharmaceuticals. The review observed that the national development policy was aiming to shift the country from a natural-resource-based economy to a more knowledge-based one; a need for economic diversification away from the predominant O&G industry through a process of industrialization; and an export-oriented economic approach. The Islamic Republic of Iran’s national policy documents, also includes the following countries: Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Egypt, Georgia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Oman, Palestine, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan and Yemen.

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        Scope And Definition (English)
        Article by UNCTAD, 2011, 163 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law

        This paper analyses the scope and definitions of international investment agreements (IIAs). IIAs must specify not only their geographical and temporal coverage, but, most importantly, their subject-matter coverage. This is done primarily through the definitions of the terms “investment” and “investor”, which form the main focus of this paper. The definition of “investment” determines economic interests, to which governments extend substantive IIA protections, while the definition of “investor” specifies the range of individuals and legal entities that can benefit from the treaty.

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        The Scope for Foreign Exchange Market Interventions (English)
        Discussion paper by Bofinger, Peter / University of Wuerzburg, 2011, 36 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy

        The paper advocates for a strategy of managed floating which can reconcile three objectives that are usually not considered reconcilable - an autonomous monetary policy, a control over the exchange rate and free capital movements. If a central bank targets an exchange rate level based on the interest rate difference between two currencies, it can at the same time set its policy rate autonomously. By eliminating the interest rate differences between countries, such targeting also eliminates the incentives for carry trade and is hence compatible with capital mobility.

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        Selected Issues Concerning the Multilateral Trading System (English)
        Discussion Paper by Rohini Acharya, Michael Daly, 2004, 43 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: Since the establishment of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), a growing international community has sought to promote the liberalization of international trade. With the creation of the permanent World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1994, which replaces the GATT, originally a temporary structure, this aim has become more institutionalized. The paper outlines details of selected issues of special concern for developing countries within the WTO negotiations. Section 2 examines causes for trade imbalances. In section 3 some unfinished business concerning tariffs, such as tariff escalation or tariff "peaks", are summarized. Section 4 evaluates the high level of support for the agricultural sector. In section 5, market access concerns of developing countries in textiles and clothing are analyzed. Section 6 deals with the effects of non-tariff barriers such as anti-dumping and technical standards. Market access issues on services are outlined in section 7. The final section offers some concluding remarks. Who: For teachers and students of multilateral trade who want to focus on specific technical aspects of the WTO negotiations such as causes for account imbalances or details on the unfinished business of tariff reductions. How: An excellent reading on some of the most contentious aspects within the WTO trade negotiations. The Annex provides very interesting and detailed data and figures on tariff structures in selected countries. However, since the paper was written in 2004, progress has taken place within the WTO negotiations. Therefore, in order to have an up-to-date standard of knowledge, the paper should be complemented by additional reading.

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        Selected Sustainable Development Trends in the Least Developed Countries 2018 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 33 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This document is a contribution to the United Nations system’s efforts to follow up and monitor the implementation of Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development, since it reviews recent progress against selected targets and indicators related explicitly to the 47 least developed countries (LDCs). Its conceptual starting point can be traced to paragraph 27 of the Agenda, and the stated commitment to “build strong economic foundations for all our countries (… and) strengthen the productive capacities of least developed countries in all sectors, including through structural transformation”. In line with the above, the document presents a brief assessment of recent economic trends and progress towards selected Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) targets and indicators in the LDCs. In doing so, it highlights some of LDCs’ key development challenges, which stem from their own domestic conditions, but also from the specific terms of their interdependence within the global economy. Far from providing a full-fledged country-specific assessment, this document emphasises predominantly the latter international dimension, consistently with the view, expressed in paragraph 3 of the Nairobi Maafikiano, that “while each country has primary responsibility for its own economic and social development, the support of an enabling international environment is integral to the success of national efforts”.

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        A Selective Review of Foreign Direct Investment Theories
        Working paper by Nayak, Dinkar and Choudhury, Rahul, 2014, 39 pages
        Categories: Investment

        Several theories have been put forward by researchers to explain foreign direct investment. However, no single theory fits the different types of direct investment or the investment made by a particular multinational corporation or country in any region. This paper traces the evolution of the theories of foreign direct investment (FDI) during the past few decades. It also attempts to explain the growth phenomenon of Third World multinational companies. The applicability of the theory differs with the type and origin of investment. Nevertheless, all these theories are unanimous in their view that a firm moves abroad to reap the benefits of the advantages in the form of location, firm-specific or internationalization of markets.

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        Senegal: Company Perspectives – An ITC Series on Non-tariffs Measures (English)
        Report by ITC, 2014, 115 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report is part of a series of publications that identify the main obstacles related to non-tariff measures (NTMs) that the private sector faces. It analyzes the experience of exporting and importing companies in Senegal through a large scale survey as well as identifies the main obstacles in NTM regulatory and procedural order imposed by partner countries as well as Senegal.

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        Services and Structural Transformation for Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 102 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This publication reflects the deliberations and results of the fifth session of the multi-year expert meeting on trade, services and development on services, structural transformation and inclusive development. Together with the multi-year expert meeting, this publication is part of UNCTAD’s overall toolbox to assist countries in developing regulatory and institutional frameworks to allow harvesting the benefits of services for economic transformation and development. The Global Services Forum, also a part of this toolbox on services, is another important platform to share best practices and form partnerships in trade in services. UNCTAD has also developed country surveys, case studies and dedicated research. Services Policy Reviews, another central element of this toolbox, provide support to policymakers and regulators in assessing the potential of services productive capacities and trade and the robustness of regulations and institutions. This allows identifying constraints for the development of the services economy and trade and also practical solutions and policy options for best-fit practices to improve services performance. Services Policy Reviews draw on UNCTAD’s longstanding experience of more than 20 years supporting the national assessment of services. This publication also draws from the results of this toolbox with a view to assist developing and least-developed countries to pursue their development objectives by strengthening their services economy and trade.

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        Services Liberalization From a WTO/GATS Perspective : In Search Of Volunteers (English)
        Working paper by Adlung, Rudolf, 2009, 26 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        There has been virtually no liberalization under the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) to date. Most existing commitments are confined to guaranteeing the levels of access that existed in the mid-1990s, when the Agreement entered into force, in a limited number of sectors. The only significant exceptions are the accession schedules of recent WTO Members and the negotiating results in two sectors (financial services and, in particular, basic telecommunications) that were achieved after the Uruguay Round. The offers tabled so far in the ongoing Round would not add a lot of substance either. Apparently, negotiators are 'caught between a rock and a hard place'. For one thing, the traditional mercantilist paradigm, relying on reciprocal exchanges of concessions, seems to be provide less momentum than in the goods area. For another, there are additional - technical, economic and political - frictions that tend to render services negotiations more complicated, timeconsuming and resource-intensive. The no elty of the Agreement adds an additional element of legal uncertainty from a negotiator's perspective. This paper discusses various options that might help to overcome the ensuing reticence to engage. Few appear within reach at present, however. The bare minimum that would need to be achieved is to revive work on scheduling and classification issues with a view to putting both existing commitments and new offers on a safer footing, and to improve compliance with long-existing information/notification obligations.

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        Services Liberalization in Transition Economies: the Case of North and Central Asia (English)
        Working paper by Soprana, Mata/ARTNet & UN ESCAP, 2016, 32 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Facilitation

        This paper offers a review, analysis and assessment of the status of services liberalization in North and Central Asia. This study provides an overview of the binding commitments undertaken by transition economies under the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and an evaluation of how they compare to domestic policy reform, with a focus on the three transition economies that most recently acceded to the WTO: Kazakhstan, the Russian Federation and Tajikistan. It proceeds to explore the scope of interest in services liberalization in North and Central Asia, highlighting the reasons behind the relative little attention so far received by the services sector in the region.

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        Services Policy Review: Lesotho (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2013, 101 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The Lesotho Services Policy Review (SPR) aims to investigate policy, regulatory and institutional weaknesses, and to make recommendations addressing such deficiencies in Lesotho's key sectors of tourism, and financial and professional medical services. For each of these, an economic overview is followed by an inventory of legislation, regulations, institutions and policy measures.

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        Services Policy Reviews: A Detailed Methodology for Reviewing Policy, Regulatory and Institutional Frameworks (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD/DITC/TNCD, 2013, 21 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The SPRs are a systematic review of economic, regulatory and institutional frameworks characterizing the services sectors, with the aim of identifying trade policy options that advance national sectoral development objectives. In addition to reviewing the development benefits of services and services trade, this review explains the methodology behind the SPR process itself: the purpose, the structure, the outcome, stakeholder participation and activities that are involved in the process.

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        Shared Harvests: Agriculture, Trade and Employment (English)
        Report by ILO and UNCTAD, 2013, 400 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The International Labour Office and UNCTAD have collaborated on this edited volume concerning how the agricultural sector affects the world of work and broad development processes. The emphasis is on the need to make agriculture a high policy priority, particularly in the domains of trade and employment. Policy makers can maximize the development benefits from agriculture by carefully considering agricultural trade policy.

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        Share of Labour Compensation and Aggregate Demand - Discussions Towards a Growth Strategy
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2011, 30 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Globalization and Development Strategies

        Economic growth strategies of developing countries have focused in the last decades on expanding their exports. In that scheme, wage compression seems necessary in order to compensate the observed slow productivity pace achieving, therefore, “competitiveness”. The core of this discussion is, undoubtedly, how the national product is appropriated through wages and surplus, i.e. the factorial income distribution. From that viewpoint, this paper discusses the long-term impoverishment of Argentinean workers through two key aspects of the economic process: on one hand, the way in which labour force is allocated, by analysing the relationship between real wage and productivity. On the other, how income is used in the acquisition of consumer goods and capital formation. In order to fully comprehend those trends, this paper recourses to an international comparison with two types of countries: the developed ones (United States of America, France and Japan) and the largest Latin American economies (Brazil and Mexico). As these processes take place in the long run, this paper’s analysis period will start from the 1950s.

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        Shey Dinayen's Cv
        Note by Shey Edward Dinayen, 2015
        Categories: VI Work Program

        My work experience of more than 20 years has been in human resources management, administration, rural development, human rights, gender issues, good governance, small and medium size enterprise development, legal advisory services, humanitarian services, staff recruitment, counseling, teaching/training/ research/ consultancy and electoral observation and supervision peace building and conflict resolution/ analysis. This has been done in the civil service of my country of Cameroon, and in some international organizations including the African Union Commission in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights in Arusha, Tanzania, The Community Humanitarian Emergency Board International based in Cameroon and the Central African Republic, the Pan-African Institute for Development, West Africa, The Carter Center, South Sudan. I have been working for several years at senior management level. I am currently a PhD Law student of International Human Rights with a focus on the Human Rights of the Victims of International Conflict. This has entailed a lot of working together as a team with others as senior staff, colleagues, collaborators and junior staff. We have on several occasions planned as a team .This has given me the opportunity of listening to the ideas of others, contributing convincingly, correcting my own view points when and where it is necessary. In some cases I have had to plan work for those under me or planned with them in order to enable them learn to work in my absence and in order to ensure succession in the organization. Sometimes I have delegated authority, thereby training as a mentor for future leadership. I would like to have these skills further improved for more efficiency and effectiveness in my country and other places where my services would subsequently be needed. Shey Edward dinayen

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        SIDS and multilateral trade liberalisation in agriculture: Barbados (English)
        Case study by Gregg Rawlins / UNCTAD, 2003, 62 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        What: This resource examines how agricultural production and competitiveness affect SIDSs (Small Island Developing States) and in particular Barbados; it analyses domestic production and trade, and perspectives of the WTO negotiations on agriculture for Barbados. Who: Case study extracted from the report "Turning losses into gains: SIDSs and multilateral trade liberalization in agriculture" that could be used in teaching and in activities. How: Detailed analysis with data and a summary table of modalities for SIDSs in the WTO. The appendix contains useful tables on Barbados' agricultural production.

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        SIDS and multilateral trade liberalisation in agriculture: the Indian Ocean Islands (English)
        Case study by Jean Michel Salomon / UNCTAD, 2003, 44 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        What: An analysis of the Indian Ocean Islands agriculture (Mauritius, Seychelles and the Comoros) Who: Case study extracted from the report "Turning losses into gains: SIDS and multilateral trade liberalization in agriculture" that could be used in teaching and in activities. How: Detailed analysis with data on the Indian Ocean Islands. The appendices contain useful tables on agricultural production.

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        SIDS and multilateral trade liberalisation in agriculture: the Pacific Islands (English)
        Case study by Margaret B. Malua / UNCTAD, 2003, 34 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        What: Taken from a report "Turning losses into gains: SIDSs and multilateral trade liberalization in agriculture", this is an examination of the Pacific Islands economies and their agricultural sectors. Who: For anyone interested in SIDS issues. How: The paper provides data, key references in the fields of competitiveness and market access.

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        SIDS and multilateral trade liberalisation in agriculture: The Windward Islands (English)
        Case study by Gary Melville / UNCTAD, 2003, 30 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        What: An analysis of the Windward Islands: agricultural sector, competitiveness and policy options in multilateral negotiations. Presentation of the agricultural sector in the Windward Islands and the impacts of trade policies on agriculture Who: For anyone interested in having information on SIDS and agriculture. How: Detailed analysis with data on the Windward Islands. The appendices contain useful tables on agricultural production.

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        Simulations on the Special Safeguard Mechanism. A Look at the December 2008 Draft Agriculture Modalities. (English)
        Working paper by Montemayor, Raul/ICTSD, 2010, 58 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper aims to provide policy-makers, negotiators and other stakeholders with a clear technical assessment of how the December 2008 draft modalities (TN/AG/W/4/Rev.4) and the accompanying working document (TN/AG/W/7) could affect the functioning of the proposed special safeguard mechanism, and, in particular, accessibility of the mechanism and its effectiveness.

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        Situación Reciente De Las Exportaciones Industriales De Colombia (1990-2009)
        Study by Torres, Danilo, 2011, 93 pages
        Categories: VI Members Research

        Developed during a Vi fellowship, this study presents assesses Colombian industrial exports in the last two decades, based on conventional research methods and contrasting with the methodology of technological differentiation of export intensities. The analysis demonstrates that the total Colombian exports during this period was characterized by a predominance of primary commodities and natural resource-based low-technology products. Although efforts are being made aimed at export diversification of mid- and high-technology products, the participation of these in total exports of the country is low.

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        SME Competitiveness Outlook 2015: Connect, Compete and Change for Inclusive Growth (English)
        Report by ITC, 2015, 268 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Enterprise Development, Globalization and Development Strategies

        The report highlights the fundamental role SMEs have in addressing global income inequality and presents a new analytical framework to measure, identify and enhance SME competitiveness. It introduces a working definition of firm competitiveness and introduces the SME Competitiveness Grid as a tool to classify determinants of firm competitiveness according to how they affect competitiveness and according to the layer of the economy at which this determinant intervenes. The report provides 25 country profiles containing SME competitiveness pilot assessments. It informs ITC’s work in strengthening SMEs and trade and investment support institutions (TISIs). The case studies illustrate how ITC assistance fits within the wider evidence on SME competitiveness and describe practical steps to strengthen SME competitiveness at the firm level. Includes bibliographical references.

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        Sme Competitiveness Outlook 2016: Meeting the Standard for Trade (English)
        Report by International Trade Centre (ITC), 2016, 354 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Enterprise Development

        The report focuses on the role of standards and regulations in increasing the competitiveness of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The report combines data analysis, academic insights, thought leader opinions and case studies to provide guidance for policymakers, SME managers and standard setters. It discusses standards as different as food safety standards, environmental standards, container size standards, security technology standards for encrypted communication, labour standards, accounting standards and medical and wellness tourism standards; provides both general insights into the impact of standards and regulations on SME competitiveness, and targeted insights into specific channels through which individual standards and regulations affect SMEs. Based on the findings the report provides readers with: strategies for SME managers on how to select and implement standards and regulations, and an action plan for policymakers and TISIs.

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        Social Interactions of Migrants and Trade Outcomes (English)
        Working paper by Tai, Silvio H. T., 2009, 23 pages
        Categories: Migration and Development, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper investigates the social interactions performed by immigrants in France. A framework for immigrant’s choice of location is based on recent studies on non-market interactions which explains how migrants concentrate. Applying data on the distribution of immigrants in 95 French provinces, the social interactions are subsequently estimated. This “social component” of migration is then tested on international trade, providing a direct measure of the impact of social networks on the economy.

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        Social Unrest Paves the Way: A Fresh Start for Economic Growth with Social Equity
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 2 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon has emphasised that the wave of popular revolt that has erupted in the North Africa and West Asia region constitutes a “situation which calls for bold reforms”. Indeed, these momentous events also reflect massive social discontent and crises. The push for political change has been mirrored by equally vocal calls for alleviation of poverty, more and better jobs, better wages and social security, access to basic commodities at affordable prices and equitable distribution of national income. In its economic dimensions the upheaval represents a day of reckoning for the trade and economic policy choices made in the region over past decades. But for policy makers in countries facing similar pressures this is an opportune moment to rebuild neglected public institutions so they can lead the process of reshaping economic and labour governance. This can provide a platform for a re-assignment of macroeconomic policies for sustained growth in ways that trigger a virtuous circle of investment, productivity growth, income growth and employment creation so that the income gains from productivity growth are distributed equitably between labour and capital.

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        Solidarity and the South: Supporting the New Landscape of Long-Term Development Finance (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 27 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development

        This paper is structured in five sections. Part 1 introduces the many recent innovations in Southern-led development finance and their potential benefits, tempered with a reminder of lessons learned about the support these new institutions will need in the future. Part 2 charts the new landscape of development finance, identifying Southern-led and global mechanisms and resources that now potentially offer trillions of dollars' worth of support through foreign reserves, national development banks and sovereign wealth funds, southern regional banks and funds, plus the global multilateral World Bank and regional banks. It shows that the centre of gravity of development finance has moved firmly southwards. Part 3 assesses the extent to which the changes in bank ownership, mandates and governance means Southern-led banks are 'doing things differently', with respect to conditionality, scale and speed of loans. Amid these potentially positive developments. Part 4 warns that some things are not that different after all - including long-standing regional imbalances, the continued power of Credit Rating Agencies, and concerns about concessional lending. Part 5 concludes by suggesting how the development community can better support the new and expanded southern banks and funds, to build on their strengths and address their limitations.

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        Some Issues in the Determination of Dumping and Injury Under China\\'s Antidumping Regulations (English)
        Article by LI, Yang/UIBE, 2004, 17 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System, VI Members Research

        This paper makes case studies of Chinese antidumping practices concerning the determination of dumping and injury, which can be considered the two key aspects in the rendering of all antidumping determinations, to see whether they are in compliance with the standards of the WTO Antidumping Agreement.

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        Some key issues in South-South trade and economic cooperation (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005, 32 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        What: Report and papers from Doha high-level forum on trade and investment that deals with strengthening capacities in trade negotiations through partnerships and networking between developing countries. Special focus is made on the opportunity to increase South South trade and particularly in commodities. Who: For anyone teaching or researching regional trade agreements and How: This paper provides a case study of Costa Rica and presentations of experts at the forum.

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        Some Reflections on Climate Change, Green Growth Illusions and Development Space (English)
        Discussion paper by Hoffmann, Ulrich, 2011, 34 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        Many economists and policy makers advocate a fundamental shift towards “green growth” as the new, qualitatively-different growth paradigm, based on enhanced material/resource/energy efficiency and drastic changes in the energy mix. “Green growth” may work well in creating new growth impulses with reduced environmental load and facilitating related technological and structural change. But can it also mitigate climate change at the required scale (i.e. significant, absolute and permanent decline of GHG emissions at global level) and pace? This paper argues that growth, technological, population-expansion and governance constraints as well as some key systemic issues cast a very long shadow on the “green growth” hopes. One should not deceive oneself into believing that such evolutionary (and often reductionist) approach will be sufficient to cope with the complexities of climate change. It may rather give much false hope and excuses to do nothing really fundamental that can bring about a U-turn of global GHG emissions. The proponents of a resource efficiency revolution and a drastic change in the energy mix need to scrutinize the historical evidence, in particular the arithmetic of economic and population growth. Furthermore, they need to realize that the required transformation goes beyond innovation and structural changes to include democratization of the economy and cultural change. Climate change calls into question the global equality of opportunity for prosperity (i.e. ecological justice and development space) and is thus a huge developmental challenge for the South and a question of life and death for some developing countries (who increasingly resist the framing of climate protection versus equity).

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        South Asia Economic Focus, Spring 2013 : Regaining Momentum (English)
        Report by World Bank, 2013, 62 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        South Asia is regaining its economic momentum, but the recovery in the world’s region with the largest number of poor people could falter in the absence of a stronger investment climate. This report displays the region's recent economic developments and gives an outlook of South Asia's economic growth while presenting individual country briefs (Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka).

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        South Centre Comments on the Revised Draft Modalities for Agriculture ((TN/AG/W/4 REV. 1 OF 8TH FEBRUARY 2008) (English)
        Note by South Centre, 2008, 18 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This note comments on various specific sections of the Revised Draft Modalities for Agriculture (TN/AG/W/4 rev. 1 of 8th February 2008). It highlights elements that were revised and pending contentious issues. A useful table summarizing the treatment of WTO Members with respect to tariff reduction modalities is also included.

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        South-South Trade in Asia: The Role of Regional Trade Agreements (English)
        Report by UNCTAD and JETRO (Japan External Trade Organization), 2008, 195 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        What: The report analyses Asia's dominance in south-south trade and the impact of Regional Trade Agreements on developing countries' exchanges. Through an overview about the scope of signed RTAs in the region, statistical tables on south-south exports and RTAs, a case study on India and 15 selected FTAs, the document also indicates these agreements' gaps and presents simulations of trade barriers' impact on export performance. The report finishes with business strategies and utilization of RTAs by the private sector, especially in Japan. How: Background document on trends of south-south trade in Asia and on the role of RTAs as a trade expansion tool. Who: Policy makers, researchers and lecturers dealing with international trade and Regional Trade Agreements.

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        Sovereign Wealth Funds and the Principle of State Immunity from Taxation. Which Implications for Economic Development? (English)
        Article by Michele Barbieri, 2010, 32 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, VI Members Research

        Taxes levied by host States on transnational investments undertaken in their territory by Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs) owned by other countries have a relevant impact on the financial performance of SWFs and, finally, on the amount of wealth available to the States owning SWFs. As most owners of SWFs are developing countries and economies in transition and as SWFs are tools such States can use to promote sustainable economic development, the taxation of SWFs by host countries often has an impact on the developmental policies of the States which own SWFs. Starting from the analysis of the principle of State immunity, the paper will try to elaborate a theory on the taxation of SWFs which at the same time takes into consideration the role that SWFs play in the promotion of economic development.

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        Specific Trade Obligations in Multilateral Environmental Agreements (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 33 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: the article (Trade and Environment Review 2003, Article 1) gives background information for a discussion on the relationship between specific trade obligations (STOs) in multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) and WTO rules. What objectives do developing countries pursue in negotiations? What happens if STOs are not compatible with WTO rules? Who: anyone involved in research or policy-making related to environmental goods and trade. How: previous knowledge on WTO negotiations is needed, if the article is used as background reading for a course on trade and environment.

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        Speculative Influences on Commodity Futures Prices 2006-2008 (English)
        Discussion paper by Gilbert, Christopher L. / UNCTAD, 2010, 40 pages
        Categories: Commodities, International Financial System

        This paper examines the possible price impact of speculative bubbles and index-based investment activity on commodity futures prices over 2006–2008. Emphasis is put on crude oil, three nonferrous metals (aluminium, copper and nickel) and three agricultural commodities (wheat, corn and soybeans). There is significant evidence for periods of explosive bubble behaviour in the copper market where three separate bubbles are identified (plus a bubble in the soybeans market), whereas the evidence for bubble behaviour is weaker for crude oil and nickel. Aluminium, corn and wheat appear to have been bubble-free. The author also examines the effects of index-based investment on the same markets, and finds strong evidence that index-based investment did contribute to the rises in oil and metals prices over 2006–2008 but weaker evidence for similar effects on grains prices.

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        Sri Lanka: Company Perspectives - An ITC Series on Non-tariff Measures (English)
        Report by ITC, 2011, 112 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report assesses the impact of Non-Tariff Measures (NTMs) on the business sector. It is based on a large-scale survey conducted in Sri Lanka. The survey covers companies directly reporting burdensome NTMs and the reasons why they consider them to be trade barriers. The paper analyzes the survey findings and compares them to other sources on NTMs to identify regulatory, procedural and infrastructural obstacles in Sri Lanka and in its partner countries. Furthermore it outlines policy options for each sector including clothing, textiles, chemicals, plastics and rubber-based products; tea and other agro-based products. The report also includes NTM classification and bibliographical references.

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        The State of Commodity Dependence 2014
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 202 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        The aim of The State of Commodity Dependence is to present an up-to-date overview of the commodity dependence in developing countries in a friendly and easy-to-understand manner. In fact, commodities represent an essential source of export revenues for developing countries, but they also contribute for the main part of households' and governments' income in exporting countries. Moreover, commodities are also an important problematic in terms of social and political stability as well as of development in developing countries. While the global notion of dependency is often well-known, its exact magnitude in developing countries and in the most vulnerable ones in particular, is not often well estimated. This is the purpose of the State of Commodity Dependence than to fill this information gap.

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        The State of Commodity Dependence in 2012 (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2012, 126 pages
        Categories: Commodities, International Financial System, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This document aims to provide an individual country overview of the commodity-related situation of 154 developing countries. This publication also contains graphs which present a regional and global perspective of commodity dependence in the developing world over the period 2009–2010.

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        The Statistical Tables on the Least Developed Countries 2016 (English)
        Data by UNCTAD, 2016, 33 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        The Statistical Tables on the Least Developed Countries 2016 provides a collection of statistics and indicators relevant to the analysis of development in the least developed countries (LDCs). Reliable statistical information is indispensable for formulating sound economic policies and recommendations. The tables provide policymakers, researchers, academics, officials from national governments or international organizations, journalists, executive managers and members of non-governmental organizations access to cross-comparable sets of data. The tables are available online in document and spreadsheet format.

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        Statistical Tables on the Least Developed Countries - 2018 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 36 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The Statistical Tables on the Least Developed Countries – 2018 provides a collection of statistics and indicators relevant to the analysis of development in the least developed countries (LDCs). Reliable statistical information is indispensable for formulating sound economic policies and recommendations. The tables provide policymakers, researchers, academics, officials from national governments or international organizations, journalists, executive managers and members of non-governmental organizations access to cross-comparable sets of data.

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        Statistics for International Trade in Banking Services: Requirements, Availability and Prospects (English)
        Report by Cornford, Andrew/UNCTAD, 2009, 34 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper addresses the availability of statistical data for international trade in banking services. Such data are required for WTO negotiations and the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). Following a discussion of areas of work for which data on international trade in banking services are required and of the outcome so far of international initiatives directed at the development of statistics for international trade in services, the availability of statistics relevant to the different GATS Modes of Supply of banking services of the GATS is reviewed. None of the currently available statistics under these headings provides a satisfactory measure of trade in banking services under Modes of Delivery 1 and 3 of the GATS. Thus the paper focuses on two other more promising categories of information, namely the income statements of banks, which depend on data already generated by private-sector entities, and data on trading in financial markets. In particular, the paper shows how information in the income statements can be approximately matched to the activities specified in the definition of financial services in the Annex on Financial Services of the GATS, exemplifying the argument with recent income statements of Jordanian banks.

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        Statistics for International Trade in Banking Services: Requirements, Availability and Prospects (English)
        Discussion paper by Cornford, Andrew/UNCTAD, 2009, 34 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper addresses the availability of statistical data for international trade in banking services. Such data are required for WTO negotiations and work on other aspects of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). Assessment exercises for trade in banking services, valuation of offers and commitments in negotiations, the proposed extension of GATS rules to cover emergency safeguard measures and subsidies, and decisions on compensation in dispute settlement for services under the WTO agreement are all currently handicapped by the lack of pertinent data. However, international initiatives directed at the development of statistics for international trade in services have so far failed to fill this gap. Following a discussion of areas of work for which data on international trade in banking services are required and of the outcome so far of international initiatives directed at the development of statistics for international trade in services, the availability of statistics relevant to the different GATS Modes of Supply is reviewed. These statistics include cross-border trade in financial services as classified in IMF balance-of-payments statistics, supply through the temporary presence of natural persons, local lending by international banks; FDI and cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&A) in financial services, financial output and other indicators of aggregate financial activity in national accounts and FATS statistics, and numbers and assets of foreign banks in selected countries. None of the currently available statistics under these headings provides a satisfactory measure of trade in banking services under Mode of Delivery 1 of the GATS nor one corresponding to such trade under Mode of Supply 3. The remainder of the paper focuses on two other more promising categories of information, namely the income statements of banks, which depend on data already generated by private-sector entities and data on trading in financial markets. The paper shows how information in banks’ income statements can be approximately matched to the activities specified in the definition of financial services in the Annex on Financial Services of the GATS, and exemplifies the potential of this information with recent income statements of Jordanian banks. An advantage of these income statements (as well as of the trading data) is that the measurement would depend on pre-existing work by banks and other financial systems themselves.

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        STIP Review of Lesotho: An Implementation Strategy (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2009, 104 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Science and Technology

        The present STIP Review has designed a mechanism that would proactively coordinate cross-sectoral linkages, priority setting and fund allocation. It is a mechanism for action that would have a systemic impact on the development of STI in Lesotho in that it would facilitate technology flow, ensure human capital development, engage institutions’ active contribution, promote networking and collaboration and build up the knowledge base. The expected benefits of such a mechanism correspond to the six major strategic priorities identified in a recent UNCTAD study1 for LDCs at the initial and earlier stages of technological catch-up. These are: (1) increasing agricultural productivity in basic staples; (2) promoting the formation and growth of domestic business firms; (3) increasing the absorptive capacity of domestic knowledge systems; (4) leveraging more learning from international trade and foreign direct investment (FDI); (5) fostering diversification through agricultural growth linkages and natural resource-based production clusters; and (6) upgrading export activities.

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        STRATEGY ON SOLUTIONS FOR HARMONIZING INTERNATIONAL REGULATION OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE (Volume 2 (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2006, 95 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This volume represents a further step in the development of proposals on harmonization of the regulation of production and trade in products from organic agriculture. It was commissioned by the International Task Force on Harmonization and Equivalence in Organic Agriculture (ITF), which was established by IFOAM, FAO and UNCTAD in February 2003. The main paper in this volume aims to summarise: • the current situation • the problems experienced, and • the harmonization tools available and then • establish criteria for assessing potential harmonizing models • perform an initial analysis of likely models • recommend best options where possible • develop an initial work programme to lead towards a final workable harmonized model The volume also contains the reports of the third and fourth meetings of the ITF in November 2004 and February 2005, respectively.

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        Strengthening Participation of Developing Countries in Dynamic and New Sectors of World Trade: Trends, Issues and Policies in the Electronics Sector (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD secretariat, 2005, 19 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        What: The electronic sector has developed to be on of the most dynamic sectors in world trade. Developing countries as a whole appear to have become a major player in the expanding global production networks in electronics. This paper gives an overview on trends in world trade in electronics. Furthermore, it assesses recent performances of developing countries in the international trade with electronics. Policy challenges for developing countries are outlined. Who: Teachers and students in development studies that want to focus on dynamic growth sectors for developing countries How: Can be used as a background reading. Various issues can serve as starting points for case studies. Gives interesting up-to-date tables and charts.

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        Strengthening the Creative Industries for Development - in Mozambique
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 110 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This report was prepared with the purpose to make an analytical assessment and a policy review of the current status of creative industries in Mozambique to identify key issues and formulate policy proposals to assist the government to shape a strategic plan of action aiming at building a solid basis for enhancing its creative economy for employment, trade and development gains.

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        Strengthening the Creative Industries for Development - in Zambia
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 116 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The main purpose of this study is to assist the Government of Zambia in articulating a development strategy that can optimize the economic potential of the creative sector for job creation, trade expansion and social inclusion. In addition to reviewing current policy in these areas, the report proposes a plan of action to be conducted with the support of relevant United Nations agencies, and an institutional mechanism to facilitate concerted policy actions and interministerial decisions.

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        Strengthening The Private Sector To Boost Continental Trade And Integration In Africa
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2015, 4 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Policy Reviews and Briefs, VI Members Research

        Although regional trade has contributed to sustained growth, poverty reduction and inclusive development in Latin America and Asia. In Africa the expected results have been slow to come to the fore. The weakness of the African private sector may be one important factor.

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        Structural Change and Economic Development: is Brazil Catching Up or Falling Behind? (English)
        Discussion paper by Nassif, André; Feijó, Carmem; Araújo, Eliane, 2013, 36 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper presents a Kaldor-Thirlwall theoretical and empirical framework on the basic driving forces of the behaviour of productivity and economic development in the long-run. By calculating the so- called Thirlwall equation, the main contribution of this research is to examine whether Brazil has been catching up or falling behind. The authors show some empirical evidence based on both descriptive statistics and econometric regressions for Brazil between 1970 and 2010. Some important indicators of descriptive statistics reveal that Brazil has entered into a process of early de-industrialization. In addition, since the econometric estimates also show that there was a dramatic increase in the income elasticity of demand for imports between 1980–1998 and 1999–2010 (from 1.97 to 3.36) and a small decrease in the income elasticity for exports during the same periods (from 1.36 to 1.33), the authors conclude that Brazil not only has already embarked on a trajectory of falling-behind relative to the world economy and the international economic frontier, but also that it might show, in the absence of appropriate policies, lower growth rates in the long run. However, if the opposite occurs, it would face major long-term external constraints to growth.

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        Structural Change, Global Imbalances, and Employment in the Least Developed Countries
        Policy brief by ICTSD, 2011, 8 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Economic development in the least developed countries (LDCs) is often seen as being constrained by a range of socio-economic and geophysical impediments, which have made this group of countries extremely vulnerable to external shocks. The current global economic crisis is an extreme example of such an external shock. While the group of LDCs experienced a smaller direct adverse impact of the recent financial turmoil than most other developing countries, some LDCs were also exposed to adverse impacts of increased fuel and food price volatility. These adverse effects have been reinforced by the decline in export opportunities caused by the recent weak economic performance in advanced economies.This essay addresses the effects of changes in the level and composition of global demand, and especially of global rebalancing, on trade flows and employment from a demand perspective. It emphasizes that these effects depend on the relative importance of rich and poor countries, as well as of different components of aggregate demand, in global growth. These effects, in turn, affect export opportunities of all countries, including the LDCs, as well as structural change and employment opportunities in their economies.

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        Structural Changes in Exports of an Emerging Economy : Case of Turkey
        Working paper by Saygılı, Hülya, Saygılı, Mesut, 2011, 32 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This study examines structural changes in Turkish export supply and demand functions, which can be used as a good reference in understanding the determinants of trade performance of an emerging market economy. Results show that as the export shares of new non-traditional commodities that have not only higher import and income sensitivity, but also lower real exchange rate elasticity than the traditional commodities increases, coefficients of the total export functions changes accordingly. Process of transformation accelerates during the major reform periods and economic crisis.

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        Stuck in the Middle: “Dutch Disease” and Energy-driven Diversification in Russia (English)
        Working paper by Olga Garanina/St Petersburg State University of Economics, 2013
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, VI Members Research

        The aim of the present paper is to aliment the debate on the impact of resource richness on economic development through the analysis of the Russian case. The paper identifies the patterns of the “Dutch disease” and provides the foresight on energy-driven diversification. It argues that Russia does not clearly demonstrate all symptoms of the “Dutch disease”, but neither it seems to successfully put in place a strategy of energy-driven industrial modernization.

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        Studies in Technology Transfer: Selected Cases from Argentina, China, South Africa and Taiwan Province of China (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 101 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        This paper builds on ongoing efforts by UNCTAD to investigate the role of the transfer of technology in economic development. The paper presents diverse cases which provide contrasting experiences of the role of technology transfer and absorption in the development of four different industries in economies from Africa (South Africa), Asia (Taiwan Province of China and China) and Latin America (Argentina). These studies illustrate the varying approaches that firms and industries in different countries have taken in using international and domestic transfer of technology and combining these transfers with knowledge accumulated through internal effort in order to build stronger capabilities and improve their innovation performance. These capabilities are critical to enable the upgrading of firms into more complex, skill and knowledge intensive activities, which typically add more value to local production, allow increased productivity and ultimately lead to higher wages, expanding domestic demand and growing economies.

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        Study of Average Effects of Non-tariff Measures on Trade Imports (English)
        Report by Penello Rial, Denise / UNCTAD, 2014, 28 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Newly collected data in UNCTAD’s Trade Analysis and In formation System (TRAINS)database on non-tariff measures (NTMs) offers the possibility to assess its impact on trade. The approach chosen is using a frequency count, which is the number of NTM on a single product. This novel method can be relevant if one can assume that NTM do have a cost for exporters, even if that cost is unknown. The key concept is the average cost of any NTM. This analysis checks whether more measures imposed on a single product, will increase difficulty for exporters to comply with all requisites and still being able to export competitively. European imports of agri-food products (at 4 digit level) is analysed, and data suggests that higher frequency of SPS measures may be significant to influence European imports from all countries, and it impacts LDC in special, particularly those in Africa. Exports could be reduced by around 3 per cent for all countries, and almost 5 per cent for LDC countries for each additional SPS requirement in the importing country. Countries in Asia do not seem to be affected, but this is probably because of trade patterns, since European Union is not a major market for agri-food exports coming from those countries. Other middle income countries are affected in a lesser way. This fact gives strength to the idea that the higher income in a country, the more resources are available to the companies operating in their territory to overcome obstacles posed by NTM in partner markets and continue exporting. Even in the evidence that NT M may negatively affect trade, negotiation for reduction, harmonization or elimination is not automatic or even desirable. Some policy implications are discussed based on the conclusions.

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        Study on Prospects for Harmonizing Cyberlegislation in Latin America (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2010, 73 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy

        The development of e-commerce and the increasing interaction between enterprises and government agencies via electronic means call for a regulatory framework that promotes secure online transactions and provides legal security for those opting to use electronic means rather than conventional means of communication. Since 2003, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) has been active in providing cooperation and technical assistance to governments of developing countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America, for the purpose of developing legal frameworks to regulate ICT use. One of the principal objectives of UNCTAD is to provide technical assistance to those countries for developing public policy and regulation, based on international best practices that encourage the development of e-commerce and e-government services.

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        Subsidies to services sectors: a neo-protectionist distortion or a useful development tool (English)
        Report by Alberto Gabriele, UNCTAD, 2003, 43 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: Key document that examines from a conceptual and policy economy point of view the consequences of subsidies in services trade. It also presents a quantitative analysis of the effects of subsidies and the risks and opportunities for developing countries. Who: Essential document for a research or for further reading for students. How: Provides a high quality analysis based on conceptual and policy economy implications.

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        Supply Chain Perspectives and Issues: A Literature Review (English)
        Book by WTO, FUNG, 2013, 234 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Enterprise Development

        A literature reviw on various topics related to supply chains in the economics literature such as Supply chains in the business literature, offshoring, risk in supply chains, SMEs, services, value-added and sustainability. It also gives an overview on recent business models, trade policy and finance.

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        Supply Chains in Export Agriculture, Competition, and Poverty in Sub-saharan Africa (English)
        Book by Porto, Guido, Depetris Chauvin, Nicolas, Olarreaga, Marcelo / World Bank, 2011, 290 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Competitiveness, Globalization and Development Strategies

        In this book, we study how the internal structure of export markets and the level of competition affect poverty and welfare in remote rural areas in Africa. In sub-Saharan Africa, rural poverty is a widespread phenomenon. While most farmers produce for home consumption, some are engaged in high-value export agriculture. Here, we focus on export crops such as coffee, cotton, cocoa, and tobacco. For many African countries, these crops, which are typically produced by smallholders, are a major source of export revenue. In consequence, changes in export prices and in the conditions faced in export markets (both internally and externally) can play a big role in shaping poverty in the region. Traditionally, the literature has focused on how external conditions affect poverty, for example by addressing whether agricultural subsidies in the developed world affect world prices and how this in turn affects farm-gate prices. Our objective in this book is to explore domestic factors. In particular, we investigate the role played by the structure of competition in export agriculture supply chains.

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        Survey of Best Practices in Investment Promotion (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2001, 50 pages
        Categories: Investment

        The objective of the survey forming the basis of this study was to provide comparative data on investment promotion practice in as large a number of countries as possible with differing economic strengths, developmental levels, resource endowments, geographical locations, policies and experiences. This study is a first step towards developing criteria regarding what constitutes best practice in investment promotion.

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        Survey of good practice in public-private sector dialogue (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2001, 42 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development

        What: An effective policy for the development of SMEs needs to focus on identifying real constraints and determine how these could be realistically addressed. The most productive and reliable way of identifying such constraints and possible solutions is through public–private sector interaction and dialogue. UNCTAD undertook a survey of good practice and set up a project entitled “Enhancing public–private sector dialogue in LDCs”. This survey aims to distil key principles of effective dialogue that will serve as benchmarks for evaluating the practice of public–private sector dialogue and interaction. Who: Useful for anyone teaching on how to strengthen public–private sector interaction. How: Can be used as by teachers to assign students to conduct surveys using this model.

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        Survival Analysis of the Exports of Least Developed Countries: The Role of Comparative Advantage (English)
        Working paper by Alessandro Nicita, Miho Shirotori, Bolormaa Tumurchudur Klok, 2013, 26 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper investigates whether comparative advantage affects the duration of exports from least developed countries. The research finds that exports of products that are close to the country’s comparative advantage are likely to be more durable.

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        Sustainable Bioenergy Development in Uemoa Member Countries
        Report by ICTSD; the UN Foundation and the Energy and Security Group, 2008, 152 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        This report, led by the UN Foundation, in partnership with the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development and the Energy and Security Group, identifies opportunities, assesses constraints, identifies trade-offs, and outlines key policy issues for promoting sustainable production and use of bioenergy in the eight member countries of UEMOA. It also provides appropriate data to guide governments and international organizations as they consider smallholder production schemes to broaden the use of bioenergy as part of a comprehensive agriculture sector strategy, while reducing poverty and arresting environmental degradation.

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        Sustainable Development in International Intellectual Property Law (English)
        Working paper by UNCTAD, 2010, 47 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law

        In international law, the concept of sustainable development has an ambiguous meaning and several distinct connotations. Among these, the principle of integration and reconciliation of economic, social and environmental interests functions as a core element. The relevant literature states that institutions, economic policy and geography are the three most important determinants of a country’s economic performance. The purpose of this paper is to further investigate the institutions hypothesis.

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        A Sustainable Development Review Process
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2015, 4 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs

        In negotiating the post-2015 development agenda, it is crucial that the international community also seek a framework that will help countries to deliver that agenda. One of the steps will be to monitor and review results. By monitoring and reviewing, countries can assess, according to their own specificities, the effectiveness of policies and partnerships and ultimately the transformational impact of the sustainable development goals at the national, regional and global levels. This conceptualization of a review process can be converted into a tangible and workable framework within the United Nations system. This policy brief elaborates the objectives, guiding principles and organizational framework within the United Nations system of such a process.

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        Sustainable Development Through Policy Integration in Latin America. A Comparative Approach
        Report by Rival, Laura, 2012, 24 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Environment

        This paper examines how social and political actors in Brazil and in Ecuador propose to govern natural resource use sustainably, and how they work at building an alternative political economy based on ecosystem protection, biodiversity, renewable energy use and poverty reduction.

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        Sustainable Fisheries: International Trade, Trade Policy and Regulatory Issues (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2016, 42 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This note proposes an agenda for sustainable fisheries that promotes the conservation and sustainable use of, and sustained trade in, fish by all and ensures that development benefits accrue to fishing nations and their populations, in developing countries in particular. It provides a stock-taking of the present situation regarding fish, and a forward-looking view on future actions that need to be supported by renewed mandates for action by governments, the private sector and other fisheries stakeholders.

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        Sustaining Peacebuilding and Post-Conflict Recovery Through Biotrade: Lessons from Indonesia and Colombia (English)
        Report by Castro, Lorena/UNCTAD, 2016, 35 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Biodiversity is life's foundation as it provides resources for basic human needs, environmental services such as protecting water sources, and natural raw materials that enable the development of products and services. Around 1.6 billion people depend on forests and non-timber forest products (NTFPs) for their livelihoods. The importance of biodiversity is also increasingly recognized in business. It is not only seen as a source of natural inputs for development but also a business opportunity for capturing consumer preferences for socially, environmentally and health-friendly products. This study discusses the different approaches being used by the BioTrade Initiative and its partners in the sustainable management of biodiversity, trading its derived products and services, and promoting peaceful and inclusive societies in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The first chapter highlights the linkages between trade, biodiversity and peaceful, inclusive societies which are important goals in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. It is followed by an analysis of the different methodologies used to promote BioTrade in support of peacebuilding efforts. The next two chapters analyse case studies and lessons learned from leveraging BioTrade in peacebuilding in Indonesia and Colombia, respectively. The final chapter concludes with some recommendations on strengthening the contribution BioTrade can make to peacebuilding efforts in post-conflict settings.

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        Sustaining Peacebuilding and Post-Conflict Recovery Through Biotrade: Lessons from Indonesia and Colombia (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 35 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Trade and Environment

        This study discusses the different approaches being used by the BioTrade Initiative and its partners in the sustainable management of biodiversity, trading its derived products and services, and promoting peaceful and inclusive societies in Africa, Asia and Latin America. The first chapter highlights the linkages between trade, biodiversity and peaceful, inclusive societies which are important goals in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (Secretariat of the CBD, 2015c). It is followed by an analysis of the different methodologies used to promote BioTrade in support of peacebuilding efforts. The two following chapters analyse case studies and lessons learned from leveraging BioTrade in peacebuilding in Indonesia and Colombia, respectively. The final chapter concludes with some recommendations on strengthening the contribution BioTrade can make to peacebuilding efforts in post-conflict settings.

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        Swimming in the spaghetti bowl: challenges for developing countries under the "new regionalism" (English)
        Other by Luis Abugattas Majluf, 2004, 34 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: This paper present the new challenges for developing countries in the context of regional integration and multilateral negotiations and the implications for their development perspectives. It focuses on the issue of preferential trade in services to study its compatibility with the GATS provisions. Who: Students and teachers interested in the new regionalism and its consequences. How: Presentation of new regionalism and opportunities for developing countries that could be used as a basis for a course.

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        The Synchronized and Long-lasting Structural Change on Commodity Markets: Evidence from High Frequency Data (English)
        Working paper by Bicchetti, David and Maystre, Nicolas / UNCTAD, 2012, 35 pages
        Categories: Commodities, International Financial System

        This paper analyses the intraday co-movements between returns on several commodity markets and on the stock market in the United States over the 1997- 2011 period. By exploiting a new high frequency database, we compute various rolling correlations. Using this database, we document a synchronized structural break, characterized by a departure from zero, which starts in the course of 2008 and continues thereafter. This is consistent with the idea that recent financial innovations on commodity futures exchanges, in particular the high frequency trading activities and algorithm strategies have an impact on these correlations.

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        Synthèse De La CNUCED, No. 2, Comment S'attaquer à La Crise Alimentaire Mondiale (English)
        Policy brief by CNUCED, 2008, 2 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The UNCTAD policy briefs are intended to share the results of UNCTAD research and analysis on new and emerging trade and development issues with policy makers and researchers, especially in developing countries. This policy brief addresses the systemic causes of the crisis and identifies strategic policy measures - such as boosting investment, innovation and productivity growth - for creating a more robust and sustainable framework for global agricultural production and trade.

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        Synthèse De La CNUCED, No.6, Soutenir L'agriculture Biologique En Afrique (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2009, 2 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Environment

        Agriculture has returned to the centre of international policy debates. Years of declining investment, inadequate extension services and the availability of subsidized food exports from the developed world have undermined agricultural production in many developing countries, particularly in Africa. This Policy Brief examines the potential contribution of organic agriculture.

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