A partnership with academia

Building knowledge for trade and development

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        Tales from the Development Frontier : How China and Other Countries Harness Light Manufacturing to Create Jobs and Prosperity (English)
        Book by World Bank, 2013, 555 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Globalization and Development Strategies, Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation

        This work describes how most developing countries have had little success in raising the share of manufacturing in production, employment, or exports. It sheds light on manufacturing clusters in several Asian and African countries and focuses on the six main binding constraints to competitiveness such as availability, cost, and quality of inputs; access to industrial land; access to finance; trade logistics; entrepreneurial capabilities, both technical and managerial; and worker skills. The volume systematically explores potential growth opportunities in industries: agribusiness, apparel, leather goods, wood working, and metal products.

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        Tariff Preferences As a Determinant for Exports from Sub-saharan Africa (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2013, 30 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper examines the impact of market access conditions as a determinant of exports from sub-Saharan Africa. The analysis focuses on tariffs and considers both direct market access (the tariffs faced by exports from sub-Saharan Africa) and relative market access conditions (the preferential margin of African exports relative to that of other competitors). The results find that both direct market access conditions and relative market access conditions matter, although relative market access conditions matter in a larger number of cases. This suggests that the exports from the countries of sub-Saharan Africa often face more competition from foreign competitors than from domestic industries in their destination markets. It also finds that, given the relatively large tariffs currently applied to intraregional trade, complete tariff liberalization within the countries of sub-Saharan Africa represents a significant incentive for intraregional trade.

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        Tariffs, Taxes and Electronic Commerce: Revenue Implications for Developing Countries (English)
        Report by Susanne Teltscher, UNCTAD, 2000, 66 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: Within the last decade, cross-border electronic commerce has increased substantially. So far, it is operating in a tax- and tariff-free environment. Especially for developing countries a major concern is the potential loss in tax and tariff revenues. This paper offers a review on the classification of e-commerce and summarizes the debate on how to tax e-commerce. Data on potential revenue losses from import duties on goods that have formerly been traded physically and increasingly are imported digitally. The paper provides a solid review on some of the complex issues related to e-commerce taxation. Who: For anyone dealing with the topic on e-commerce taxation and its implications for developing countries. How: Can be used as a background reading. The annex offers excellent data for further research.

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        Tax Incentives and Foreign Direct Investment, A Global Survey (English)
        Other by UNCTAD, 2000, 177 pages
        Categories: Investment

        A survey of tax incentive regimes in over 45 countries from all regions of the world. Nearly all countries surveyed offer incentives that target specific sectors and around 70% also offer regional incentives aimed at assisting the economic development of rural or underdeveloped areas. · Tax officials and managers, policymakers, and specialists who formulate or evaluate tax incentive programs will find the study beneficial, as will anyone interested in the economics of tax policy as a tool for investment promotion and economic development. · Main contents: I: Objectives of tax incentives, Issues relating to tax incentives, Classification, Design and administration, Home country measures and tax treaties; II: Survey: Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Europe and Economies in Transition, Latin America.

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        Technology and Innovation Report 2010: Enhancing food security in Africa through science, technology and innovation (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 124 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Science and Technology

        UNCTAD’s Technology and Innovation Report 2010 focuses on the technological challenges that small-holder farmers in developing countries, especially sub-Saharan Africa, face in increasing agricultural productivity. It outlines the agricultural sector’s challenges and the roles of technology and innovation in raising production and the income of small-holder farmers. It also describes readily available technologies that can be applied now to improve soils, manage water shortages and resist drought.

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        Technology and Innovation Report 2011: Powering Development with Renewable Energy Technologies (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 179 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade and Environment

        The TIR11 focuses on the role of renewable energy technologies in responding to the dual challenge of reducing energy poverty while mitigating climate change. The Report identifies key capacity issues for developing countries and proposes concrete recommendations for the wider use of renewable energy technologies to promote sustainable development and poverty reduction.

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        Technology and Innovation Report 2012 - Innovation, Technology and South-South Collaboration (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 164 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Science and Technology

        UNCTAD’s Technology and Innovation Report 2012 focuses on how South-South collaboration can help address key capacity questions faced by developing countries.

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        Technology and Innovation Report 2012 - Innovation, Technology and South-south Collaboration (overview)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2012, 36 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        UNCTAD’s Technology and Innovation Report 2012 focuses on how South-South collaboration can help address key capacity questions faced by developing countries.

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        Technology and Innovation Report 2015 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 142 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Science and Technology, Trade Related Capacity Building

        In the 2015 Technology and Innovation Report subtitled ‘Fostering Innovation Policies for Industrial Development’ addresses the urgency of building productive capacities and promoting sustainable industrialization in development. It analyzes the crucial role of technological learning and innovation capacity, and helps to address some of the questions that policymakers face when seeking to forge new paths to secure a prosperous future for their people. The report argues that sustainable industrialization is not solely limited to environmental sustainability, but refers to efforts that are technology-led, productivity enhancing and poverty-reducing. It is based on the understanding that no industrial policy is complete without an accompanying innovation policy.

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        Technology and Innovation Report 2015 (Overview) (English)
        Also available in Spanish, Russian
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 30 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade Related Capacity Building

        This overview of the 2015 Technology and Innovation Report subtitled ‘Fostering Innovation Policies for Industrial Development’ summarizes the key findings presented in the Report. It addresses the urgency of building productive capacities and promoting sustainable industrialization in development. It analyzes the crucial role of technological learning and innovation capacity, and helps to address some of the questions that policymakers face when seeking to forge new paths to secure a prosperous future for their people. The report argues that sustainable industrialization is not solely limited to environmental sustainability, but refers to efforts that are technology-led, productivity enhancing and poverty-reducing. It is based on the understanding that no industrial policy is complete without an accompanying innovation policy.

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        Technology and Innovation Report 2018: Harnessing Frontier Technologies for Sustainable Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 134 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        The Technology and Innovation Report 2018: Harnessing Frontier Technologies for Sustainable Development notes that change is becoming exponential thanks to the power of digital platforms and innovative combinations of different technologies that become possible every day. This opens exciting possibilities for the democratization of frontier technologies to materialize in development solutions. The Report proposes strategies and actions, some of them based on existing experiences in STI policy for development, and some more innovative ones to make technology an effective means of implementation of our common development agenda – nationally and globally.

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        Technology and Innovation Report 2018 - Harnessing Frontier Technologies for Sustainable Development - Overview (English)
        Also available in Arabic, French, Chinese
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 19 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        The Technology and Innovation Report 2018: Harnessing Frontier Technologies for Sustainable Development notes that change is becoming exponential thanks to the power of digital platforms and innovative combinations of different technologies that become possible every day. This opens exciting possibilities for the democratization of frontier technologies to materialize in development solutions. The Report proposes strategies and actions, some of them based on existing experiences in STI policy for development, and some more innovative ones to make technology an effective means of implementation of our common development agenda – nationally and globally.

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        Technology in Action: Good Practices in Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for Women in South Asia (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 38 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade and Gender

        This report was elaborated based on a comprehensive analysis of secondary literature on programmes and policies on gender, STI and other sectors conducted in the region by local governments in collaboration with international agencies and other organizations. The experiences presented in this report show that STI policies usually contribute to improving the livelihoods of women and enhancing gender equality through the following mechanisms: introducing and diffusing technological and scientific developments that improve the life of women; creating and strengthening, both directly and indirectly, capacities related to STI; and introducing financial innovations such as microcredit and related skills for entrepreneurs.

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        Technology Transfer Issues in Environmental Goods and Services: An Illustrative Analysis of Sectors Relevant to Air-pollution and Renewable Energy (English)
        Report by Lynn Mytelka, 2007, 49 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade and Environment

        Environmental goods and services (EGS) as a subset of goods and services was singled out for attention in the negotiating mandate adopted at the Fourth Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in November 2001. This paper argues that much can be done within EGS and other areas of WTO negotiations, illustrating through various examples and case studies, the impediments countries face in obtaining meaningful access to environmentally sound technologies (ESTs). It goes on to question whether it is feasible to expect the Doha WTO negotiating process to deliver more on the technology transfer front than has so far been achieved. The paper concludes that there are still other aspects of the mandate and the process of negotiating trade that could be rethought from a broader technology transfer and sustainable development perspective. These involve recognizing the “public goods” element inherent in many ESTs and to open up opportunities for learning and capacity building and enhanced response capabilities in developing countries through flexibility, special and differential treatment and technical assistance. The paper calls for the identification of areas where such opportunities could be pursued, not only in EGS negotiations, but also in other areas of discussions such as subsidies, agriculture and Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights. The paper is part of a series of issue papers commissioned in the context of ICTSD’s Environmental Goods and Services Project.

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        Testing the Convergence of Theory and Empirical Evidence on the Determinants of Export Performance: Lessons from Tanzania (English)
        Study by george gandye, 2008
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research

        What determines export performance in Tanzania is the main thrust of this study. This paper briefly surveys literature on the determinants of export performance in general and within the framework of supply capacity and foreign market access various variables are established and tested. Using gravity model a regression analysis is run for the period of thirty years and the result is as anticipated to depict a positive relationship between dependent and the explanatory variable with exception of macro - economic condition and trade fairs. The former reflects the fact that International trade performance demand economic efficiency to ensure long term gains which can partly be derived from better macro economic management and not necessarily the devaluation of currency and the latter depict minimal strategic implementation of trade fairs to promote export oriented products leading to a “fun fairs” kind of trade fair. However, while the relation for other variables remained positive the level of significance has largely been low an indication that the explanatory variable have not sufficiently influenced the dependent variable. Thus, it is notably to recognize that these pillars essential to address the supply side constraints are so embedded and got to be improved in an integrated manner if at all Tanzania is to perform in the external sector given the potential market access.

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        Third Report on G20 Investment Measures
        Report by OECD; UNCTAD, 2010, 35 pages
        Categories: Investment

        At the London and Pittsburgh Summits, G20 Leaders have committed to forego protectionism and have requested public reports on their adherence to this commitment. The document is the third report on investment and investment-related measures in response to this mandate. It has been prepared jointly by the OECD and UNCTAD Secretariats and covers investment and investment-related measures taken between November 2009 and May 2010.

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        Three Essays in Development Economics (English)
        Article by Ersado, Lire, 2001, 118 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Competitiveness, VI Members Research

        Dissertation exploring household risk and savings behavior in Zimbabwe, and agricultural technology adoption, and the impact of public investments on the economy and community health in Ethiopia.

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        Timeliness and Contract Enforceability in Intermediate Goods Trade (English)
        Working paper by Gamberoni, Elisa, Lanz, Rainer, Piermartini, Roberta,, 2010, 26 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper shows that the institutional environment and the ability to export on time are sources of comparative advantage as important as factors of production. In particular, the ability to export on time is crucial to explain comparative advantage in intermediate goods. These findings underscore the importance of investing in infrastructure and fostering trade facilitation to boost a country's participation in production networks. Furthermore, we contribute to the so-called "distance puzzle" by showing that the increasing importance of distance over time is in part driven by trade in intermediate goods.

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        Tool Box for Policy Coherence in Access to Medicines and Local Pharmaceutical Production (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 67 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy

        The present document seeks to provide interested governments with an overview of policy tools that may be considered to create a framework conducive for promoting local pharmaceutical production and access to medicines. As the promotion of local pharmaceutical production depends on the coordination of various areas of policy, such as drug regulation, research and development, investment, trade and intellectual property, the Tool Box emphasizes the importance of ensuring coherence among policies that at first sight appear unrelated to each other. It seeks to assist policy makers in understanding the cross cutting nature of promoting local production. The Tool Box provides a brief presentation of the most relevant policy tools in this regard. The Tool Box does not attempt to resolve the question of desirability of local production as compared to the importation of medicines. It is addressed to those governments that have made the policy decision to promote local manufacturing and that wish to prepare a framework for sustainable production and, to the greatest possible extent, increased access to medicines.

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        Toward a Conceptual Framework and Public Policy agenda for the Information Society in Latin America (English)
        Case study by ECLAC Division of Production, Productivity and Management, 2002, 60 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: Both a conceptual analysis of what is the information society (knowledge and information, the development of ICTs, etc.) and a concrete presentation of how (through different steps) an information society could be built in Latin American countries. The latter chapter uses the concepts introduced in the former. Who: Students or teachers in ICT theory or ICT policies or in economics (especially interested in Latin America). How: A sound introduction to ICTs, following both a theoretical approach, and an applied one (a case study on policy-making on ICTs in Latin America).

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        Toward Gender Equality in East Asia and the Pacific -a Companion to the World Development Report (English)
        Report by The World Bank, 2012, 272 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender

        This report examines the gender dimensions of several emerging trends in the region—increased global economic integration, the rising use of information and communication technologies, migration, urbanization, and rapid population aging.

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        Towards a Knowledge-based Economy - Europe and Central Asia: Internet Development and Governance (English)
        Report by Kapitsa, Larissa/ UNECE, 2008, 115 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology

        This report represents a brief review of the status and trends in the area of ICT and Internet development in the UNECE region and provides background information on the state of the art in some relevant ICT subsectors in the Member States. The report focuses on the state of the Internet critical resources and, consequently, on the ICT and Internet penetration across countries and social groups. It also looks into existing Internet governance arrangements and makes some recommendations. The report contains three parts and conclusions. The first part, Towards a Knowledge-based Economy: Progress Assessment, highlights the situation in the region with regards to the digital divide, both between and within countries, and national strategies and actions aiming at overcoming barriers to accessing the Internet. The second part, Internet Development: Current State of Critical Internet Resources in the UNECE Region, concentrates on reviewing the physical Internet backbone, interconnection and connectivity within the Internet in the UNECE member States. The third part, Governing the Evolving Internet in the UNECE Region, focuses on the issues of Internet governance in the countries of the region, challenges faced by the countries and participation of key stakeholders in ICT and Internet policy formulation and implementation. The final part contains conclusions and recommendations.

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        Towards a new paradigm for development: Strategies, policies, and process (English)
        Presentation by Dr. Joseph E. Stiglitz, 2000, 30 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Finance for Development

        What: This lecture sets out the foundations of an alternative paradigm to the well-documented failures of the Washington consensus, one which is based on a broad conception of development, offering a different perspective on the role of international assistance and the ways in which it should be delivered. It starts by describing this broader vision and then goes on to explain why not only the Washington consensus but also earlier development paradigms failed: they viewed development too narrowly. It identifies some of the key factors including recent events in East Asia and the Russian Federation that helped us to realize the inadequacies of the old approaches. It outlines the key principles and major components of a development strategy based on this broader vision of development. It concludes with some general observations, focusing on the importance of trade and the work of UNCTAD in furthering development based on this new paradigm. Who: For teachers and students of development strategies. How: Can be used as a background reading material on development approaches and issues.

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        Towards Coherent Policy Frameworks: Understanding Trade and Investment Linkages (English)
        Book by UNESCAP, 2007, 231 pages
        Categories: Investment, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The publication brings together a number of papers that highlight the increasing significance of trade and investment linkages and their effect on the development of domestic industries and services. The first two chapters focus on investment provisions and regulation through trade agreements, while the third chapter concentrates on the issue of rules of origin in those agreements and the need for more coherent and harmonized approaches to the design of those rules. The fourth chapter explores in some detail the interactions between foreign direct investment flows and import and export flows using a gravity model approach. Chapters V and VI are country case studies that examine the linkages between trade and investment liberalization and the development of small- and medium-sized enterprises in Indonesia, and education services in Malaysia, respectively. The last Chapter examines the drivers of outward foreign direct investment from the developing economies in the region.

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        Towards E-Commerce Legal Harmonization in the Caribbean (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 53 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This publication provides up-to-date information on the legal framework of Caribbean countries following the Regional Workshop on E-Commerce Legislation Harmonization in the Caribbean held from 29 September to 2 October 2015. The report examines the legal and regulatory framework for e-commerce in 10 countries: Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Costa Rica, Cuba, El Salvador, Jamaica, Santa Lucia, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago. It examines progress made by the countries in regard to electronic transactions/electronic signatures, online protection of consumers, protection of personal data, industrial and intellectual property, domain names, cybercrime, security of information and pending legislation and challenges.

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        Towards More Balanced Growth Strategies in Developing Countries: Issues Related to Market Size, Trade Balances and Purchasing Power
        Paper by Jörg Mayer/UNCTAD, 2013, 42 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy

        Concentrating on household consumption, the paper shows that the sales potential in some large emerging economies is approaching that in developed countries but also that imports might meet most new domestic consumption demand. Sustaining a shift towards a more balanced growth path requires changes in the production structure, fostered by product innovation, to make domestic production patterns better correspond to newly emerging demand patterns. The associated new employment and wage opportunities would allow realizing emerging sales potentials through rising incomes, rather than rising household debt.

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        Toyota's strategy towards SME suppliers (English)
        Case study by Yoshiaki Muramatsu, 2000
        Categories: Enterprise Development

        What: This paper analyses Toyota’s co-operation with SME suppliers in Thailand and its selection parameters are quality, cost, technological capabilities and reliability, as well as the entrepreneur’s ability to implement a kaizen strategy, which means the continued improvement and enhancement of products, services and management. Realising that the company’s success depends to a considerable extent on a strong network of quality suppliers, Toyota Thailand has played an active role in this restructuring process. Who: Useful for anyone teaching and/or studying synergies between TNCs and SMEs. How: Can be used as a background reading of a case study on a TNC's experience.

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        Trade alone is not enough (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2004
        Categories: Trade and Poverty, Vi Meetings

        An information note from UNCTAD about the Least Developed Countries Report 2004 and its focus on poverty reduction. This note provides additional background to the presentation and paper of Charles Gore at the VI member meeting July 2004.

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        Trade and Biodiversity: The Biotrade Experiences in Latin America
        Paper by UNCTAD, 2012, 64 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        This paper illustrates the potential for developing Sustainable Environment Management practices such as BioTrade in Latin America. In 2008, these practices had already generated over $230 million in exports of sustainably-produced products and services derived for Latin American’s biodiversity. These results are presented through case studies built on the experiences of BioTrade practitioners and programmes at the national, regional and international levels

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        Trade and Climate Change (English)
        Report by WTO / UNEP, 2009, 194 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        Mitigating global warming and adapting to its consequences will require major economic investment and, above all, unequivocal determination on the part of policy-makers. This joint report of the WTO Secretariat and the UNEP reviews how trade and climate change policies interact and how they can be mutually supportive. It examines the intersections between trade and climate change from four different but correlated perspectives: - the science of climate change, - trade theory, - multilateral efforts to tackle climate change, and - national climate change policies and their effect on trade. The report also reviews extensively two particular types of pricing mechanisms that have been used to reduce greenhouse gas emissions: taxes and emissions trading systems. Furthermore, it emphasises the need for a scientifically-credible and equitable deal at the UN Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen at the end of this year.

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        Trade and Development Report, 1981-2011: Three Decades of Thinking Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 138 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, International Financial System

        This review traces the key issues relating to the global economy and development strategies that have been addressed in UNCTAD’s Trade and Development Reports (TDRs) over the past three decades. It also intends to show how ideas, opinions and proposals expressed in the TDR, and the analytical approaches used, differed from those of proponents of “the mainstream” and how they evolved in response to new challenges arising from developments in the world economy.

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        Trade and Development Report 1996, Chapter VI: Rethinking policies for development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 1999, 20 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy

        What: This chapter argues that development thinking and policies will need a radical review if developing countries are to be assured better growth prospects, narrow the income gap with the advanced industrial countries, and remove the scourge of widespread and persistent poverty. Policies need to be reoriented to regulate capital flows and establish competitive industries that will not only increase exports but also reduce the import content of growth. However, action by developing countries alone cannot provide the whole solution. Serious attention should also be paid to the systemic biases and asymmetries in the workings of the international trading system which limit their growth prospects. The successful pursuit of outward-oriented policies also requires greater openness of markets in industrial countries to their exports, all the more so in view of the current "aid fatigue" and the failure of private financial markets to provide adequate development finance. Who: For teachers, students and researchers focusing on development issues and strategies. How: Can be used as a background reading material or for research work on strategies and policies for development.

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        Trade and Development Report 1996: Responding to the new global environment (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 1996, 18 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: In the 1960s and 1970s, East Asian countries achieved an effective transition from poor economies depending on natural resources to economies engaging successfully in labour-intensive manufacturing. This chapter deals with the possibilities for developing countries to replicate the process of export-oriented industrialization achieved by East Asian countries. Due to a new global environment this replication of the East Asian success is considered to be difficult. Nonetheless the importance of outward-oriented industrialization is underlined. Who: Useful for students and teachers that deal with development strategies for developing countries. How: Can serve as a starting point for discussions on the effectiveness of different development strategies for developing countries. Furthermore, with additional background reading case studies for different world regions and their development strategies could be derived.

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        Trade and Development Report 1998: International financial instability and the East Asian crisis (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 1998, 59 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, International Financial System

        This chapter of the Trade and Development Report 1998 seeks to explain the East Asian crisis of 1997 in the context of the increase in systemic global financial instability. It examines various elements that have characterized financial crises since 1970, identifying the factors that have created financial vulnerability in East Asia and spread it throughout the region and globally. It argues that there is clear evidence that the policy response to the 1997 crisis contributed to its severity, and sets out the social consequences of the crisis. The chapter concludes with a brief discussion of the general implications of the crisis for the East Asian model of economic development. Who: For lecturers, researchers and/or students of finance. How: A very good reading material on international financial instability. The report provides lots of reference materials.

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        Trade and Development Report 1999, Chapter IV - Payment deficits, liberalization, and growth in developing countries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 1999, 20 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: This chapter re-examines the so-called two-gap approach to explain the link between external payments and economic growth in developing countries. Central to this approach is the notion that capital inflows enable developing countries to fill their foreign-exchange gap, allowing imports, investment, income and savings to be raised above the levels otherwise constrained by export earnings. This chapter also examines the evolution of the relationship between economic growth and external trade and payments in developing countries over the past three decades. It focuses its attention focuses on a number of common external factors which are believed to have influenced the trade and growth performance of a large number of developing countries, such as world demand, trends in the terms of trade, and trade and financial liberalization in developing countries. Who: For teachers, students and researchers focusing on payment deficits, liberalization and growth in developing countries. How: Can be used as a background reading material or for research work on payment, deficits, liberalization and development issues.

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        Trade and Development Report 2001, Chapter V: Exchange rate regimes and the scope for regional cooperation (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2001, 21 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Macroeconomic Policy

        What: This chapter discusses the various choices and difficulties developing countries and economies in transition encounter in determining an appropriate exchange rate regime. According to the report the key question is whether there exists a viable and appropriate exchange rate regime for developing and transition economies that are closely integrated into global financial markets when major reserve currencies are subject to frequent gyrations and misalignments, and when the size and speed of international capital movements can very quickly overwhelm the authorities in such countries and narrow their policy options. It also reviews the recent debate on the reform of the international financial architecture in view of the contribution of developing countries and economies in transition to external vulnerability, and currency and financial crises. As arrangements at a global level for a stable system of exchange rates are not foreseeable in the near future, the report questions whether viable solutions can be found at the regional level by looking into the post-Bretton Woods experience of Europe. Who: For researchers, teachers and students on exchange rate regimes. How: An authoritative report that can be used as a background reading.

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        Trade and Development Report 2001, Chapter VI: Crisis management and burden sharing (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2001, 23 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy

        What: There is a growing body of opinion that effective management of financial crises in emerging markets requires a judicious combination of action on three fronts: a domestic macroeconomic policy response; timely and adequate provision of international liquidity; and the involvement of the private sector. The international policy response to the Asian crisis was far from optimal as an undue burden was placed on domestic policies; rather than restoring confidence and stabilizing markets, hikes in interest rates and fiscal austerity served to deepen the recession and aggravate the financial problems of private debtors. The issues of private sector involvement and provision of official assistance in crisis management and resolution have therefore been high on the agenda in the debate on reform of the international financial architecture and this chapter seeks to address this problem by defining the state of play, examining the issues that remain to be resolved and assessing various options proposed. Who: For teachers, students and researchers focusing on management of financial crisis. How: Can be used as a background reading material or for research work on international and national policy responses to financial crisis.

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        Trade and Development Report 2002, Chapter IV: Competition and the fallacy of composition (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2002, 29 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: This chapter identifies the problems that developing countries face when they move to labour-intensive manufacturing exports, particularly of them becoming oversupplied, (the fallacy of composition) and highlights the appropriate policy responses in the design of export-oriented development strategies. This chapter also reviews the empirical evidence concerning the behaviour of manufacturing terms of trade of developing countries vis-à-vis industrial countries over the past two decades. The analysis in this chapter shows that trade barriers in industrial countries discriminate against developing country manufactures, and that their removal could greatly increase the demand for these products. Who: For teachers and/or researchers focusing on problems developing countries encounter in exporting their manufactures to developed economies. How: Can be used as a background reading on developing economies labour-intensive manufactures exports and trade barriers

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        Trade and Development Report 2003, Chapter V: Industrialization, Trade and Structural Change (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2003, 37 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: Long-term economic success depends on sustained improvements in productivity; each worker producing more from any given level of effort provides the basis for rising incomes and living standards. In this sense, it is productivity gains, and not simply additional jobs, that characterize a virtuous process of accumulation and growth. This chapter assesses how the main factors associated with building and maintaining industrial capacity, productivity and patterns of trade have changed in developing countries over the past two decades. Particular attention is given to changes in international specialization within the industrial sector through upgrading. The chapter compares and contrasts the performance of economies in East Asia and Latin America and, to a lesser extent, Africa, with respect to structural change, productivity growth, international competitiveness and trade. Who: For teachers, students and researchers focusing on industrialization, productivity and growth. How: Can be used as a background reading or for research work on strategies for sustainable development.

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        Trade and Development Report 2003, Chapter VI - Policy reforms and economic performance: The Latin American experience (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2003, 24 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy

        What: This chapter argues that policy orientation in Latin American countries has failed to produce an appropriate macroeconomic environment for investors and firms to encourage and support the creation and expansion of productive capacity and the improvement of productivity and international competitiveness. Neither has it been able to provide effective policy interventions at the sectoral or micro levels of the kind practised in East Asia. This chapter examines the salient features of the policy reforms and economic performances of Latin American countries from a comparative historical perspective. It examines the evolution of economic policy in the region and analyses the dilemmas generated by the new policy approach with regard to macroeconomic management, structural adjustment and development. Finally, it discusses the options available for removing some key constraints on policy actions. Who: For teachers, students and researchers focusing on policy reform and economic performance in Latin America. How: As a background reading or for research work on the Latin American experience of structural adjustments, policy reforms and changes to their development strategy.

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        Trade and Development Report 2004, Chapter 1 - The World Economy: Performance and prospects (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 44 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        What: This chapter of UNCTAD's flagship annual Report on Trade and Development 2004 analyses the performance of the world economy in 2003 and its prospects for the future. According to the report, industrial production growth has been especially important in emerging-market economies in Asia but it has been weak in the euro area, the United States and Latin America. The Chinese economy is surging, and India is on a high and stable growth path while most of the other emerging-market economies are following close behind. This region is not entirely dependent on the performance of the developed world; rather, it has generated a dynamic that would allow it to push ahead even while the rest of the world still struggles with cyclical and structural problems. Who: A very authoritative report for anyone teaching and researching world-wide trade, investment and development performances and prospects. How: A chapter that can be used to teach and/or undertake research work on economic trends and issues.

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        Trade and Development Report 2004, Chapter II: International Trade and Finance (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 32 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, International Financial System

        What: This chapter analyses international trade and financial and monetary systems. The report asserts that global trade increased significantly in 2003, after sluggish growth in 2002 and a slight contraction in 2001. However, the trade expansion was mainly the result of high export volumes and the growth rate in 2003 was characterized by a surge in the unit value of exports. In addition, the report examines how the international trading relations are affected by the international monetary and financial systems, and shows that monetary and financial instability can have a serious impact on the ability of developing countries to participate successfully in the international trading system and reap the benefits of globalization. Who: or anyone teaching and researching international trade and global monetary and financial systems. How: A chapter that can be used to teach and/or undertake research work on international trade, finance and monetary issues.

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        Trade and Development Report 2004, Chapter III: Openness, Integration and National Policy Space, (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 28 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: This chapter deals with the issues of unrestricted cross-border flows of goods, services and capital that has always been one of the principles of globalization. The report states that if improved institutional quality and technology spillover are added, trade and capital openness should automatically allow for catch-up growth in poorer countries and bring about income convergence at the global level. But the empirical evidence supporting this approach has been elusive. In fact, most of the evidence suggests that the impact of trade openness has been highly uneven, and contingent on a variety of institutional factors. Who: An important chapter for anyone teaching and/or researching globalization issues. How: A chapter that can be used to teach and/or undertake research as well as a background reading on integration and national policy issues.

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        Trade and Development Report 2004, Chapter IV: Fostering Coherence between the International Trading, Monetary and Financial Systems (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 52 pages
        Categories: International Financial System

        What: This chapter examines the problem of insufficient coherence between the international trading, monetary and financial systems, and how it affects the formulation and successful implementation of national development strategies. Finally, the chapter draws some conclusions on how developing-country policy-makers can avoid a situation where insufficient coherence in the international monetary and financial system jeopardizes the successful implementation of national development strategies designed to foster domestic supply capacities. In addition, this chapter has two annexes dealing with "The Concept of Competitiveness" and "The Set-up of Econometric Estimates of the Impact of Exchange Rate Changes on Trade Performance". Who: For anyone teaching and/or researching international trading, monetary and financial systems. How: Can be used to teach and/or undertake research as well as a background reading on coherence between the international trading, monetary and financial systems.

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        Trade and Development Report 2004: Conclusions and Policy Challenges (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 10 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, International Financial System

        What: The Trade and Development Report 2004, Part Two, in its concluding remarks, raises a number of policy issues and challenges as to, for instance. how to reinforce coherence between national development strategies and global processes and disciplines, as well as policy coherence among and within the various aspects/sectors of the global economy that impact on development prospects of developing countries. Of particular importance, the report notes, is the interface between the international trading system and the international monetary and financial systems. Who: For teachers focusing on international trading, monetary and financial systems. How: The various issues and proposals can be used to provoke discussions in class.

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        Trade and Development Report 2004: Policy coherence, development strategies and integration into the world economy (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 188 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Macroeconomic Policy, Trade and Poverty

        What: This year's Trade and Development Report is intended to contribute to the debate on policy coherence. It examines how international trading relations are affected by the international monetary and financial systems, and shows that monetary and financial instability can have serious impact on the ability of developing countries to participate successfully in the international trading system. The report stresses the importance of building a truly multilateral monetary system, in which all countries, not just a few, have a voice in the decision making. The report also discusses exchange-rate management at the national and international levels, and shows how it can contribute significantly to job creation and poverty reduction. Who: A very authoritative report for anyone teaching and researching global trade, investment and development issues. How: A lot of the chapters, data and charts from this report can be used for lectures, research work and background reading.

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        Trade and Development Report 2005, Chapter 1: Current issues in the world economy (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005, 47 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, International Financial System

        What: This chapter of UNCTAD's flagship annual Report on Trade and Development 2005 analyses the current trends of the world economy. The report warns that though the world economy is expanding there are serious risks of a relapse. It examines the generally modest growth performance of the developed countries on one hand and conversely the generally good economic growth of the developing countries in general and particularly the two most populous Asian countries. Who: A very useful report for anyone teaching and researching to analyse the current world-wide economic trends and issues. How: A chapter that can be used to teach and/or undertake research work on present-day economic trends and issues.

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        Trade and Development Report 2005, Chapter III - Evolution in the terms of trade and its impact on developing countries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005, 52 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        What: This chapter illustrates how recent developments in the world economy, and in particular changes in the direction and product composition of world trade resulting from rapid growth in the large Asian economies, have affected the terms of trade of different groups of developing countries, and the growth of their national income. The chapter revisits the terms-of-trade concept in the context of the declining importance of primary commodities in the total exports of an increasing number of developing countries. Who: Very useful for anyone teaching and researching the evolution in the terms of trade and its impact in the developing countries. How: Can be used to teach and/or research on the evolution in the terms of trade and its impact in the developing countries.

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        Trade and Development Report 2005, Chapter II: Income growth and shifting trade patterns (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005, 52 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, International Financial System

        What: In this chapter, the report deals with how both the sustained rapid growth and rising living standards in a number of Asian countries have been accompanied by a dramatic increase of the region's shares in world exports and raw material consumption. Moreover, combined with their rapid growth, the greater integration of these countries into the world trading system has created new export opportunities for many developed and other developing countries. In addition this growth also signifies an important progress towards achieving the Millennium Development Goal of halving global poverty by 2015. Who: For anyone teaching and researching how the recently fast developing countries income growth and rising living standards is transforming their societies. How: Can be used to teach and/or research on economic development.

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        Trade and Development Report 2005, Chapter IV: Towards a new form of global interdependence (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005, 42 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: This chapter looks into the new form of global economic interdependence that is taking shape, primarily as a result of the increasing weight of the rapidly growing Asian developing economies, in particular the large ones of China and India, in the global economy. In the past, developing-country trade relied mainly on primary commodity exports to developed countries in exchange for imports of manufactures. However, the emergence of a number of Asian developing countries that form a new growth pole in the world economy has renewed hopes that South-South trade could provide additional momentum to development. Who: For anyone teaching and researching global interdependence. How: Can be used to teach and/or research on globalization and its new form of global interdependence.

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        Trade and Development Report 2005: New feature of global interdependence - Overview (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005, 14 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        Overview of the UNCTAD Trade and Development Report 2005: New feature of global interdependence

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        Trade and Development Report 2005: New features of global interdependence (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005, 204 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Globalization and Development Strategies, International Financial System

        What: This year's UNCTAD flagship Trade and Development Report 2005 questions the sustainability of the current global economic expansion and the realization of the MDGs in certain regions of the world. Although the rapid growth in China and India has made these two giants to become the second engine of worldwide growth; the United States record deficit, on the other hand, raises questions about the stability of the global financial system and the sustainability of global growth. The report asserts that a new form of global economic interdependence is taking shape mainly as a result of the increasing weight of the rapidly growing Asian developing economies. Who: A very useful report for anyone teaching and researching current world-wide economic trends and issues. How: An authoritative report that can be used as teaching and/or researching material for courses or research work on trade, investment and development.

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        Trade and Development Report 2006 - Global Partnership and National Policies for Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2006, 280 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: The 2006 Trade and Development Report (TDR) looks specifically at the threat to growth from global financial imbalances and at the potential for development from the changing climate on aid flows, migrant remittances, export opportunities and increasing FDI flows. The TDR 2006 offers ideas and general principles for designing macroeconomic, sectoral and trade policies that can help developing countries succeed in today´s global economic environment. Particular attention is given to policies that support the creative forces of markets and the entrepreneurial dimension of investment. The report also argues that a global partnership for development will be incomplete without an effective system of global economic governance that takes into account the specific needs of developing countries. At the same time it should ensure the right balance between sovereignty in national economic policy-making on the one hand, and multilateral disciplines and collective governance on the other. How: The report provides up-to-date information on trends in the world economy as well as in-depth analysis on the above mentioned global financial imbalances. It might thus be used to validate teaching resources in international economics courses and spark ideas about relevant research. Who: Lecturers and researchers as well as policy-makers interested in international economics.

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        Trade and Development Report 2006 - Overview (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2006, 26 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: The 2006 Trade and Development Report (TDR) looks specifically at the threat to growth from global financial imbalances and at the potential for development from the changing climate on aid flows, migrant remittances, export opportunities and increasing FDI flows. The TDR 2006 offers ideas and general principles for designing macroeconomic, sectoral and trade policies that can help developing countries succeed in today´s global economic environment. Particular attention is given to policies that support the creative forces of markets and the entrepreneurial dimension of investment. The report also argues that a global partnership for development will be incomplete without an effective system of global economic governance that takes into account the specific needs of developing countries. At the same time it should ensure the right balance between sovereignty in national economic policy-making on the one hand, and multilateral disciplines and collective governance on the other. How: The report provides up-to-date information on trends in the world economy as well as in-depth analysis on the above mentioned global financial imbalances. It might thus be used to validate teaching resources in international economics courses and spark ideas about relevant research. Who: Lecturers and researchers as well as policy-makers interested in international economics.

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        Trade and Development Report 2007 - Regional Cooperation for Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2007, 240 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        What: The first part of the report provides a discussion of global economic trends, which indicate developing countries are likely to continue to benefit from strong demand for primary commodities. In the second part it discusses how regional integration can be useful in reducing the effects of volatile capital flows and under- and over-evaluations on growth and investment. The report analyzes regional cooperation in three dimensions, i.e. trade flows, financial flows and monetary integration, and other aspects (energy, trade logistics, and industrial policy). The report concludes that regional integration can help to strengthen national policies. How: The report provides up-to-date information on trends in the world economy as well as in-depth analysis on the above mentioned dimensions of regional integration. It might thus be used to validate teaching resources in trade-related courses and spark ideas about relevant research. Who: Lecturers and researchers as well as policy-makers interested in trade issues. Overviews available in other UN official languages.

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        Trade and Development Report 2008 - Commodity Prices, Capital Flows and the Financing of Investment (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2008, 234 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Finance for Development

        The Trade and Development Report series analyses current economic trends and major policy issues of international concern, and makes suggestions for addressing these issues at various levels. The 2008 issue, subtitled "Commodity Prices, Capital Flows and the Financing of Investment” highlights the paradox that the “capital poor” developing world is exporting capital to the “capital rich” developed countries. This "puzzle", which defies mainstream economic theory, is all the more intriguing as many capital-exporting developing countries have been achieving higher rates of investment and growth than those that continue to rely on net capital imports. Against this background the Report suggests to shift the focus in financial policies from households "putting more money aside" and imports of "foreign savings", to the reinvestment of profits and credit creation through the domestic banking system. As shown by an increasing number of countries in recent years, dependence on foreign capital inflows can often be avoided by policies aiming at a "competitive" exchange rate. In other cases, however, large increases in official development assistance are indispensable not only to foster the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals by 2015, but also to improve infrastructure and increase productive capacities, a condition for sustained growth, employment generation and poverty reduction beyond that date.

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        Trade and Development Report 2008 - Commodity Prices, Capital Flows and the Financing of Investment - Overview (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2008, 18 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Finance for Development

        The Trade and Development Report series analyses current economic trends and major policy issues of international concern, and makes suggestions for addressing these issues at various levels. The 2008 issue, subtitled "Commodity Prices, Capital Flows and the Financing of Investment” highlights the paradox that the “capital poor” developing world is exporting capital to the “capital rich” developed countries. This "puzzle", which defies mainstream economic theory, is all the more intriguing as many capital-exporting developing countries have been achieving higher rates of investment and growth than those that continue to rely on net capital imports. Against this background the Report suggests to shift the focus in financial policies from households "putting more money aside" and imports of "foreign savings", to the reinvestment of profits and credit creation through the domestic banking system. As shown by an increasing number of countries in recent years, dependence on foreign capital inflows can often be avoided by policies aiming at a "competitive" exchange rate. In other cases, however, large increases in official development assistance are indispensable not only to foster the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals by 2015, but also to improve infrastructure and increase productive capacities, a condition for sustained growth, employment generation and poverty reduction beyond that date.

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        Trade and Development Report 2009 - Responding to the Global Crisis. Climate Change Mitigation and Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2009, 218 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, International Financial System, Trade and Environment

        The Trade and Development Report series explores current economic trends and major policy issues of international concern, and makes suggestions for addressing these issues at various levels. This year's report analyses the ongoing global financial and economic crisis. It looks at the channels through which the crisis is spreading from developed countries to developing and transition economies. It examines the short-term policy responses of governments and discusses their respective advantages and disadvantages. By conducting an in-depth analysis of the causes and contributing factors of the current crises it emphasizes the need for a reform of the monetary and financial system both on the national and the international level. Given the pressing preoccupation with global warming, the report also addresses the question of how forward-looking development strategies and rapid growth in developing countries can be reconciled with climate change mitigation.

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        Trade and Development Report 2009 - Responding to the Global Crisis. Climate Change Mitigation and Development - Overview English (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2009, 22 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, International Financial System, Trade and Environment

        The Trade and Development Report series explores current economic trends and major policy issues of international concern, and makes suggestions for addressing these issues at various levels. This year's report analyses the ongoing global financial and economic crisis. It looks at the channels through which the crisis is spreading from developed countries to developing and transition economies. It examines the short-term policy responses of governments and discusses their respective advantages and disadvantages. By conducting an in-depth analysis of the causes and contributing factors of the current crises it emphasizes the need for a reform of the monetary and financial system both on the national and the international level. Given the pressing preoccupation with global warming, the report also addresses the question of how forward-looking development strategies and rapid growth in developing countries can be reconciled with climate change mitigation.

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        Trade and Development Report, 2010. Employment, Globalization and Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 18 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The Trade and Development Report 2010 focuses on the need to make employment creation a priority in economic policy. Unemployment is the most pressing social and economic problem of our time, especially in developing countries, where it is closely related to poverty. UNCTAD draws attention to the importance of strengthening the macroeconomic policy framework to promote sustainable growth and employment creation in both developed and developing countries. Finally, the report makes recommendations for a reorientation of macroeconomic policies and institution building aimed at strengthening domestic demand.

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        Trade and Development Report 2011: Post-crisis policy challenges in the world economy (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 224 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy

        The Trade and Development Report 2011 focuses on the post-crisis policy challenges in the world economy. It concludes that the recovery is slowing down and that the "two-speed recovery" in developed and developing countries is mainly the result of wide differences in domestic demand. It shows that post-crisis reforms are progressing slowly, and addresses the main regulatory reforms that should take place in relation to financial markets. To diminish the effect of fnancialization of commodity markets based on herd behaviour, the TDR proposes measures to increase transparency in physical and derivatives markets. Finally, to decrease the disparity between macroeconomic fundamentals and foreign exchange markets, the report recommends a system of rules based management floating at a multilateral level - this would greatly improve international financial stability.

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        Trade and Development Report 2011: Post-crisis policy challenges in the world economy - Overview (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 34 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy

        The Trade and Development Report 2011 focuses on the post-crisis policy challenges in the world economy. It concludes that the recovery is slowing down and that the "two-speed recovery" in developed and developing countries is mainly the result of wide differences in domestic demand. It shows that post-crisis reforms are progressing slowly, and addresses the main regulatory reforms that should take place in relation to financial markets. To diminish the effect of fnancialization of commodity markets based on herd behaviour, the TDR proposes measures to increase transparency in physical and derivatives markets. Finally, to decrease the disparity between macroeconomic fundamentals and foreign exchange markets, the report recommends a system of rules based management floating at a multilateral level - this would greatly improve international financial stability.

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        Trade and Development Report 2012 - Policies for Inclusive and Balanced Growth (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 208 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Trade and Poverty

        The world economy, which continues to suffer from the fallout of the financial crisis that began in late 2007 and the meltdown in September 2008, has not been able to revive the growth conditions of the preceding decade. Those conditions had been particularly supportive of economic and social progress in the developing world, and the resulting momentum, especially in some of the larger developing countries, helped to stoke recovery in the world economy once the worst of the crisis had been contained. However, those countries are now losing that momentum and downside risks for the world economy are growing again. The immediate problem is the inability of the developed countries to return to a normal growth pattern, but there is also an equally serious problem of contagion. Amidst their fragile recovery, an unreformed (and unrepentant) financial sector and macroeconomic policies that are timid at best, and counterproductive at worst, the developing countries will find it difficult to sustain their own growth dynamic, let alone that of the global economy. Therefore, a fundamental policy reorientation is needed, recognizing that healthy and inclusive growth will require a stable expansion of consumption and investment in productive capacity based on favourable income expectations of the working population and positive demand expectations of entrepreneurs. This requires a rethinking of the principles underlying the design of national economic policy and supportive international institutional arrangements.In detail, in its first chapter the report is dealing with current trends and challenges in the world economy. In the second chapter the report covers the main issues of income inequality and its evolution. Further on the third chapter concerns with the impacts of changes in globalization and technology for income inequality and the fourth chapter with the role of fiscal policy in income distribution. The last chapter finishes the report with a reconsideration of current economics and politics of inquality.

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        Trade and Development Report 2013 - Adjusting to the Changing Dynamic of the World Economy (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 186 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Globalization and Development Strategies

        Overview of the world economy and financial situation in 2013 by major economic regions. It discusses their financial markets, commodity prices, growth and trade patterns. Discusses expected economic activity for the year which seems to have slowed down and has brought international trade into a halt. It also discusses the economic activity that developed and developing countries have had since the 2008 economic crisis.

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        Trade and Development Report 2013: Adjusting to the Changing Dynamic of the World Economy - Overview
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2015, 42 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Globalization and Development Strategies

        Overview of the world economy and financial situation in 2013 by major economic regions. It discusses their financial markets, commodity prices, growth and trade patterns. Discusses expected economic activity for the year which seems to have slowed down and has brought international trade into a halt. It also discusses the economic activity that developed and developing countries have had since the 2008 economic crisis.

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        Trade and Development Report 2014: Global Governance and Policy Space for Development
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 242 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This year's Trade and Development report examines recent trends in the global economy, with a focus on growth, trade and commodity prices. The Report highlights that, six years after the onset of the global economic and financial crisis, the world economy has not yet established a new sustainable growth regime. With an expected growth between 2.5 and 3 per cent in 2014, the recovery of global output remains weak. Furthermore, the policies supporting the recovery are frequently inadequate, as they do not address the rise of income inequality, the steady erosion of policy space along with the diminishing economic role of governments and the primacy of the financial sector of the economy, which are the root causes of the crisis of 2008. Putting the world economy on the path of sustainable growth requires strengthening domestic and regional demand, with a reliance on better income distribution rather than new financial bubbles.

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        Trade and Development Report 2015: Making the international financial architecture work for development (English)
        Also available in Chinese
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 221 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, International Financial System

        This report reviews recent trends in the global economy and focuses on ways to reform the international financial architecture. It warns that with a tepid recovery in developed countries and headwinds in many developing and transition economies, the global crisis is not over, and the risk of a prolonged stagnation persists. The report also identifies some of the critical issues to be addressed in order to establish a more stable and inclusive international monetary and financial system which can support the development challenges over the coming years. It considers existing shortcomings, analyses emerging vulnerabilities and examines proposals and initiatives for reform.

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        Trade and Development Report 2015: Making the international financial architecture work for development - Overview (English)
        Also available in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian, Spanish
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2015, 39 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, International Financial System

        This report reviews recent trends in the global economy and focuses on ways to reform the international financial architecture. It warns that with a tepid recovery in developed countries and headwinds in many developing and transition economies, the global crisis is not over, and the risk of a prolonged stagnation persists. The report also identifies some of the critical issues to be addressed in order to establish a more stable and inclusive international monetary and financial system which can support the development challenges over the coming years. It considers existing shortcomings, analyses emerging vulnerabilities and examines proposals and initiatives for reform.

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        Trade and Development Report 2016 (Overview): Structural Transformation for Inclusive and Sustained Growth (Overview) (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 34 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Facilitation

        The Trade and Development Report 2016: Structural Transformation for Inclusive and Sustained Growth (Overview) provides an introduction to the main Trade and Development Report. It outlines the policy challenges of the 2030 development agenda, and provides a synopsis of global trends and forecasts of the year ahead. The overview also summarizes the antinomies of globalization, the missing linkages, reconnecting trade to structural transformation, an unhealthy investment climate and the industrial policy redux addressed in the report.

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        Trade and Development Report 2016: Structural Transformation for Inclusive and Sustained Growth (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 251 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Facilitation

        The Trade and Development Report 2016: Structural Transformation for Inclusive and Sustained Growth, examines one of the big policy challenges at the center of the 2030 development agenda: how to establish strong linkages and complementary policies across the range of productive sectors needed to establish a virtuous circle of rising and shared prosperity. The Report addresses such issues as the "middle income trap", "premature deindustrialization" and the "natural resource curse" through an examination of trade specialization, investment financing and the effective use of industrial policies.

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        Trade and Development Report 2017: Beyond Austerity: Towards a Global New Deal (English)
        Also available in Spanish
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 200 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This report argues that now is the ideal time to crowd in private investment with the help of a concerted fiscal push – a global new deal – to get the growth engines revving again, and at the same time help rebalance economies and societies that, after three decades of hyperglobalization, are seriously out of kilter. However, in today’s world of mobile finance and liberalized economic policies, no country can do this on its own without risking capital flight, a currency collapse and the threat of a deflationary spiral. What is needed, therefore, is a globally coordinated strategy of expansion led by increased public expenditures, with all countries being offered the opportunity of benefiting from a simultaneous boost to their domestic and external markets. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) agreed to by all members of the United Nations two years ago provide the political impetus for this much-needed shift towards global macroeconomic policy coordination. The report calls for more exacting and encompassing policy measures to address global and national asymmetries in resource mobilization, technological know-how, market power and political influence caused by hyperglobalization that have generated exclusionary outcomes, and will perpetuate them if no action is taken. It argues that, with the appropriate combination of resources, policies and reforms, the international community has the tools available to galvanize the requisite investment push needed to achieve the ambitions of the SDGs and promote sustainable and inclusive outcomes at both global and national levels.

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        Trade and Development Report 2017: Beyond Austerity: Towards a Global New Deal - Overview (English)
        Also available in Russian, French, Spanish, Chinese, Arabic
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 33 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This report argues that now is the ideal time to crowd in private investment with the help of a concerted fiscal push – a global new deal – to get the growth engines revving again, and at the same time help rebalance economies and societies that, after three decades of hyperglobalization, are seriously out of kilter. However, in today’s world of mobile finance and liberalized economic policies, no country can do this on its own without risking capital flight, a currency collapse and the threat of a deflationary spiral. What is needed, therefore, is a globally coordinated strategy of expansion led by increased public expenditures, with all countries being offered the opportunity of benefiting from a simultaneous boost to their domestic and external markets. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) agreed to by all members of the United Nations two years ago provide the political impetus for this much-needed shift towards global macroeconomic policy coordination. The report calls for more exacting and encompassing policy measures to address global and national asymmetries in resource mobilization, technological know-how, market power and political influence caused by hyperglobalization that have generated exclusionary outcomes, and will perpetuate them if no action is taken. It argues that, with the appropriate combination of resources, policies and reforms, the international community has the tools available to galvanize the requisite investment push needed to achieve the ambitions of the SDGs and promote sustainable and inclusive outcomes at both global and national levels.

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        Trade and Development Report 2018 - Power, Platforms and the Free Trade Delusion (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 162 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Related Capacity Building

        Managing structural transformation is a big challenge at all levels of development. In part, that is because the mixture of creative and destructive forces accompanying such a transformation do not automatically translate into a virtuous growth circle while the rents that are inevitably created in the process can be captured by a privileged group in ways that clog the economic arteries and increase the dangers of a political stroke. There are already signs of this happening with the digital revolution. However, this is not inevitable and if history is any guide, public policy, including industrial policy, can help to manage more inclusive and sustainable outcomes. This set out some elements of that agenda. It has argued that structural transformation will also need to be accompanied by infrastructure planning. It has suggested that the old debate between balanced and unbalanced growth provides a rich discussion for thinking about those techniques, skills and institutional requirements. The bottom line when it comes to infrastructure spending is that it is too important a development matter to be left to the sole responsibility of finance ministries.

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        Trade and Development Report 2018 - Power, Platforms and the Free Trade Delusion - Overview (English)
        Also available in Arabic, Chinese, Spanish, French, Russian
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 31 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Related Capacity Building

        Managing structural transformation is a big challenge at all levels of development. In part, that is because the mixture of creative and destructive forces accompanying such a transformation do not automatically translate into a virtuous growth circle while the rents that are inevitably created in the process can be captured by a privileged group in ways that clog the economic arteries and increase the dangers of a political stroke. There are already signs of this happening with the digital revolution. However, this is not inevitable and if history is any guide, public policy, including industrial policy, can help to manage more inclusive and sustainable outcomes. This set out some elements of that agenda. It has argued that structural transformation will also need to be accompanied by infrastructure planning. It has suggested that the old debate between balanced and unbalanced growth provides a rich discussion for thinking about those techniques, skills and institutional requirements. The bottom line when it comes to infrastructure spending is that it is too important a development matter to be left to the sole responsibility of finance ministries.

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        Trade And Development Symposium. Perspectives On the Multilateral Trading System. How To Encourage The Network Trade Rules Interconnections? An Application To The Case Of Non Tariff Barriers
        Report by Vaillant, Marcel, 2011, 8 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The focus of this paper is different and is also a by-product of the globalization process. The extension of the set of economic activities in the international economy provokes an extension of the themes that require necessary consideration in trade agreements. The adaptation speed in the multilateral field is structurally slow. Countries are less willing to establish rules on the basis of Most Favored Nation than within preferential trade agreements. Hence the demands to expand and deepen in new topics have been channeled through the proliferation of preferential trade agreements. The content of commitments and themes in the agenda of international trade negotiations between national jurisdictions has widened: from the trade of goods to the trade of services, as well as to the mobility of some production factors. At the same time, the field where commitments are achieved has increased exponentially: bilateral agreements, plurilateral agreements, agreements between groups of countries, extension of agreement . This paper chooses, within the wider subject related to goods, the topic of non-tariff barriers, which will be more thoroughly developed in the third section.

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        Trade and Employment. From Myths to Facts (English)
        Book by Jansen, Marion, Peters, Ralf, Salazar-Xirinachs, José Manuel, 2011, 318 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This edited volume tries to address this disconnect between the trade and employment linkages in public debates and the relative absence of factual assessments of the employment and distributional implications of trade. The publication is an outcome of a joint project of the European Commission and the International Labour Office on “Assessing and addressing the employment effects of trade”. This publication has three objectives: First, to fill knowledge gaps by taking stock of the existing evidence on trade and employment with a focus on work using recent methodologies and datasets and on work that pays special attention to the functioning of labour markets. Second, to contribute to the design of tools that governments, social partners and experts can use to evaluate the employment effects of trade. And third, to contribute to the design of policy mixes that promote open markets whilst at the same time promoting quality jobs with adequate levels of protection.

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        Trade and Environment Review 2003, Article 3 - Environmental Goods and Services: Challenges/Opportunities for Central American and Caribbean Countries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2003, 33 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: UNCTAD has been providing assistance to five Central American and two Caribbean countries with a view to enhancing their ability to participate effectively in WTO negotiations on trade and environment and address key trade and sustainable development linkages. These countries have identified the examination of implications of trade liberalization and strengthening of domestic capacities in environmental goods and services (EGS) as a priority issue to be addressed under the project "Building Capacity for Improved Policy Making and Negotiation on Key Trade and Environment Issues". The activities carried out thus far have provided valuable lessons learned that are reflected in this article. Who: Useful for teachers and students studying WTO negotiations on environmental goods and services. How: Can be used as a background reading for courses on negotiations on environmental goods and services.

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        Trade and Environment Review 2006
        Report by UNCTAD, 2006, 296 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The TER 2006 focuses on environmental and related health requirements and their impact on developing countries´ market access. It examines both the opportunities and challenges presented by these requirements, which are increasingly stringent, complex and multi-dimensional. The Review includes both general and sectoral analyses of the issue, and looks at two sectors where environmental requirements are critical to market access: electrical and electronic equipment and organic agricultural products. The evidence presented in the Review supports recommendations for developing countries to adopt a more strategic and proactive approach to coping with environmental and related health requirements in export markets. This requires being involved from the initial stages of standards-setting, both in the context of government regulations and the increasing number of private-sector standards that apply across supply chains. A proactive approach is also needed in order to take full advantage of the trade and development opportunities generated by increased environmental and health requirements, such as expanding markets for organic products and catalytic effects on resource efficiency and occupational safety.

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        Trade and Environment Review 2009/2010
        Review by UNCTAD, 2010, 230 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        While several rapidly industrializing developing countries have not seen a major slump in their growth by the recent economic and financial crises, UNCTAD´s Trade and Environment Review 2009/2010 (TER 09/10) focuses on the 140 plus low-income and least developed countries, which have not caused the economic, financial, climate and food crises (they account, for instance, for less than 10% of energy-related GHG emissions of all developing countries), but have to bear the full brunt of these crises. How can they effectively mitigate these inter-related crises while transiting to a qualitatively and structurally different growth and development model? The TER 09/10 singles out three areas of sustainable, "green" growth that are of particular and strategic importance for the low-income and least developed countries: 1) Enhancing energy efficiency, often implemented in combination with material and resource efficiency; 2) Mainstreaming sustainable agriculture, including organic agriculture; and 3) Harnessing the use of off-grid renewable energy technologies for sustainable rural development.

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        Trade and Environment Review 2013, Wake Up Before It is Too Late: Make Agriculture Truly Sustainable Now for Food Security in a Changing Climate
        Review by UNCTAD, 2013, 341 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, Trade and Poverty

        According to the report, the continuing rural poverty, persistent hunger around the world, growing populations, and mounting environmental concerns must be treated as a collective crisis. The developing and developed countries should make a shift in agricultural development from a "green revolution" to a "truly ecological intensification" approach. More than 60 international experts have contributed their views of the challenges and the most suitable strategic approaches for dealing holistically with the inter-related problems of hunger and poverty, rural livelihoods, social and gender inequity, poor health and nutrition, climate change and environmental sustainability.

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        Trade and Environment Review 2016: Fish Trade (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 95 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Facilitation, Trade Related Capacity Building

        The 2016 Trade and Environment Review on fish trade examines issues pertinent to the promotion of sustainable use of living marine resources mainly fish in healthy oceans and seas. It focuses on trade in fish within the context of the oceans economy, often also referred to as the blue economy, in terms of challenges and opportunities for the global community in implementing Agenda 2030 and specifically SDG 14. The report is structured in three parts. Part I focuses on the international and regional (governance and legal) framework for oceans and sustainable fisheries and to future trade trends and prospects, including the potential impact of climate change. Part II of the TER provides a prognosis of international trade in fish and fish products by 2035. And Part III addresses the difficult matter of harmful incentives that facilitate overfishing and leads to fish stock depletion, primarily in terms of IUU fishing and fisheries subsidies.

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        Trade and Investment Linkages and Policy Coordination: Lessons from Case Studies in Asian Developing Countries (English)
        Policy brief by Duval, Yann; Bhattacharya, Debapriya; Jayawardhana, Tilani; Khanal, Dilli; Tahsina, Tazeen; Shreshta, Prakash / ARTNet, 2008, 4 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        ARTNeT launched an exploratory study on trade and investment policy linkages and coordination in 2007, which included small-scale exploratory surveys of private sector stakeholders in three South-Asian countries (Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka). The purpose of the pilot surveys was to identify the needs and priorities for improved trade and investment policy coordination and coherence in these countries. Following a short overview of trade and investment linkages from an Asian perspective, this brief summarizes the key findings from the surveys and draws preliminary policy implications.

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        Trade and Market Access Data for Policy Makers
        Summary by WTO, 2010, 40 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This brochure has been prepared from a compilation of documents received from agencies and panellists who participated at the "Data Day at the WTO" on 18-19 May. It focuses on databases maintained by international agencies. For the most part, databases maintained by regional and national entities are not included. The brochure is divided into six main sections: services, tariffs and trade, non-tariff measures, agriculture-specific issues, trade facilitation, and indicators and modelling. Each section contains an introduction to the subject as well as a list of the main datasets and tools prepared by international organizations in order to support trade policy analysis and decision making.

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        Trade and Poverty Paper Series No.1. Transformative Regionalism, Trade and Challenge of Poverty Reduction in Africa (English)
        Report by Osakwe, Patrick/UNCTAD, 2015, 23 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade and Poverty

        The report argues that making regional integration work for Africa requires that African governments change their approach to economic integration and in particular shift emphasis from the current model of integration, which focuses mostly on trade reforms and processes and institutions of integration, to an alternative approach—Transformative Regionalism—in which regional integration promotes and also ensures progress in building productive capacities and achieving structural transformation for sustained development. This paper provides a framework for Transformative Regionalism, examines how it differs from the integration frameworks and strategies of African regional economic communities, and then discusses how to foster it in Africa. Therefore it is an interesting reading as it brings into focus new ideas in terms of development strategies and poverty reduction in Africa.

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        Trade and Poverty Paper Series: Trade and Current Account Balances in Sub-Saharan Africa: Stylized Facts and Implications for Poverty (English)
        Report by Moussa, Nicole/ UNCTAD, 2016, 28 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty

        This paper examines the main components of Sub-Saharan Africa's balance of payments with a view to understanding the role that trade has played in the evolution of current account imbalances in the region. The paper finds that increasing trade openness in SSA has been accompanied by current account deficits in majority of the countries. The paper also finds that while at the aggregate level net income payments were the main source of the current account deficits in SSA, in the majority of countries the trade deficit was the main driver. Furthermore, the paper argues that the composition of the current account matters for employment and poverty and offers suggestions on how to make trade better work for SSA.

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        Trade and Transport Facilitation Monitoring Mechanism (Ttfmm) in Bangladesh- Baseline Study (English)
        Report by Tengfei Wang, Mohammad Farhad, 2017, 77 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation

        As the key outcome of the baseline study of Trade and Transport Facilitation Monitoring Mechanism (TTFMM) in Bangladesh, the current synthesis report is derived from a series of studies carried out by the same project team and is targeted for policy makers, governmental officials, and the general public. Given the nature of the baseline study, the current report is aimed to not only report current trade facilitation in Bangladesh but also to lay a foundation for future studies and the establishment of long-term sustainable TTFMM. Accordingly, this report covers topics such as the importance of trade facilitation, the crucial role of TTFMM for continued improvement of trade facilitation, the key methodology for data collection called Business Process Analysis Plus (BPA+), and the rationale for defining the scope of monitoring.

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        Trade Barriers Faced by Developing Countries’ Exporters of Tropical and Diversification Products (English)
        Note by ICTSD; FAO, 2008, 16 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This debate outlines how best to treat agricultural products of export interest to developing countries that remains protracted in the multilateral trade system. Tropical and diversification products have been at the heart of this discussion given the extent of long-standing tariffs and non-tariff barriers affecting them, as well as due to their importance as a source of income, employment and rural development. The prospects for liberalisation of trade in these products, particularly opposed in some key markets, remain uncertain in the WTO’s Doha Round of negotiations. While some developing countries, most visibly a group of Latin American economies, have persistently requested trade openness, others such as the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) states have expressed their concerns that a multilateral elimination of tariffs might result in loss of the preferential access to developed country markets they currently enjoy. Asian producers have so far mainly sought resolution through the Round’s core talks on access for agricultural goods. As a\\n contribution to this discussion, the present Information Note provides facts and figures on the reality of trade in tropical and diversification products. It also explores the extent to which there is differential access to key import markets and the implications of this for different groups of countries.

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        Trade Costs in the Developing World: 1995 – 2010 (English)
        Working paper by ARTNET (Arvis, Jean-François, Duval, Yann, Shepherd Ben, and Utoktham, Chorthip), 2012, 40 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The paper uses newly collected data on trade and production in 178 countries to infer estimates of trade costs in agriculture and manufactured goods for the 1995-2010 period. Findings indicate that trade costs are falling noticeably faster in developed countries than in developing ones, increasing the relative isolation of the latter. In particular, Sub-Saharan African countries and low income countries remain subject to very high levels of trade costs.

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        Trade Creation & Diversion Effects of the East African Community Regional Trade Agreement: A Gravity Model Analysis (English)
        Article by Shinyekwa, Isaac and Othieno, Lawrence, 2013, 40 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research

        The paper investigates the potential impact of the East African Community (EAC) on trade creation and diversion. The paper seeks to establish whether the EAC regional trade agreement (RTA) has diverted or created trade using an expanded(augmented)gravity model. The authors estimate static and dynamic random effects models using a panel data set from 2001 to 2011 on 70 countries that trade mainly with the EAC partner states. Results suggest that indeed the implementation of the EAC treaty has created trade, contrary to widely held views that South-South RTAs largely divert trade.

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        Trade Effects of SPS and TBT Measures on Tropical and Diversification Products (English)
        Report by Disdier, Anne-Célia, Fekadu, Belay; Murillo, Carlos; Wong, Sara A./ICTSD, 2008, 140 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The 2004 Framework Agreement reached during the Doha Round notes that the full implementation of the liberalization of trade in tropical agricultural products is “overdue and will be addressed effectively in the market access negotiations.” However, the way in which the commitment is to be implemented, and even the identification of such products, remains far from clear. \\n Multilateral discussions on the full liberalization of trade in tropical and diversification products have focused almost exclusively on the reduction of tariffs, and tariff escalation for those products and the overlap with the mandate on preference erosion. There has been no debate and analysis on NTBs and more specifically on SPS measures and technical barriers to trade (TBTs). This is surprising, since as the following paper reveals, imports of tropical and diversification products from African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries and some Latin American countries are particularly affected by SPS and TBT measures.

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        Trade, Environment and Development (English)
        Background note by UNCTAD, Trade and Development Board, 2003, 17 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        What: Background note for the Commission on Trade and Goods in Services, and Commodities, Geneva 2004. The note gives a brief summary of the Doha work programme on negotiations on environmental issues and the World Summit on Sustainable Development. It outlines very briefly all relevant issues in the field of trade and environment, such as biosafety, traditional knowledge, environmental goods and services. The background note is also available in Spanish and French. Who: anyone who wants to get a quick overview about: intergovernmental developments related to the issue of trade and environment, key trade and environment issues as well as UNCTAD's related work. How: The background note serves only as a starting point/summary and needs additional readings.

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        Trade, Environment and Development:The Brazilian Experience (English)
        Discussion Paper by Luciana Togeiro de Almeida, Mario Ferreira Presser and Stela Luiza de Mattos Ansa, 2004, 38 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, VI Members Research

        This paper argues that there is a need for reconsideration of the conventional methodologies applied to the study of the relationships of mutual causality involving trade, environment and development, giving priority to historical-inductive approaches

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        Trade Facilitation and Microfinance for Poverty Reduction in the Greater Mekong Subregion: A Case Study of Thailand
        Working paper by Cheewatrakoolpong, Kornkarum; Mallikamas, Sothitorn; Phupoxsakul, Kawin, 2013, 52 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Trade Facilitation

        This paper examines whether trade facilitation measures benefit the poor and explores the role of microfinance in supporting the utilization of the trade facilitation initiatives. The focus of the study is on the Economic Corridors and Cross Border Transportation Agreement, an Asian Development Bank programme to facilitate trade in the Greater Mekong Subregion. The paper shows that trade facilitation measures have brought about major improvements in transportation between Thailand and its neighbouring countries. This has helped considerably in promoting tourism, export activities, labour movement and investment activities. However, the poor and microenterprises still face many obstacles in taking advantage of such opportunities due to their inability to access financing as well as a lack of relevant skills and knowledge.

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        Trade Facilitation and Paperless Trade Implementation: 2013/14 Asia-Pacific Update (English)
        Working paper by Wang, Tengfei and Duval, Yann, 2014, 40 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper provides a unique set of data on the progress made by 29 countries in Asia and the Pacific in implementing various trade facilitation and paperless trade measures in 2013/14, as well as estimates of the benefits from moving forward with implementation. An important finding is that most countries do not regularly assess or publish release times, pointing to the lack of effective national trade facilitation monitoring mechanisms. The study reveals that, at the regional level, automation and paperless trade, including establishment of national single window, were the key focus of trade facilitation reforms in 2013. Enabling cross-border paperless trade is identified as the most challenging task to further advance trade facilitation in Asia-Pacific, highlighting the need for timely conclusion of a regional arrangement to facilitate cross-border recognition and exchange of trade-related electronic data and documents.

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        Trade Facilitation and Poverty Reduction: China - ASEAN Region Case Study (English)
        Working paper by Wu, Laping /ARTNeT, 2013, 39 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Trade facilitation has been a key part in the opening up process of China. This paper aims to investigate the linkage between trade facilitation and poverty reduction in China. It discusses the impact of the trade facilitation practices in China and the China - ASEAN cooperation on trade between China and ASEAN countries. A provincial panel data set for China from 2000 to 2008 is employed to quantify the impact of agricultural imports, agricultural exports and trade facilitation on poverty. The results show that a 1 per cent increase in port efficiency results in a 1.051 per cent decrease in the poverty index.

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        Trade Facilitation and Poverty Reduction in Asia and the Pacific: A Case Study of a South Asian Economic Corridor
        Working paper by De, Prabir and Raychaudhuri, Ajitava/ARTNeT, 2013, 60 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty, Trade Facilitation

        Based on primary survey data, this study assesses the potential impact of trade facilitation on poverty reduction in the region falling under SAARC Corridor 1, which is one of the leading corridors in South Asia that handles considerably good amount of overland trade between three major South Asian countries, namely, Bangladesh, India and Pakistan and also their global trade. One of the conclusions of this study is that poverty reduction, in the perception of the individuals connected with trade, depends on reduction in trade barriers through better trade facilitation. However, in the perception of the trading firms, better infrastructure which facilitates more trade is tagged with a positive response about decline of poverty.

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        Trade facilitation - An introduction (English)
        Presentation by Maxence Orthlieb, UNCTAD, 2002, 21 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation

        Presentation on how to improve transport services and promote trade efficiency in developing countries. It analyses the problems faced by developing countries, UNCTAD's work on trade facilitation and WTO rules. Could be used by teachers in their courses.

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        Trade Facilitation Beyond the Multilateral Trade Negotiations: Regional Practices, Customs Valuation and Other Emerging Issues (English)
        Working paper by Asia-Pacific Research and Training Network on Trade (ARTNeT), 2007, 333 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Facilitation, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The series of studies provides an overview of trade facilitation in the Asia-Pacific region, both in relation to WTO negotiations and regional and bilateral trade initiatives and agreements. Of particular interest is the information about how trade facilitation is being handled by different regional trade initiatives. Other studies look in greater detail at some broader aspects of concern to exporters and importers, such as rules of origin and customs valuation (a comparative analysis of customs valuation in India, Nepal and Fiji). The collection also contains two studies which focus more broadly on trade logistics - one examining the relationship between liberalization in the logistics sector in Australia and trade facilitation, and the other estimating the effects of trade transaction costs, including transport costs and underdeveloped infrastructure, on bilateral trade flows of 10 Asian developing countries. The value of different studies included in the collection is among others in the empirical data and information about the region that they present. Finally, the concluding chapter provides policy recommendations with regard to a meaningful multilateral agreement on trade facilitation.

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        Trade Facilitation from an African Perspective (English)
        Working paper by UNECA, 2013, 71 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        In the context of negotiations on the proposed agreement on trade facilitation, this paper provides a thorough analysis of key trade facilitation issues from an African perspective, highlighting what is at stake for the continent, thereby contributing to inform the opinions of African negotiators at a critical juncture. The premise of this analysis is that there is a consensus in the empirical literature, regardless of the methodology utilized, on the positive and significant impact trade facilitation could have for Africa’s trade performance.

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        Trade Facilitation Handbook, Part II: Technical Notes on Essential Trade Facilitation Measures (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2006, 86 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation

        What: Part II of this Handbook consists of a collation of technical notes on the most important trade facilitation measures countries should consider when reforming their trade, transport and customs operations. Each note discusses the background of the topic, its implications and its efficient implementation, and cost-benefit analyses. Besides, each note provides pertinent references and tools. The topics covered include: Publications of trade regulations and their uniform administration, electronic media in trade-related publications, integrity and ethical conduct of officials, levy of fees and charges, use of customs automation systems, risk management in customs procedures background, freedom of transit and regional transit arrangements, and border cooperation and cooperation amongst agencies, authorities and the private sector in relation to transit. How: A very helpful reference for courses on trade facilitation. Who: Primarily policy-makers working on trade facilitation, but also students and researchers dealing with this topic.

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        Trade Facilitation Handbook Part I - National Facilitation Bodies: Lessons from Experience (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2006, 26 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation

        What: At first, the handbook presents case-studies of the experiences of Albania, Nepal, Pakistan and Thailand with building up PRO committees (trade facilitation bodies, charged with improving customs, cross-border transactions and best practices in trade). By comparing these countries the handbook advances recommendations for establishing PRO committees, hereby emphasizing the cooperation with regional trade facilitation bodies and the needed support by international organizations. Besides, the handbook puts forward the lessons learned from past such cooperation efforts. How: A useful background reading for trade-facilitation training or university courses. Who: Government officials, trade and transport services providers, and transport users.

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        Trade Facilitation Potential of Asian Transit Agreements in the Context of the WTO (English)
        Working paper by Cousin, Louis and Duval, Yann, 2014, 37 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Trade Facilitation, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper examines how freedom of transit and transit facilitation are addressed in trade, transport as well as transit specific agreements in the ESCAP region, with a view to identifying good practices and the extent to which existing agreements meet the transit facilitation provisions set out in the draft text of the WTO trade facilitation agreement (TFA). Following an overview of the provisions on transit found in 153 preferential trade agreements involving ESCAP countries, the study provides a more detailed analysis of a sample of 19 international transport and transit agreements in Asia in terms of their trade facilitation potential. Although some useful provisions for transit facilitation considered during the WTO negotiations did not find their way into the final TFA, the text agreed in Bali strengthens the basis for implementation of freedom of transit in the Asia-Pacific region. At the same time, the analysis highlights the complexity of the existing legal environment for transit and suggests a need for further enhancing inter-agency coordination and strengthening of multilateral rules in this area, building on the “good practices” found in the many existing bilateral, regional and multilateral instruments.

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        Trade Facilitation Terms: An English - Russian Glossary
        Manual by United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), 2008, 274 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation

        This English-Russian Glossary of trade facilitation terms is intended as an authoritative international reference for translators and specialists in trade facilitation in the Russian-speaking world.

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        Trade, Gender and Development: Advocating Inclusive and Gender-Sensitive Economic Development on a Global Level (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2016, 12 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Gender

        This publication summarizes the role of UNCTAD in mainstreaming the relationship between gender and trade. It highlights the impact of research, workshops, conferences and other activities in promoting gender equality, and presents local perspectives from participants.

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        Trade, Income Distribution and Poverty in Developing Countries: A Survey (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2012, 36 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The paper surveys the theoretical and empirical research on how trade and trade liberalization affect poverty and income distribution. The impact of globalization on poverty reduction has been uneven but the findings in the literature are sensitive to modelling choices. Trade liberalization improves aggregate welfare but the gains are small and unequally distributed. The welfare effects are measured basically through price changes, focusing on the effect on the relative demand for domestic factors of production and, in particular, the demand for skilled relative to unskilled labour. The literature shows that poverty constraints originate from various sources including infrastructure, skills, incomplete markets, and policy.

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        Trade In Healthcare And Health Insurance Services : The GATS As A Supporting Actor (English)
        Working paper by Adlung, Rudolf/WTO, 2009, 29 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) is broader in policy coverage than conventional trade agreements for goods and, at the same time, offers governments more flexibility, in various dimensions, to tailor their obligations to sector- or country-specific needs. An overview of existing commitments on healthcare and health insurance services shows that WTO Members have made abundant use of these possibilities. While most participants elected not to undertake bindings on healthcare services at the end of the Uruguay Round, nor to make offers in the ongoing negotiations, insurance services have been among the most frequently committed sectors. If there is a common denominator, regardless of the Members concerned (except for recently acceded countries), it is the existence of a lot of 'water' between existing commitments and more open conditions of actual access in many sectors. This may also explain, in part, why there have been very few trade disputes under the GATS to date - far fewer than under the GATT in merchandise trade. Also,governments appear to be generally hesitant in politically and socially sensitive areas to take action in the WTO. There are indications, however, that the same 'players' have acted differently in other policy contexts. For example, it appears that under recent preferential trade agreements (PTAs) the European Communities has been even more cautious in committing on hospital services and protecting scope for (discriminatory) subsidies than under the GATS. Yet, this is not necessarily true for the obligations assumed by many countries, including individual EC Member States, under bilateral investment treaties (BITs). These treaties overlap with the GATS, as far as commercial presence is concerned, and may be used by aggrieved investors to challenge policy restrictions in host countries. However, though frequently invoked, BITs do not meet the same standards, in terms of transparency, open (consensual) rulemaking and legal certainty, as commitments under the GATS.

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        Trade in Unemployment (English)
        Report by Fugazza, Marco; Carrere, Celine; Olarreaga, Marcelo; Robert-Nicoud, Frederic /UNCTAD, 2014, 38 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Insights from a novel Trade-and-Employment theoretical framework are used to assess the relationship between openness to trade and unemployment. The impact of trade on unemployment depends on the covariance between comparative advantage and sector level labour market frictions. If the covariance is positive then trade liberalization may lead to an increase in unemployment, whereas if the correlation is negative then unemployment falls as the economy opens up to international trade. This prediction is empirically confirmed in a panel of 97 countries during the period 1995-2009.

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        The Trade in Wildlife - A Framework to Improve Biodiversity and Livelihood Outcomes (English)
        Report by ITC, 2015, 46 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        Amid global concern about biodiversity loss and the surge in illegal trade of threatened species, international policy has turned its attention to trade restrictions, enforcement measures and demand-reduction strategies. This analytical framework recommends that policy decisions should balance factors related to the species and its habitat; governance and institutional settings; supply-chain structure; and markets. These factors include species resilience, distribution and accessibility; property rights and policies such as CITES listings, quotas and bans; production costs, intermediaries, monopolies and stockpiling; and market demand elasticity and size.

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        Trade Misinvoicing in Primary Commodities in Developing Countries: the Cases of Chile, Cote D’ivoire, Nigeria, South Africa and Zambia (English)
        Policy brief by Ndikumana, Léonce/UNCTAD, 2016, 38 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Investment, Trade Related Capacity Building

        This policy brief discusses features of the regulatory environment, notably tariffs, customs, export subsidies, exchange controls, coupled with imperfect monitoring and poor enforcement of regulations which may create incentives for trade misinvoicing by agents seeking to maximize profits and other gains such as access to foreign exchange out of control of the regulating authority. It argues these factors contribute to the undermining developing countries’ gains from commodity trade. This study specifically aims to contribute to research and policy debates by providing empirical evidence on the magnitude of trade misinvoicing in the particular case of primary commodity exports from a sample comprising four resource-dependent developing countries (Chile, Côte d’Ivoire, Nigeria and Zambia) and a more diversified resource-rich middle-income country (South Africa). This study describes in detail the process of using UN Comtrade data to identify major products and leading partners that will be the focus of the analysis based on the established statistical methodology for estimation of export misinvoicing at the product and partner levels.

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        Trade Opportunities of an Fta Between Colombia and Turkey
        Working paper by Daniel Gómez-Abella; Catherine Pereira-Villa; Loly-Aylú Gaitán-Guerrero, 2013
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research

        The objective of this article is to explore the opportunities for growth, diversification and competition present in trade between Colombia and Turkey, as well as the ones that would result from a free trade agreement. It uses five indicators to characterize trade and trade policy. Disaggregated data from 2010 is used to conduct partial equilibrium simulations yielding estimates on trade, welfare and income effects. The paper shows that Turkish and Colombian consumers would gain in terms of welfare while Turkish tax revenues would fall more than those of Colombia.

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        Trade Policies, Household Welfare and Poverty Alleviation: Case Studies from the Virtual Institute Academic Network (English)
        Book by Calvo, Paula; Fu, Dahai; Idowu, Olayinka; La, Anh; Li, Shantong; Manzano, George; Matta Jara, Carmen Cecilia; Petreski, Marjan; Pham, Ngoc; Prado, Shanti Aubren; Umana, Carlos; Vera Ganoza, Ana, 2014, 347 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This book is the outcome of a three-year UNCTAD Virtual Institute (Vi) capacity building project on trade and poverty for researchers in developing and transition countries. The studies collected in this volume examine the welfare and poverty consequences of changes in global commodity prices and trade policies in the Philippines, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Argentina, China, Costa Rica, Peru, Nigeria and Viet Nam. The research uses a methodology based on household-level surveys with a focus on the short-term effect of price changes through household consumption, production and wage earnings. The data is derived from actual price changes or a price change predicted by a policy adjustment, such as a change in an import tariff or exchange rate appreciation.

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        Trade Policy and Food Security: The Implications of the WTO’s Agreement on Agriculture for Caribbean Small Vulnerable Economies (English)
        Working paper by Pennycooke, Camiel / University of the West Indies, 2011, 46 pages
        Categories: Commodities, VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The paper focuses on the impact of the Agreement on Agriculture on food security in Caribbean SVEs and was approached by examining its three pillars. In terms of the objectives and commitments made under the Uruguay Round an assessment was made on the implementation of such commitments and the outcomes for the SVEs. The research showed that to date, the objectives of the Agreement have not been fully realized and protectionism has actually increased in developed countries. The multilateral agricultural trade negotiations under the auspices of the World Trade Organization had projected the reduction in trade distortions and protectionism in international trade, thereby creating a fair trading environment for WTO members. This has resulted in the SVEs bringing to attention, in the current round of negotiations (Doha), trade-related problems experienced by the group, among which are the implications of the WTO agreements on their open economies, agriculture and sustained development.

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        Trade Policy Framework: Angola (English)
        Report by Chisanga, Edward/ UNCTAD; Mathew, Thomas/ UNCTAD, 2016, 92 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The study examines Angola’s participation in international trade and its existing trade policy, and seeks to recommend some areas of policy changes that may help the Government to improve its trade performance and bring about inclusive development. As regards merchandise trade, the study identifies several sectors that could be usefully explored for the country’s export diversification efforts, particularly through accelerated agro-based industries development. As regards trade services, the study identifies some key services sectors in which reforms and improvement in the supply side would be necessary to boost trade. For telecommunications services, it calls for raising funds to create a broadband infrastructure in order to connect all urban and rural geographic regions of the country and establish connections with the regional infrastructures supporting the development of telecommunications. For tourism services, it calls for development of the Angolan tourism services through quality products, incorporating the regional, cultural and natural diversity and to stimulate and facilitate the consumption of Angolan tourism products in the national, intraregional and international market.

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        Trade Policy Framework: Jamaica (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 126 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This Trade Policy Framework was prepared at the request of Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade of Jamaica. It provides a review of the country’s overall national development objectives and recent economic trends, an analysis of linkages between existing strategies and plans in different spheres of policymaking and trade policy in both the goods and services sectors, and recommendations for integrated strategic approaches to achieving the country’s key vision and objectives for its trade policy.

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        Trade Policy, Trade Costs, and Developing Country Trade (English)
        Working paper by Hoekman, Bernard; Nicita, Alessandro / World Bank, 2008, 23 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper briefly reviews new indices of trade restrictiveness and trade facilitation that have been developed at the World Bank. The paper also compares the trade impact of different types of trade restrictions applied at the border with the effects of domestic policies that affect trade costs. Based on a gravity regression framework, the analysis suggests that tariffs and non-tariff measures continue to be a significant source of trade restrictiveness for low-income countries despite preferential access programs. This is because the value of trade preferences is quite limited: a new measure of the relative preference margin developed in the paper reveals that this is very low for most country-pairs. Most countries with very good (duty-free) access to a market generally have competitors that have the same degree of access. The empirical analysis suggests that measures to improve logistics performance and facilitate trade are likely to have the greatest positive effects in expanding developing country trade, increasing the trade impacts of lowering remaining border barriers by a factor of two or more.

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        Trade Profiles 2007 (English)
        Data by WTO, 2007, 197 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        These Trade Profiles combine information on trade flows and trade policy measures of Members, Observers and other selected economies. The information is presented in standardized format for quick reference. The indicators are divided into five categories: I. Basic economic indicators II. Trade policy indicators III. Merchandise trade indicators (customs-based statistics) IV. Commercial services indicators (balance of payments based statistics) V. Industrial property indicators

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        Trade Profiles 2008 (English)
        Report by WTO, 2009, 196 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This trade profile combines information on trade flows and trade policy measures of members, WTO observers and other selected economies. The information is derived from various WTO divisions and external sources and presented in standardized format for quick reference.

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        Trade Profiles 2009
        Report by WTO, 2009, 197 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Trade Profiles provides a country-by-country breakdown of trade flows and trade policy measures for WTO members and countries seeking to join the WTO. With information provided in a standardized format for each country, this publication is an invaluable quick reference tool for anyone looking for essential trade statistics. The data provided for each country includes basic economic indicators (such as GDP), trade policy indicators (such as tariffs and import duties), merchandise trade flows (broken down by broad product categories and major origins and destinations), commercial trade flows (with a breakdown by major components) and industrial property indicators (such as annual number of patents granted). Presented in a handy format, with one page devoted to each country, Trade Profiles offers a concise overview of global trade.

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        Trade Profiles 2010 (English)
        Report by WTO, 2010, 198 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Trade Profiles provides the latest information on the trade flows and trade policy measures of WTO members, observers and other selected economies. With information for each country provided in a standardized format, the publication is an invaluable quick reference tool for anyone looking for essential trade statistics. The data provided for each country include basic economic indicators(such as GDP), trade policy indicators (such as tariffs, import duties,number of disputes, notifications outstanding and contingency measures in force), merchandise trade flows (broken down by broad product categories and major origins and destinations), services trade flows (with a breakdown by major components) and industrial property indicators. With one page devoted to each country, Trade Profiles offers a concise overview of global trade.

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        Trade Profiles 2012 (English)
        Report by WTO, 2012, 194 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Trade Profiles 2012 provides a country-by-country breakdown of trade flows and trade policy measures for WTO members and countries seeking to join the WTO. The data provided in a standardized format for each country includes basic economic indicators, trade policy indicators, merchandise trade flows, commercial trade flows and industrial property.

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        Trade Profiles 2013
        Report by WTO, 2013, 206 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Trade Profiles 2013 provides the latest information on the trade flows and trade policy measures of WTO members, observers and other selected economies. The data provided for each economy include basic economic indicators (such as GDP), trade policy indicators (such as tariffs, import duties, number of disputes, notifications outstanding and contingency measures in force), merchandise trade flows (broken down by broad product categories and major origins and destinations), services trade flows (with a breakdown by major components) and industrial property indicators. With one page devoted to each economy, Trade Profiles 2013 offers a concise overview of global trade.

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        Trade-related Capacity Building for Academia in African Least Developed Countries: Development of Human Resources and Policy Support (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD Virtual Institute, 2010, 47 pages
        Categories: Trade Related Capacity Building

        The study is a contribution to the reflection on trade-related capacity building in the specific context of least developed countries in Africa, with a focus on the role of academia in building a critical mass of trade experts and engaging in policy advocacy. It analyzes the trade-related capacity-building needs in African LDCs and outlines various initiatives and actors – including the UNCTAD Virtual Institute – that are providers and beneficiaries of academic capacity-building services.

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        Trade Remedies: Targeting the Renewable Energy Sector (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 50 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The report disputes the adverse effects of trade remedies on the renewable energy sector. It explains how anti-dumping and countervailing duties implemented by both developed and developing countries contradict the pre-existing climate and environmental policies put into place to advance the renewable energy sector. This report is useful for courses in environmental trade and policy as it will generate in-depth debate on the positive and negative aspects of trade protection policy. It provides a survey of cases studies from the Great Recession in 2008 until 2014, recent trade disputes presented to the World Trade Organization, and a literature overview on the topic in order to better analyses the results of these policy measures and further determine how to advance the green economy.

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        Trade Remedy Provisions in Regional Trade Agreements (English)
        Working paper by Teh, Robert /WTO; Prusa, Thomas J./ Rutgers University, USA, 2007, 83 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper maps and examines the provisions on anti-dumping, countervailing duties and safeguards in seventy-four regional trade agreements (RTAs). The RTAs vary in size, degree of integration, geographic region and the level of economic development of their members.

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        Trade Statistics in Policymaking (English)
        Data by Gilbert, John/ Utah State University and Mikic, Mia / UNESCAP, 2008, 128 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This reference material is a compilation of work associated with tracking and analyzing regional trade flows and regionalism processes. It provides comprehensive explanations of most of the indicators featured in the Asia-Pacific Trade and Investment Agreements Database.

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        Trading into Sustainable Development: Trade, Market Access and the Sustainable Development Goals (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 86 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Globalization and Development Strategies

        This report examines various interactions between trade policy, with a specific focus on market access conditions, and factors that constitute the basis for achieving sustainable development. Market access conditions vis-à- vis imports are determined by a combination of border measures and “behind the border” measures, both of which add costs to the price of an imported product. By generating significant impact upon consumer welfare and the competitiveness of domestic industries, market access conditions in international trade thus are a key determinant of the effectiveness of trade as a means of implementation.

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        Trading with Conditions: The Effect of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures on Lower Income Countries’ Agricultural Exports (English)
        Report by Murina, Marina; Nicita, Alessandro / UNCTAD, 2014, 22 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Using the UNCTAD's TRAINS database on non-tariff measures, this paper utilizes an econometric model to investigate the effect of the European Union’s sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures across 21 broad categories of agricultural goods. The findings indicate that SPS measures result in relatively higher burdens for lower income countries but that membership in deep trade agreements seems to reduce the difficulties related to compliance with SPS measures. Overall, the additional trade distortionary effect of the European Union SPS measures is quantified in a reduction of lower income countries’ agricultural exports of about 3 billion $US (equivalent to about 14 percent of the agricultural trade from lower income countries to the European Union). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that while many middle and high income countries have the internal capacity to comply with SPS measures, lower income countries do not. In broader terms, these results may be interpreted as an indication that technical assistance is helpful for lower income countries to meet compliance costs related to SPS measures. Further progress with well-targeted technical assistance projects, both at the bilateral and multilateral levels, could generate considerable gains for lower income countries.

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        Training Material on Competitiveness and Development, Module 1 - Introduction to Competitiveness (English)
        Manual by Cora Mezger, Virtual Institute, 2005
        Categories: Competitiveness

        What: The module will give a general introduction to the concept of competitiveness (different definitions, historical evolution of the concept, main characteristics). After this module, students should be aware of the fact that competitiveness is an extremely multifaceted concept. The introductory module will also give first insights into the analysis of competitiveness from a developmental perspective. Who: University teachers who are interested in teaching competitiveness and their graduate students enrolled in programmes such as International Trade, Economic Policy, International Economics, Development Studies or Regional Economics. How: The lecturer can use the handbook to get a quick overview about all sections. Activities and discussion questions to enhance the learning process are provided as well as key readings.

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        Training Material on Competitiveness and Development, Module 2 - Approaches to competitiveness (English)
        Manual by Cora Mezger, Virtual Institute, 2005
        Categories: Competitiveness

        What: This module introduces the students to different theoretic models on national competitiveness and the main actors involved in creating and raising a nation's competitiveness. A critical discussion of the models has the objective of making students aware of their limitations. Who: University teachers who are interested in teaching competitiveness and their graduate students enrolled in programmes such as International Trade, Economic Policy, International Economics, Development Studies or Regional Economics. How: The lecturer can use the handbook to get a quick overview about all sections. Activities and discussion questions to enhance the learning process are provided as well as key readings.

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        Training Material on Competitiveness and Development, Module 3 - Assessment and measurement of competitiveness (English)
        Manual by Cora Mezger, Virtual Institute, 2005
        Categories: Competitiveness

        What: This module will give an overview of the different possibilities to measure competitiveness and encourage students to critically examine rankings and indicators. Who: university teachers who are interested in teaching competitiveness and their graduate students enrolled in programmes such as International Trade, Economic Policy, International Economics, Development Studies or Regional Economics. How: The lecturer can use the handbook to get a quick overview about all sections. Activities and discussion questions to enhance the learning process are provided as well as key readings.

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        Training Material on Competitiveness and Development, Module 4 - Determinants of competitiveness (English)
        Manual by Cora Mezger, Virtual Institute, 2005
        Categories: Competitiveness

        What: The fourth module will give an overview about the multitude of determinants of competitiveness on all four levels: Meta, Macro, Meso and Micro. It provides instead of a summary a list of guiding questions that might help the students in their analysis of different determinants' impact on competitiveness. Who: university teachers who are interested in teaching competitiveness and their graduate students enrolled in programmes such as International Trade, Economic Policy, International Economics, Development Studies or Regional Economics. How: The lecturer can use the handbook to get a quick overview about all sections. Activities, such as case studies, and discussion questions to enhance the learning process are provided.

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        Training Material on Competitiveness and Development: Outline (English)
        Outline by Cora Mezger, Virtual Institute, 2005
        Categories: Competitiveness

        What: Part 1 gives a general introduction to the teaching package outlining the context, purpose, potential target audience (although the teaching package might be adapted to different levels), methodology and general learning objectives/outcomes. Part 2 will provide the user of the package with a table of contents (headings of modules and chapters) and short overviews regarding content and learning objective of each module. Who: everyone interested in using the training material on competitiveness or part of it. How:The outline gives an overview about sections and can help lecturers to decide on topics and structure depending on their specific needs.

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        Training material on Competitiveness and Development: Scheme of work (English)
        Manual by Cora Mezger, Virtual Institute, 2005
        Categories: Competitiveness

        What:The scheme of work provides for every module and chapter the learning objectives. Additionally, it suggests (i) when and how activities can be used, (ii) how they contribute to achieving the learning objectives. Depending on the chapter, additional activities e.g. for advanced students, are proposed. The scheme of work contains also additional comments regarding a flexible use of the module or chapter (where else could it fit), required knowledge, emphasis etc. Who: aims at assisting the lecturer in the implementation of the rest of the teaching material on competitiveness and development.

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        Training Module for Multilateral Trade Negotiations on Agriculture (English)
        Manual by Peters, Ralf/ UNCTAD, 2007, 116 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This module provides an overview of the current Agreement on Agriculture that was the outcome of the Uruguay Round negotiations, implementation of commitments and ongoing negotiations. All three so-called pillars of agriculture, namely market access, domestic support and export competition, are discussed with an emphasis on the importance and impact of potential policy changes on development. Also covered are cross-cutting issues, such as special and differential treatment for developing and least developed countries and the cotton initiative.

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        Training Module on the WTO Agreement on Anti-dumping (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2006, 163 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The first chapter of this module contains substantive material related to the Anti-Dumping Agreement (ADA) and current WTO negotiations. The second chapter gives detailed explanations of the dumping margin calculation, including sample calculations.

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        Training module on the WTO agreement on sanitary and phytosanitary measures (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2004
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This training module aims to provide materials and inputs for developing countries’ trainers, lecturers and government officials involved in training and research tasks on the multilateral rules governing the application of sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures in international trade.

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        Training Module on the WTO Agreement on Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (trips) (English)
        Manual by Correa, Carlos/ UNCTAD, 2010, 60 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This module commences by providing background – including a historical perspective – on IPRs and the TRIPS Agreement. Then, chapter II offers a brief overview of different IPRs followed by chapter III, which discusses the interlinkages between IPRs and development. In so doing, chapter III looks at key aspects, including sector-specific impacts of IPRs, the impact of IPRs on gross domestic product (GDP) and the impact of IPRs on the private sector and on key public policy issues. Chapter IV provides a short description of the TRIPS Agreements and its main cross-cutting and IPR-specific provisions. Finally, chapter VI sketches out how the TRIPS Agreement evolves, most importantly through dispute settlement and the built-in agenda.

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        Training Module on Trade in Textiles and Clothing: the Post-ATC Context (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2008, 114 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Chapter I of this module discusses historical background of trade in textiles and clothing. Chapter II offers a statistical overview of trade in textiles and clothing, with an emphasis on the situation of developing economies in this trade. Chapter III reviews the issues of tariffs and tariff preferences, while chapter IV addresses non-tariff barriers. Chapter V provides an analysis of the impact of origin rules on trade flows in the sector. Chapter VI discusses rules on trade remedy measures such as safeguard and anti-dumping actions, as well as the implications of trade remedy measures for textiles and clothing exports of developing countries. Chapter VII provides an overview of developments in safeguard measures against Chinese textiles and clothing. Chapter VIII discusses the necessity for diversifying into dynamic textiles and clothing products in lieu of intensifying competition in the post–ATC phase. Chapter IX provides a list of selected documentation and a bibliography.

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        Training Tools for Multilateral Trade Negotiations: Special and Differential Treatment (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD Division on International Trade in Goods and Services and Commodities, 2000, 38 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: This compilation of training tools on the special and differential treatment is provided for developing countries within the WTO context, and is designed with trainers and researchers in mind. It consists of a table summarising the WTO Special and Differential Treatment provisions as well as the main elements of the proposals tabled by developing countries during the preparatory process for the 3rd Ministerial Conference in 1999 and the current multilateral trade negotiations on services and agriculture; a background paper on Special and Differential Treatment in the context of globalization; selected bibliography for further analysis; and a presentation of an UNCTAD assessment on Special and Differential Treatment Who: For teachers and students specialising multilateral trade negotiations. How: Can be used as a training material.

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        Transfer of Technology - A Case Study of the Brazilian Aircraft Manufacturer, Embraer (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2002, 64 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: The basic aim of this paper is to analyse the recent success of Embraer, the Brazilian aircraft manufacturer, as an example of how innovation systems have been used in a country that is still in its development stage. The paper discusses the development of the Brazilian aircraft industry and related innovation system from their origin in the mid-1940s till the early 1990s when structural changes in Brazil led to Embraer's privatization. This analysis shows that strong and continuous support by the federal Government and the state and a particular technological strategy were essential for the consolidation of the innovation system and the recent success of the company. Who: Useful for anyone teaching and/or studying transfer of technology and its effect on development. How: Can be used as a background reading of a case study on transfer of technology.

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        Transfer of Technology and Knowledge-sharing for Development: Science, Technology and Innovation Issues for Developing Countries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, Science, Technology and Information and Communications Technology (STICT) Branch, 2014, 71 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        This report reviews some basic concepts underlying technology and knowledge transfer theory and practice and presents some concerns that may inform the policy choices of developing and developed countries in this field.

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        Transfer of technology for successful integration into the global economy (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2003, 217 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: The book focuses on successful cases of technology transfer and integration into the world economy. It identifies factors that could enable firms in developing countries to upgrade technologies or develop new technologies with a view to enhancing their productivity. It aims to provide concrete examples of best practices s in the context of technological capacity building. The book deals with sectors where selected developing countries have demonstrated their ability to create new productive capacities and successfully participate in the world market. Who: Useful for teachers and students studying cases of technology transfer and integration into the world economy. How: Can be used as a background reading for courses on transfer of technology.

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        Transfer of technology for successful integration into the global economy - A case study of the pharmaceutical industry in India (English)
        Case study by Biswajit Dhar and C. Niranjan Rao, with inputs by Veena Gupta, 2002, 58 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: This study focuses on the performance of the India pharmaceutical industry, a sector that has been able to meet the challenges posed by the new policy regime with a degree of success. The Government provided a policy environment and the prime objective of the policy framework was to develop a viable domestic industry with adequate participation of Indian entrepreneurs. This paper initially presents a broad overview of the performance of the industry and then analyses the impact of the policies adopted through the three decades covering the 1970s to the 1990s. Who: Useful for teachers and students studying transfer of technology and its effect on development. How: Can be used as a background reading of a case study on transfer of technology.

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        Transfer of Technology for Successful Integration into the Global Economy - A case study of the South African automotive industry (English)
        Case study by Trudi Hartzenberg and Samson Muradzikwa, 2002, 38 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: This study discusses the factors that have shaped the formation of technological capability in the South African automotive industry. It then analyses the performance of the industry, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The quantitative assessment includes the investment behaviour of the assemblers, and the market and export performance. The qualitative assessment focuses on the inter-firms relationships, the learning processes and the levels of labour productivity. Finally it presents the stories of the successful integration into the global markets of two South African firms, Bosal Automotive and Volkswagen of South Africa. Who: Useful for teachers and students studying transfer of technology and its effect on development. How: Can be used as a background reading of a case study on transfer of technology.

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        Transforming Economies - Making Industrial Policy Work for Growth, Jobs and Development
        Book by Salazar-Xirinachs, José Manuel; Nübler, Irmgard; Kozul-Wright, Richard, 2014, 411 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The book aims to identify the relevance of different traditions in development economics and the contributions of their various frameworks to the analysis and design of industrial policy. Moreover, it emphasizes the need for a coherent set of macroeconomic, trade, investment, sectoral, labor market and financial policies to respond to the challenges of structural transformation faced by countries today. Lastly, it attempts to explore the links between productive transformation, job creation and employment growth. In addition to the overview of the frameworks and challenges, the book provides case studies on industrial strategies and policies of developed and developing countries.

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        Transparency, Trade Costs, and Regional Integration in the Asia Pacific (English)
        Working paper by Helble, Matthias; Shepherd, Ben; Wilson, John S. /World Bank, 2007, 39 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The authors show in this paper that increasing the transparency of the trading environment can be an important complement to traditional liberalization of tariff and non-tariff barriers. Our definition of transparency is grounded in a transaction cost analysis. The authors focus on two dimensions of transparency: predictability (reducing the cost of uncertainty) and simplification (reducing information costs). Using the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) member economies as a case study, the authors construct indices of importer and exporter transparency for the region from a wide range of sources. Our results from a gravity model suggest that improving trade-related transparency in APEC could hold significant benefits by raising intra-APEC trade by proximately USD 148 billion or 7.5 pecent of baseline trade in the region.

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        Transparency - UNCTAD Series on Issues in International Investment Agreements (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 118 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law

        What: The aim of this paper is to examine how transparency issues have been addressed in international investment agreements (IIAs) and other relevant instruments dealing with international investment. The concept of transparency is closely associated with promotion and protection in the field of international investment. The paper identifies some of the main issues that influence State and corporate approaches to the question of transparency in international investment relations. Who: Relevant for anyone researching or teaching the concept of transparency. How: Can be used for research or lectures on transparency issues.

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        Trends In Developing Country Trade 1980–2010 (English)
        Working paper by Constantine Michalopoulos, Francis Ng, 2013, 38 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The paper reviews trends and patterns in developing countries' trade from 1980 to 2010. During the 30-year span, world trade expanded rapidly, especially in developing countries in the last decade and a similar picture emerges in trade services. However, these overall trends mask different trade patterns during some of the time periods and among different developing countries. In addition, they raise questions about sustainability, trade policy and the architecture of the trading system.

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        Trips Flexibilities and Anti-Counterfeit Legislation in Kenya and the East African Community (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2016, 26 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Facilitation

        UNCTAD assists in the implementation of flexibilities in intellectual property (IP) rights available under the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). The full use of TRIPS flexibilities to protect public health, and, in particular, to provide access to medicines for all, is a target under Sustainable Development Goal 3 ("Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages").The availability of TRIPS flexibilities creates the legal space for the production of generic medicines, and may thus provide important incentives for foreign generic firms to invest in a country's domestic pharmaceutical sector. UNCTAD considers the use of TRIPS flexibilities as an important element to promote generic pharmaceutical investment and domestic enterprise development under sustainable investment policy frameworks.2 In order for such frameworks to be coherent and effective, policy makers should avoid discrepancies between the use of TRIPS flexibilities, the enforcement of intellectual property rights (IPRs), and domestic laws and policies on drug regulation. This paper aims to make a contribution to the ongoing debate in Kenya and the East African Community (EAC) about substandard drugs, access to medicines, local pharmaceutical production, and the role of IPRs enforcement and drug regulatory laws.

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        Tropical and Diversification Products: Strategic Options for Developing Countries (English)
        Report by Perry, Santiago/ICTSD, 2008, 81 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This study by Santiago Perry, from the Foundation for Participatory and Sustainable Development of Small Farmers, intends to provide strategic options for developing countries seeking “fullest liberalisation of trade in tropical and diversification products” under the WTO while taking into account the ACP countries that have expressed concerns that a multilateral elimination of tariffs might result in the loss of their preferential access to the markets of developed countries. This paper was produced under an ICTSD dialogue and research project that seeks to address the opportunities and challenges of the full liberalisation of trade in tropical and diversification products, and to explore possible areas of convergence between different groupings and interests in WTO negotiations. The project aims to generate solutions-oriented analyses and possible policy responses from a sustainable development perspective. This paper is reflective of this objective.

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        Turkish Enterprise-level Response to Foreign Trade Liberalization (English)
        Working paper by UNCTAD, 2013, 56 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Trade in textiles and apparel is of special interest among international trade transactions. Removal of the final Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC) quotas in 2005 brought about a division of textile- and apparel-exporting countries into groups of winners and losers. Turkey appeared as a successful country from the former category. Based firm-level data results suggest that while Turkish enterprises were more successful than most in adapting to the post-quota market in textiles and apparel, their performance paled relative to the performance of enterprises in areas not covered by the ATC. Producers that specialized in textiles and apparel during the ATC quotas removal period had ceteris paribus lower sales revenue and employment growth and a lower profit rate on average than those selling other products. The latter category of producers was also significantly more likely to fail during this period.

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        Turning Losses into Gains: SIDS and Multilateral Trade Liberalization in Agriculture - The Indian Ocean Islands Case Study (English)
        Case study by Jean-Michel Salmon, 2002, 44 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: An analysis of the Indian Ocean Islands agriculture (Mauritius, Seychelles and the Comoros) Who: Case study extracted from the report "Turning losses into gains: SIDS and multilateral trade liberalization in agriculture" that could be used in teaching and in activities. How: Detailed analysis with data on the Indian Ocean Islands. The appendices contain useful tables on agricultural production.

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