A partnership with academia

Building knowledge for trade and development

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        Unctad at 50: A Short History (English)
        Book by Toye, John, 2014, 154 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The book provides an overview of UNCTAD's origins and development over the last 50 years. It focuses particularly on the reasons why some of the organization's proposals gained popularity and some did not. It concludes with a forecast of the future role of UNCTAD as an international governance regime.

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        UNCTAD B2c E-Commerce Index 2016: UNCTAD Technical Notes on Ict for Development N°7 (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2016, 30 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report provides an update on the UNCTAD Business-to-Consumer (B2C) E-Commerce Index, first introduced in the Information Economy Report 2015: Unlocking the Potential of E-commerce for Developing Countries. It reviews the possibility of incorporating other indicators, tests the robustness of existing indicators and updates the Index with the latest available data.

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        UNCTAD BioTrade Initiative: BioTrade Principles and Criteria (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2007, 20 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        The BioTrade Principles and Criteria have been defined by the UNCTAD BioTrade Initiative and the BioTrade national programmes, and provide the core of the conceptual framework underlying the BioTrade Initiative´s activities. They are in line with the objectives and principles of the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Commission on Sustainable Development and the Millennium Development Goals; they take into account the relevance of trade for specific species and ecosystems, supporting the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification and the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. The Principles and Criteria can be applied in different contexts, driving BioTrade processes to promote the conservation of biodiversity through sustainable commercial use. This publication sets out the criteria that BioTrade actors, wanting to use practices that are economically, socially and environmentally sustainable, should aspire

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        UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics (English)
        Data by UNCTAD, 2016, 264 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics provides a collection of statistics and indicators relevant to the analysis of international trade, investment and development. Reliable statistical information is indispensable for formulating sound policies and recommendations that may commit countries for many years as they strive to integrate into the world economy and improve the living standards of their citizens.

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        UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics 2005
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2005, 485 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics (On-line version at http://stats.unctad.org/handbook) provides a comprehensive collection of statistical data relevant to the analysis of international trade, investment and development, for individual countries and for economic and trade groupings.

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        UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics 2008 (Manuel De Statistiques De La CNUCED) (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD - CNUCED, 2008, 512 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics provides essential data for analysing world trade, investment, international financial flows and development. In addition to collecting and checking data and calculating related indicators that facilitate the work of the secretariat's economists, the UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics provides an opportunity to share a rich statistical database with decisionmakers and research specialists – academics, officials from national Governments or international organizations, executive managers or members of NGOs from developing, transition or developed countries. In order to provide maximum benefit to all users, the publication is available in three complementary formats: printed copy, DVD and online (www.unctad.org/statistics/handbook) ------- Le but du Manuel de statistiques de la CNUCED est de fournir les données statistiques essentielles à l’analyse du commerce mondial, de l’investissement, des flux financiers internationaux et du développement. Au-delà de la mobilisation et de la vérification des données, du calcul d’indicateurs dérivés qui alimentent les travaux des économistes du secrétariat, le Manuel de statistiques de la CNUCED est l’occasion de partager une base statistique riche les décideurs et les chercheurs, qu’ils soient universitaires, fonctionnaires d’administrations nationales ou d’organisations internationales, cadres d’entreprises ou membres d’organisations non gouvernementales de pays en développement, en transition ou développés. La publication est disponible dans trois formats complémentaires, l’édition imprimée, le DVD et la version en ligne (www.unctad.org/statistics/handbook), pour que chaque utilisateur, où qu’il soit, puisse en tirer le meilleur avantage.

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        UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics 2009 (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2009, 534 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics provides essential data for analysing world trade, investment, international financial flows and development. In addition to collecting and checking data and calculating related indicators that facilitate the work of the secretariat’s economists, the UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics provides an opportunity to share a rich statistical database with decision-makers and research specialists – academics, officials from national Governments or international organizations, executive managers or members of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) from developing, transition or developed countries. The Handbook further offers journalists comprehensive information in a presentation that meets their needs. This handbook consists of eight parts: International merchandise trade, International merchandise trade by region, International merchandise trade by product, International merchandise trade indicators, International trade in services, Commodities, International finance and Development indicators.

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        UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics 2010 (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2010, 551 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics provides essential data for analyzing and measuring world trade, investment, international financial flows and development. In addition to facilitating the work of the secretariat’s economists, the UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics alsoenables other users, such as policy-makers, research specialists, academics, officials from national governments or international organizations, executive managers or members of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) from developing,transition or developed countries to have access to this rich statistical information. The Handbook further offers journalists comprehensive information in a presentation that meets their needs. This handbook consists of eight parts: International merchandise trade, International merchandise trade by region, International merchandise trade by product, International merchandise trade indicators, International trade in services, Commodities, International finance and Development indicators.

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        UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics 2011 (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2011, 512 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics provides essential data for analysing and measuring world trade, investment, international financial flows and development. Reliable statistical information is often considered as the first step during the preparation of making recommendations or taking decisions that countries will commit for many years as they strive to integrate into the world economy and improve the living standards of their citizens. Whether it is for research, consultation or technical cooperation, UNCTAD requires comparable, often detailed economic, demographic and social data, over several decades and for as many countries as possible. In English and French.

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        UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics 2012 (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2012, 522 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics provides essential data for analysing and measuring world trade, investment, international financial flows and development. In this edition of the Handbook, the presentation of data for trade in services by service category has changed. Table 5.2 now includes statistics for selected country groups, in addition to those on main exporters and importers among individual economies, by service category.

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        Unctad Handbook of Statistics 2013 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 522 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics provides essential data for analysing and measuring world trade, investment, international financial flows and development. As reliable statistical information is often considered as the first step during the preparation of recommendations or decisions that will commit countries for many years, this publication is really useful for research or consultation.

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        UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics 2014 (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2014, 387 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The handbook contains a collection of statistics and indicators relevant to the analysis of international trade, investment and development. Moreover, the handbook provides policymakers, research specialists, academics, officials from national governments or international organizations, journalists,executive managers, members of non-governmental organizations with access to cross-comparable sets of data. It presents a consolidated, yet wide-ranging overview of the statistical series available at UNCTAD.

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        UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics 2015 (English)
        Data by UNCTAD, 2015, 398 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics provides a collection of statistics and indicators relevant to the analysis of international trade, investment and development. The content of the book is in English and French.

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        UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics 2016 (English)
        Data by UNCTAD, 2016, 264 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics provides a collection of statistics and indicators relevant to the analysis of international trade, investment and development. The statistics provided can be used in formulating sound policies and recommendations for countries striving to integrate into the world economy and improve the living standards of their citizens. It features reliable and internationally comparable trade, financial and macroeconomic data, covering several decades and as many countries as possible.

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        UNCTAD Investment Brief, No. 1, 2007: Foreign Direct Investment Surged Again in 2006 (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2007, 2 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Global flows of foreign direct investment (FDI) reached their second highest level ever in 2006, reaching $1.2 trillion. According to new UNCTAD estimates, significant growth was recorded in FDI inflows to developed, developing as well as transition economies. The United States attracted the largest capital inflows, followed by the United Kingdom and France. Record levels were in Africa, Asia and in South-East Europe and the CIS.

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        UNCTAD Investment Brief, No. 2, 2007: Rising FDI into China: The facts behind the numbers (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2007, 2 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Over the past decade, China has established itself as the top recipient of foreign direct investment (FDI) among developing countries. In 2005, inflows reached the new record high of $72 billion - corresponding to a 20% rise from 2004. In this Investment Brief, we take a closer look at the Chinese data. There are several factors explaining the FDI increase but there are also reasons to interpret the overall numbers with care.

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        UNCTAD Investment Brief, No. 3, 2006, New Sources of FDI Attracting Attention from IPAs (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2006, 2 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Investment promotion agencies (IPAs) from all parts of the world recognize the emerging role of developing and transition economies as sources of foreign direct investment (FDI). A new UNCTAD survey shows that 74% of IPAs already target FDI from these economies. The interest is particularly pronounced among IPAs in the developing world, in which “South-South” FDI accounts for a large share of total inflows.

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        UNCTAD Investment Brief, No. 4, 2006: Developing Countries Are Beginning to Promote Outward FDI (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2006, 2 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        A number of developing countries are now actively encouraging their firms to invest abroad. This is a growing practice especially in Asia, where several governments have established dedicated bodies that provide different firms of support to outward investors. For some economies such activities can help boost the competitiveness of firms involved. However a certain minimum level of capabilities in the domestic enterprise sector may be needed to secure economic gains from outward FDI promotion.

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        UNCTAD Investment Brief, No. 5, 2006, Top TNCs Present in 40 Host Countries on Average (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2006, 2 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The world's largest transnational corporations (TNCs) are present in 40 foreign countries on average. The geographic coverage of their developing-country counterparts is less extensive as they tend to expand mainly into neighbouring countries. New UNCTAD research shows that some locations host virtually all of the top TNCs.

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        UNCTAD Investment Policy Monitor No. 2/2014 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 16 pages
        Categories: Investment

        The Investment Policy Monitor provides the international investment community with country-specific, up-to-date information about the latest developments in foreign investment policies, both at the national and international levels.

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        Unctad Policy Brief: An Early Harvest Not So Early After All (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2010, 2 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This policy brief describes the 'trade' stimulus that can be achieved through the early conclusion of the Doha Round of WTO negotiations at LDC4. More specifically, it advocates an "early harvest" in specific areas, focusing on the accelerated implementation of duty-free quota-free (DFQF) market access, and an immediate resolution to the problem of trade-distorting cotton subsidies.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief: Building a Development-led Green Economy (no. 23 - June 2011) (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 2 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Environment

        This policy brief describes the challenges faced by governments in transiting to a green economy.It emphasises that a viable transition must take into consideration constraints on growth, competitive disadvantages and unequal benefits, especially for developing countries,and that specific support must be given to green industries to promote this environmentally and socially sustainable economy strategy.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief N° 24/2011: On The Brink : Fiscal Austerity Threatens A Global Recession (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD TDR, 2011, 4 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Due to sluggish private demand, several advanced economies are hovering on the brink of a second bout of recession. Yet, in many of these countries political attention has turned to ways to cut fiscal deficits and reduce the domestic public debt. This has created a dangerous accumulation of risks for the world economy. The private sector can only successfully deleverage (i.e., reduce its debt) if someone else is willing to take on higher debt and support demand. If the private and the public sectors try to deleverage simultaneously, they must either find debtors elsewhere, or the economy will tailspin into a depression. As the developing world is both unable and unwilling to accept the role of debtor of last resort, dangerous pressures are building up. Unless there is a rapid policy turnaround, the world is in danger of repeating the mistakes of the 1930s. In today’s highly integrated global economy, the contractionary contagion will affect all countries. Emerging and developing economies need to prepare contingency plans.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No.1/2007: Coping with Financial Market Crisis (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2007, 2 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Turmoil on the financial markets is back. Despite the fact that some policy measures were effective in stabilizing the interbank market, several observers have criticized the actions of the US Federal Reserve and of the European Central Bank. Although at first glance these criticisms may seem warranted, their fundamental thrust appears to be flawed. This policy brief raises some issues to discuss how to cope with financial market crisis.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 1/2012: The Paradox of Finance-driven Globalization (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2012, 4 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, International Financial System, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Over the past thirty years, many developing countries have experienced spurts of economic growth followed by collapses. In the process, some have fallen further behind the advanced economies, while only a few have enjoyed sustained economic growth. This policy brief explores the reasons for these diverse outcomes. It suggests that the countries with the strongest performance are those that have rejected the dominant economic wisdom of trusting their growth prospects to financial markets, and instead have pursued innovative and heterodox policies, tailored to local conditions. This has allowed them to shift resources to activities that are increasingly productive. Meanwhile, many developing countries that have embraced finance-driven globalization (FDG) have seen their ability to achieve this structural transformation greatly reduced.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 1/2013: The Post-2015 Agenda (English)
        Policy brief by Kozul-Wright, Richard/UNCTAD, 2013, 4 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        UNCTAD has a key role in the post-2015 process. Specifically, as the focal point in the United Nations for the integrated treatment of trade and development, and interrelated issues in the areas of finance, technology, investment and sustainable development, it falls to UNCTAD to take a leadership role in integrating economic development and related global economic issues into the United Nations-led post-2015 agenda.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 12/2010: Global Monetary Chaos: Systemic Failures Need Bold Multilateral Responses (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2010, 2 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Amidst continued financial crisis, the question of the global trade imbalances is back high on the international agenda. A procession of prominent economists, editorialists and politicians have taken it upon themselves to “remind” the surplus countries, and in particular the country with the biggest surplus, China, of their responsibility for a sound and balanced global recovery. The generally shared view is that this means permitting the value of the renminbi to be set freely by the “markets”, so that the country will export less and import and consume more, hence allowing the rest of the world to do the opposite. But is it reasonable to put the burden of rebalancing the global economy on a single country and its currency? This policy brief contends that the decision to leave currencies to the vagaries of the market will not help rebalance the global economy. It argues that the problem lies in systemic failures, and as such, requires comprehensive and inclusive multilateral action.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 16/2010: A Big Public Investment Push Needed in Least Developed Countries to Meet Millennium Development Goals (English)
        Policy brief by Unctad, 2010, 2 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The MDGs have reinvigorated the case for ODA by tying it to an ambitious strategy to reduce poverty and improve human welfare in the most disadvantaged countries and communities. Looking ahead, as argued in this policy brief, LDCs need to refocus their efforts on measures to better mobilize domestic resources, but this will in turn require a serious rethink by the international community of both its policy advice and its use of ODA.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 17/2010: Building a global monetary system, the door opens for new ideas (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2010, 2 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Proposals to avert exchange rate chaos and to reshape the international monetary system have received new impetus recently. For the first time since the end of the Bretton Woods system, a proposal has been tabled to resolve unsustainable global trade imbalances through a multilateral solution. The initiatives under discussion by the G-20 to ensure greater order in international monetary affairs are an implicit recognition that the market cannot solve a major problem that has been blocking the smooth integration of all countries into the globalized economy. UNCTAD research supports this view. Indeed, UNCTAD has consistently shown that without a multilateral approach, it will neither be possible to reap the benefits of an intensified global division of labour, nor to avoid devastating international financial crises of the kind that have been seen in the last two decades.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 18 - Agriculture at the crossroads (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2010, 2 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Environment

        For a large number of developing countries, agriculture remains the single most important sector. Climate change has the potential to damage irreversibly the natural resource base on which agriculture depends, with grave consequences for food security in developing countries. However,agriculture is the sector that has the potential to transcend from being a problem to becoming an essential part of the solution to climate change provided there is a more holistic vision of food security, climate-change adaptation and mitigation as well as agriculture’s pro-poor development contribution. What is required is a rapid and significant shift from conventional, industrial,monoculture-based and high-external-input dependent production towards mosaics of sustainable production systems that also considerably improve the productivity of small-scale farmers. The required transformation is however much more fundamental than simply tweaking the existing industrial agricultural systems.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 20A/2011: The LDC IV Conference: An Agenda for Action (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 2 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The UN LDC IV Conference, to be held in Turkey in May 2011, will have three major objectives: to assess the implementation of the Brussels Programme of Action by LDCs and their development partners; to identify new challenges and opportunities for LDCs; and to agree upon the actions required at national and international levels in response to the inadequate economic and social performance of the LDCs over the last decade. This policy brief proposes elements of a broad agenda for action as an input for the Conference.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 20D/2012: LDCs' Boom and Bust in the 2000's: the Turbulent Decade (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 2 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This policy brief describes the unsustainable growth of LDCs during the 2000s,and the effect of the global recession on these economies, and advocates structural transformation of the LDC economies to become more resilient to external shocks.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 20/E: Poverty Reduction and Progress Towards Mdgs in the LDCs: Encouraging Signs but Much Remains to Be Done (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 4 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Poverty

        This policy brief evaluates the progress of LDCs in achieving the goals set by the MDGs, especially in terms of poverty alleviation.

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        Unctad Policy Brief No. 20F/2011: Development Challenges Facing LDCs in the Coming Decade (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 2 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This policy brief examines the development challenges faced by LDCs in the following decade, namely the employment challenge, the globalization and climate change challenge and the governance deficit challenge.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 20G/2011: Towards a New International Development Architecture for LDCs (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 2 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This policy brief describes the rationale behind establishing a new International Development Architecture (NIDA) for LDCs, the structure of the NIDA, and how it should be implemented.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No.20 - Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security in LDCs (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 2 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This policy brief outlines the major challenges facing LDCs in implementing a sustainable agricultural sector as a means to achieve food security, and provides recommendations to governments and LDC donors to support the development of this important sector.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 2/2011: South-south Integration is Key to Rebalancing the Global Economy (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 2 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The world economy is seriously out of kilter. Over the last 30 years finance-led globalization has distorted developments in the real economy, triggered a series of boom-bust cycles and fuelled the most regressive redistribution of income in the modern era. These trends culminated in a financial meltdown spreading out from the advanced countries in late 2008, and producing the most severe worldwide slowdown since 1945. Imbalances continue to haunt the recovery process, which has been slow and erratic especially in the most heavily financialized and indebted economies, and in the most vulnerable countries in the South, where the economic shocks were compounded by food and energy insecurity and climate variability.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 2/2013, Growth and Poverty Eradication: Why Addressing Inequality Matters
        Policy brief by Kozul-Wright, Richard/UNCTAD, 2013, 4 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Poverty

        The Millennium Development Goals have centred on social outcomes, primarily in the fields of poverty, health and education. The goal of halving extreme poverty globally has already been met, albeit in large part thanks to the remarkable performance over three decades of the Chinese economy. Greater ambition is expected for a post-2015 agenda, with the eradication of extreme poverty a possible new goal. However, this goal is very unlikely to be reached by 2030 if business as usual is the order of the day. Paradoxically, this partly reflects the lack of ambition in the conventional poverty line of $1.25 per day, which is by any standard extremely low; but it is also because poverty eradication, even at this level of ambition, will not happen without addressing the more challenging issue of global inequality.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 26/2012: Greater Income Share for Labour - the Essential Catalyst for Global Economic Recovery and Employment (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2012, 4 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This policy brief examines the weakness of the advanced economies which poses a threat for recovery of the world economy, as developing countries’ domestic demand is not strong enough to sustain their recent growth path. It discusses wage compression in relation to economic development, the revival of demand from traditional markets in the North, the prospects of fiscal austerity and active income policies.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 2, June 2008 - Tackling the Global Food Crisis (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2008, 2 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The UNCTAD policy briefs are intended to share the results of UNCTAD research and analysis on new and emerging trade and development issues with policy makers and researchers, especially in developing countries. This policy brief addresses the systemic causes of the crisis and identifies strategic policy measures - such as boosting investment, innovation and productivity growth - for creating a more robust and sustainable framework for global agricultural production and trade.

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        Unctad Policy Brief No. 3/2008: The Crisis of a Century (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2008, 2 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        As the financial crisis continues its evolution at dizzying speed, the business model underlying a growing share of financial sector activity has been increasingly discredited. This policy brief suggests that a considerable degree of public intervention is required to avoid greater damage to the financial system and the real economy. It is also imperative to strengthen regulation and increase the transparency of financial instruments and institutions. Overall, macroeconomic policy should aim at avoiding a global recession or even depression.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 3/2012: Sovereign Debt Crisis : From Relief to Resolution (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2012, 4 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The current discussion on sovereign debt has concentrated on the predicaments of Europe and other developed countries, which have accumulated new debt very rapidly in recent years.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 4/2008: Rebuilding Financial Multilateralism (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2008, 2 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        With world markets absorbing the first waves of the continuing financial crisis, attention is shifting to ways to collectively manage the unwinding of global imbalances and prevent systemic turmoil. This policy brief argues that global cooperation and global regulation are imperative in both trade and finance, and that the United Nations is the most credible international organization to spearhead the design, discussion and launching of such efforts.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No 4/2012: The Continuing Relevance of Development Banks (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2012, 4 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Finance for Development, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The demand for the mobilization of domestic resources for social inclusion and in support of virtuous circles of investment, productivity increase and income growth has created pressures to direct flows of finance towards priority income groups and strategically important sectors. There is no doubt that commercial financial institutions are part of the required institutional environment. However, the potential contribution of these institutions is limited by widespread financial market failures, and by their procyclical lending patterns and focus on short-term profitability rather than long-term social welfare. National development banks (NDBs) partially or wholly owned by the state can offer an alternative.

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        Unctad Policy Brief No.5/2008: Will We Never Learn? (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2008, 2 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        As the financial crisis becomes increasingly global, the world economy is caught in a loop of weaknesses and seems headed for a deep and synchronized downturn. Some developing and emerging economies will be particularly affected because of their vulnerability to declining exports, falling commodity prices, and negative wealth effects stemming from currency mismatches. But the world seems not to have learned the lessons from previous financial crises: that traditional adjustment packages can be counter¬productive, and that better global exchange rate arrangements will be critical if we are to achieve and maintain monetary and financial stability. This policy brief contends that all countries whose real economies are exposed will need to adopt countercyclical policies to stimulate domestic demand and compensate for shrinking foreign demand. Contrary to conventional wisdom, this also applies to countries with devaluing currencies. The current IMF approach asking for pro-cyclical policies in crisis countries is inadequate. UNCTAD has long argued that multilateral coordination is the only viable solution.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No.7/2009 , Keeping ODA Afloat: No Stone Unturned (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2009, 2 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        If past experience is anything to go by, today’s financial crisis will deal a hard blow to official development assistance flows. It could take ODA years to recover, dampening prospects for achieving the MDGs by 2015. Keeping aid afloat – ensuring that aid flows are sustainable and predictable – is critical to helping developing countries cope and also to stabilizing global demand. This is a tall order, given the scale of the crisis. Fresh new thinking is often the only way out of desperate situations such as this. UNCTAD puts one option on the table in this policy brief. The proposal may strike some as ambitious, naive, or otherwise unviable. But today especially, every possible solution deserves consideration.

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        UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 9/2009, Climate Change: Turning Costs into Income Opportunities
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2009, 2 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        Concerns about the high costs of climate change mitigation dominate the global debate to be resumed at Copenhagen. The question of who is to pay for the investments that will undoubtedly be needed receives far greater attention than the corollary question of who is to gain from them. From a macroeconomic perspective, one economic agent’s cost is always another agent’s income. But as this policy brief argues, the concept of cost is misleading in the context of climate change mitigation. Once the process of structural change necessitated by climate change mitigation is in full swing, there will be huge new market opportunities. The policy issue is: how will costs and incomes be distributed in this process? UNCTAD believes that developing countries, although they face considerable costs, can also generate new income if they adapt their development strategies to the requirements of climate change mitigation. This policy brief also stresses the role of government in facilitating the process of structural change, not only by fostering “green” consumer preferences, but also by implementing pro-active industrial policies that support the production of climate-friendly equipment and appliances.

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        UNCTAD Policy Briefs, No.6, Sustaining African Agriculture - Organic Production (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2009, 2 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Environment

        Agriculture has returned to the centre of international policy debates. Years of declining investment, inadequate extension services and the availability of subsidized food exports from the developed world have undermined agricultural production in many developing countries, particularly in Africa. This Policy Brief examines the potential contribution of organic agriculture.

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        UNCTAD Review of Maritime Transport 2008 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2008, 200 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation

        UNCTAD´s Review of Maritime Transport has been published annually since 1968. With more than 80% of international trade in goods being carried by sea, and an even higher percentage for the trade of most developing countries, the Review of Maritime Transport is an important source of information for a broad audience. While the main focus of the Review is on maritime transport, it also contains some information on developments in multimodal transport covering land based transport systems. The Review provides some analysis of structural and cyclical changes affecting trade and transport, especially in developing economies as well as an extensive collection of statistical information on maritime transport and related services.The 2008 edition of the Review covers developments in 2007 and incorporates initial results for 2008. It also supplements long-term statistical series with new data.

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        Unctad Review of Maritime Transport 2012
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 196 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation

        This year's Review notes that world seaborne trade grew by 4 per cent in 2011, whereas the tonnage of the world fleet grew at a greater rate, by almost 10 per cent, as shipowners took delivery of vessels that had been ordered before the economic crisis began. With supply outstripping demand, freight rates fell even further, to unprofitable levels for most shipping companies. For importers and exporters, however, the low freight rates helped to reduce transaction costs, which is important for helping to revive global trade.

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        Unctad Technology and Innovation Report 2011: Powering Development with Renewable Energy Technologies - Overview (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 37 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade and Environment

        The TIR11 focuses on the role of renewable energy technologies in responding to the dual challenge of reducing energy poverty while mitigating climate change. The Report identifies key capacity issues for developing countries and proposes concrete recommendations for the wider use of renewable energy technologies to promote sustainable development and poverty reduction.

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        UNCTAD Trade and Development Report 1998, Chapter III: International financial instability and the East Asian crisis (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 1998, 26 pages
        Categories: International Financial System

        This chapter of the Trade and Development Report 1998 seeks to explain the East Asian crisis of 1997 in the context of the increase in systemic global financial instability. It examines various elements that have characterized financial crises since 1970, identifying the factors that have created financial vulnerability in East Asia and spread it throughout the region and globally. It argues that there is clear evidence that the policy response to the 1997 crisis contributed to its severity, and sets out the social consequences of the crisis. The chapter concludes with a brief discussion of the general implications of the crisis for the East Asian model of economic development. Who: For lecturers, researchers and/or students of finance. How: A very good reading material on international financial instability. The report provides lots of reference materials.

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        UNCTAD Trade and Development Report 1998, Chapter IV: The management and prevention of financial crises (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 1998, 28 pages
        Categories: International Financial System

        What: With a special focus on developing countries this report discusses the causes of financial crises and the consequences on international markets volatility, it argues that in the absence of a global mechanism for capital flows stabilization financial instability will remain in all countries. Who: This report from 1998 is an essential reading to understand mechanisms of financial crises. However

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        UNCTAD Trade and Development Report 1999, Chapter III - International financial markets: instability, trends and prospects (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 1999, 24 pages
        Categories: International Financial System

        What: Quantitative analysis of the effects of financial crises on international trade through a comparison between the Asian, Russian and Brazilian crises. Who: For anyone studying the financial system and particularly the consequences of financial deregulation. How: Key document to understand financial crises mechanisms that could be used as the basis of a student's work or a lecture.

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        UNCTAD Trade and Developoment Report 2005 - Overview (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2005, 28 pages
        Categories: Commodities, International Financial System, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        What: This resource provides a brief summary of the UNCTAD flagship report. This important annual resource analyses current economic trends and major policy issues of international concern, and makes suggestions for addressing these issues at various levels. This year the report looks at, among other things, the effect of rising oil prices on global growth, domestic resources and balance of payments constraints in Asia, trends in the terms of trade and new forms of global interdependence, including the growing importance of developing countries in global markets. Who: Essential background reading for anyone looking at the impact of trade on development.

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        UNCTAD Training Manual on Statistics for FDI and the Operations of TNCs - Volume I: FDI Flows and Stocks (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2009, 162 pages
        Categories: Investment, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This volume aims to assist developing countries to compile timely, accurate and internationally comparable statistics on foreign direct investment (FDI) and on the operations of transnational corporations (TNCs). The overall objective is to promote a better understanding of the FDI situation in their respective economies and to assist policymakers in formulating development-oriented FDI policies.

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        UNCTAD Training Manual on Statistics for FDI and the Operations of TNCs - Volume II: Statistics on the Operations of Transnational Corporations (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2009, 138 pages
        Categories: Investment, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The purpose of this volume is to clarify concepts, definitions and methodologies needed to collect and compile information on the operations of transnational corporations (TNCs) – in their respective economies. Its aim is to provide practical guidance on collecting statistics on the operations of home-based as well as foreign-based TNCs. Concrete and useful examples are collected from various countries to illustrate key points.

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        UNCTAD Training Manual on Statistics for FDI and the Operations of Ts - Volume III: Collecting and Reporting FDI/TNC Statistics: Institutional Issues (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2009, 104 pages
        Categories: Investment, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The third in a series, this volume provides an overview of the methodologies being used in the countries where FDI and TNC data are collected and reported. The aim is to examine how the surveys are actually conducted and how the work of various institutions is coordinated. Based on the findings, best practices of standard survey questionnaires are provided.

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        UNCTAD X High-level Round Table on Trade and Development: Directions for the Twenty-first Century: Economic Dependence on Commodities (English)
        Discussion paper by Alfred Maizels, Oxford University, United Kingdom/ UNCTAD, 2000, 20 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: Most of the population in developing countries depends on the production and export of primary commodities. Commodity prices fell sharply in the early 1980s, and have remained at depressed levels since then, leading to a huge trade loss. This has been a major factor in the large rise in the foreign debt of commodity-exporting countries. The paper argues that these problems of developing countries have received little, if any, attention in international forums for the past two decades. It aims to reverse this trend by examining various measures for each type of price problem. Who: For teachers, students and researchers studying developing countries economic dependence on primary commodities exports and price changes. How: Can be used as a background reading on international primary commodity price fluctuations and the effects on developing economies.

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        The United Nations Set of Principles and Rules on Competition (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2000, 27 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy

        The UN Set is a multilateral agreement on competition policy that provides a set of equitable rules for the control of anti-competitive practices;recognizes the development dimension of competition law and policy; and provides a framework for international operation and exchange of best practices.

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        The United States 2014 Farm Bill and Its Implications for Cotton Producers in Low-income Developing Countries (English)
        Report by Townsend, Terry /y UNCTAD's Special Unit on Commodities, 2014, 29 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The report seeks to examine whether the subsidies paid to United States cotton growers are likely to lead to increased or decreased United States cotton production by 2018 based on findings from the 2014 Farm Bill and the Stacked Income Protection Plan (STAX).

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        United States’ Unfair Competition Acts and Software Piracy– Which Asia-pacific Countries Are at Risk and What Recourse Do They Have?
        Policy brief by Puutio, Teemu Alexander, 2014, 12 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy

        In response to tightening global competition and the ripple effects of the 2008 economic crisis United States' state and federal level competition law is being applied to counter software piracy’s effects on the competitiveness of foreign exporters. Sanctions range from fines to import bans. Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, China, Pakistan and Vietnam are among the countries with the highest levels of software piracy and dependence on exports to the United States and thus among the most exposed to the acts.Weighed against the general trade interests of the United States, China, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Thailand, India and Indonesia emerge as the most exposed. Adjusting to the legislation requires long-term actions which aim at reducing piracy rates through awareness, education, and enforcement. In the short term, countries may wish to avoid exposure by steering exports to different export destinations within or outside the United States.

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        Unlocking Markets for Women to Trade (English)
        Report by ITC, 2015, 80 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender

        The report shows where women-owned businesses are present, based on new ITC data from importers and exporters in 20 developing countries and case studies. It explains cultural and regulatory barriers as well as ways to facilitate access to finance, market information and networks. It outlines where the barriers to trade are, shares models of good public and private sector initiatives and provides recommendations for policymakers to engage women entrepreneurs more fully in the global economy.

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        Unpacking the International Technology Transfer Debate: Fifty Years and Beyond (English)
        Report by ICTSD, 2012, 58 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        On the occasion of fifty years of the international technology transfer debates and twenty years since the Rio Summit, this paper attempts to capture the political economy of technology transfer negotiations since the 1960s. It seeks to juxtapose issues of technological capacity, innovation and economic development with international technology transfer negotiations over the past decades. In doing so, the analysis places a particular emphasis on the technology transfer-intellectual property rights (IPRs) nexus which in many ways, has been at the heart of the international discourse on technology transfer. This paper aims to broaden the understanding of two key issues. First, do international negotiations on technology transfer and results achieved thereunder correspond to country level technological needs, and to the growing insights on how technological change takes place? Second, how and through what ways can international discussions on technology transfer be made to reflect both the lessons of different developing countries in building technological capabilities as well as the changing global environment for knowledge and technology globally? The authors conclude by identifying the main issues that remain outstanding in this discourse and propose some thoughts for the way forward. This work, in its current working paper format, is intended to generate constructive dialogue on technology transfer and technology accumulation for development.

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        Unraveling the Underlying Causes of Price Volatility in World Coffee and Cocoa Commodity Markets (English)
        Discussion paper by Maurice, Noemie Eliana, Davis, Junior / UNCTAD, 2011, 43 pages
        Categories: Commodities, International Financial System, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        In recent years, Commodity Dependent Developing Countries (CDDCs) have faced multiple global food, energy and climate crises, compounded by the recent financial and economic crises, which have increased their vulnerability to excessive price volatility in commodity markets. Moreover, structural vulnerabilities in most CDDCs render their economies more vulnerable to increased commodity market turbulence than developed countries, given their comparatively lower income and high dependence on commodity exports. Therefore, this paper empirically examines the patterns and underlying causes of excessive price volatility for two major soft commodities of critical importance to many of the poorest CDDCs: coffee and cocoa. It aims to identify interactions, similarities and causalities between coffee and cocoa prices on the one hand and, oil and futures prices on the other hand. Our analysis of coffee and cocoa historical prices shows that, coffee price volatility has uneven or differing reactions depending on the nature of the market shock. Oil price spillover effects on coffee and cocoa markets are also assessed using cointegration and causality models. Long-run causality is found between oil prices, and coffee and cocoa prices but, only cocoa has an equilibrium relationship with oil in the longterm. Given the results, this study proposes some policy recommendations for managing price risk and addressing regulation in cocoa and coffee exporting countries

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        Use of the WTO Trade Dispute Settlement Mechanism By The Latin American Countries – Dispelling Myths And Breaking Down Barriers (English)
        Working paper by Torres, Raúl/WTO, 2012, 26 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The WTO's Dispute Settlement Mechanism (DSM) has been hailed as a fundamental aspect of the Multilateral Trading System for developing countries. At the same time developing countries face many challenges to ensure their effective participation in the mechanism. This paper presents statistical evidence of how Latin-American countries have been very active in their use of the DSM, especially when their use of the mechanism is compared to their participation in world trade. This paper also analyses why, to a large extent, Latin American countries have overcome the challenges of participating in the DSM; and have done so by coming up with innovative and creative solutions, without deviating from the guidelines established by WTO rules.

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        Using Commoditized Revenue Flows to Leverage Access to International Finance; with a Special Focus on Migrant Remittances and Payment Flows (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2006, 25 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Finance for Development, Migration and Development

        The field of finance for developing countries has changed in a revolutionary manner since the international debt crisis of the 1980s. The losses that international banks incurred discouraged them from continuing to lend on an unsecured basis to developing countries governments and private entities. But as demand for credit remained strong and profit margins were high, some of them rapidly developed new techniques for dealing with the risks. Many of these risk mitigation techniques relate to the field of structured finance - discussed extensively in earlier UNCTAD papers. One particular form of structured finance is future flow finance, in which the financier takes some form of control over the future export earnings of the borrower (thus, the financier no longer relies on the borrower´s willingness to reimburse, but rather, on its continuation in business). Most of the future flow finance for developing countries has been for commodity exports: the resulting products are easy to sell, minimum export flows are easily predictable, buyers are often large western companies and export prices are quite transparent. As this remains a rather specialized area in the banking industry (and those involved understandably first go for the easiest transactions), it is perhaps not surprising that many opportunities remain open. This paper focuses on the most recent forms of future flow finance, which are structured on the back of two commoditized revenue streams that have only been identified over the past ten years as providing the potential for underpinning hard currency credits: migrant remittances and trade payment flows. Deals structured around these flows have only been struck in a handful of countries, even though in principle, possibilities exist in most developing countries. It is hoped that this brief paper will help draw the attention of decision makers in governments and the financial sector to the opportunities that exist in this area, and that it provides a good insight in how to structure the related transactions.

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        Using Intellectual Property Rights to Stimulate Pharmaceutical Production in Developing Countries: A Reference Guide (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 204 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Science and Technology, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The objective of this guide is to provide concise and practical information on ways to promote local pharmaceutical production and improve access to medicines through a variety of policy tools, focusing on the flexibilities provided under the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), and the interfaces between IP, investment,drugs regulation and procurement strategies.

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        Using Supply Chain Analysis to Examine the Costs of Non-tariff Measures (ntms) and the Benefits of Trade Facilitation (English)
        Working paper by Ferrantino, Michael J., 2012, 33 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        It has become increasingly common to produce goods in a number of geographically dispersed stages linked by international trade. This tendency, known by names such as “production fragmentation”, “processing trade”, and “vertical specialization”, has important implications for the analysis of nontariff measures (NTMs) and trade facilitation. First, different types of NTMs or trade facilitation issues are naturally associated with different stages in the movement of goods. Different price gaps can be assigned to these stages, making it possible to decompose the overall amount of distortion and to prioritize the policies with the largest potential efficiency gains. Second, NTMs may accumulate in long supply chains, implying that their trade-distorting effects are greater for goods produced in a fragmented manner than for goods with simple production processes. There is evidence that trade costs are more important for high technology goods or goods undergoing several stages of processing. Issues with product standards may be particularly important for goods with long supply chains. The link between NTMs and supply chains also has implications for economic development and for the relationship between liberalization in services and goods.

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        US Trade Policies on Biofuels and Sustainable Development (English)
        Report by Earley, Jane /Earley & White Consulting Group LLC, 2009, 54 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        Biofuel in the United States of America (USA) is primarily ethanol produced from corn. Although new legislation in the form of a recent Farm Bill and an ambitious biofuels mandate looks toward increased production of other forms of bioenergy, such as cellulosic biofuels, there is little commercial production at this time. Without significant policy shifts, production of cellulosic biofuels on a commercial scale is unlikely to occur as rapidly as envisioned by the Renewable Fuels mandate in the face of current incentives to produce ethanol from corn. Without such shifts, increasing corn ethanol production will continue to contribute to increased stress on land and water resources, loss of wildlife habitat and conservation-dedicated land, and increased levels of hypoxia in water bodies from nitrate run-off. It will also continue to contribute to increased food and animal feed prices, low carry-over stocks and food price volatility.

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        Utility models and innovation in developing countries (English)
        Case study by Sutherhanen, Uma, 2006, 68 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        With a view to fostering local technological capacity, this study examines one category of intellectual property, namely utility models, and their potential as a tool for spurring innovation, particularly in developing countries. It also explores considerations that policy makers could take into account when implementing or revising their national utility model system. Overall the paper concludes that for successful promotion of small-scale innovation, utility models may be an efficient tool, but alternative options exist.

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