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        Water for Food: Innovative Water Management Technologies for Food Security and Poverty Alleviation (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 39 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Science and Technology, Trade and Environment

        The publication addresses the water-food-poverty nexus in agricultural development. Modern irrigation systems have allowed for increased food production, but population growth and climate change are generating concerns about the food and water security. The study presents water management technologies and dicusses how developing countries can have better access to these.

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        The Way to the Ocean - Transit Corridors Servicing the Trade of Landlocked Developing Countries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 36 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Trade Facilitation

        This report looks at selected East African transit corridors which provide access to seaports as gateways to link landlocked developing countries (LLDCs) with overseas trading partners, and suggests complementary courses of action to improve transit transport efficiency and sustainability.

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        What Constrains Africa's Exports? (English)
        Working paper by Freund, Caroline, Rocha, Nadia, 2010, 22 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation

        We examine the effects of transit, documentation, and ports and customs delays on Africa’s exports. We find that transit delays have the most economically and statically significant effect on exports. A one day reduction in inland travel times leads to a 7 percent increase in exports. Put another way, a one day reduction in inland travel times translates into 1.5 percentage point decrease in all importing-country tariffs. In contrast, longer delays in the other areas have a far smaller impact on trade. We control for the possibility that greater trade leads to shorter delays in three ways. First, we examine the effect of trade times on exports of new products. Second, we evaluate the effect of delays in a transit country on the exports of landlocked countries. Third, we examine whether delays affect time-sensitive goods relatively more. We show that large transit delays are relatively more harmful because of high within-country variation..

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        What Drives Export Diversification? New Evidence from a Panel of Developing Countries (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2018, 23 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, Trade Related Capacity Building

        This paper attempts to fill the existing gap in the literature. It uses a large sample of developing countries and different regression techniques to analyse the role of various factors on export diversification in developing countries, particularly those in Africa and LDCs. The key contribution of this paper to the extant literature is that it incorporates simultaneously the roles of domestic production structure, natural resource endowments, and energy infrastructure and services in export diversification in developing countries. The incorporation of measures of domestic production structure and energy infrastructure capture the well-known idea that poor energy services and weak domestic production structures are binding constraints to exports, diversification and development in Africa and LDCs. The incorporation of natural resource endowments is justified because many countries in Africa and LDCs are resource-rich and economic theory suggests that resource endowments play a role in the diversification process. The rest of the paper is organized as follows: section 2 describes the data while section 3 presents the empirical strategy and the regression analyses. Section 4 contains concluding remarks and policy implications.

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        What Went Wrong? Alternative Interpretations of the Global Financial Crisis
        Working paper by Priewe, Jan/ HTW, 2010, 39 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Macroeconomic Policy

        This paper first reviews different interpretations of the global financial crisis of 2008-2009 (and its aftermath), focusing on the proximate causes in the financial sector of the United States. However, behind the immediate causes lie ultimate causes without which the crisis cannot be properly understood. These were mainly the global imbalances in trade and in cross-border capital flows, the systemic root of which lies in what the paper refers to as a “new Triffin dilemma”. This dilemma relates to the shortcomings of the present global currency system that uses the United States dollar as the key reserve currency, which has to serve both national and global objectives. Other ultimate causes are the trend towards a finance-driven capitalism in many OECD countries, most pronounced in the United States, and the trend towards greater income inequality, which dampens aggregate demand and contributes to financial instability as well as global imbalances. The confluence of the proximate and ultimate causes paved the way for the crisis.

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        Who is Benefiting from Trade Liberalization in Angola? A Gender Perspective (English)
        Case study by Zarrill, Simonetta/ UNCTAD, 2013, 83 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender

        The study assesses the extent to which trade liberalization in Angola has had an impact on women and attempts to determine whether trade policies and patterns of structural transformation have reinforced gender inequality or created new opportunities for women. Based on a quantitative approach, the analysis explores first whether patterns of structural transformation have generated job opportunities; and secondly, if such opportunities have matched the skill profile of the female workforce, thereby leading to the feminization of the workforce in the country and affecting the working conditions of women workers.

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        Who is Benefiting from Trade Liberalization in Bhutan? A Gender Perspective (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2011, 68 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The aim of this report is to determine who would benefit from further trade liberalization or facilitation in Bhutan and, in particular, to analyse whether there is a gender bias in the gains from trade. Chapters 1 to 3 provide a stocktaking and analytical background. The core of the analysis is chapter 4, which looks into the income and expenditure distribution for men and women in rural and urban areas, as well as in different economic sectors. It explores how trade expansion would affect men and women, mainly through changes in income and consumption patterns. It then critically assesses the findings from the analysis against the background of important non-trade concerns such as food-security, equitable development, biodiversity conservation and cultural heritage. Chapter 5 concludes with some policy recommendations background.

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        Who is Benefiting from Trade Liberalization in Cape Verde? A Gender Perspective (English)
        Report by Froystad, Mona, Musselli, Irene, Zarrilli, Simonetta, 2011, 85 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The two principal aims of this report are to (a) shed light on the differentiated impacts of trade policies, especially policies geared to trade liberalization and facilitation, on men and women in Cape Verde; and (b) analyse whether there is a gender bias in the gains from trade. Specifically, the report looks at food prices, remittances and tourism as important transmission channels through which trade policies affect gender relations in Cape Verde.

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        Who is Benefiting from Trade Liberalization in Lesotho? - A Gender Perspective (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2012, 61 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender

        This report aims to critically assess the gender implications of Lesotho’s trade-led productive transformation. The study is structured as follows: Chapter 1 provides a broad country overview. Chapter 2 assesses the gender situation in Lesotho, by considering both gender-related “outcomes” (the relative position of men and women in key aspects of social life) and relevant policies and social institutions (“input” or “means” variables). Chapter 3 reviews some changes in Lesotho’s structure of production and trade, outlines some underlying trade policy developments, and singles out some gendered implications of these developments. Chapter 4 closes with some summary observations and illustrates a spectrum of policy options for Lesotho for the implementation of a gender-sensitive trade strategy.

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        Who is Benefiting from Trade Liberalization in Rwanda? A Gender Perspective (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 88 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report analyzes the ways in which trade policies may impact women's well-being in Rwanda and explores possible strategies to encourage the inclusion of gender considerations in trade policy formulation and implementation.

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        Who Is Benefiting From Trade Liberalization In Uruguay? A Gender Perspective
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 94 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender

        This report aims to assess the implications of Uruguay’s productive transformation, trade liberalization, and regional trade integration on women, especially in terms of their access to employment. While women play many roles in society, this report focuses on their role as workers. It encourages the reader to take into account the complexities of the trade and gender link and its numerous, and sometimes hidden, connections with the micro and macro components of economic and development processes. The research also highlights that Uruguay’s legal framework as well as social norms and stereotypes contribute to the role that women play in the labour market and society.

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        Who is the master? Who is the servant? Market or Government? - An alternative approach: Towards a coordination system (English)
        Discussion Paper by S.M. Shafaeddin, 2004, 35 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: A strongly argued paper that discusses the limitations of the market-based approaches to economic development and the risks of government failure. It presents an alternative approach on coordination of economic activities through the idea of a "coordination system". Who: Teachers, researchers and students of globalization and development economics. How: Could be used as background reading for any course or presentation on the relative roles of the state and the market in economic processes.

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        Who Profits from Trade Facilitation Initiatives? (English)
        Working paper by Hoekman, Bernard and Shepherd, Ben/ARTNeT, 2013, 32 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Extensive research has demonstrated the existence of large potential welfare gains from trade facilitation—measures to reduce the overall costs of the international movement of goods. From an equity perspective an important question is how those benefits are distributed across and within nations. The paper evaluates the possible impacts of trade facilitation, and uses firm-level data for a wide variety of developing countries to investigate whether it is mostly large firms that benefit from trade facilitation. It finds that firms of all sizes export more in response to improved trade facilitation, suggesting that trade facilitation can be beneficial in a range of countries, including those that are primarily involved in value chains as suppliers.

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        Why Geographical Indications for Least Developed Countries? (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2015, 77 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        Geographical Indications (GIS) are a trade-related intellectual property right under the WTO TRIPS Agreement. The link between the territory and the uniqueness of the product is the distinctive developmental nature of GIs with respect to other forms of TRIPs. Evidence from the market and literature shows that the promotion and protection of products under GIs may results in higher economics gains, fostering quality production and equitable distribution of profits for LDC rural communities. GIs encourage the preservation of biodiversity, traditional know-how and natural resources. Leveraging on biological and cultural diversification, the implementation of GIs may represent a unique opportunity to bring together the various players along the value chain supply, including producers, government authorities and researchers. This study is the result of activities carried out under the UNCTAD project TAAK on market access and trade laws funded by the Italian Government and the Development Account project entitled "Strengthening the capacity of rural communities in least developed countries to utilize the market access opportunities provided by duty-free quota-free and enhancing value added of their traditional products".

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        Work and Welfare: Revisiting the Linkages from a Gender Perspective (English)
        Working paper by Cook, Sarah and Razavi, Shahra / UNRISD, 2012, 42 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender

        This paper examines the relationship between employment and social policy specifically from a gender perspective. It lays out the conceptual ground, reviews the empirical evidence and explores relationships and interactions between work, employment and social policies.

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        World commodity trends and prospects (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2002, 13 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        What: Developing countries' share of world commodity exports increased slightly, although the share of African countries has continued to decrease. This report looks at how dependence on exports of a few commodities remains high and prices have continued their downward trend. The fall in prices of some commodities, including coffee, cotton and sugar, has been dramatic, causing large economic losses and increased poverty in several developing countries. Who: For anyone focusing on the international commodity market and its effects on developing and Least Developed Countries. How: Can be used for background reading in courses on commodities.

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        World Development Indicators 2013 (English)
        Book by The World Bank, 2013, 150 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This compilation of cross-country comparable statistics about development is organized around six themes—world view, people, environment, economy, states and markets, and global links. Each section includes an introduction, a set of six stories highlighting regional trends, a table of the most relevant and popular indicators, and an index to the full set of tables and indicators available online.It also reviews progress toward the Millennium Development Goals.

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        World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography - Overview (English)
        Report by World Bank, 2008, 32 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Places do well when they promote transformations along the dimensions of economic geography: higher densities as cities grow; shorter distances as workers and businesses migrate closer to density; and fewer divisions as nations lower their economic borders and enter world markets to take advantage of scale and trade in specialized products. World Development Report 2009 concludes that the transformations along these three dimensions--density, distance, and division--are essential for development and should be encouraged. The conclusion is controversial. Slum-dwellers now number a billion, but the rush to cities continues. A billion people live in lagging areas of developing nations, remote from globalization's many benefits. And poverty and high mortality persist among the world's "bottom billion," trapped without access to global markets, even as others grow more prosperous and live ever longer lives. Concern for these three intersecting billions often comes with the prescription that growth must be spatially balanced. This report has a different message: economic growth will be unbalanced. To try to spread it out is to discourage it--to fight prosperity, not poverty. But development can still be inclusive, even for people who start their lives distant from dense economic activity. For growth to be rapid and shared, governments must promote economic integration, the pivotal concept, as this report argues, in the policy debates on urbanization, territorial development, and regional integration. Instead, all three debates overemphasize place-based interventions. Reshaping Economic Geography reframes these debates to include all the instruments of integration--spatially blind institutions, spatially connective infrastructure, and spatially targeted interventions. By calibrating the blend of these instruments, today's developers can reshape their economic geography. If they do this well, their growth will still be unbalanced, but their development will be inclusive.

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        World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography - Part One (English)
        Report by World Bank, 2008, 149 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Places do well when they promote transformations along the dimensions of economic geography: higher densities as cities grow; shorter distances as workers and businesses migrate closer to density; and fewer divisions as nations lower their economic borders and enter world markets to take advantage of scale and trade in specialized products. World Development Report 2009 concludes that the transformations along these three dimensions--density, distance, and division--are essential for development and should be encouraged. The conclusion is controversial. Slum-dwellers now number a billion, but the rush to cities continues. A billion people live in lagging areas of developing nations, remote from globalization's many benefits. And poverty and high mortality persist among the world's "bottom billion," trapped without access to global markets, even as others grow more prosperous and live ever longer lives. Concern for these three intersecting billions often comes with the prescription that growth must be spatially balanced. This report has a different message: economic growth will be unbalanced. To try to spread it out is to discourage it--to fight prosperity, not poverty. But development can still be inclusive, even for people who start their lives distant from dense economic activity. For growth to be rapid and shared, governments must promote economic integration, the pivotal concept, as this report argues, in the policy debates on urbanization, territorial development, and regional integration. Instead, all three debates overemphasize place-based interventions. Reshaping Economic Geography reframes these debates to include all the instruments of integration--spatially blind institutions, spatially connective infrastructure, and spatially targeted interventions. By calibrating the blend of these instruments, today's developers can reshape their economic geography. If they do this well, their growth will still be unbalanced, but their development will be inclusive.

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        World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography - Part Two (English)
        Report by World Bank, 2008, 261 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

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        World Development Report 2010: Development and Climate Change
        Report by World Bank, 2010, 444 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        Today's enormous development challenges are complicated by the reality of climate change—the two are inextricably linked and together demand immediate attention. Climate change threatens all countries, but particularly developing ones. Understanding what climate change means for development policy is the central aim of the World Development Report 2010. It explores how public policy can change to better help people cope with new or worsened risks, how land and water management must adapt to better protect a threatened natural environment while feeding an expanding and more prosperous population, and how energy systems will need to be transformed. The report is an urgent call for action, both for developing countries who are striving to ensure policies are adapted to the realities and dangers of a hotter planet, and for high-income countries who need to undertake ambitious mitigation while supporting developing countries efforts. A climate-smart world is within reach if we act now to tackle the substantial inertia in the climate, in infrastructure, and in behaviors and institutions; if we act together to reconcile needed growth with prudent and affordable development choices; and if we act differently by investing in the needed energy revolution and taking the steps required to adapt to a rapidly changing planet. In the crowded field of climate change reports, WDR 2010 uniquely: emphasizes development, takes an integrated look at adaptation and mitigation, highlights opportunities in the changing competitive landscape and how to seize them, proposes policy solutions grounded in analytic work and in the context of the political economy of reform.

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        The World Development Report 2012: Gender Equality and Development (English)
        Report by World Bank, 2011, 458 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender

        The report argues that greater gender equality can enhance productivity, improve development outcomes for the next generation, and make institutions more representative. It examines the factors that have fostered change and the constraints that have slowed progress. The analysis focuses on the roles of economic growth, households, markets, and institutions in determining gender differences in education and health, agency, and access to economic opportunities. The report identifies four priority areas for domestic policy action: reducing excess female mortality and closing education gaps; improving access to economic opportunities for women; increasing women's voice and agency in the household and in society and limiting the reproduction of gender inequality across generations.

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        The World Development Report 2013: Jobs (English)
        Report by World Bank, 2012, 422 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The WDR 2013 report analyzes the connection between jobs and economic and social development, and stresses the importance of the private sector in creating jobs. It looks at why some jobs do more for development than others. The Report finds that the jobs with the greatest development payoffs are those that make cities function better, connect the economy to global markets, protect the environment, foster trust and civic engagement, or reduce poverty. The report proposes a three-layered approach to policy which consists of a framework that is conducive to growth, well-designed labor policies and prioritizing jobs that ensure development.

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        The World Development Report 2013: Jobs Overview (English)
        Summary by World Bank, 2012, 64 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The WDR 2013 report analyzes the connection between jobs and economic and social development, and stresses the importance of the private sector in creating jobs. It looks at why some jobs do more for development than others. The Report finds that the jobs with the greatest development payoffs are those that make cities function better, connect the economy to global markets, protect the environment, foster trust and civic engagement, or reduce poverty. The report proposes a three-layered approach to policy which consists of a framework that is conducive to growth, well-designed labor policies and prioritizing jobs that ensure development.

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        World Development Report 2014 - Risk and Opportunity: Managing Risk for Development (English)
        Report by World Bank, 2013, 363 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy

        The WDR 2014 focuses on questions such as the role of the state in helping people manage risks by direct interventions or providing an enabling environment, improving government's risk and introduces mechanisms for risk management.It finds that: Taking on risks is necessary to pursue opportunities for development; to confront risk successfully, it is essential to shift from unplanned and ad hoc responses when crises occur to proactive, systematic, and integrated risk management and that the trade-offs and obstacles to risk management must also be identified, prioritized, and addressed. The report emphasizes that risk management requires shared action and responsibility at different levels of society and governments have a critical role in managing these systemic risks.

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        World Economic Outlook: Housing and the Business Cycle (English)
        Report by IMF, 2008, 303 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy

        The World Economic Outlook (WEO) presents the IMF staff's analysis and projections of staff’s view of the economic developments at the global level in spring 2008, in major country groups (classified by region, stage of development, etc.), and in many individual countries It focuses on current conditions and prospects, including the financial problems of the U.S. economy which first emerged in subprime mortgage lending, as well as on the analysis of economic developments and prospects.

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        World Economic Situation and Prospects 2007 (English)
        Report by UN-DESA, 2007, 177 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy

        What: This report is a joint product of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA), UNCTAD and the five United Nations regional commissions. It provides an overview of recent global economic performance and short-term prospects for the world economy and of some key global economic policy and development issues. For 2007, modest inflation, insufficient employment growth and a deceleration in the world economy are expected, although developing countries and transition economies will continue to robust growth. A downturn in the U.S. housing market, increasing oil prices and a lack of coordination in macroeconomic policies are cited as some of the challenges countries will have to contend with this year. As an annex the report contains tables with macroeconomic indicators for the past ten years. How: Useful background document on recent trends in the world economy. Who: Lecturers in macroeconomics and international economics.

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        World Economic Situation and Prospects 2009 - Executive Summary (English)
        Summary by DESA; UNCTAD; ECA; ECE; ECLAC; ESCAP; ESCWA, 2009, 15 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy

        World Economic Situation and Prospects (WESP) provides an overview of recent global economic performance and short-term prospects for the world economy and of some key global economic policy and development issues. One of its purposes is to serve as a point of reference for discussions on economic, social and related issues taking place in various United Nations entities during the year. The report of 2009 analyzes in detail the evolution of the global financial crisis during 2008 and the more fundamental factors that led to its build-up. It further assesses the impact on global economic activity, especially in developing countries. The report also reviews the policy actions so far taken worldwide in response to the global financial crisis. It recommends more forceful fiscal policy stimuli need to be taken in an internationally concerted manner in order to prevent the world economy from falling into a much deeper and more prolonged recession. The WESP further details a number of more fundamental reforms to the international financial system that are needed to reduce risks of a recurrence of such a devastating crisis in the future.

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        World Economic Situation and Prospects 2009 - Full Report (English)
        Report by DESA; UNCTAD; ECA; ECE; ECLAC; ESCAP; ESCWA, 2009, 188 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy

        World Economic Situation and Prospects (WESP) provides an overview of recent global economic performance and short-term prospects for the world economy and of some key global economic policy and development issues. One of its purposes is to serve as a point of reference for discussions on economic, social and related issues taking place in various United Nations entities during the year. The report of 2009 analyzes in detail the evolution of the global financial crisis during 2008 and the more fundamental factors that led to its build-up. It further assesses the impact on global economic activity, especially in developing countries. The report also reviews the policy actions so far taken worldwide in response to the global financial crisis. It recommends more forceful fiscal policy stimuli need to be taken in an internationally concerted manner in order to prevent the world economy from falling into a much deeper and more prolonged recession. The WESP further details a number of more fundamental reforms to the international financial system that are needed to reduce risks of a recurrence of such a devastating crisis in the future.

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        World Economic Situation and Prospects 2010: Full Report
        Report by DESA; UNCTAD; ECA; ECE; ECLAC; ESCAP and ESCWA, 2010, 202 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy

        World Economic Situation and Prospects (WESP) is a joint product of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development and the five United Nations regional commissions. It provides an overview of recent global economic performance and short-term prospects for the world economy and of some key global economic policy and development issues. One of its purposes is to serve as a point of reference for discussions on economic, social and related issues taking place in various United Nations entities during the year.

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        World Economic Situation and Prospects 2011 (English)
        Report by DESA,UNCTAD,ECA,ECE,ECLAC,ESCAP,ESCWA, 2011, 204 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy

        The World Economic Situation and Prospects 2011 analyses the slowdown in economic growth among developed countries as from mid-2010. It highlights the continued challenge posed by high unemployment rates in many economies and outlines a number of risks and uncertainties for the economic outlook such as a premature withdrawal of policy stimulus, increased exchange rate volatility and a renewed widening of global imbalances. Against this background, several policy challenges are discussed in greater detail, including the optimal design of fiscal policies as well as the coordination between fiscal and monetary policies, the provision of sufficient support to developing countries in addressing the fallout from the crisis and the coordination of policy measures at the international level.

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        World Economic Situation and Prospects 2011 - Executive Summary (English)
        Report by DESA,UNCTAD,ECA,ECE,ECLAC,ESCWA,ESCAP, 2011, 13 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy

        The World Economic Situation and Prospects 2011 analyses the slowdown in economic growth among developed countries as from mid-2010. It highlights the continued challenge posed by high unemployment rates in many economies and outlines a number of risks and uncertainties for the economic outlook such as a premature withdrawal of policy stimulus, increased exchange rate volatility and a renewed widening of global imbalances. Against this background, several policy challenges are discussed in greater detail, including the optimal design of fiscal policies as well as the coordination between fiscal and monetary policies, the provision of sufficient support to developing countries in addressing the fallout from the crisis and the coordination of policy measures at the international level.

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        World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 (English)
        Report by DESA, UNCTAD, ECA, ECE, ECLAC, ESCAP, ESCWA, 2011, 204 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy

        World Economic Situation and Prospects (WESP) provides an overview of recent global economic performance and short-term prospects for the world economy and of some key global economic policy and development issues. One of its purposes is to serve as a point of reference for discussions on economic, social and related issues taking place in various United Nations entities during the year. The report 2012 is following two years of anaemic and uneven recovery from the global financial crisis, the world economy is teetering on the brink of another major downturn. Output growth has already slowed considerably during 2011, especially in the developed countries. The baseline forecast foresees continued anaemic growth during 2012 and 2013. Such growth is far from sufficient to deal with the continued jobs crises in most developed economies and will drag down income growth in developing countries.

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        The World Economic Situation and Prospects 2013 (English)
        Report by DESA; UNCTAD; ECA; ECE; ECLAC; ESCAP; ESCWA, 2013, 207 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy

        The 2013 World Economic Situation and Prospects (WESP) analyzes the post-crisis world economy as it struggles with continued weakening growth in the face of major uncertainties. For 2013 and 2014, it projects disappointing global growth, much slower poverty reduction in many developing countries, and narrowing fiscal space for investments in the many critical areas needed for achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

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        The World Economic Situation and Prospects 2013 - Executive Summary (English)
        Summary by DESA; UNCTAD; ECA; ECE; ECLAC; ESCAP; ESCWA, 2013, 10 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy

        The 2013 World Economic Situation and Prospects (WESP) analyzes the post-crisis world economy as it struggles with continued weakening growth in the face of major uncertainties. For 2013 and 2014, it projects disappointing global growth, much slower poverty reduction in many developing countries, and narrowing fiscal space for investments in the many critical areas needed for achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

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        World Economic Situation and Prospects 2014 (English)
        Report by UN/DESA and UNCTAD, 2014, 198 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy

        The World Economic Situation and Prospects 2014 reports that the global economy is improving but remains vulnerable to new and old headwinds. Global economic growth is forecast to accelerate from a sluggish 2.1 per cent in 2013 to 3.0 per cent in 2014 and 3.3 per cent in 2015. The report warns of the risks associated with the upcoming unwinding of quantitative easing programs in major developed economies.

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        World Economic Situation and Prospects 2018 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD; UN-Desa; ECA; ECE; ECLAC; ESCAP; ESCWA, 2018, 207 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The 2008 financial crisis laid bare the inadequacies in the rules we need for a stable and prosperous global economy. After a long period of stagnation, the world economy is finally strengthening. In 2017, global economic growth approached 3 per cent — the highest rate since 2011. As the World Economic Situation and Prospects 2018 demonstrates, current macroeconomic conditions offer policymakers greater scope to address some of the deeprooted systemic issues and short-term thinking that continue to hamper progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals. While acknowledging that many cyclical and longer-term risks and challenges persist, the report notes that, in many parts of the world, conditions have improved to support the significant investment necessary for delivering the goods and services a growing population needs. This paves the way to reorient policy towards longer-term issues, such as rehabilitating and protecting the environment, making economic growth more inclusive and tackling institutional obstacles to development.

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        World Intellectual Property Report: Breakthrough Innovation and Economic Growth (English)
        Report by WIPO, 2015, 146 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This report endeavors to provide an analytical input into the debate about whether innovation can continue to deliver rates of growth matching those before the global financial crisis. It explores the channels through which innovation promotes growth, and the ecosystems in which innovation flourishes. In so doing, the report pays special attention to the role of the intellectual property (IP) system, which at its heart seeks to support innovative activity.

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        World Investment Directory, Volume X, Africa 2008 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2008, 726 pages
        Categories: Investment

        What: This report provides an overview of foreign direct investments (FDI) inflows and the activity of Transnational corporations (TNC) in Africa. To introduce the subject, the document analyses the geographical and industrial distribution of FDI, the legal framework in which investments take place, policy measures and prospects. Through tables, figures and statistics on FDI and the operation of TNC, the report covers 53 African economies, giving each country profile. How: The report offers up-to-date information and statistics on FDI and trends as well as in-depth analysis on the activity of TNC in Africa. Who: Policy makers, especially in developing countries, researchers and lecturers interested in better understanding the character and trends of FDI and TNC activities.

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        World Investment Prospects Survey 2007-2009 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2007, 82 pages
        Categories: Investment

        In addition to the WIR, the World Investment Prospects Survey 2007-2009 (WIPS) was released October 4. The most recent in a series begun in 1995, the survey aims to provide an outlook on future trends in FDI based on responses from the largest TNCs in the world.

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        World Investment Prospects Survey 2009-2011 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2009, 85 pages
        Categories: Investment

        The focus of this year's World Investment Prospects Survey is the global economic and financial crisis and its impact on the FDI plans of TNCs. UNCTAD surveyed a sample of 240 company executives from the largest non-financial TNCs about the effect of the crisis on their international investment strategies during the next three years. Chapter 1 provides an assessment of the global FDI outlook for 2009–2011. Chapters 2 and 3 offer insights into specific trends by home region and industry respectively, and chapter 4 focuses on prospects by host region and country.

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        World Investment Prospects Survey 2010-2012 (English)
        Note by Unctad, 2010, 35 pages
        Categories: Investment

        UNCTAD’s World Investment Prospects Survey 2010–2012 provides an outlook on future trends in foreign direct investment (FDI) by the largest transnational corporations (TNCs). The present publication is the most recent in a series of similar surveys that have been conducted regularly by UNCTAD since 1995 as part of the background work for its annual World Investment Report.

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        World Investment Prospects Survey 2012-2014
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 178 pages
        Categories: Investment

        This UNCTAD publication provides an outlook on future trends in foreign direct investment (FDI) by the largest transnational corporations (TNCs). This year’s survey is the most recent in a series of similar surveys that have been conducted regularly by UNCTAD since 1995 as part of the background work for its annual World Investment Report.

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        World Investment Report 2000: Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions and Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2000, 368 pages
        Categories: Investment

        An examination of the impact of cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As) on the structure of global business taking into account the concerns about the market power of transnational corporations (TNCs) and the potential anti-competitive implications of M&As. · Useful to anyone concerned with investments, transnational corporations, market structure and competition policy from the point of view of developing countries. including Valuable information to scholars specialized in international finance and investment as well as · Main contents: I: Global Trends: The Expanding International Production System, II: Regional Trend, III: The Largest Transnational Corporations, IV: Trends In Cross-Border Mergers & Acquisitions, V: Performance, Motivations And Outlook, VI: FDI And Development: Does Mode Of Entry Matter?

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        World Investment Report 2000: Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions and Development - Overview
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2015, 47 pages
        Categories: Investment

        An examination of the impact of cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As) on the structure of global business taking into account the concerns about the market power of transnational corporations (TNCs) and the potential anti-competitive implications of M&As. · Useful to anyone concerned with investments, transnational corporations, market structure and competition policy from the point of view of developing countries. including Valuable information to scholars specialized in international finance and investment as well as · Main contents: I: Global Trends: The Expanding International Production System, II: Regional Trend, III: The Largest Transnational Corporations, IV: Trends In Cross-Border Mergers & Acquisitions, V: Performance, Motivations And Outlook, VI: FDI And Development: Does Mode Of Entry Matter?

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        World Investment Report 2001: Promoting Linkages (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2001, 380 pages
        Categories: Investment

        Analysis of the linkages between foreign affiliates of multinational enterprises and local companies in developing countries and their impact on foreign direct investment (FDI) flows. · This report will appeal to a wide-range audience including international relations specialists and policy makers wanting to have a closer look at the patterns of international production and investment and the instruments that contribute to the diffusion of knowledge and skills from TNCs to local enterprise sectors. · Main contents: I: The Global Picture, II: Mapping International Production, III: The Largest Transnational Corporations, IV: Backward Linkages: Impact, Determinants And TNC Experience, V: Policies To Strengthen Linkages, VI: Key Elements Of A Linkage Promotion Programme.

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        World Investment Report 2001: Promoting Linkages - Overview
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2001, 31 pages
        Categories: Investment

        Analysis of the linkages between foreign affiliates of multinational enterprises and local companies in developing countries and their impact on foreign direct investment (FDI) flows. · This report will appeal to a wide-range audience including international relations specialists and policy makers wanting to have a closer look at the patterns of international production and investment and the instruments that contribute to the diffusion of knowledge and skills from TNCs to local enterprise sectors.

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        World Investment Report 2002: Transnational Corporations and Export Competitiveness
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2002, 44 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Investment

        Enquiry into the decline of foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows in 2001 in light of a prolonged economic recession and a fall in cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As), which had been the driving force behind FDI flows.· Particularly relevant to social sciences scholars looking at FDI flows and the state of the global economy post-September 11th 2001. · This report introduces two new FDI benchmarking tools - the Inward FDI Performance Index and the Inward FDI Potential Index, which measure performance by standardizing a country’s inflows to the size of its economy, and measure potential by using a set of economic and policy factors of importance to foreign investors.

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        World Investment Report 2002: Transnational Corporations and Export Competitiveness (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2002, 347 pages
        Categories: Investment

        Enquiry into the decline of foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows in 2001 in light of a prolonged economic recession and a fall in cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As), which had been the driving force behind FDI flows.· Particularly relevant to social sciences scholars looking at FDI flows and the state of the global economy post-September 11th 2001. · This report introduces two new FDI benchmarking tools - the Inward FDI Performance Index and the Inward FDI Potential Index, which measure performance by standardizing a country’s inflows to the size of its economy, and measure potential by using a set of economic and policy factors of importance to foreign investors. Main contents: I: Global Trends, II: Benchmarking FDI Performance and Potential, III: Regional Trends, IV: The Largest Transnational Corporations, V: International Production System , VI: Patterns of Export Competitiveness.

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        World Investment Report 2003: Fdi Policies for Development: National and International Perspectives
        Report by UNCTAD, 2003, 322 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Investment

        Analysis of the foreign direct investment (FDI) downturn, its reasons and the role of national policies and international investment agreements (IIA) in attracting FDI to a country and for a country to benefit from it. · A key reading for anyone interested in the global economy as this reports looks at the various institutional, micro and macroeconomic causes behind the most significant FDI downturn in three decades. · Main contents: I: FDI Down 21% Globally, II: Uneven Performance Across Regions, III: Key National FDI Policies And International Investment Agreements, IV: Eight Key Issues: National Experiences And International Approaches, V: The Importance of National Policy Space, VI: Home Countries and Investors.

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        World Investment Report 2003: Fdi Policies for Development: National and International Perspectives - Overview (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2003, 48 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Investment

        Analysis of the foreign direct investment (FDI) downturn, its reasons and the role of national policies and international investment agreements (IIA) in attracting FDI to a country and for a country to benefit from it. · A key reading for anyone interested in the global economy as this reports looks at the various institutional, micro and macroeconomic causes behind the most significant FDI downturn in three decades.

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        World Investment Report, 2004: The Shift Towards Services (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 468 pages
        Categories: Investment

        A thorough examination of the global and regional trends in foreign direct investment (FDI) particularly regarding the shifting patterns of FDI towards services and an assessment of the challenges and opportunities that arise for development. : Valuable information to scholars specialized in international finance and investment as well as to those focusing on the service economy. : Main Contents: I Global FDI Growth Set To Resume, Regional FDI Trends: A Mixed Picture, III The Growth Of FDI In Services And Its Implications, IV The Off shoring Of Corporate Service Functions: The Next Global Shift?, V National Policies, VI National And International Policies: A Complex And Dynamic Interaction. It also includes a substantial statistical annex.

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        World Investment Report, 2004: The Shift Towards Services - Overview
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2004, 54 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment

        A thorough examination of the global and regional trends in foreign direct investment (FDI) particularly regarding the shifting patterns of FDI towards services and an assessment of the challenges and opportunities that arise for development. : Valuable information to scholars specialized in international finance and investment as well as to those focusing on the service economy.

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        World Investment Report 2005: Transnational Corporations and the Internationalisation of R&D (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005, 366 pages
        Categories: Investment

        What? This years WIR highlights the recovery of FDI and analyses in detail the current trends and patterns in FDI and TNC activity. In particular it exmaines research and development and the role of TNCs in the increased internationalisation of R+D. Who? For anyone interested in current trends in FDI and TNCs and their impact on development How? Contains invaluable source material and data, that can provide the basis for analysis and discussion. There are also useful graphs and charts and many case studies.

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        World Investment Report 2005: Transnational Corporations and the Internationalisation of R&d - Overview
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2005, 50 pages
        Categories: Investment, Science and Technology

        What? This WIR highlights the recovery of FDI and analyses in detail the current trends and patterns in FDI and TNC activity. In particular it exmaines research and development and the role of TNCs in the increased internationalisation of R+D. Who? For anyone interested in current trends in FDI and TNCs and their impact on development How? Contains invaluable source material and data, that can provide the basis for analysis and discussion. There are also useful graphs and charts and many case studies.

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        World Investment Report 2006 - FDI from Developing and Transition Economies (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2006, 372 pages
        Categories: Investment, Science and Technology

        This World Investment Report looks specifically at the increase in FDI by developing countries' TNCs. The report examines the magnitude of this phenomenon and investigates its drivers and determinants. In particular, the report analyses its impact on global economic development and discusses policy responses for both home and host developing countries. As in previous years, the report also presents the latest data on FDI and traces its global and regional trends. The main finding is that FDI inflows increased considerably in 2005, including a surge of FDI in developing countries' commodity-producing sectors and maintained a high-level of FDI in developing countries' service sectors. While Asia remained the main magnet for FDI flows, followed by Latin America, FDI in Africa has also increased, albeit from a low level. A substantial Statistical Annex is also included, with data on FDI flows and stock for more than 200 economies. How: Standard source for data on TNC activities and FDI flows; in addition in-depth treatment of the activities of developing countries' TNCs that can be used in international investment courses. Who: Researchers and lecturers in the area of FDI or international economics more broadly.

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        World Investment Report 2006: FDI from Developing and Transition Economies - Overview (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2006, 51 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Investment

        This year's World Investment Report looks specifically at the increase in FDI by developing countries' TNCs. The report examines the magnitude of this phenomenon and investigates its drivers and determinants. In particular, the report analyses its impact on global economic development and discusses policy responses for both home and host developing countries. As in previous years, the report also presents the latest data on FDI and traces its global and regional trends. The main finding is that FDI inflows increased considerably in 2005, including a surge of FDI in developing countries' commodity-producing sectors and maintained a high-level of FDI in developing countries' service sectors. While Asia remained the main magnet for FDI flows, followed by Latin America, FDI in Africa has also increased, albeit from a low level. A substantial Statistical Annex is also included, with data on FDI flows and stock for more than 200 economies. How: Standard source for data on TNC activities and FDI flows; in addition in-depth treatment of the activities of developing countries' TNCs that can be used in international investment courses. Who: Researchers and lecturers in the area of FDI or international economics more broadly.

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        World Investment Report 2007: Transnational Corporations, Extractive Industries and Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2007, 323 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Investment

        This year's World Investment Report (WIR) from UNCTAD focuses on the role of transnational corporations (TNCs) in the extraction of oil, gas and minerals. It emphasises the need for coherent and well-designed host country policies that involve all stakeholders in order to maximize development gains from such industries. As in previous years, the WIR07 presents the latest data on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), and traces global and regional trends in FDI and in international production by TNCs. The main finding is that the growth of FDI has been the largest in 2006 since 2000, and occurred in all three groups of economies: developed countries, developing countries, and the transition economies. Despite the general positive prospects for global FDI, it is predicted that the world economy will face several challenges and risks, which may have implications for FDI flows in 2007 and 2008. These include global current account imbalances causing exchange rate shifts, volatile oil prices, and a potential tightening of financial market conditions.

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        World Investment Report 2007: Transnational Corporations, Extractive Industries and Development - Overview
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2007, 49 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Investment

        This year's World Investment Report (WIR) from UNCTAD focuses on the role of transnational corporations (TNCs) in the extraction of oil, gas and minerals. It emphasises the need for coherent and well-designed host country policies that involve all stakeholders in order to maximize development gains from such industries. As in previous years, the WIR07 presents the latest data on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), and traces global and regional trends in FDI and in international production by TNCs. The main finding is that the growth of FDI has been the largest in 2006 since 2000, and occurred in all three groups of economies: developed countries, developing countries, and the transition economies. Despite the general positive prospects for global FDI, it is predicted that the world economy will face several challenges and risks, which may have implications for FDI flows in 2007 and 2008. These include global current account imbalances causing exchange rate shifts, volatile oil prices, and a potential tightening of financial market conditions.

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        World Investment Report 2008: Transnational Corporations and the Infrastructure Challenge (English)
        Report by UNCTAD - CNUCED, 2008, 411 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Investment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The Report explores how TNC participation in infrastructure has increased since the 1990s (although from a low level), and how this investment has helped mobilise further financial resources for investment. It also examines the policy environment and the challenges facing developing countries seeking to attract TNCs to infrastructure sectors, such as transport or electricity supply. As in previous years, the report also contains data on trends in FDI, which show that global inflows peaked in 2007 but appear to have been affected by the credit crisis in 2008, with TNCs cautious about investment commitments.

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        World Investment Report 2008: Transnational Corporations and the Infrastructure Challenge - Overview
        Report by UNCTAD, 2008, 43 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Investment

        This report explores how TNC participation in infrastructure has increased since the 1990s (although from a low level), and how this investment has helped mobilise further financial resources for investment. It also examines the policy environment and the challenges facing developing countries seeking to attract TNCs to infrastructure sectors, such as transport or electricity supply. As in previous years, the report also contains data on trends in FDI, which show that global inflows peaked in 2007 but appear to have been affected by the credit crisis in 2008, with TNCs cautious about investment commitments.

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        World Investment Report 2009: Transnational Corporations, Agricultural Production and Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2009, 313 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Investment

        This year's World Investment Report (WIR) concentrates on the changes in the FDI landscape induced by the current economic and financial crisis. Global FDI flows have been severely affected, and investments to developing and transition economies, which surged in recent years, are expected to suffer from a decline in 2009. This poses challenges for many developing countries, as FDI has become their largest source of external financing. The impact is analysed in detail, and regional trends for developing and developed countries are identified in the first part of the WIR. The second part of the report looks at transnational corporations (TNCs), Agricultural Production and Development. Foreign participation can play a significant role in agricultural production in developing countries. Therefore, the report proposes that governments should formulate an integrated strategic policy and regulatory framework for TNC activities in agricultural production, considering business as well as social and environmental interests.

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        World Investment Report 2009: Transnational Corporations, Agricultural Production and Development
        Report by UNCTAD, 2008, 314 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Investment

        This year's World Investment Report (WIR) concentrates on the changes in the FDI landscape induced by the current economic and financial crisis. Global FDI flows have been severely affected, and investments to developing and transition economies, which surged in recent years, are expected to suffer from a decline in 2009. This poses challenges for many developing countries, as FDI has become their largest source of external financing. The impact is analysed in detail, and regional trends for developing and developed countries are identified in the first part of the WIR. The second part of the report looks at transnational corporations (TNCs), Agricultural Production and Development. Foreign participation can play a significant role in agricultural production in developing countries. Therefore, the report proposes that governments should formulate an integrated strategic policy and regulatory framework for TNC activities in agricultural production, considering business as well as social and environmental interests.

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        World Investment Report 2009: Transnational Corporations, Agricultural Production and Development - Overview Arabic
        Report by UNCTAD, 2009, 68 pages
        Categories: Investment

        This year's World Investment Report (WIR) concentrates on the changes in the FDI landscape induced by the current economic and financial crisis. Global FDI flows have been severely affected, and investments to developing and transition economies, which surged in recent years, are expected to suffer from a decline in 2009. This poses challenges for many developing countries, as FDI has become their largest source of external financing. The impact is analysed in detail, and regional trends for developing and developed countries are identified in the first part of the WIR. The second part of the report looks at transnational corporations (TNCs), Agricultural Production and Development. Foreign participation can play a significant role in agricultural production in developing countries. Therefore, the report proposes that governments should formulate an integrated strategic policy and regulatory framework for TNC activities in agricultural production, considering business as well as social and environmental interests.

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        World Investment Report 2009: Transnational Corporations, Agricultural Production and Development - Overview English (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2009, 55 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Investment

        This year's World Investment Report (WIR) concentrates on the changes in the FDI landscape induced by the current economic and financial crisis. Global FDI flows have been severely affected, and investments to developing and transition economies, which surged in recent years, are expected to suffer from a decline in 2009. This poses challenges for many developing countries, as FDI has become their largest source of external financing. The impact is analysed in detail, and regional trends for developing and developed countries are identified in the first part of the WIR. The second part of the report looks at transnational corporations (TNCs), Agricultural Production and Development. Foreign participation can play a significant role in agricultural production in developing countries. Therefore, the report proposes that governments should formulate an integrated strategic policy and regulatory framework for TNC activities in agricultural production, considering business as well as social and environmental interests.

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        World Investment Report 2010: Investing in a Low-carbon Economy
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 221 pages
        Categories: Investment, Trade and Environment

        The World Investment Report 2010 highlights a promising outlook: after a significant global FDI downturn in 2009, flows worldwide are expected to recover slightly this year, with a stronger recovery in 2011 and 2012. The Report focuses on climate change, and in particular the role of transnational corporations. As enterprises with formidable knowledge, cutting-edge technology, and global reach, TNCs are necessarily among the primary actors in the global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and shift towards a low-carbon economy. The Report stresses that with the right policy initiatives, incentives and regulatory framework, TNCs can and must contribute significantly to both mitigation and adaptation. It also proposes a global partnership to galvanize low-carbon investment and advocates concrete initiatives such as a new technical assistance centre to support policy formulation and implementation in developing countries.

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        World Investment Report 2010: Investing in a Low-carbon Economy - Overview (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 54 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment

        A key question is to what extent countries gain from open trade in natural resources. Some of the issues examined in the Report include the role of trade in providing access to natural resources, the effects of international trade on the sustainability of natural resources, the environmental impact of resources trade, the so-called natural resources curse, and resource price volatility. The Report examines a range of key measures employed in natural resource sectors, such as export taxes, tariffs and subsidies, and provides information on their current use. It analyzes in detail the effects of these policy tools on an economy and on its trading partners. Finally, the Report provides an overview of how natural resources fit within the legal framework of the WTO and discusses other international agreements that regulate trade in natural resources. A number of challenges are addressed, including the regulation of export policy, the treatment of subsidies, trade facilitation, and the relationship between WTO rules and other international agreements.

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        World Investment Report 2010: Investing in a Low-carbon Economy - Overview
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2010, 54 pages
        Categories: Investment, Trade and Environment

        The World Investment Report 2010 highlights a promising outlook: after a significant global FDI downturn in 2009, flows worldwide are expected to recover slightly this year, with a stronger recovery in 2011 and 2012. The Report focuses on climate change, and in particular the role of transnational corporations. As enterprises with formidable knowledge, cutting-edge technology, and global reach, TNCs are necessarily among the primary actors in the global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and shift towards a low-carbon economy. The Report stresses that with the right policy initiatives, incentives and regulatory framework, TNCs can and must contribute significantly to both mitigation and adaptation. It also proposes a global partnership to galvanize low-carbon investment and advocates concrete initiatives such as a new technical assistance centre to support policy formulation and implementation in developing countries.

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        World Investment Report 2011: Non-equity modes of international production and development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 251 pages
        Categories: Investment

        Global foreign direct investment (FDI) has not yet bounced back to pre-crisis levels, though some regions show better recovery than others. The reason is not financing constraints, but perceived risks and regulatory uncertainty in a fragile world economy. The World Investment Report 2011 forecasts that, barring any economic shocks, FDI flows will recover to pre-crisis levels over the next two years. The challenge for the development community is to make this anticipated investment have greater impact on our efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.

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        World Investment Report 2011: Non-equity Modes of International Production and Development - Overview
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2011, 44 pages
        Categories: Investment

        Global foreign direct investment (FDI) has not yet bounced back to pre-crisis levels, though some regions show better recovery than others. The reason is not financing constraints, but perceived risks and regulatory uncertainty in a fragile world economy. The World Investment Report 2011 forecasts that, barring any economic shocks, FDI flows will recover to pre-crisis levels over the next two years. The challenge for the development community is to make this anticipated investment have greater impact on our efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.

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        World Investment Report 2012 - Towards a New Generation of Investment Policies (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 239 pages
        Categories: Investment

        The World Investment Report (WIR) 2012 is dedicated to the development of a new generation of investment policies, which place inclusive growth and sustainable development at the heart of efforts to attract and benefit from investment. In addition to surveying global investment trends, regional trends in FDI and recent policy developmentsthe WIR presents UNCTAD's "Investment policy framework for sustainable development", and outlines its core principles for investment policymaking, guidelines for national investment policies, and options for the design and use of international investment agreements (IIAs).

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        World Investment Report 2012 - Towards a New Generation of Investment Policies - Overview (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2012, 48 pages
        Categories: Investment

        The World Investment Report 2012 is dedicated to the new generation of investment policies in 2012. It concerns with the globals investment trends, regional trends in FDI, as well as recent policy developments in the world investment. It also presents UNCTAD's "Investment policy framework for sustainable development", which consists of (i) core Principles for investment policymaking, (ii) guidelines for national investment policies, and (iii) options for the design and use of international investment agreement (IIAs).

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        World Investment Report 2013: Global Value Chains: Investment and Trade for Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 264 pages
        Categories: Investment

        The WIR 2013 puts forward the latest trends in foreign direct investment and in-depth analysis of policy developments, investment prospects, and key emerging issues of investment -- including offshore financial flows and divestments. This year’s edition focuses on strategic development options to maximize the benefits and minimize the risks of global value chains.

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        World Investment Report 2013 : Global Value Chains, Investment and Trade for Development - Overview
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2013, 44 pages
        Categories: Investment

        The WIR 2013 puts forward the latest trends in foreign direct investment and in-depth analysis of policy developments, investment prospects, and key emerging issues of investment -- including offshore financial flows and divestments. This year’s edition focuses on strategic development options to maximize the benefits and minimize the risks of global value chains.

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        World Investment Report 2014 - Investing in the SDGs: An Action Plan (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 265 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment

        This year’s World Investment Report offers a global action plan for galvanizing the role of businesses in achieving future sustainable development goals beyond 2015, and enhancing the private sector’s positive economic, social and environmental impacts. The report reveals an encouraging trend: after a decline in 2012, global foreign direct investment flows rose by 9 per cent in 2013, with growth expected to continue in the years to come. This demonstrates the great potential of international investment, along with other financial resources, to help reach the goals of a post-2015 agenda for sustainable development. The report also identifies the financing gap, especially in vulnerable economies, assesses the primary sources of funds for bridging the gap, and proposes policy options for the future.

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        World Investment Report 2014: Investing in the Sdgs: An Action Plan - Overview
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2014, 56 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment

        This year’s World Investment Report offers a global action plan for galvanizing the role of businesses in achieving future sustainable development goals beyond 2015, and enhancing the private sector’s positive economic, social and environmental impacts. The report reveals an encouraging trend: after a decline in 2012, global foreign direct investment flows rose by 9 per cent in 2013, with growth expected to continue in the years to come. This demonstrates the great potential of international investment, along with other financial resources, to help reach the goals of a post-2015 agenda for sustainable development. The report also identifies the financing gap, especially in vulnerable economies, assesses the primary sources of funds for bridging the gap, and proposes policy options for the future.

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        World Investment Report 2015: Reforming International Investment Governance
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 253 pages
        Categories: Investment

        This Report tackles the key challenges in international investment protection and promotion, including the right to regulate, investor-state dispute settlement, and investor responsibility. It examines the fiscal treatment of international investment, including contributions of multinational corporations in developing countries, fiscal leakage through tax avoidance, and the role of offshore investment links. Furthermore, it offers a menu of options for the reform of the international investment treaties regime, together with a roadmap to guide policymakers at the national, bilateral, regional and multilateral levels. Finally, the Report proposes a set of principles and guidelines to ensure coherence between international tax and investment policies.

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        World Investment Report 2015: Reforming International Investment Governance - Overview (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 66 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Investment

        This Report tackles the key challenges in international investment protection and promotion, including the right to regulate, investor-state dispute settlement, and investor responsibility. It examines the fiscal treatment of international investment, including contributions of multinational corporations in developing countries, fiscal leakage through tax avoidance, and the role of offshore investment links. Furthermore, it offers a menu of options for the reform of the international investment treaties regime, together with a roadmap to guide policymakers at the national, bilateral, regional and multilateral levels. Finally, the Report proposes a set of principles and guidelines to ensure coherence between international tax and investment policies.

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        World Investment Report 2016 - Investor Nationality: Policy Challenges (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 232 pages
        Categories: Investment

        This latest edition of the World Investment Report is being issued as the world embarks on the crucial work of implementing the landmark 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Paris Agreement on climate change. The key findings and policy recommendations of the Report are far reaching and can contribute to our efforts to uphold the promise to leave no one behind and build a world of dignity for all. I therefore commend this Report to a wide global audience.

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        World Investment Report 2016: Key Messages and Overview (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2016, 52 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment

        This latest edition of the World Investment Report is being issued as the world embarks on the crucial work of implementing the landmark 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Paris Agreement on climate change. The key findings and policy recommendations of the Report are far reaching and can contribute to our efforts to uphold the promise to leave no one behind and build a world of dignity for all. I therefore commend this Report to a wide global audience.

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        World Investment Report 2017 - Investment and the Digital Economy (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 252 pages
        Categories: Investment

        In 2016, global flows of foreign direct investment fell by about 2 per cent, to $1.75 trillion. Investment in developing countries declined even more, by 14 per cent, and flows to LDCs and structurally weak economies remain volatile and low. These developments are troublesome, especially considering the enormous investment needs associated with the Sustainable Development Goals, detailed in UNCTAD’s Action Plan for Investment in the SDGs. Progress on sustainable development – and lasting peace – requires more investment in basic infrastructure, energy, water and sanitation, climate change mitigation, health and education, as well as investment in productive capacity to generate jobs and income growth. Now more than ever it is important to ensure that the global policy environment remains conducive to investment in sustainable development. UNCTAD plays an important role in this, by providing guidance on national and international investment policy regimes. Its Investment Policy Framework and Roadmap for Reform of International Investment Agreements have been used by more than 130 countries in formulating a new generation of investment policies. This year’s World Investment Report builds on that track record and presents policy advice on how to deal with close to 3,000 old-generation investment treaties.

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        World Investment Report 2017 - Overview (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 56 pages
        Categories: Investment

        In 2016, global flows of foreign direct investment fell by about 2 per cent, to $1.75 trillion. Investment in developing countries declined even more, by 14 per cent, and flows to LDCs and structurally weak economies remain volatile and low. These developments are troublesome, especially considering the enormous investment needs associated with the Sustainable Development Goals, detailed in UNCTAD’s Action Plan for Investment in the SDGs. Progress on sustainable development – and lasting peace – requires more investment in basic infrastructure, energy, water and sanitation, climate change mitigation, health and education, as well as investment in productive capacity to generate jobs and income growth. Now more than ever it is important to ensure that the global policy environment remains conducive to investment in sustainable development. UNCTAD plays an important role in this, by providing guidance on national and international investment policy regimes. Its Investment Policy Framework and Roadmap for Reform of International Investment Agreements have been used by more than 130 countries in formulating a new generation of investment policies. This year’s World Investment Report builds on that track record and presents policy advice on how to deal with close to 3,000 old-generation investment treaties.

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        World Investment Report 2018: Investment and New Industrial Policies (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 213 pages
        Categories: Investment

        The World Investment Report 2018 aims to provide a better understanding of the interaction between new industrial policies and investment policies. It provides an overview of industrial policy models – based on an inventory of industrial policies adopted by more than 100 countries over the last decade – and the role of investment policies within each model. The Report illustrates how investment policy instruments are used differently across various models and suggests ways to improve the impact of industrial policy through more effective and efficient investment policies. Finally, the Report offers recommendations to update existing investment policy instruments, including investment incentives, special economic zones, investment facilitation and foreign investment screening mechanisms.

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        World Investment Report 2018 - Investment and New Industrial Policies - Overview (English)
        Also available in Arabic, Chinese, Spanish, French, Russian
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 45 pages
        Categories: Investment

        The World Investment Report 2018 aims to provide a better understanding of the interaction between new industrial policies and investment policies. It provides an overview of industrial policy models – based on an inventory of industrial policies adopted by more than 100 countries over the last decade – and the role of investment policies within each model. The Report illustrates how investment policy instruments are used differently across various models and suggests ways to improve the impact of industrial policy through more effective and efficient investment policies. Finally, the Report offers recommendations to update existing investment policy instruments, including investment incentives, special economic zones, investment facilitation and foreign investment screening mechanisms.

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        The World of Investment Promotion at Glance (English)
        Discussion Paper by UNCTAD, 2001, 80 pages
        Categories: Investment

        An overview of the organizational structures and operations of institutions that deal with inward investment promotion, commonly known as investment promotion agencies (IPAs). The study attempts to find a common denominator of different IPAs and to look at the different practices of IPAs in the promotion of foreign investment. - This report provides useful information for those engaged in the promotion of foreign investment as well as those wishing to gain an insight into current investment practices. - Main contents: I: Organizational structures of Investment Promotion Agencies, II: Techniques and Tools used in Promoting Investments; III: Comparative Profiles of Investment Promotion Agencies; IV: Survey Questionnaire.

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        World Tariff Profiles 2008 (English)
        Report by WTO; UNCTAD; ITC, 2008, 235 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The 2008 edition of World Tariff Profiles presents a comprehensive and updated compilation of the main tariff indicators for the WTO's members as well as for other countries and customs territories. The publication is presented in three main parts. The first part shows summary statistics for all countries and territories for all products, as well as a breakdown into agricultural and non-agricultural products. The second part shows one full page for each of these countries and territories, with disaggregation by sectors and duty ranges. It also contains a section on the market access conditions faced in their respective major export markets. The third part looks at the impact of the changes in the HS on WTO members’ schedules and includes a summary table on concessions on other duties and charges (ODCs).

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        World Tariff Profiles 2009
        Report by WTO; UNCTAD; ITC, 2009, 205 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        World Tariff Profiles 2009 provides invaluable information on market access. The listing of the tariffs imposed by each WTO member on its imports is complemented with an analysis of the market access conditions it faces in its major export markets. The publication provides a comprehensive picture of tariffs. Presented in a handy format, it offers both summary tables and country-by-country breakdowns, with one page devoted to each country. The standardized presentation allows for analyses and comparisons between countries and sectors and between bound and applied duties for WTO members. This joint publication of the World Trade Organization (WTO), the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) and the International Trade Centre (ITC) is aimed at both specialists and non-specialists alike.

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        World Tariff Profiles 2010 (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD/WTO, 2010, 205 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The publication provides a comprehensive picture of tariffs. Presented in a handy format, it offers both summary tables and country-by-country breakdowns, with one page devoted to each country. The standardized presentation allows for analyses and comparisons between countries and sectors and between bound and applied duties for WTO members.

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        World Tariff Profiles 2012 (English)
        Report by WTO, ITC, UNCTAD, 2012, 220 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This co-publication of the WTO, ITC and UNCTAD covers market access for goods. It contains a comprehensive compilation of the tariffs imposed by each of the 155 WTO members plus a number of other countries and customs territories. Non-WTO members are included in this year’s issue if data on the tariffs they applied in 2010 or 2011 is available in the databases of the WTO, ITC or UNCTAD.

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        World Tariff Profiles 2013
        Report by WTO, ITC and UNCTAD, 2013, 202 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The World Tariff Profiles is a joint publication of the WTO, ITC and UNCTAD devoted to market access for goods. This statistical yearbook contains a comprehensive compilation of the main tariff parameters for each of the 159 WTO members plus other countries and customs territories where data is available. Each country profile presents information on tariffs imposed by each economy on its imports complemented with an analysis of the market access conditions it faces in its major export markets.

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        World Tariff Profiles 2014 (English)
        Report by WTO, 2014, 204 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        World Tariff Profiles 2014 provides a unique collection of data on tariffs imposed by WTO members and other countries. It is jointly published by the WTO, the International Trade Centre (ITC) and the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). The first part of the publication provides summary tables showing the average tariffs imposed by individual countries. The second part provides a more detailed table for each country, listing the tariffs it imposes on imports (by product group) as well as the tariffs it faces for exports to major trading partners. The profiles show the maximum tariff rates that are legally “bound” in the WTO and the rates that countries actually apply. This edition of World Trade Profiles has anti-dumping measures as its special topic, and includes a compilation of frequently asked questions.

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        World Tariff Profiles 2016 (English)
        Report by WTO, ITC, UNCTAD, 2016, 232 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        World Tariff Profiles 2016 provides summary tariff statistics for all countries and territories for all products, as well as a breakdown into agricultural and non-agricultural products. It also shows for each country a disaggregation by sectors and duty ranges. The report contains a section on the market on the market access conditions faced in their respective export markets, and a new section on the statistics of the impact on non-tariff measures. This edition also contains a special topic focusing on the 2017 version of the Harmonized System.

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        World Tariff Profiles 2018 - Co-Publication of the Wto, Itc and UNCTAD (English)
        Report by UNCTAD; ITC; WTO, 2018, 236 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This publication is presented in five main parts. The first part shows summary tariff statistics for all countries and territories for all products, as well as a breakdown into agricultural and nonagricultural products. The second part shows for each of these countries and territories one full page with disaggregation by sectors and duty ranges. It also contains a section on the market access conditions faced in their respective major export markets. A new third part has been added to this edition to cover information on non-tariff measures which are of increasing importance in international trade. The fourth part contains the special topic which presents a new subject in each edition. The annexes are in part five and include the data sources and the compilation of “Frequently Asked Questions”.

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        World Trade Indicators 2008: Benchmarking Policy and Performance (English)
        Report by Islam, Roumeen; Zanini, Gianni/World Bank, 2008, 150 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This publication summarizes patterns in world trade policy and trade outcomes revealed by the WTI database, focusing mainly on regional and income-level variations and providing the context to help evaluate individual country progress. The trade reform agenda going forward is about rationalizing substantial tariff peaks (particularly in agriculture), reducing overall tariff levels in some groups or countries, reducing tariff escalation aimed at protecting special goods, liberalizing services trade, and improving the other behind-the-border factors that affect trade expansion and the gains from it. Locking in current levels of liberalization through the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) would be a first important step toward a more ambitious reform agenda, especially for low-income countries. Improvements in domestic institutions could boost export performance, particularly in manufacturing and services, and help support new markets and new products. Overcoming inefficiencies in trade facilitation in developing countries would have a high payoff for trade performance, especially as tariffs have been reduced below trade costs in most countries.

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        World Trade Law and Renewable Energy: The Case of Non-tariff Barriers (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2009, 22 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The study is far from an exhaustive examination of these issues. For example, it does not deal with government procurement where plurilateral disciplines exist in the WTO, nor have the Trade Related Investment Measures (TRIMs) or Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) agreements been considered. The omission of these matters should not be interpreted as a judgment that they are peripheral or secondary in importance. In many areas, the analysis is speculative, aimed at raising qquestions and suggesting areas where domestic and international policymakers may need to consider undertaking further analysis. Above all, it should be stressed that the study raises these matters at a very general level. Whether any given governmental measure is consistent with WTO rules is a highly contextual qquestion, that may well depend on the exact design features of that particular measure, and its broader context – regulatory, technological and commercial. Thus, nothing in this study should be considered as a judgment that any actual measure of any particular government violates WTO rules.

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        World Trade Report 2007: Six Decades of Multilateral Trade Cooperation: What have we learnt? (English)
        Report by WTO, 2007, 436 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The Report begins with a brief account of recent trade developments. Turning to its core topic, the Report starts with a summary account of international trade cooperation before the Second World War. It then devotes some space to reviewing what theorists have to say about why governments are motivated to cooperate with one another through an institution like the WTO. The longest section of the Report is an exploration of the history of the multilateral trading system, with particular emphasis on a range of policy issues and challenges that have arisen over the years, and many of which are still with us today. It also focuses on a selection of issues that have arisen over the years and played a dominant role in the evolution of the system. These issues include dispute settlement, developing countries in the trading system, regionalism, decision-making, and the formation of the negotiating agenda.

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        World Trade Report 2008: Trade in a Globalizing World (English)
        Report by World Trade Organization, 2008, 204 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The report explores a range of interlinking questions, starting with a consideration of what constitutes globalization, what drives it, the benefits it brings, the challenges it poses and what role trade plays in a world of ever-growing interdependency. It asks why some countries have managed to take advantage of falling trade costs and greater policy-driven trading opportunities while others have remained largely outside international commercial relations. It considers who the winners and losers are from trade in society and what complementary action policy-makers need to take in order to secure the benefits of trade for society at large. In examining these complex and multi-faceted questions, the report reviews both the theoretical trade literature and empirical evidence that can help to give answers to these questions.

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        World Trade Report 2009: Trade Policy Commitments and Contingency Measures
        Report by WTO, 2010, 196 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The theme of this year’s Report is “Trade policy commitments and contingency measures”. The Report examines the range of contingency measures available in trade agreements and the role that these measures play. Also referred to as escape clauses or safety valves, these measures allow governments a certain degree of flexibility within their trade commitments and can be used to address circumstances that could not have been foreseen when a trade commitment was made. Contingency measures seek to strike a balance between commitments and flexibility. Too much flexibility may undermine the value of commitments, but too little may render the rules unsustainable. The tension between credible commitments and flexibility is often close to the surface during trade negotiations. For example, in the July 2008 mini-ministerial meeting, which sought to agree negotiating modalities — or a final blueprint — for agriculture and non-agricultural market access (NAMA), the question of a “special safeguard mechanism” (the extent to which developing countries would be allowed to protect farmers from import surges) was crucial to the discussions.

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        World Trade Report 2010: Trade in Natural Resources (English)
        Report by WTO, 2010, 256 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        A key question is to what extent countries gain from open trade in natural resources. Some of the issues examined in the Report include the role of trade in providing access to natural resources, the effects of international trade on the sustainability of natural resources, the environmental impact of resources trade, the so-called natural resources curse, and resource price volatility. The Report examines a range of key measures employed in natural resource sectors, such as export taxes, tariffs and subsidies, and provides information on their current use. It analyzes in detail the effects of these policy tools on an economy and on its trading partners. Finally, the Report provides an overview of how natural resources fit within the legal framework of the WTO and discusses other international agreements that regulate trade in natural resources. A number of challenges are addressed, including the regulation of export policy, the treatment of subsidies, trade facilitation, and the relationship between WTO rules and other international agreements.

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        World Trade Report 2012 - Trade and Public Policies: A Closer Look at Non-tariff Measures in the 21st Century (English)
        Report by WTO, 2012, 252 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The 2012 World Trade Report is split into two main parts. The first is a brief summary of the trade situation in 2011. The second part focuses on the special theme of non-tariff measures in the 21st century.Section A of the Report presents an overview of the history of non-tariff measures in the GATT/WTO. Section B examines the reasons why governments use NTMs and services measures and the extent to which public policy interventions may also distort international trade. The phenomenon of offshoring and the crosseffects of services measures on goods trade are also considered. The section analyses choices among alternative policy instruments from a theoretical and empirical perspective. Finally, case studies are presented on the use of NTMs in particular contexts. These include the recent financial crisis, climate change policy and food safety concerns. The case studies consider how far measures adopted may pose a challenge for international trade. Section C of the Report surveys available sources of information on NTMs and services measures and evaluates their relative strengths and weaknesses. It uses this information to establish a number of “stylized facts”, first about NTMs (TBT/SPS measures in particular) and then about services measures. Section D discusses the magnitude and the trade effects of NTMs and services measures in general, before focusing on TBT/SPS measures and domestic regulation in services. It also examines how regulatory harmonization and/or mutual recognition of standards help to reduce the trade-hindering effects of the diversity of TBT and SPS measures and domestic regulation in services. Section E looks at international cooperation on NTMs and services measures. The first part reviews the economic rationale for such cooperation and discusses the efficient design of rules on NTMs in a trade agreement. The second part looks at how cooperation has occurred on TBT/SPS measures and services regulation in the multilateral trading system, and within other international forums and institutions. The third part of the section deals with the legal analysis of the treatment of NTMs in the GATT/WTO dispute system and interpretations of the rules that have emerged in recent international trade disputes. The section concludes with a discussion of outstanding challenges and key policy implications of the Report.

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        World Trade Report 2014 - Trade and development: recent trends and the role of the WTO (English)
        Report by WTO, 2014, 1 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The report examines how four recent major economic trends have changed how developing countries can use trade to facilitate their development. These trends are the economic rise of developing economies, the growing integration of global production through supply chains, the higher prices for agricultural goods and natural resources, and the increasing interdependence of the world economy. The Report also looks into the role that the WTO plays.

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        The World Trade Report 2015 - Speeding Up Trade: Benefits and Challenges of Implementing the Wto Trade Facilitation Agreement (English)
        Also available in French, Spanish
        Report by WTO, 2015, 157 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The World Trade Report 2015 summarizes the trade situation in 2014 and early 2015 and examines the benefits and challenges of implementing the WTO’s Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA). The Report finds that developing countries will benefit significantly from the TFA, capturing a large part of the available gains. In addition, it identifies a range of other benefits from the TFA. These include diversification of exports from developing countries and least-developed countries to include new products and partners, increased involvement of these countries in global value chains, expanded participation of small and medium-sized enterprises in international trade, increased foreign direct investment, greater revenue collection and reduced incidence of corruption.

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        World Trade Report 2016 - Levelling the trading field for SMEs (English)
        Report by Auboin et al/WTO, 2016, 182 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Trade Facilitation, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The report provides a examines the participation of small and medium -sized enterprises (SMEs) in international trade. It examines how the international trade landscape is changing and what the multilateral trading system does and can do to encourage more widespread and inclusive SME participation in global markets.

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        World Trade Statistical Review 2016 (English)
        Report by WTO, 2016, 165 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The 2016 World Trade Statistical Review provides an overview of current trends in world trade and policy developments. This year's publication uses statistics within a global economic context to explain the reasons how and why global trade is changing. It provides comprehensive data with a particular focus on trade policy, the participation of developing economies in world trade and a more detailed look at selected goods and services.

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        WTO Agreement Series: Technical Barriers to Trade (English)
        Book by WTO, 2014, 156 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The WTO’s agreements are the legal foundation for the international trading system that is used by the bulk of the world’s trading nations. This series offers a set of handy reference booklets on selected agreements. Each volume contains the text of one agreement, an explanation designed to help the user understand the text, and in some cases supplementary material. They are intended to be an authoritative aid for understanding the agreements, but because of the legal complexity of the agreements, the introductions cannot be taken as legal interpretations of the agreements.

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        WTO Agreements Series Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (English)
        Book by WTO, 2010, 50 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the “SPS Agreement”) entered into force with the establishment of the World Trade Organization on January 1995. It concerns the application of food safety and animal and plant health regulations. This booklet discusses the text of the SPS Agreement as it appears in the Final Act of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations, signed in Marrakesh on 15 April 1994. This Agreement and others contained in the Final Act, along with the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade as amended (GATT 1994), are part of the treaty which established the World Trade Organization (WTO). The WTO superseded the GATT as the umbrella organization for international trade. The WTO Secretariat has prepared this booklet to assist public understanding of the SPS Agreement. The first section of the booklet presents the basic structure of WTO agreements; the second looks at the key features of the SPS Agreement; the third addresses a number of frequently-asked questions; and the fourth is the legal text of the agreement. The booklet is not intended to provide a legal interpretation of the agreement.

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        WTO Analytical Index: Supplement Covering New Developments in WTO Law and Practice October 2011 – January 2013 (English)
        Book by WTO, 2013, 218 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        As a supplement to the legal research tool "The Analytical Index", this resource covers developments in WTO law and practice after 30 September 2011. The Supplement is divided into two parts: "New Dispute Settlement Reports, Awards and Decisions" covers jurisprudence and "Other Developments in WTO Law and Practice" contains summaries and extracts on decisions and other significant activities of WTO bodies. Its coverage includes the WTO, the GATT 1994, the SPS, the TBT, the TRIMS and the SCM Agreements as well as the Agreements on Anti-Dumping, Safeguards and Government Procurement.

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        WTO Decision-making for the Future (English)
        Working paper by Low, Patrick, 2011, 14 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Decision making in the WTO has become ever more difficult as the number of members increases and the range of issues tackled broadens. This paper looks at reasons why aspects of decision-making might be changed and discusses a number of potential pitfalls that change would have to avoid, such as a dilution of commitments and fragmentation of the multilateral trading system. It then takes a detailed look at the notion of ‘critical mass’ decision-making. It argues for this approach under certain conditions, as it would: i) allow for the emergence of a more progressive and responsive WTO agenda; ii) blunt the diversion of trade cooperation initiatives to RTAs; iii) allow more efficient differentiation in the levels of rights and obligations among a community of highly diverse economies; and iv) promote greater efficiency in multilaterallybased negotiations on trade rules, and perhaps, sectoral market access agreements.

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        WTO Dispute Settlement - One-page Case Summaries (1995-2007) (English)
        Case study by WTO, 2008, 172 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This second edition publication offers case-by-case, single page summaries of panel and Appellate Body reports adopted by the WTO Dispute Settlement Body as of 31 December 2007. Intended to facilitate understanding of WTO dispute settlement cases among WTO Members by providing core facts, substantive findings contained in the adopted panel, summaries of key findings on significant procedural matters and, where applicable, Appellate Body reports for each decided case are documented. Other matters of particular significance raised during the proceedings are listed in accompanying footnotes to each case. Cases are indexed by article and by WTO agreement.

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        Wto - International Trade Statistics 2007 (English)
        Data by WTO, 2007, 262 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The WTO International Trade Statistics 2007 provides a comprehensive collection of statistical data on trade in merchandise and commercial services relevant for an assessment of world trade flows by country, region and main product groups or services by category. This year's report provides a more user-friendly presentation of statistical tables, and covers new fields, in particular to satisfy the increasing demand for data on international trade in services. The report, furthermore, provides for the first time information on sales of foreign affiliates relating to trade in services.

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        WTO Negotiations on Environmental Goods: Selected Technical Issues (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2011, 28 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper highlights some technical issues on the Doha Round of WTO negotiations, focusing on environmental goods, regulations covering environmental markets, the definition and scope of environmental products, and how to negotiate non-tariff concessions.

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        The WTO negotiations on financial services: Current issues and future directions (English)
        Discussion Paper by Andrew Cornford, 2004, 29 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: A descriptive discussion paper that presents main issues of financial services negotiations: special and differential measures, laws and regulations, international capital movements and financial instability. Who: Anyone researching or teaching WTO negotiations or services liberalization. How: This discussion paper gives a historical background on financial services negotiations and contains a list of useful references.

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        WTO Public Forum 2007 - How Can the WTO Help Harness Globalization? (French)
        Report by WTO, 2008, 410 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This publication summarizes the views and concerns expressed during the two-day programme of the WTO Public Forum 'How can the WTO help harness globalization?'. Topics for debate included the challenges presented by globalisation, the need for a coherent multilateral trading system, trade as a vehicle for growth and development, and the interaction of trade and sustainable development.

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        Wto Public Forum 2007 - How Can the Wto Help Harness Globalization? (English)
        Report by WTO, 2008, 384 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This publication summarizes the views and concerns expressed during the two-day programme of the WTO Public Forum 'How can the WTO help harness globalization?'. Topics for debate included the challenges presented by globalisation, the need for a coherent multilateral trading system, trade as a vehicle for growth and development, and the interaction of trade and sustainable development.

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        WTO Public Forum 2007 - How Can the WTO Help Harness Globalization?
        Report by WTO, 2008, 424 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This publication summarizes the views and concerns expressed during the two-day programme of the WTO Public Forum 'How can the WTO help harness globalization?'. Topics for debate included the challenges presented by globalisation, the need for a coherent multilateral trading system, trade as a vehicle for growth and development, and the interaction of trade and sustainable development.

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        Wto Report on G-20 Trade Measures
        Report by WTO, 2011, 45 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This sixth Report reviews trade and trade-related measures undertaken by G-20 economies in the period from 1 May 2011 to mid-October 2011. Section II of the Report presents a comprehensive description of all trade and trade-related developments during the reviewed period. Government support measures implemented during this period are covered in section III, and developments in Trade Finance in section IV. The final section of the Report provides the context of recent economic and trade trends.

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        Wto Report on G-20 Trade Measures
        Report by WTO, 2011, 45 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Covering the period of May to mid-October 2011, the report concludes that the pace of implementation of new trade restrictions by G-20 countries, particularly in the manufacturing sector, has not decelerated over the past six months. Also confirmed is the upward trend in the imposition of export restrictions affecting mainly food and some minerals.

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        The WTO's July 2008 Mini-Ministerial: Agriculture, NAMA, Process Issues and the Road Ahead (English)
        Note by South Centre, 2008, 37 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper outlines the main events which took place during the WTO’s July mini-Ministerial. It goes on to provide a discussion of the key issues that were important in that meeting – agriculture, cotton, the non-agriculture market access negotiations, as well as systemic process concerns. It concludes with some thoughts on the challenges confronting developing countries – high food prices, livelihoods and climate change, and the implications these challenges pose for the WTO.

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        The WTO: Theory And Practice (English)
        Working paper by Bagwell, Kyle, Staiger, Robert W., 2009, 39 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        We consider the purpose and design of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and its predecessor, GATT. We review recent developments in the relevant theoretical and empirical literature. And we describe the GATT/WTO architecture and briefly trace its historical antecedents. We suggest that the existing literature provides a useful framework for understanding and interpreting central features of the design and practice of the GATT/WTO, and we identify key unresolved issues.

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        WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement - A Business Guide for Developing Countries (English)
        Manual by ITC, 2013, 44 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The guide explains the significance of the WTO Agreement on Trade Facilitation and the reasons why it was proposed. It aims at helping business communities in developing countries understand the obligations that these countries have taken on or will do so in the future; gives an overview of the main provisions of the agreement; explains how it is intended to ease border controls for business, and how business can still influence the way that governments implement the obligations and specific commitments they have undertaken in reaching the Agreement.

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        WTO World Trade Report 2011: the WTO and the preferential trade agreements - From co-existence to coherence (English)
        Report by WTO, 2011, 256 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The World Trade Report 2011 describes the historical development of PTAs and the current landscape of agreements. It analyses the reasons behind establishing PTAs, their impact on economy, and also covers the contents of the agreements themselves. Finally identifies areas of synergies and potential conflicts between PTAs and the multilateral trading system and examines ways in which the two "trade systems" can be made more coherent.

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