A partnership with academia

Building knowledge for trade and development

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        Cabo Verde’s Creative Economy: Leveraging Culture and Creativity for Sustainable Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 77 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This report presents the potential of Cabo Verde to capitalize on its rich cultural expressions (music, festivals, handicrafts, gastronomy, tourism and cultural events) to achieve a real sustainable development through the small scale production of goods and services that favors fair income distribution systems, improves the quality of life of its population, and supports the desire of the youth to enter the contemporary job market while integrating cultural values and creativity.

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        Can Electronic Commerce be an Engine for Global Growth? (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Secretariat, 1999, 10 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: This paper deals with the role of electronic commerce for developing countries and for countries in transition. Despite the potential of electronic commerce as a source for international growth and trade in various fields, the access to e-commerce remains uneven. On the basis of so far accomplished work in respective field, further steps are being outlined in order to be able to better seize positive impacts of electronic commerce for developing countries and countries with economies in transition. Who: Useful for students or teachers looking for a review of the most important aspects of electronic commerce and its implications and challenges for developing countries. How: Can serve as an introduction on the role of E-commerce for development. Some issues could be used as starting points for general or group discussions.

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        Can Green Growth Really Work and What Are the True (socio-) Economics of Climate Change?
        Discussion paper by Hoffmann, Ulrich /UNCTAD, 2015, 31 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        This paper argues that growth, technological, population-expansion and governance constraints as well as some key systemic issues cast a very long shadow on the "green growth" hopes. Many economists and policymakers advocate a fundamental shift towards "green growth" as the new, qualitatively-different growth paradigm, largely based on enhanced material/resource/energy efficiency, structural changes towards a service-dominated economy and a switch in the energy mix favouring renewable forms of energy. However this paper states that such an evolutionary approach will not be sufficient to cope with the complexities of climate change.

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        Can Mirror Data Help To Capture Informal International Trade? (English)
        Report by Carrère, Céline; Grigoriou, Christopher /UNCTAD, 2014, 44 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report uses mirror trade statistics, or data reported by trading partners, to see if and how the gap between the declared and mirrored disaggregated bilateral data could be used to capture informal cross border trade. The paper proposes a review of the reasons for the gap between matched partner data, before investigating stylized facts from UN-COMTRADE data. Empirical analysis relying on econometrical panel data over a worldwide set of data at the 6 digits level evidences that discrepancies from the mirror data are not erratically driven. A statistically significant relationship between the gap and macroeconomic variables such bilateral distance, gdp per capita, average tariffs, foreign direct investments (FDI), implementation of regional trade agreements (RTA) have been evidenced. Based on these preliminary correlations, a probit has been run on orphan imports (imports reported by importing country without equivalent by exporting country) and predicts accurately up to 68 per cent of these misclassification cases. Thus, part of the gap can be predicted by macroeconomic variables, some of them suggesting a relationship between cross-border trade flows misreporting and fraud opportunities to evade tariffs and taxes.

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        Capacity Building for Academia in Trade for Development: A Study on Contributions to the Development of Human Resources and to Policy Support for Developing Countries. (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD Virtual Institute, 2010, 38 pages
        Categories: VI Members Research

        The study "Capacity building for academia in trade for development" sheds light on new forms of capacity building and provides an overview of the initiatives and actors dealing with academic capacity building in the area of trade for development. As opposed to traditional capacity building, understood as technical assistance often focusing on short-term goals and prioritizing the objectives of the donor (mainly developed) countries, novel and distinct forms of capacity building have been emerging that emphasize the continuity and sustainability of programmes according to domestic and regional demands. The study analyzes two initiatives, the Latin American Trade Network and the UNCTAD Virtual Institute.

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        Capital-account regimes and the developing countries (English)
        Discussion Paper by G. K. Helleiner, 1997, 26 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Macroeconomic Policy

        This paper surveys the forms and roles of private capital flows to developing countries in the 1990s and the national and international policy responses to the problems and possibilities it has created. It describes the growth of these flows in the 1990s, and some of their effects in recipient countries. The paper then addresses the question of alternative capital account policies for developing countries, including the rationale and efficacy of various kinds of direct and indirect controls over international capital flows. It then examines the possibility of improving international arrangements, such as the provision of increased liquidity, better procedures for orderly debt workouts, and clarified international regimes.

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        Capital Flows from South to North: A New Dynamic in Global Economic Relations (English)
        Note by South Centre, 2008, 35 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy

        This Analytical Note looks at the new dynamic of capital flows from the South to the North arising from unprecedented levels of capital reserve accumulation by the South. It looks at some of the reasons for such capital accumulation - pointing to the perceived need by developing countries to self-insure themselves against financial crises. It then looks at various ways in which financial crises could be prevented by developing countries and concludes by stressing the need for this new dynamic to be reflected in both international economic arrangements and in terms of ensuring that developmental gains by developing countries are obtained.

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        Capital flows to developing countries and the reform of the international financial system (English)
        Discussion Paper by Yilmaz Akyuz and Andrew Cornford, 1999, 54 pages
        Categories: International Financial System

        Background discussion paper on the changes in the international financial system and on the need for adapted policies to deal with international financial instability; it argues that in the absence of measures at the international level, developing countries have to control capital flows. Interesting for anyone interested in the reform of financial system and policies responses to financial instability. It provides a good analysis but data and information need to be updated.

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        Capping Unusually High Tariffs: The WTO Doha Round and ‘Tariff Peaks’ (English)
        Report by ICTSD, 2009, 12 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This information note examines the proposed tariff cap and what this would mean for countries with extremely high tariffs. The tariff peaks of Iceland, Japan, Norway and Switzerland are examined in closer detail.

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        Carbon Concerns: How Standards And Labelling Initiatives Must Not Limit Agricultural Trade From Developing Countries
        Policy brief by MacGregor, James/ ICTSD, 2010, 40 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        The carbon embedded in internationally traded food and agricultural goods – its measurement, as well as different ways of communicating its climate impact – is a rapidly emerging factor in agricultural production, processing and trade. The emerging, mainly non-statutory, private-sector driven carbon labelling schemes raise a number of issues. This paper examines the current status of carbon labelling initiatives in the food industry. It looks at how embedded carbon is likely to be marketed and how this phenomenon may impact agricultural trade from developing countries.

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        Central Banking, Financial Institutions and Credit Creation in Developing Countries (English)
        Discussion paper by Dullien, Sebastian/UNCTAD, 2009, 42 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy, VI Members Research

        This paper examines how developing countries can embark on a sustained path of strong investment, capital accumulation and economic growth without capital imports. It is argued that the key lies in the Keynesian-Schumpeterian credit-investment nexus: Given certain preconditions, the central bank can allow a credit expansion which finances new investment and creates the savings necessary to balance the national accounts. It is further argued and confirmed in empirical data that one of the biggest impediments to such a process is formal or informal dollarization which limits the policy scope of the central bank. Moreover, a stable banking system with a broad outreach as well as a low degree of pass-through between the exchange rate and domestic prices seem to be a necessary condition for this process to work.

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        The Challenge of Establishing World-Class Universities (English)
        Report by Salmi, Jamil / World Bank, 2009, 136 pages
        Categories: Trade Related Capacity Building

        This new report examines the power of tertiary education for development from the perspective of excellence in research and scholarship at its most competitive levels. It concludes that the highest-ranked universities are the ones that make significant contributions to the advancement of knowledge through research, teach with the most innovative curricula and pedagogical methods under the most conducive circumstances, make research an integral component of undergraduate teaching, and produce graduates who stand out because of their success in intensely competitive arenas during their education and (more important) after graduation.

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        Challenges and Opportunities for Developing Countries in Producing Biofuels (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2006, 26 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        What: The increase in oil prices has had the effect of improving the commercial viability of alternatives to oil. One group of energy bearers that has benefited particularly and that is of major potential importance to developing countries is biofuels. This study will present the evolution of international trade of biofuels and feedstock, and current trade regulations (tariffs and non-tariffs measures). It will also briefly detail current incentive policies in the EU and the United States for developing biofuels and look for indications of the policy they will adopt regarding consumption and import of biofuels. The study will then turn to issues relevant for biofuels production in developing countries. It will try to analyze what is at stake about food security, land uses, employment, public finance and environmental concerns. The final section of the study will identify some recent development of prices.

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        Challenges of Access to Clean Water and Healthy Environment: An Inter-link Between Huge Investment Projects and the Surrounding Local Community in Tanzania (English)
        Article by Ombella, John Sinato / Mzumbe University, 2012, 14 pages
        Categories: VI Members Research

        This article shades a light on the legal aspects of the access to clean water and clean environment and the extent of access of these basic rights. The discussion revolves around the question of whether investment projects and the local community are living in a symbiotic relation or is one prospering to the detriment of the other.

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        The Changing Landscape of Regional Trade Agreements (English)
        Discussion Paper by Jo-Ann Crawford, Roberto V. Fiorentino, World Trade Organization, 2005, 39 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: A very informative paper with an up-to-date comprehensive overview of existing RTAs in different regions as notified to the WTO. Useful illustrative maps of regions and agreements within. Reviews recent trends in RTAs and reasons behind their proliferation since the 1990s, and discusses relationship of RTAs and the multilateral trading system/WTO. Who:University teachers/students and anyone interested in comprehensive recent information about RTAs. How: Can be used in trade courses to discuss the background and evolution of RTAs, the merits/demerits of regional vs. multilateral liberalization, and the status of RTAs in the WTO.

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        The Changing Structure and Governance of Intellectual Property Enforcement (English)
        Working paper by Biadgleng, Ermias; Munoz, Viviana, 2008, 64 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This research paper provides a broad overview and analysis of the changing multilateral framework for intellectual property enforcement and the challenges that it presents for developing countries. It examines current multilateral obligations and traces developments in the field of intellectual property enforcement in various multilateral fora, including the WCO, WHO, WIPO, WTO and Interpol. Finally, it analyses the approach of the United States and European Union to strengthening intellectual property enforcement in third countries through regional, bilateral and unilateral mechanisms such as regional and bilateral agreements.

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        China and Central and Eastern European Countries: Regional Networks, Global Supply Chain, or International Competitors? (English)
        Working paper by Fung , K.C.; Korhonen, Iikka; Li, Ke; Ng, Francis / World Bank, 2008, 45 pages
        Categories: Investment

        China has emerged as one of the top recipients of foreign direct investment in the world. Meanwhile, the successful transition experience of many Central and Eastern European countries has also allowed them to attract an increasing share of global foreign direct investment. In this paper, the authors use a panel data set to investigate whether foreign direct investment flows to these two regions are complements, substitutes, or independent of each other. Taking into account the role of host country characteristics - such as market size, degree of trade liberalization, and human capital - the authors find no evidence that foreign direct investment flows to one region are at the expense of those to the other. Instead, the results suggest that foreign direct investment flows are driven by distinct regional production networks (and thus are largely independent of each other) and the development of global supply chains (indicating that foreign direct investment flows are complementary).

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        China’s Development Trajectory: A Strategic Opening for Industrial Policy in the South (English)
        Report by Poon, Daniel /UNCTAD, 2014, 50 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation

        Through the lens of the five key sectors outlined by Arthur Lewis, this paper assess China’s economic trajectory that shows signs of indigenous technological capabilities taking root. A new gap between China’s industrial ambitions and its current capabilities provides a strategic opening for other developing countries to bargain for enhanced opportunities for domestic investment, learning, technical change and structural transformation.

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        Chinese Trade Reforms, Market Access and Foreign Competition - The Patterns of French Exporters (English)
        Working paper by Maria Bas, Pamela Bombarda, 2013, 39 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Using detailed trade and firm-level data from France, the authors investigate how French firms' product scope and export sales changed after Chinese liberalization vis-a-vis Asian liberalization. The findings suggest that lower Chinese import tariffs account on average for 7 percent of the new products exported by French firms, and for 18 percent of additional French export sales.

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        Classification of Non-tariff Measures (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2013, 52 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Non-tariff measures are generally defined as policy measures other than ordinary customs tariffs that can potentially have an economic effect on international trade in goods, changing quantities traded, or prices or both. Since this definition is broad, a detailed classification is of critical importance so as to better identify and distinguish among the various forms of non-tariff measures.

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        The Clean Development Mechanism - Guide 2009
        Report by Frondizi, Isaura/UNCTAD, 2009, 128 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade and Environment

        This revised and expanded version of the Guide to the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) was commissioned by the Ministry of Science and Technology and drawn up under the sponsorship of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The contents were revised with the direct assistance of the MCT and UNCTAD. Publication was sponsored by the Brazilian Social and Economic Development Bank (BNDES). The CDM is the sole mechanism through which industrialized countries with quantified emission reduction and limitation commitments (commonly known as “targets”), established by the Kyoto Protocol, can offset part of these targets by acquiring Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) generated by CDM projects in developing countries. Given that the first commitment period defined by the Kyoto Protocol (2008-2012) began on January 1, 2008, the window of opportunity in relation to the CDM is still open. In addition, during the ongoing negotiations, the Parties to the Protocol have manifested their interest in its continuation after 2012, more specifically in the second commitment period. This Guide has three main objectives: i) to provide information to all those interested in CDM project activities; ii) to detail the specific regulations governing the submission of CDM project activities in Brazil; and iii) to facilitate an understanding of the process and, consequently, promote the development of CDM projects in the country.

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        Climate Change and China’s Agricultural Sector: An Overview of Impacts, Adaptation and Mitigation (English)
        Policy brief by Wang, Jinxia; Huang, Jikun; Rozelle, Scott/ ICTSD, 2010, 39 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment

        Agriculture accounts for more than 15 percent of China’s total greenhouse gas emissions, nearly 90 percent of nitrous oxide emissions, and 60 percent of methane emissions. Excessive fertilizer use is not only fueling a major portion of the nitrous oxide emissions but also is raising alarm about water pollution from agriculture. At the same time, however, there is opportunity for China’s agriculture sector to play a role in mitigating against climate change through carbon sequestration and adopting production methods that reduce emissions. In addition, the potential impact of climate change on agricultural production and prices in China could have tremendous implications for both domestic and international markets, due to the sheer size of China’s domestic demand for agricultural products.

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        Climate Change and Developing Country Agriculture: An Overview of Expected Impacts, Adaptation and Mitigation Challenges, and Funding Requirements (English)
        Article by Keane, Jodie; Page, Sheila; Kergna, Alpha and Kennan, Jane/UNCTAD, 2009, 61 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Finance for Development, Trade and Environment

        Agricultural trade flows depend on the interaction between trade policy and inherent comparative advantage. Not only is the agricultural sector highly vulnerable to climate change, it is also one of the sectors most distorted and heavily influenced by a wide range of local, regional, national and international trade policies. The increased stress to the system brought about by climate change makes reform in global agricultural policies arguably even more important. Even if the most ambitious climate change mitigation measures are adopted, global temperatures are likely to increase by at least 2 degree C since pre-industrial levels by the end of this century, if not sooner; the intensity and frequency of extreme climatic conditions are expected to increase and the predictability of normal rainy seasons, decrease.6 Poor countries with a large rural economy depend on agricultural exports for their fiscal and socio-political stability; climate change could potentially jeopardise agricultural export earnings unless alternatives can be sought or climate proof investments are made. But what are the alternative sources of export earnings? Given the potential impact of climate change on agricultural production, this document sets out to assess how producers might adapt, particularly in relation to new markets for agricultural products and services related to climate change mitigation efforts.

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        Climate Change, Biodiversity and Livelihoods: Lessons Learned from UNCTAD Project Impletmentation (English)
        Report by Castro, Lorena/UNCTAD, 2015, 45 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Environment

        This publication highlights the contribution of biodiversity investment in fostering sustainable development through business opportunities in sectors such as agriculture, pharmaceuticals and housing. The report outlines the implementation of UNCTAD BioTrade and REDD+ projects, its outcomes, lessons and the way forward.

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        Climate Change, Disaster Risk, And The Urban Poor- Cities Building Resilience for a Changing World
        Study by The World Bank, 2012, 322 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Trade and Environment

        This study analyzes the key challenges facing the urban poor, given the risks associated with climate change and disasters, particularly with regard to the delivery of basic services, and identifies strategies and financing opportunities for addressing these risks.

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        Climate Change: Turning Costs into Income Opportunities (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2009, 2 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Environment

        Concerns about the high costs of climate change mitigation dominate the global debate to be resumed at Copenhagen. The question of who is to pay for the investments that will undoubtedly be needed receives far greater attention than the corollary question of who is to gain from them. From a macroeconomic perspective, one economic agent’s cost is always another agent’s income. But as this policy brief argues, the concept of cost is misleading in the context of climate change mitigation. Once the process of structural change necessitated by climate change mitigation is in full swing, there will be huge new market opportunities. The policy issue is: how will costs and incomes be distributed in this process? UNCTAD believes that developing countries, although they face considerable costs, can also generate new income if they adapt their development strategies to the requirements of climate change mitigation. This policy brief also stresses the role of government in facilitating the process of structural change, not only by fostering “green” consumer preferences, but also by implementing pro-active industrial policies that support the production of climate-friendly equipment and appliances. In short: The world can move to a low-carbon economy without feeling paralysed by the costs – and can do so without sacrificing growth in the developing world.

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        Climate Policies, Economic Diversification and Trade (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 19 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        This paper explores two broad areas of policy that may hold some promise in terms of economic diversification. Section 2 asks whether the rise of global value chains as a mode of production offers any opportunities to foster economic diversity that leads to reduced response measure vulnerability. Section 3 then asks whether green industrial policy might similarly bring new light to the discussion.

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        Closing the Distance - Partnerships for Sustainable and Resilient Transport Systems in Small Island Developing States
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 102 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The report informs about the maritime transport situation in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and underscores the strategic importance of this economic sector for SIDS economies and communities. The overall objective is to help raise awareness about the role of sustainable and resilient maritime transport infrastructure and services for the sustainable development prospects of SIDS. It presents data on relevant aspects, including shipping connectivity levels, direct and indirect shipping services, port issues, as well as trade structure and patterns. The report points to relevant opportunities which could be capitalised upon to support SIDS sustainable development and “blue growth”. Finally, it concludes with a number of suggestions and recommendations for the way forward.

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        Clothing and Export Diversification: Still a Route to Growth for Low-Income Countries? (English)
        Working paper by Brenton, Paul; Hoppe, Mombert /World Bank, 2007, 35 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Can the clothing sector be a driver of export diversification and growth for today's low-income countries as it was in the past for countries that have graduated into middle income? This paper assesses this issue taking into account key changes to the market for clothing: the emergence of India and especially China as exporting countries; the rise of global production chains; the removal of quotas from the global trading regime but the continued presence of high tariffs and substantial trade preferences; the increasing importance of large buyers in developed countries and their concerns regarding risk and reputation; and the increasing importance of time in defining sourcing decisions. To assess the importance of the factors shaping the global clothing market, the authors estimate a gravity model to explain jointly the propensity to export clothing and the magnitude of exports from developing countries to the E U and US markets. This analysis identifies the quality of governance as an important determinant of sourcing decisions and that there appears to be a general bias against sourcing apparel from African countries, which is only partially overcome by trade preferences.

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        Coaliciones Entre Los Países De América Latina Y Caribe En Las Relaciones Multilaterales Del Comercio Agrícola
        Study by Alfaro, Daniela/Universidad de la República, 2007, 38 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System, VI Members Research

        El estudio analiza la consistencia de los rasgos estructurales e influencia de los procesos de integración regional de los países de América Latina y el Caribe (AL y C) y de la modalidad de acceso comercial en Estados Unidos en la posición adoptada en las negociaciones agrícolas multilaterales. Se utiliza la técnica multivariada de cluster para medir las “distancias” entre los países a través de indicadores económicos, de desarrollo, agrícolas, comerciales, política agrícola comercial y de intensidad comercial con EUA. Tres hallazgos merecen resaltarse. El primero refiere a la posibilidad de esperar una convergencia entre los países latinoamericanos hacia una posición agrícola común en las negociaciones agrícolas de la OMC, al utilizar la correspondencia entre los tres clusters hallados y las coaliciones de negociaciones existentes. Una segunda constatación refiere a la influencia de los procesos de integración regional en la formación de las coaliciones para las negociaciones multilaterales. Y por último, se constató que la posición que adopten los países en las negociaciones agrícolas internacionales está “ligada” a la relación comercial con EUA.

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        Coffee, Cooperation and Competition: A Comparative Study of Colombia and Vietnam (English)
        Study by Adriana Roldán-Pérez, Maria-Alejandra Gonzalez-Perez, Pham Thu Huong, Dao Ngoc Tien, 2009
        Categories: Commodities, Competitiveness, VI Members Research

        This Virtual Institute Joint Project between Vi members EAFIT University and Foreign Trade University identifies links and dynamics in the value chain in both Colombia and Vietnam that have been developed in their respective coffee industries in order to improve competitiveness, increase sustainability and respond to market demands.

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        The Coffee Exporter's Guide
        Book by ITC, 2012, 267 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        The coffee guide provides a detailed overview of the world trade practices relating to exporting coffee. The guide covers international coffee contracts, logistics, insurance, dispute resolution, futures markets, risk management and hedging, trade financing and collateral management issues. Quality control issues and new trends in the coffee trade, such as electronic commerce and sustainability schemes, are also outlined.

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        The Coffee Sector in China: an Overview of Production, Trade and Consumption (English)
        Report by ITC, 2010, 31 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        The report comprises information on coffee production, export, import, processing and consumption in China. It covers the mainland of the People’s Republic of China, hereinafter referred to as China, but does not include Hong Kong SAR (Special Administrative Region) and Macao SAR. As the Chinese consumer market for coffee is still in the early stages of maturation, traditional institutions for record keeping and tracking industry trends do not yet exist as they do in more developed coffee markets. This report is based on a combination of primary and secondary data, collected from telephone interviews, news articles, press releases, published market research reports, and government statistical reporting.

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        Une collaboration entre l'université et les décideurs - Linking university with decision makers in Senegal (French)
        Interview by ALD/OF, 2005
        Categories: Trade Related Capacity Building

        Highlights of an interview (in French) given by the Vi coordinator at the University of Dakar, Aly Mbaye, on the occasion of the Days of the Senegalese Economy organized by the Centre for Applied Economic Research (CREA) that he is heading. The interview advocates for a strong relation between university research and the decision-making processes, in particular in the context of increasing globalization of the world economy. Aly Mbaye argues that such cooperation is mutually beneficial - researchers can access empirical information that they can use in their work, and test working hypotheses, and policy makers benefit from research outputs to underpin their policy decisions. CREA intends to strengthen its communication and collaboration with decision makers. To support the government, the University of Dakar plans to open a graduate programme in international negotiations and economic diplomacy.

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        The Collapse of International Trade During the 2008-2009 Crisis: In Search of the Smoking Gun (English)
        Working paper by Levchenko Logan Andrei A.; Lewis, T.; Tesar, Linda L., 2010, 56 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper uses disaggregated data on U.S. imports and exports to shed light on the anatomy of this collapse. It finds that the recent reduction in trade relative to overall economic activity is far larger than in previous downturns. In a sample of imports and exports disaggregated at the 6-digit NAICS level, findings indicate that sectors used as intermediate inputs experienced significantly higher percentage reductions in both imports and exports. It also finds support for compositional effects: sectors with larger reductions in domestic output had larger drops in trade. By contrast, it does not support the hypothesis that trade credit played a role in the recent trade collapse.

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        The Colombia-Canada Free Trade Area: A Partial Equilibrium Simulation* (English)
        Article by Pereira-Villa Catherine; Gómez, D. and Herrera, O., 2012, 28 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research

        This paper uses disaggregated trade data for 2010 and applies ex-ante partial equilibrium modeling to calculate the impact of the preferential trade agreement between Canada and Colombia. The simulations carried out show aggregate trade creation could be one and a half times larger than trade diversion; trade between the two countries in the first year of the agreement could grow by approximately ten percent and will be focussed on a small number of goods; trade diversion is stronger with the largest trading partner of each signatory, namely the United States; and trade diversion is not strong in the case of Colombia’s neighbors with which there was significant trade prior to the agreement.

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        Combating Poverty and Inequality: Structural Change, Social Policy and Politics (English)
        Report by UNRISD, 2010, 380 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        Combating Poverty and Inequality is published just as global leaders meet to review and recommit themselves to a set of goals for reducing poverty agreed, under vastly different circumstances, a decade ago. The optimism of the new millennium is now overshadowed by the effects of multiple, interrelated crises. Progress in many areas appears threatened and resources are more constrained. This volume provides a timely reminder of the strengths and limitations of various approaches to addressing poverty in the current context.

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        Commentary on the financial stability forum's report of the working group on capital flows (English)
        Discussion Paper by Andrew Cornford, 2000, 20 pages
        Categories: International Financial System

        What: A G-24 discussion paper on the threat to the gains of a liberal financial system by instability of capital flows. Focuses on possible changes in practices of recipient countries and how to manage risk and build institutional capacity. Who: Of interest to anyone looking critically at the subject of capital markets. How: Could be used to conduct a short analysis based on a working group's conclusions on capital flows.

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        Comments to the Chairman's Revised Draft Modalities for WTO NAMA Negotiations (English)
        Note by South Centre, 2008, 23 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This note reviews the revised Draft modalities for WTO NAMA negotiations prepared by the Chairman of the Negotiating Group on Market Access (TN/MA/W/103). After undertaking an overall assessment of the revised NAMA draft modalities text, this note comments on various specific sections thereof, particularly with respect to developing countries’concerns and interests in these negotiations. A useful table summarises the treatment of WTO Members with respect to tariff reduction modalities

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        Commerce, Environnement et Developpement (English)
        Note by CNUCED, Conseil du Commerce et du Developpement, 2003, 24 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        Quoi: Note d'information pour la Commission du commerce et des biens et services, et des produits de base, Geneve, 2004. La note donne un resume du programme de travail de Doha concernant les negociations sur les questions d'environnement et le Sommet mondial pour le developpement durable. Elle montre brievement les sujets importants sur le plan de commerce et environnement, entre eux par exemple biosecurite, savoirs traditionnels ou biens et services environnementaux. La note d'information est aussi disponible en anglais et espagnol. Qui: tous ceux qui veulent avoir un apercu general des developpements intergouvernementaux concernant le sujet de commerce et l'environnement, principaux points concernant les questions de commerce et de l'environnement et le role a jouer par la CNUCED. Comment: La note d'information sert seulement comme point de depart de l'analyse et comme resume bref. On aura besoin de lectures supplementaires.

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        Commercial policies - Course syllabus (English)
        Outline by Amir Bakir, University of Jordan, Department of Economics, 2004
        Categories: Competition Policy, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The course analyzes trade policy tools in both perfect and imperfect competition. Trade restrictions are common in the world, so micro and macro-economics' trade tools are used to study the effects of these restrictions on the different countries of the world. Economic integrations (regionalism), world trade organization, and trade strategies for developing countries are among the topics of interest in this course.

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        Commodities and Development Report - Perennial Problems, New Challenges and Evolving Perspectives
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 178 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Poverty, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The aim of this report is to consider the factors that have shaped the commodities sector in recent years and in particular, the implications of the commodity boom of 2003–2008 for commodity-dependent developing countries.

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        Commodities at a Glance. Special Issue on Energy
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 67 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies

        This quarter’s edition of UNCTAD’s Commodities at a Glance describes world energy trade, price, production and consumption trends, with a particular focus on Africa. Over the last three decades, world consumption of primary energy nearly doubled from 280 quadrillion British thermal unit (BTU) in 1980 to 490 quadrillion Btu in 2008 (see Figure 4). A number of factors have been attributed to this dramatic increase in consumption including global economic growth, rapidly industrializing developing countries, increasing world population and urbanization. Over the next two decades, the world population is forecast to grow from approximately 7 billion to 8.32 billion, with the likelihood of rising demand for primary energy resources. International Energy Agency (IEA) projections suggest that between 2008 and 2035 global demand for such resources will increase by 36 per cent or 1.2 per cent per year on average. Most of this projected increase is expected to come from non-OECD countries, particularly India and China, accounting for 18 per cent and 36 per cent respectively of this increase. The Middle East is expected to experience the most rapid demand growth at 2 per cent per year largely due to fast growing energy demand sectors, such as petrochemical industries and power generation. Demand in Africa, particularly sub-Saharan Africa, is also expected to grow as electricity supply needs to increase in response to population growth. However, a lack of infrastructure in the region is expected to limit access to primary energies, and demand growth is projected to match the world average at 1.2 per cent per year. Together, non-OECD countries will account for about 93 per cent of global primary energy demand growth by 2035.

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        Commodities under Neoliberalism: The Case of Cocoa (English)
        Discussion Paper by Irfan ul Haque, 2004, 35 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        What: This strongly argued paper examines the impacts of market liberalization on cocoa producers countries and argues that low prices and volatility, as a consequence of market liberalization, explain the declining share of developing countries in cocoa exports. Who: For anyone interested in commodities issues and who wants a controversial point of view on the subject. How: Could be used as a background reading for any course which looks at the political economy of commodity markets.

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        Commodity Dependence and Development: Suggestions to Tackle the Commodities Problem (English)
        Report by South Centre; ActionAid, 2008, 33 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Competition Policy, Finance for Development

        This report has the objective to provide solutions for the commodities problem in developing countries. Causes and implications for the commodity problem are analysed such as price volatility and market concentration, followed by a case study on market concentration in the coffee sector and policy recommendations.

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        Commodity Dependency (English)
        Article by Oscar Farfan, 2005, 38 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Poverty, VI Members Research

        Prepared for the Investment Climate Unit International Finance Corporation The World Bank Group This paper uses the Global Value Chain (GVC) framework to discuss commodity dependency and options for economic upgrading in small developing countries. GVC analysis differs from comparable approaches in that it looks at the dynamics of firms/countries within global production networks and focuses on productive “systems” as opposed to sectors or industries in isolation. Examining global commodity chains through the GVC lenses leads to the conclusion that inserting small developing countries into global markets through commodity exports is not sufficient to sustain real income growth, and may even prove detrimental to their long-term development prospects. Only by virtue of upgrading export industries – which entails moving towards differentiated products with a higher content of technology, skills and innovation – will developing countries be in a position to seize the opportunities brought about by globalization.

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        A Comparative Assessment of How Trade Liberalization and the Economic Crisis Have Impacted India and South Africa (English)
        Note by ICTSD, 2010, 4 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Globalization and Development Strategies

        It is widely accepted that though the financial and economic crisis broke out in the United States and mainly engulfed the developed industrial countries in 2008, its impact was significant across the globe.However, the generalised effect of the crisis neither meant that the extent and nature of the impact was the same across countries, nor that the recovery from the crisis induced recession was simultaneous or similarly robust. This note is concerned with comparing the impact of the crisis on two large countries located in very different contexts, namely India and South Africa.

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        Comparing Safeguard Measures in Regional and Bilateral Agreements (English)
        Report by Kruger, Paul; Denner, Willemien; and Cronje, JB/ICTSD, 2009, 72 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        This study provides trade negotiators, policy-makers and other stakeholders with a clear, practical comparative analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the various safeguard clauses included in bilateral and regional free trade agreements (FTAs). It groups together regional agreements on the basis of shared characteristics, examines the extent to which various safeguard clauses have been used in practice, and makes a number of recommendations that policy-makers and negotiators could take into consideration when negotiating safeguard clauses in trade agreements.

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        Comparing the Performance of Uganda’s Intra-east African Community Trade and Other Trading Blocs: A Gravity Model Analysis (English)
        Working paper by Shinyekwa, Isaac and Othieno, Lawrence, 2013, 52 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research

        This paper examines factors that determine Uganda’s trade flows and specifically compares the impact and performance of the different trade blocs on Uganda’s trade patterns and flows. The empirical question is whether Uganda’s trade is getting more integrated in the East African Community(EAC) region or is still dominated by other trading blocs, namely European Union (EU), Asia and Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). Two analytical approaches are used, namely: trade indicators and estimation of the gravity models using data extracted from COMTRADE for the period 2001–2009 (panel). The results suggest a strong relationship between belonging to a trading bloc and trade flows.

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        Compendium of Teaching Materials on the International Trading System (2011) (English)
        Article by St. Petersburg State University, 2011, 216 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The main purpose of the compendium is to support implementation of new teaching technologies that are used in the educational process. It is developed especially for the students of MA programme International Trading System that was designed to train well qualified specialists in international trade and trade policy analysis. The book can also be helpful for other academic and business-oriented programmes devoted to international trade, international business and international economics. It includes two types of teaching materials: discussion papers and cases. Both can be used in class as well as for students’ self-study. Analysis of papers might be followed by discussions, and some cases require team work. All cases are based on real situations.

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        Compendium of trade facilitation recommendations (English)
        by UN/CEFACT, 2001, 74 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation

        What: This Compendium is intended to be used as a reference by those engaged in simplifying, harmonizing and rationalizing trade procedures and practices. The Compendium is also useful for industry, commerce, transport, administrations and organizations, to create awareness of the possibilities that exist in the area of facilitation and harmonization of trade and transport. It reviews the present situation in international trade regarding information flows, documentary requirements, electronic business, official requirements and payment procedures with a view to come to an increased efficiency through further harmonization, standardization and simplification. Who: Useful for anyone teaching trade facilitation and WTO issues. How: Can be used as a reference material on trade facilitation issues.

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        Compendium on Debt Sustainability and Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2009, 223 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development

        Debt sustainability, which concerns the feasibility for a country of meeting its debt related financial obligations during a period beginning with the present, has proved an elusive concept This is not surprising in view of its dependence on an intrinsically uncertain future Interest in the conditions for debt sustainability builds on an earlier tradition of work on debt management where the focus was on country risk and on the likelihood and consequences of debt default.

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        Competition, Competitiveness and Development: Lessons from Developing Countries, Chapter 1 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 90 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy, Competitiveness

        What: The paper tries to identify, at both the theoretical and applied level, the necessary political, institutional and economic background for developing countries to implement efficient competition policies. It includes in-depth case studies of Nepal or Thailand, or a course on the prerequisites for competition policy in developing countries.

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        Competition, Competitiveness and Development: Lessons from Developing Countries - Introduction (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 21 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy, Competitiveness

        This introduction to the report on competition, competitiveness and development covers the main issues, e.g. the need for competition policy, trade liberalisation, market regulation. Who: Students or teachers concerned with international law, international economics or the relationship between competition and development How: A general introduction on competition policy, including group discussion or group work on the issues raised in the document. A broad bibliography on the subject is also available.

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        Competition, Development and a Possible Multilateral Framework (English)
        Presentation by Philippe Brusick, Chief, Competition and Consumer Policies Branch, UNCTAD, 2002, 31 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy

        What: A PowerPoint presentation (in PDF format) defining competition policy and relating it to developing countries and to international cooperation. Who: Teachers in international relations, economics or law (especially competition law). How: A helpful layout for a course on competition policy. The presentation may also be adapted by the teacher according to the specificities of his course.

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        Competition Guidelines: Leniency Programmes (English)
        Also available in Arabic, French
        Policy brief by Brusick, Philippe/UNCTAD, 2016, 25 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Hard-core cartels constitute very serious violations of competition rules. However, they are often very difficult to detect and investigate without the cooperation of an insider. Accordingly, leniency programmes are designed to give incentives to cartel members to take the initiative to approach the competition authority, confess their participation in a cartel and cooperate with the competition law enforcers in exchange for total or partial immunity from sanctions. This publication, by the UNCTAD Secretariat, seeks to set specific guidelines for countries of the MENA region which envisage adoption or improvement of leniency programmes on competition. The view is to help them achieve a substantive degree of convergence in this field, as a practical way to increase the overall efficiency of the system in their struggle against hard core cartels. To this end, it draws attention to specific considerations for MENA Project countries, such as limits of leniency in small, less developed markets. It also reflects on how to make leniency programmes attractive for potential whistle-blowers, describes possible procedural guidelines along with cases deserving total or partial immunity, and lists some difficulties encountered in practice.

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        Competition Policy as a Stimulus for Enterprise Development (CCD Report, Ch.3) (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 80 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy, Enterprise Development

        What: A paper dealing with such themes as market concentration, the relation of competition to privatisation, to investment and to SMEs, with many helpful instances. The second and third parts are whole case studies on South Africa and Korea. Who: Teachers in economics, law or development with a special interest in market regulation and competition policy. How: The first part would be relevant to a general course on competition policy and development, and can also lead to class discussions. The two last parts give all the necessary information and data for case studies.

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        Competition Policy, Supply Capacity and Export Competitiveness (CCD Report, ch.4) (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 73 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy

        What: A study of the effect of competition policy on productivity and economic performance based on the instances of Korea, Tanzania and Peru. Could be used by teachers of economics and economic development in case studies or group work

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        Competitiveness, Restructuring and FDI: an Analytical Framework (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2002, 24 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Investment

        What: This is a study of the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) on industrial restructuring in selected industries in some developing countries. The focus is on how FDI affects the ability of economic actors - directly, foreign affiliates, and indirectly, local firms or the economy at large - to compete better in a globalizing world, primarily by raising, upgrading and diversifying exports. It is about the impact of transnational corporations (TNCs) on the industrial competitiveness of host countries, an issue of growing concern in the developing world. Who: Useful for teachers and students focusing on FDI. How: Can be used as a background reading and/or research work on competitiveness, restructuring and FDI.

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        Competitiveness simulation: IT-related and enabled services (English)
        Simulation by Cora Mezger, Virtual Institute, 2005
        Categories: Competitiveness, Science and Technology

        What: A simulation on competitiveness in the IT-related and enabled services sector that gives students the opportunity to take the positions of different actors (government, educational sector, local business sector, TNCs, labour unions etc.), apply and deepen their knowledge on international competitiveness and development and make them critically think about the limitations of the concept of competitiveness in pure economic terms. Who: University teachers who are interested in teaching competitiveness and their graduate students enrolled in programmes such as International Trade, Economic Policy, International Economics, Development Studies or Regional Economics. How: The simulation refers to the rest of the competitiveness material, it could however also be used independently if the lecturer provides enough background information and depending on the previous knowledge of students.

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        Compliance Bargaining in the WTO: Ecuador and the Banana Dispute (English)
        Discussion paper by James McCall Smith, 2003, 30 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        An analysis of Ecuador's tactics to ensure compliance with the WTO ruling in their favour (against the EU) in the banana case. The paper offers excellent detail of the specific strategies Ecuador used - both politically and economically and could be of interest to anyone concerned with the evolving jurisprudence on WTO law but also in how the rulings impact on the international trade regime.

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        A Composite Index of Market Access for the Export of Rice from Thailand
        Report by Dechachete, Thawatchai/ICTSD, 2009, 19 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy, Trade and Environment

        This study of the Composite Index of Market Access (CIMA) of the rice industry of Thailand is part of the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD) pilot project on market access for three selected countries (Uruguay, the United States and Thailand). The objective of this project is to build an indicator of market access of main rice importing countries that would include not only tariffs but also other barriers affecting market access for agricultural product such as sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures, technical barriers to trade (TBT), private standards, excise taxes in importing countries and other non-tariff barriers. This tool should be of assistance in trade negotiation and giving a clear indication of whether any particular negotiated outcome result in a real liberalization. In Thailand’s case the three import markets which are the US, the Philippines and South Africa have been selected. These countries are major markets for three major types of rice that Thailand exports to the International market.

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        Composite Index of Market Access for the Export of Rice from Uruguay
        Discussion paper by Alfaro, Daniela; Pérez del Castillo, Carlos/ ICTSD, 2010, 37 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade Facilitation

        This study explores the sorts of market access barriers that rice exports from Uruguay face and generates a Composite Index of Market Access for the most significant markets. What stops Uruguayan farmers from selling more rice to other countries? Ambassador Perez del Castillo and Professor Alfaro investigate this question and work out a figure that captures taxes imposed by other countries at the border, payments that overseas governments make to their own growers, the cost of meeting health standards, and other issues. They find that these barriers limit the flow of rice from Uruguay - even when other countries' border taxes are low.

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        Compétitivité, globalisation et attractivité: Ce que l’on savait (ou pensait savoir) il y a 20 ans - Course on Analysis of International Competitiveness (English)
        Outline by Pierre Berthaud, Université Pierre Mendès France of Grenoble, 2004
        Categories: Competitiveness, Trade Related Capacity Building

        The material of the International Economics course on Analysis of International Competitiveness consists of a Table of Contents (structure) of the course, an Introduction putting competitiveness into the context of today's globalized world and an Assessment document explaining the assignments that the students have to accomplish during the course. The course outline, introduction and the assessment descriptions are in French.

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        The Concept of Odious Debt in Public International Law (English)
        Discussion paper by Howse, Robert, 2007, 31 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, International Economic Law

        What: The odious debt concept seeks to provide a moral and legal foundation for severing, in Whole or in part, the continuity of legal obligations where the debt in question was contracted by a prior “odious” regime of a country and was used in ways that were not beneficial or were harmful to the interests of the population. The paper examines the odious debt doctrine largely in the context of selected, relevant past or ongoing political transitions; the possibility of ex ante declaration of debt as “odious” is, however, discussed briefly in chapter V in relation to private and governmental creditors. How: The paper can be used as a reference for the issue of odious debt in classes on international law. Who: Faculty teaching international law.

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        The Concept of Odious Debt: Some Considerations (English)
        Working paper by Nehru, Vikram; Thomas, Mark /World Bank, 2008, 44 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, International Economic Law

        Despite the popularity of the term among advocates of debt forgiveness, there is little agreement on a workable definition of "odious" debts and there are but few examples where the concept has been invoked in law to justify non-payment of sovereign debts. Most often, these have been cases when a successor state or government has refused to honor certain debts contracted by its predecessor state or government. Repudiating sovereign debts on broader grounds - such as that money may have been misused by the borrower or that results were not as hoped for at the outset of lending - would create real risks not only of reduced financial flows to poorer countries as a result of the danger of ex post challenges to lenders' claims, but also of moral hazard and lack of project ownership. This paper presents a discussion of the extant legal and financial environment facing developing country sovereign borrowers and develops a proposed approach within this environment to address issues of concern underlying the concept of odious or illegitimate debt. The authors make the case for focusing attention on codes of conduct along the lines of the Equator Principles and on refining forward-looking attempts to increase aid effectiveness and recover stolen assets.

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        Connecting Sustainable Development Goals 15 and 16: Biotrade Experiences in Colombia and Indonesia (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 50 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        This document aims to demonstrate how BioTrade is supporting countries to build sustainable and peaceful societies, thus illustrating the connection between the Sustainable Development Goals 15 (Life on land) and SDG16 (Peace, justice and strong institutions). It starts by providing an overview of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, and the linkages between trade, biodiversity and peaceful, inclusive societies. Secondly, BioTrade is analysed, particularly its principles, approaches and methodologies and how these can support peacebuilding and postconflict processes. Afterwards, case studies from Colombia and Indonesia are presented. Finally, the document provides general and specific conclusions and recommendations for developing post-conflict BioTrade initiatives and programmes.

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        Connecting to Global Markets (English)
        Case study by Jansen, Marion; Jallab, Mustapha and Smeets, Maarten., 2014, 236 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Developing countries and emerging economies have played an ever-expanding role in world trade flows in recent decades but they still face a number of constraints in connecting to global markets. In this volume, members of the WTO’s academic network in developing countries — the WTO Chairs Programme — identify major challenges in their respective countries and how to overcome them.

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        Consequences of Agricultural Trade Liberalization: a Food Insecure Country’s Perspective (English)
        Working paper by Martha B. Hailu, 2011, 26 pages
        Categories: VI Members Research

        This paper describes how international trade policy adversely affects food security in Ethiopia. It details hows Ethiopia’s accession to the WTO involved reforms in the tariff, export subsidies and domestic support measures as part of the Agreement on Agriculture (AoA) - reforms which impacted negatively on food security. Finally, the chapter outlines the challenges and options Ethiopia may resort to address its food security concerns.

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        Constructing a Composite Index of Market Access (English)
        Report by Josling, Timothy/ICTSD, 2009, 40 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Trade barriers are often opaque and difficult to compare. All too often, an exporter faces costs well in excess of a simple tariff when seeking entry to a market. However, to date, there exist few tools to measure the changes in market access that will takeplace at the conclusion of the Doha Round, or those that may result from any other trade agreement. The Composite Index of Market Access (CIMA) has been conceived as a tool to help trade policy-makers and other stakeholders to address this challenge. This study provides a methdology and country study guide to illustrate the actual costs faced by exporters of selected tropical products when trying to penetrate markets of interest. While liberalisation through tariff reduction may partially achieve the aim of facilitating access for tropical products, the CIMA project highlights the fact that tariff reductions are only a part of the puzzle that trade policy has to solve.

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        The Contemporary Reform of Global Financial Governance: Implications of and Lessons from the Past (English)
        Discussion paper by Eric Helleiner (University of Waterloo, Canada) / UNCTAD, 2009, 32 pages
        Categories: International Financial System

        As the world experiences its worst financial crisis since the 1930s, there is a widespread call for global financial reforms similar to the Bretton Woods Agreements of 1944. This paper argues that officials will need to think more creatively and ambitiously about international financial reform than they have done so far. Policymakers seeking to move beyond the present agenda could consider initiatives in each of the three issue areas identified at Bretton Woods. These include: - innovations to regulate international financial markets more tightly - innovations to address global imbalances - innovations to promote international development. However, the contemporary agenda must consider new mechanisms and address an even broader range of topics than in 1944. Therefore, it should take into account the reserve currency status of the dollar, the currency composition of borrowing by developing countries, sovereign wealth funds and the role of regional cooperation, among others.

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        Controversial Points in the Discussion on Special Safeguard Mechanism (SSM) in the Doha Round (English)
        Note by South Centre, 2008, 14 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The Special Safeguard Mechanism (SSM) is often quoted as one of the main controversial points that lead to the failure to the WTO mini-ministerial process in July 2008. Technical divergences relate to key aspects of the design and operation of the mechanism but also strong political divergences among exporters and importers. The purpose of this note is to explain the rationale and origins of the SSM and the main contentious issues in the current debate.

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        Cooperation in Coffee Markets: The Case of Vietnam and Colombia
        Article by Gonzalez-Perez, Maria-Alejandra, and Gutierrez-Viana, Santiago, 2012, 18 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Competitiveness, VI Members Research

        Based on a 2008-2009 joint research project between Universidad EAFIT, Colombia, and Vietnam's Foreign Trade University, this article uses value chain analysis to find that although Colombia and Vietnam produce different types of coffee, and have implemented diverse strategies in order to be more competitive in domestic and foreign markets via product differentiation, there is room for cooperation between these two countries in an international environment where fierce competition persists.

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        Coordinating Public Debt Management with Fiscal and Monetary Policies: an Analytical Framework (English)
        Working paper by Togo, Eriko /World Bank, 2007, 37 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Macroeconomic Policy

        This paper proposes a sovereign asset and liability management framework for analyzing the interrelationships between debt management, fiscal and monetary policies. It illustrates the consequences of uncoordinated policy mix and extends Sargent and Wallace (1981 and 1993) by including debt management. Examples of policy games played by fiscal, monetary, and debt management authorities reinforce the importance of policy separation and coordination to prevent domination by one authority over another which could lead to inconsistent policy mix.

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        Coordination Failures in Immigration Policy (English)
        Working paper by Giordani , Paolo E., Ruta, Michele, 2011, 42 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Migration and Development, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        We propose a theoretical framework for analyzing the problems associated to unilateral immigration policy in receiving countries and for evaluating the grounds for reform of international institutions governing immigration. We build a model with multiple destination countries and show that immigration policy in one country is influenced by measures adopted abroad as migrants choose where to locate (in part) in response to differences in immigration policy. This interdependence gives rise to a leakage effect of immigration policy, an international externality well documented in the empirical literature. In this environment, immigration policy becomes strategic and unilateral behavior may lead to coordination failures, where receiving countries are stuck in welfare inferior equilibria. We then study the conditions under which a coordination failure is more likely to emerge and argue that multilateral institutions that help receiving countries make immigration policy commitments would address this inefficiency.

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        Coping with Trade Reforms: Implications of the WTO Industrial Tariff Negotiations (English)
        Presentation by Santiago Fernandez de Cordoba, UNCTAD, 2005, 20 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        A presentation for an UNCTAD expert group meeting providing an overview of the methodologies and results of UNCTAD studies on the impact of trade reforms as well as introduction to the NAMA negotiations and an overview of the methodologies and results of UNCTAD studies on the impact of trade reforms.

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        Core ICT Indicators 2010 (English)
        Book by ITU, 2010, 94 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        This publication presents the first revision of the core list of ICT indicators, originally published by the Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development in 2005. The main purpose of the core list is to help countries produce high quality and internationally comparable data on information and communication technology. To assist in achieving this goal, the indicators have associated statistical standards and guidance.

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        Corporate Governance and Public Corruption
        Working paper by Cusolito, Ana/World Bank, 2010, 35 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development

        Corporate governance in the private sector and corruption are important for economic development and private sector development. This paper investigates how corporate governance in private-sector media companies can affect public corruption. The analytical framework, based on models of corporate governance, identifies two channels through which media ownership concentration affects corruption: an owner effect, which discourages corruption and a competition-for-control effect that enhances it. When the ownership structure of a newspaper has a majority shareholder, the first effect dominates and corruption decreases as ownership becomes more concentrated in the hands of majority shareholders. Without majority shareholders, the competition-for-control effect dominates and corruption increases with the concentration of ownership of the media company. Thus, the paper shows that cases of intermediate media-ownership concentration are the worst at promoting public accountability, while extreme situations, where the ownership is completely concentrated or widely held, can result in similar and lower levels of corruption.

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        Corporate Governance Disclosure in Emerging Markets. Statistical Analysis of Legal Requirements and Company Practices (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 58 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development

        While this report finds that disclosure requirements in emerging markets are relatively strong, there are still generally fewer requirements than in more developed markets and compliance gaps tend to be larger. There is a clear need to improve, promote and enforce disclosures and in some instances make them mandatory in order to strengthen reporting regimes and help enterprises improve their communication with shareholders and other stakeholders. There is still much work to do. This report integrates and compares four years of UNCTAD‟s cross country comparative data on corporate governance disclosure in emerging markets. This work will assist policy makers in identifying regulatory gaps, comparative best practices, and priorities for capacity building.

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        Corporate Governance in the Wake of the Financial Crisis (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 184 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy

        The global financial crisis brought the international financial system to a grinding halt: the sudden withdrawal of global liquidity led to a catastrophic downturn in the global economy, which was only arrested by the swift and coordinated intervention of governments on a giant scale. The impact of the crisis has been colossal. UNCTAD’s analysis of the causes of the global financial crisis points to regulatory weaknesses at the national and international levels, but also to poor corporate governance practices as implicated in the risk management standards prevailing in many large financial institutions. It is increasingly recognized that many of these governance weaknesses also apply to other companies. Consequently, on-going corporate governance reforms in many jurisdictions apply not only to the financial sector but to other companies in general.

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        Corporate Social Responsibility in Latin America (English)
        Working paper by UNCTAD VIRTUAL INSTITUTE, 2010, 138 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, International Economic Law

        The purpose of this publication is to enhance the understanding of CSR issues in Latin America based on facts, figures, cases and experiences, as well as to review appropriate methods for analyzing the impact of CSR initiatives. The publication covers CSR and labour practices in the agriculture and extractive industries (the mining industry in Chile and banana production in Colombia); CSR practices in Uruguay; and new legal instruments in the area of human rights and labour rights in the Latin American region. The publication was prepared under the supervision of Vlasta Macku, Chief of the Virtual Institute.

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        Corporate strategies in R&D in financial services (English)
        Presentation by Harpreet Khurana, Columbia University, 2004, 28 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: The paper initially provides a definition in financial services and then compares the situation of the financial sector with R&D in industries such as telecommunications, computer system design etc. The presentations places emphasis on different strategies in R&D in financial services and finishes by presenting several case studies. Who: Relevant for anyone studying or teaching R&D. How: Can be used as a background reading.

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        Costa Rica: Trade Opening, FDI Attraction and Global Production Sharing (English)
        Working paper by WTO, 2011, 38 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        Costa Rica has managed to combine an active agenda in the Multilateral Trade Negotiations (MTNs) at the WTO with the negotiation of several Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs). Such PTAs, most notably those with the US, China and the EU, will boost the share of total exports benefiting from preferential access in the destination markets from 24% to over 83%. Along this path of trade liberalization, the country has placed a strong emphasis on the attraction of FDI in high-tech manufacturing and services activities, producing a substantial transformation in the structure of its exports and inserting a fair share of the economy into Global Value Chains (GVCs) . As a result, about 43% of the country’s total exports are related to GVCs, with an average of 36% of such exported value being added domestically.

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        Costing MDG Gaps in the Asia-Pacific (English)
        Policy brief by UNESCAP, 2010, 4 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Poverty

        Although the Asia-Pacific region has made significant progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs),most of its countries are still off-track on one or more indicators. This policy brief examines what would it take for countries in the Asia-Pacific region to meet their MDG targets by 2015. It first focuses on the income-poverty gap which continues to persist despite high rates of growth. It then goes on to provide estimates of the resources needed for closing the MDG gaps in the areas of education, health, nutrition and sanitation. It concludes with a few remarks on policy challenges in the light of the findings.

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        The Costs of Rules of Origin in Apparel: African Preferential Exports to the United States and the European Union (English)
        Report by Portugal-Perez, Alberto/UNCTAD, 2008, 39 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The European Union and the United States offer, simultaneously, preferential market access to exports of a group of African countries. Although similar regarding the extent of preferences for apparel, a key sector for least developed countries, these agreements differ as regards rules of origin (RoO). While the Everything But Arms initiative and the Cotonou Agreement require yarn to be woven into fabric and then made up into apparel in the same country or in a country qualifying for cumulation, the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) grants a special regime to “lesser developed countries”, which allows them to use fabric of any origin and still meet the criteria for preferences, thus making a case for a natural experiment. This paper aims to assess econometrically the impact of different RoO on those African countries' exports. The main finding is that relaxing RoO by allowing the use of fabric of any origin increased exports of apparel by about 300 per cent for the top seven beneficiaries of AGOA’s special regime, and broadened the range of apparel exported by those countries.

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        Cotton: What Could a Doha Deal Mean for Trade? (English)
        Note by ICTSD, 2010, 16 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Cuts to developed country cotton subsidies could increase world prices, boosting production and exports in a number of developing countries including some of the poorest producers in Africa. This information note examines how different countries could be affected by greater or smaller reductions in subsidies as part of the WTO’s Doha Round, in addition to looking at what would happen if countries cut subsidies that were deemed unlawful by the WTO’s dispute settlement panel.

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        Country reports: Science and technology promotion, advice and application for the achievement of the millennium development goals (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD Commission on science and technology for development, 2005
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology

        Country reports on the achievement of the MDGs and the progress made in Science and technology promotion in 11 developing countries (Angola, Cameroon, China, India, Iran, Italy, Jamaica, Romania, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka and Sudan),

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        Creating a Conducive Environment for Higher Competitiveness and Effective National Innovation Systems. Lessons Learned from the Experiences of UNECE Countries (English)
        Review by UNECE, 2008, 107 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Science and Technology

        This Comparative Review provides an overview of the experiences in UNECE member countries in creating a conducive environment for the generation and diffusion of innovation and for achieving higher economic growth based on enhanced, innovation-driven competitiveness. It addresses various policy issues related to this topic, drawing from national experiences, good practices and lessons learned. It also draws some conclusions on what policymakers and other stakeholders can do more or better in order to facilitate the generation and diffusion of innovation and enhance innovation-based competitiveness.

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        Creating an efficient environment for trade and transport (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2000, 25 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation

        What: Overview of the effects of globalization on trade facilitation and efficiency. The article also gives guidelines on how to promote trade efficiency. Who: Could be used by teachers as a summary/starting point. How: Interesting charts in the first two parts of the document.

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        Creative Economy Outlook: Trends in International Trade in Creative Industries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2019, 445 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report outlines trends in the world trade of creative goods and, for the first time, services by country for the period 2005 to 2014, and provides an outlook on the global creative economy for the period 2002 to 2015. It includes country profiles for 130 economies and highlights potential opportunities for developing countries to increase their production, exports and share in creative industries markets. The report makes the point for increased public and private sector investment in creative industries.

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        Creative Economy Report 2008: The Challenge of Assessing the Creative Economy Towards Informed Policy-making (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2008, 357 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        What: This report analyses the so called "creative economy" as a way to generate socio-economic growth, job creation and development. It is the first study to present the United Nations' perspective on this new concept related to art, culture, media, business and technology industries that use intellectual capital as a primary input. With the contribution from five UN organizations, the document provides information about the emerging creative economy to enhance policy makers' understanding and action in this field, especially in developing countries. There is also a chapter dedicated to the role of intellectual property and technology. How: The report discusses concepts and the structure of the creative economy, analyses its impact on international trade and gives policies suggestions. A statistical annex provides trade data of creative goods and services. Who: Policy makers as well as lecturers and researches interested in creative economy.

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        Creative Economy Report 2010 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 423 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report presents an updated perspective of the United Nations as a whole on creativity, knowledge and access to information as powerful engines driving economic growth and promoting development in a globalizing world. It provides empirical evidence that the creative industries are among the most dynamic emerging sectors in world trade. It also shows that the interface among creativity, culture, economics and technology, as expressed in the ability to create and circulate intellectual capital, has the potential to generate income, jobs and export earnings while at the same time contributing to social inclusion, cultural diversity and human development. This report addresses the challenge of assessing the creative economy with a view to informed policy-making by outlining the conceptual, institutional and policy frameworks in which this economy can flourish.

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        A Cross-Country Analysis of Public Debt Management Strategies (English)
        Working paper by Melecky, Martin /World Bank, 2007, 42 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Macroeconomic Policy

        This paper analyzes results of a survey on debt management strategies conducted by the Banking and Debt Management Department of the World Bank. The analysis focuses on (1) whether a public debt management strategy exists in a given country, (2) whether it is made public, and (3) in which form it is imparted. The paper analyzes the distribution of the latter characteristics over different regions, income groups, and levels of indebtedness using graphical analysis. Using regression analysis, it investigates the extent to which basic economic factors can explain the characteristics of public debt management strategies across countries.

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        Côte D’ivoire: Company Perspectives – An Itc Series on Non-tariff Measures (English)
        Report by ITC, 2014, 124 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report is part of a series of publications that identify the main obstacles related to non-tariff measures (NTMs) that the private sector faces. It analyzes the experience of exporting and importing companies in Côte d'Ivoire through a large scale survey as well as identifies the main obstacles in NTM regulatory and procedural order imposed by partner countries as well as Côte d'Ivoire.

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