A partnership with academia

Building knowledge for trade and development

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        Data Protection Regulations and International Data Flows: Implications for Trade and Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 154 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology

        This study is a timely contribution to our understanding of how data protection regulations and international data flows affect international trade. It reviews the experience in different parts of the world and of different stakeholders. The study identifies key concerns that data protection and privacy legislation need to address. It also examines the present patchwork of global, regional and national frameworks to seek common ground and identify areas where different approaches tend to diverge. The last part of the study considers possible future policy options, taking the concerns of all stakeholders into account.

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        Data Protection Regulations and International Data Flows: Implications for Trade and Development (Executive Summary) (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2016, 17 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Science and Technology

        The study includes some detailed guidance on the growing consensus around key conditions and limitations on surveillance initiated by governments. Most regional and global initiatives are silent on the issue of surveillance. It is essential that national laws and global and regional initiatives acknowledge the existence of surveillance issues and attempt to address these issues directly. While surveillance issues often have an international or cross-border dimension, the extraterritorial nature of data flows and surveillance, as it relates to state sovereignty, must be specifically addressed. The United Nations statement on digital rights may serve as a platform for considering the connection between data protection and surveillance.

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        Data Protection Regulations and International Data Flows: Implications for Trade and Development (Executive Summary) (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2016, 17 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The study identifies key concerns that data protection and privacy legislation need to address. It goes on to examine the present patchwork of global, regional and national frameworks to seek common ground and areas where different approaches tend to diverge. The last part of the study considers possible future policy options, taking the concerns of all stakeholders into account while distorting international trade as little as possible.

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        The debate on the international financial architecture: reforming the reformers (English)
        Discussion Paper by Yilmaz Akyuz, 2000, 24 pages
        Categories: International Financial System

        This discussion paper examines the progress made in the reform of the international financial architecture since the East Asian crisis and ends with a brief discussion of what developing countries could do at the national, regional and international level to prevent financial crises and to protect against financial instability.

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        Debt relief, the new policy conditionality and poverty reduction strategies (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2000, 36 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, International Financial System

        Based on the LDCs report from 2000, this document is a detailed analysis of HIPC initiative and its relationship with poverty reduction strategies and conditional policies. Of interest to anyone who needs to understand modalities, changes and implications of debt relief on poverty reduction. This resource provides a high quality analysis of HIPC initiative with data, examples and case studies. Key text to understand debt mechanisms.

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        Debt Vulnerabilities in Developing Countries: a New Debt Trap?- Volume I: Regional and Thematic Analyses (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 96 pages
        Categories: International Financial System

        Volume I brings together papers that analyse different regional aspects of evolving debt dynamics in the developing world, detailing many of the issues raised in this introduction in these specific contexts. It also introduces an additional, and often neglected, wider feature of these debt dynamics, namely the role of microdebt crises across the developing world and the bankruptcy of the microcredit model.

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        Deep Integration and Production Networks: an Empirical Analysis (English)
        Working paper by WTO, 2011, 35 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This working paper describes the two-way relationship between deep integration and production networks trade.The results show that on average, signing deeper agreements increases production networks trade between member countries by almost 35%, integration being more prominent in trade in automobile parts and information technology products.The study also shows that a 10% increase in the share of production network trade increases the depth of an agreement by approximately 6%.In addition, the probability of signing deeper agreements is higher for country pairs involved in North-South production sharing and for countries belonging to the Asia region.

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        Deep Regional Integration and Non-tariff Measures: A Methodology for Data Analysis (English)
        Discussion paper by Cadot, Olivier; Asprilla, Alan; Gourdon, Julien; Knebel, Christian; Peters, Ralf /UNCTAD, 2015, 37 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper develops tools for policymakers to advance deep regional integration with respect to non-tariff measures (NTMs). First, it develops a regulatory distance indicator to measure the similarity of NTM policies across countries and sectors. Secondly, it employs a price-gap based technique to estimate the price increasing effect of NTMs. The report also looks at the estimation residuals to trace back from AVEs to more concrete and specific cases. Lastly, the paper links AVEs to Kenyan household survey data on consumption patterns in order to evaluate welfare impacts.

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        The Design of Preferential Trade Agreements: A New Dataset in the Making (English)
        Working paper by WTO, 2011, 47 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Since 1990 the number of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) has increased very rapidly. This paper aims to contribute to this literature by presenting a new database on PTAs called Design of Trade Agreements (DESTA). Starting from 690 negotiated trade agreements between 1945 and 2009, 404 agreements were coded. The aim is to have a database for about 550 agreements by 2012. The agreements cover a number of sectors, namely market access, services, investments, intellectual property rights, competition, public procurement, standards, trade remedies, non-trade issues, and dispute settlement. This working paper describes the DESTA data set and provides selected descriptive statistics.

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        Developing Business Linkages For Green Affordable Housing In Zambia
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 50 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Enterprise Development, Investment

        This report investigates the potential for building business linkages between micro, small and medium sized enterprises (MSMEs) in the construction industry in Zambia and large domestic and international companies and investors. It adopts a step-by-step methodology, taking international firms and property developers through the full process of doing business in the low and middle income housing sector in Zambia – highlighting opportunities to partner with local MSMEs and others stakeholders.

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        Developing Countries and Enforcement of Trade Agreements: Why Dispute Settlement is Not Enough (English)
        Working paper by Bown, Chad P.; Bernard M., Hoekman /World Bank, 2007, 33 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Poor countries are rarely challenged in formal World Trade Organization trade disputes for failing to live up to commitments, reducing the benefits of their participation in international trade agreements. This paper examines the political-economic causes of the failure to challenge poor countries, and discusses the static and dynamic costs and externality implications of this failure. Given the weak incentives to enforce World Trade Organization rules and disciplines against small and poor members, bolstering the transparency function of the World Trade Organization is important for making trade agreements more relevant to trade constituencies in developing countries. Although the paper focuses on the World Trade Organization system, the arguments also apply to reciprocal North-South trade agreements.

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        Developing Countries and Their Natural Resources. From the Elaboration of the Principle of Permanent Sovereignty over Natural Resources to the Creation of Sovereign Wealth Funds (English)
        Article by Barbieri, Michele, 2009
        Categories: International Economic Law, Investment, VI Members Research

        The paper will study, mainly under the point of view of international law, the relation between natural resources, foreign investments and economic development in third world countries, focusing on the role the principle of permanent sovereignty over natural resources has played, and still can play, in this context. It will try to propose a notion of the right of peoples over natural resources which takes into account the recent developments of international environmental law and of international investment law (the latter being represented in particular by the increase of bilateral investment treaties in force). It will finally prove that the creation of sovereign wealth funds by developing countries can represent a new tool to ensure the promotion of the right of peoples to sovereignty over natural resources and it will investigate the importance that transparency of sovereign wealth funds might have to this purpose.

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        Developing Countries in International Trade 2005 - Trade and Development Index (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005, 121 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        What: The report looks at the interelationship between trade performance and development and, in the first chapter, presents the "trade and development index" - an attempt to measure this relationship. Subsequent chapters deal with determinants of export performance and the experience of adjustment, post liberalisation. Who: Interesting for anyone researching the impact of liberalisation on development and the links between trade performance and human welfare. How: The data could be used as the basis for a class activity and discussion, while the case studies provide useful empirical examples.

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        Developing Countries in International Trade 2007: Trade and Development Index (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2007, 200 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The Trade and Development Index (TDI), the second in a series after its inaugural presentation in 2005, is an innovative analytical tool that allows policy makers and practitioners to identify possible constraints to using trade as a vehicle for social and economic development. The Index identifies strengths and weaknesses of a country's institutional and policy environment, including all key indicators that affect the trade and development performance. This year's edition is enlarged by a series of country profiles for each of the 123 countries represented in the analysis, which offers the reader a tool for comparative studies among countries and regions of their trade and development performance.

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        Developing Country Interests in Climate Change Action and the Implications for a Post-2012 Climate Change Regime (English)
        Discussion paper by Cosbey, Aaron/IISD, 2009, 52 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        The paper focuses on the cross-cutting objective of advancing development goals in a sustainable way, making the case that there are strategic interests for developing countries in addressing climate change while simultaneously addressing nationally defined development priorities. The paper argues for international support for such efforts, and suggests elements that might feature in an international approach. The paper finishes by speculating on what those sorts of elements might mean for the shape of a post-2012 climate regime and the carbon market that might accompany it.

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        Developing Productive Capacities in Least Developed Countries: Issues for Discussion (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2010, 8 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        During the period 2002–2007, least developed countries (LDCs) as a group experienced high gross domestic product (GDP) growth rates, which surpassed the 7 per cent target of the Brussels Programme of Action. However, about a quarter of the LDCs continued to experience very sluggish growth or economic regression. Moreover, growth was associated with a pattern of insertion into the global economy based on commodity exports, low-skill manufactures and tourism, which meant that they were highly vulnerable to external shocks. Many LDCs are now at a critical moment in which they face a double challenge. Firstly, they must find productive jobs and livelihoods for the millions of young people who are entering the labour force each year; secondly the LDCs must deal with the employment challenge in an open-economy context.

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        Development and Globalization: Facts and Figures 2008 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2008, 87 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        What: The second issue of UNCTAD's Development and Globalization: Facts and Figures - the first one was published in 2004 - provides an overview of developing countries' role in the global economy. The report covers 27 topics on global growth and composition of demand, payments balances and determinants, external resources, international trade in merchandise and services and population. How: The document provides data and analysis on major economic trends in developing countries. Who: Policy makers, lecturers and researchers interested in the increasing importance of developing countries in the global economy, trends and prospects.

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        Development and Globalization: Facts and Figures 2016 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 233 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This report presents achievements and prospects on the Sustainable Development Goals adopted by the United Nations in 2015. It organizes the goals into broad themes and targets using statistical graphs and figures. The report describes the evolution of developing countries in the context of globalization and presents economic growth and social indicators for developing countries.

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        Development Dimensions of Intellectual Property in Nepal (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 59 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy

        Divided in 5 parts, this report on the development dimension of intellectual property rights (DDIP) was developed in response to a technical assistance request from Nepal. Part 1 outlines the major framework for intellectual property (IP) policy in Nepal. Part 2 recommends a number of legislative, policy and practical steps to facilitate and enable the technological and innovation functions of IP protection. Part 3 examines the access to medicine regime of Nepal and recommends for Nepal to implement the transition period for the protection of pharmaceutical product patents and pharmaceutical test data that lasts until 2033. Part 4 analyses Nepal's access and benefit sharing regime, the interface between IP and biodiversity, and options for defensive and positive protection of genetic resources (GRs) and traditional knowledge (TK). The recommendations of this report have legislative and institutional dimensions that require capacity building, and in some cases, additional studies to develop specific action plans for implementation.

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        Development Dimensions of Intellectual Property in Uganda: Transfer of Technology, Access to Medicines and Textbooks (English)
        Report by Spennemann, Christoph; Adachi, Kiyoshi/ UNCTAD; ICTSD, 2010, 104 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Science and Technology

        This DDIP Report is organized in three chapters, featuring the interface of intellectual property with the issues of technology transfer, access to medicines and access to textbooks, respectively. Each chapter, after describing the factual background in Uganda and the pertinent institutional set-up, provides a detailed analysis of the domestic intellectual property\\nlegal framework, before making recommendations for legislative amendments. The objective of these recommendations is to provide guidance on how to use the country’s domestic intellectual property laws to promote specific development objectives.

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        Development Dimensions of Intellectual Property in Uganda: Transfer of Technology, Acces to Medicines and Textbooks (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2009, 105 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, International Economic Law

        Intellectual property rights (IPRs) have never been more economically and politically important or controversial than they are today. Considerable increases in royalty payments and licensing fees in most areas of the world and the inclusion of intellectual property provisions in regional and bilateral trade and investment agreements over the past few years illustrate the fact that IPRs have become a major economic, trade and investment issue. The UNCTAD secretariat is implementing a work programme on the development dimensions of IPRs.

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        The Development Impact of Information Technology in Trade Facilitation
        Working paper by Alburo, Florian A., 2010, 65 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade Facilitation

        This chapter, part of an ARTNeT Regional Study on the Impact of Information Technology Based Trade Facilitation Measures on SMEs, provides an overview and context of the country studies on Information Technology (IT) for Trade Facilitation (TF) in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs).

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        Development Impacts of Commodity Exchanges in Emerging Markets (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2009, 232 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        The study suggests that a commodity exchange – and specific commodity contracts – can be successfully established under a broad range of market conditions. Exchanges have functioned in economies that are open, but also in economies that are restricted. They have been established in the context of economic reform, political transition, and as a function of ongoing market development. Exchanges have developed in countries where smallholder production is the predominant mode, and in others where there is a duality between smallholder and commercial production. Contracts have been developed for commodities that are grown mainly for consumption in the domestic market, and also for commodities that are mainly exported to international markets. While many exchanges operate in countries where market infrastructure, institutions and procedures are highly developed and national markets are integrated, the study shows that they have also been successfully established in countries where markets are in need of substantial further development and integration.

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        Development-led Globalization: Towards Sustainable and Inclusive Development Paths (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 106 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This report is presented in three parts. The first sets out some of the main features of FDG and suggests that its outcomes have been much more uneven, unstable and unfair than its proponents had claimed or expected. It also shows that there has been a systemic failure to create the economic environment needed to promote productive investment and employment. However, this raises the question of why some countries have been able to grow strongly over the past two or three decades. This section seeks to account for that, and to draw lessons from their success. The second part outlines a rebalancing agenda which aims to deliver lasting and inclusive development gains. It sketches a three-pronged strategy focusing on (a) building developmental states that are able to mobilize domestic resources, strengthen productive capacities and share the gains in an equitable manner; (b) creating more robust multilateral structures capable of forging collective responses to the challenges that countries will face in the years ahead, including those required to tame finance and to promote investment-led responses to climate change; and (c) strengthening regional ties, including through South–South cooperation, in order to enhance stability and open new growth opportunities. The final section will argue that rebalancing is not a narrow technocratic challenge. A true break with the fundamentalist thinking underlying FDG will involve a change of attitudes, morals and values. Accordingly, this report insists on the importance of a normative agenda as an integral part of the broad-based rebalancing involved in the shift towards DLG.

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        Development Policies and Income Inequality in Selected Developing Regions, 1980–2010 (English)
        Discussion paper by Giovanni Andrea Cornia, Bruno Martorano, 2012, 52 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Trade and Poverty

        The paper discusses the income inequality changes which have taken place in a few representative developing regions during the last 30 years. While inequality rose in the majority of the countries of these regions in the 1980s and 1990s, the last decade was characterized by a bifurcation of inequality trends. This divergence offers the possibility to contrast the experience of virtuous regions (Latin America and parts of East and South-East Asia) and non-virtuous regions (the European economies in transition and China) so as to draw useful lessons. Since the global economic conditions affecting inequality in these countries were not too dissimilar and since no major variations in endogenous factors were evident across the regions analysed, the difference in inequality trends between virtuous and non-virtuous regions was most likely due to institutional factors and public policies. An econometric test confirms that the reduction of inequality is possible even under open economy conditions if a given set of appropriate macroeconomic, labour, fiscal and social policies is adopted by governments.

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        Development Strategies: Integrating Governance and Growth
        Working paper by Levy, Brian; Fukuyama, Francis/World Bank, 2010, 46 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        A frontier challenge for development strategy is to move beyond prescribing optimal economic policies, and instead – taking a broad view of the interactions between economic, political and social constraints and dynamics -- to identify entry points capable of breaking a low-growth logjam, and initiating a virtuous spiral of cumulative change. The paper lays out four distinctive sequences via which the different dimensions might interact and evolve over time, and provides country-specific illustrations of each. Each sequence is defined by the principal focus of its initial step: 1) State capacity building provides a platform for accelerated growth via improved public sector performance and enhanced credibility for investors; strengthened political institutions and civil society come onto the agenda only over the longer term; 2) Transformational governance has as its entry point the reshaping of a country’s political institutions. Accelerated growth could follow, insofar as institutional changes enhance accountability, and reduce the potential for arbitrary discretionary action -- and thereby shift expectations in a positive direction; 3) For 'just enough governance', the initial focus is on growth itself, with the aim of addressing specific capacity and institutional constraints as and when they become binding -- not seeking to anticipate and address in advance all possible institutional constraints; 4) Bottom-up development engages civil society as an entry point for seeking stronger state capacity, lower corruption, better public services, improvements in political institutions more broadly -- and a subsequent unlocking of constraints on growth. The sequences should not be viewed as a technocratic toolkit from which a putative reformer is free to choose. Recognizing that choice is constrained by history, the paper concludes by suggesting an approach for exploring what might the scope for identifying practical ways forward in specific country settings.

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        Development, Trade and the WTO : A Handbook (English)
        Manual by Hoekman, Bernard; Mattoo, Aaditya; English, Philip/World Bank., 2004, 672 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Developing countries are increasingly confronted with the need to address trade policy related issues in international agreements, most prominently the World Trade Organization (WTO). New WTO negotiations on a broad range of subjects were launched in November 2001. Determining whether and how international trade agreements can support economic development is a major challenge. Stakeholders in developing countries must be informed on the issues and understand how their interests can be pursued through international cooperation. This handbook offers guidance on the design of trade policy reform, surveys key disciplines and the functioning of the World Trade Organization (WTO), and discusses numerous issues and options that confront developing countries in using international cooperation to improve domestic policy and obtain access to export markets. Many of the issues discussed are also relevant in the context of regional integration agreements. Separate sections of the handbook summarize what constitutes sound trade policy; the major aspects of the WTO from a development perspective; policy issues in the area of merchandise trade and the liberalization of international transactions in services; protection of intellectual property rights and economic development; new regulatory subjects that are emerging in the agenda of trade talks; and enhancing participation of developing countries in the global trading system.

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        The digital divide: ICT development indices 2004 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Division on Investment, Technology and Enterprise Development, 2005, 73 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: Analysis of the diffusion of ICT in developing countries by using selected indicators. It also presents a review of policy options for developing countries. Who: For anyone interested in the subject of science and technology diffusion in developing countries How: Provides examples and data that could be used as a basis of a course, research, and student's work.

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        The Digital Divide Report: ICT Diffusion Index, 2005 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2006, 82 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        This index indicates the distribution of information and communication technology (ICT) around the world. The report finds that there is a “digital divide”, between developed and developing countries. A person in a high-income country is over 22 times more likely to be an Internet user than someone in a low-income country. Secure Internet servers, a rough indicator of electronic commerce, are over 100 times more common in high-income than in low-income countries. In high-income countries, mobile phones are 29 times more prevalent and mainline penetration is 21 times that of low-income countries. Relative to income, the cost of Internet access in a low-income country is 150 times the cost of a comparable service in a high-income country. There are similar divides within individual countries. ICT is often non-existent in poor and rural areas of developing countries.

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        Dinámica Del Comercio Ilícito De Personas: El Caso De Colombia-oriente Asiático1 (English)
        Article by Hurtado, Monica and Pereira, Catherine Universidad de La Sabana, 2012, 28 pages
        Categories: Commodities, VI Members Research

        Este estudio caracteriza la dinámica de la trata transnacional de personas con fines de explotación sexual desde su dimensión como negocio. Con base en la revisión de expedientes judiciales colombianos (2005-2011), se analizó la interacción entre víctimas, tratantes e intermediarios involucrados en casos de trata entre Colombia y el Oriente Asiático. Esta investigación sostiene que en ocasiones las víctimas de trata tienen una doble condición: por un lado, son sujetos, en la medida que toman decisiones, y por otro, son objetos en situaciones en las que no pueden ejercer su voluntad. El hecho de que las víctimas tomen decisiones con base en información asimétrica facilita su explotación, y explica en parte por qué la trata de personas es un negocio ilícito rentable y creciente. Entre los hallazgos del presente estudio, se estimó la rentabilidad que produce una víctima colombiana a una red en Hong Kong o Singapur, y se identificaron criterios para establecer su situación de explotación.

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        Dispute Settlement: State-State - UNCTAD Series on Issues in International Investment Agreements (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2003, 109 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law

        What: Provisions concerning the settlement of investment disputes are a central feature of international investment agreements (IIAs). This paper deals with provisions as they pertain to State-to-State disputes. Such disputes are relatively rare, in that the bulk of investment disputes arising under IIAs involve investor-State disputes. These are the subject of another paper in this Series. Who: Relevant for anyone teaching or learning state-to-state dispute settlements. How: Can be used for research or courses in dispute settlement.

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        Does Openness Promote Competition—A Case Study of Indian Manufacturing (English)
        Discussion paper by Manoj Pant and Manoranjan Pattanayak, 2005
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research

        Technical paper on a test of the hypothesis that openness by itself promotes competition.

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        Does Regionalism Affect Trade Liberalization Toward Non-Members? (English)
        Working paper by Estevadeordal, Antoni; Freund, Caroline; Ornelas, Emanuel / World Bank, 2008, 61 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper examines the effect of regionalism on unilateral trade liberalization using industry-level data on applied most-favored nation tariffs and bilateral preferences for ten Latin American countries from 1990 to 2001. The findings show that preferential tariff reduction in a given sector leads to a reduction in the external (most-favored nation) tariff in that sector. External liberalization is greater if preferences are granted to important suppliers. However, these "complementarity effects" of preferential liberalization on external liberalization do not arise in customs unions. Overall, the results suggest that concerns about a negative effect of preferential liberalization on external trade liberalization are unfounded.

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        Does TRIPS Art. 66.2 Encourage Technology Transfer To The LDC’s?: An Analysis Of Country Submissions To The TRIPS Council (1999-2007) (English)
        Policy brief by Suerie Moon /Harvard University, 2008, 12 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Science and Technology

        Developing countries, in general, see technology transfer as part of the bargain in which they agreed to strengthened intellectual property protection under the TRIPS Agreement. The TRIPS Agreement includes a number of specific provisions in this regard. Most notably, Article 66.2 requires developed countries to provide incentives for to enterprises and institutions in their territories for the purpose of promoting and encouraging technology transfer to LDCs in order to enable them to create a sound and viable technological. In this policy brief, Suerie Moon (Harvard University) examines, based on country self-reports to the TRIPS Council from 1999-2007, whether the Article 66.2 obligation led developed countries to increase incentives to enterprises and institutions in their territories for the purpose of promoting and encouraging technology transfer to WTO LDC Members. Her study underlines that the lack of definitional clarity regarding the terms “technology transfer” and “developed country” in these reports makes it unclear which countries are obligated to do what. Furthermore, it points to the fact that many developed countries have never submitted a report, and among countries that did, submissions have largely been irregular. In addition, a majority of the programmes and policies reported do not specifically target LDCs and a significant proportion of programmes for LDCs do not actually target technology transfer. The author highlights that country reports do not provide sufficiently detailed data to determine whether Article 66.2 led to any additional incentives beyond business-as-usual foreign aid. The policy brief includes a number of recommendations to improve the reporting system under Article 66.2. The author suggests, for example, the use of a uniform reporting format that will be comparable across countries and time periods. She also proposes developing a “toolkit” for assessing best practices in both the reporting and functioning of incentives. As the policy brief ultimately shows, significant work remains to be carried out in order to ensure an effective implementation of Article 66.2.

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        Do global standards and codes prevent financial crises? Some proposals (English)
        Discussion paper by Benu, Schneider, 2005, 59 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, International Financial System

        What: After the crises in emerging market economies beginning with that of Mexico in the mid-90s, the adoption of internationally recognized standards and codes (S&C) of financial best practices came to be seen as a way to strengthen the international financial system. This paper evaluates the progress made so far and considers some of the basic assumptions of the S&C\\n initiative. In particular it examines how far S&C can be instrumental in preventing financial crises, and focuses on issues raised by the initiative from a developing-country perspective. Who: Can be used by a teacher on financial systems and policies. How: For a course on how to avoid or prevent financial crises in developing economies.

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        The Doha Development Agenda: What's on the Table? (English)
        Working paper by Martin, Will; Mattoo, Aaditya / World Bank, 2008, 37 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The outlines of a potential agreement, emerging after seven years of negotiations, imply that Doha offers three key benefits: reduced uncertainty of market access in goods and services; improved market access in agriculture and manufacturing; and the mobilization of resources to deal with the trade problems of least developed countries. WTO Members have offered to make large reductions in legally bound levels of protection in goods and services. The reductions in currently applied levels of protection are smaller. For the least developed countries, the proposed "duty free and quota free" access will only add significantly to their access under existing preferential access arrangements if industrial and developing country members include vital tariff lines. The initiatives on trade facilitation and aid for trade can play a valuable catalytic role in promoting reform and mobilizing assistance, but substantial effort is still needed to translate notional benefits into actual gain.

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        The Doha Round and Food Security in the Dairy Sector in Cameroon: A Global Simulation Model (gsim) Approach (English)
        Discussion paper by Roland R. Leudjou, 2012, 20 pages
        Categories: Commodities, VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        In the framework of the new round of trade liberalization launched in Doha, paragraph 13 of the Development Declaration states that members will support special and differential treatment to accommodate development, including food security. This article simulates scenarios of multilateral tariff reduction from the WTO December 2008 draft modalities on agriculture for the Cameroon dairy sector. Using the Global Simulation Model, the analysis shows a substantial increase in world and domestic consumer prices, as the reduction of bound tariffs does not affect the applied tariffs given the high “binding overhang”. As a consequence, consumers’ welfare decreases.

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        Doing Business 2010: Reforming Through Difficult Times (English)
        Report by World Bank; International Finance Corporation., 2009, 231 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Trade Facilitation

        Doing Business 2010 is the seventh in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulations and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 183 economies--from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe--and over time. Regulations affecting 10 stages of a business's life are measured: starting a business, dealing with construction permits, employing workers, registering property, getting credit, protecting investors, paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts and closing a business. Data in Doing Business 2010 are current as of June 1, 2009. The indicators are used to analyze economic outcomes and identify what reforms have worked, where and why.

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        Domestic and External Public Debt in Developing Countries (English)
        Discussion paper by Panizza, Ugo/UNCTAD, 2008, 26 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development

        Analysis of public debt in developing countries has traditionally focused on external debt. However, in recent years, several developing countries adopted aggressive policies aimed at retiring public external debt and substituting it with domestically issued debt. This paper discusses alternative definitions of external and domestic debt and then introduces a new dataset on domestic and external public debt. It uses this dataset to describe recent trends in the composition of public debt in developing countries and discusses the reasons for these trends. The paper also identifies possible challenges and opportunities arising from the new debt management strategy adopted by several emerging and developing countries and points out that there are conceptual and practical issues with the traditional external/domestic debt dichotomy. In doing so, the paper discusses possible trade-off between domestic and external borrowing and points out that while the switch towards more domestic borrowing can play a positive role in reducing the risks of sovereign finance, policymakers should not be too Complacent.

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        Domestic Climate Change Policies and the WTO (English)
        Discussion Paper by Lucas Assuncao and ZhongXiang Zhang, UNCTAD, 2002, 32 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This discussion paper describes how governments that signed the Kyoto Protocol may pursue domestic climate policies that conflict with WTO obligations and development and growth strategies and recommends potential solutions. Useful reading for students and lecturers interested in the relationship betweem environment and trade/trading system. The paper gives plenty of useful examples and is clear and comprehensible.

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        Domestic Preparedness for Trade in Services Liberalization: Are East African Countries Prepared for Further Trade Liberalization? (English)
        Discussion paper by E.P Bagumhe, 2011, 24 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Over the past decades East African Countries have witnessed even faster growing rates of the share of trade services in their GDPs. This paper argues that although the importance of services as a share of overall GDP, increase with growth on FDI and employment. Its growth can be driven by number of factors, such as final demand factors and basic structural changes in production, linked to development. Weak domestic preparedness before opening up is likely to be associated with unsatisfactory and undesirable outcomes of Services Trade liberalization. This paper tries to expound issues that are essential on domestic preparedness for Service Trade Liberalization and analyses the associated concerns. The purpose of this paper is not to provide answers but to shed some light on how services Trade liberalization is currently operationalized in the East African Countries, in particular, that is, to open up the “black box,” and indicate the operational design elements around which variance is the highest.

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        Don’t Blame the Physical Markets: Financialization is the Root Cause of Oil and Commodity Price Volatility (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2012, 4 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The sharp price movements of many primary commodities, including oil, have fuelled intense debate about the causes of the price hikes and possible remedies. Growing demand from large developing economies and frequent supply shocks, such as adverse weather and export bans, are generally accepted as more tangible factors that explain volatility, rather than the hundreds of billions of dollars of bets placed on expectations of temporarily rising prices. Despite a growing body of evidence on the destabilizing influences emanating from financial markets, the “real economy” explanations still dominate the debate. It is not commonly recognized that demand from financial investors in the commodity markets has become overwhelming during the last decade. Of course, supply and demand shocks can still move commodity prices time and again. But with the volumes of exchange traded derivatives on commodity markets now being 20 to 30 times larger than physical production, the influence of financial markets has systematically transformed these real markets into financial markets. This calls for strong and prompt policy and regulatory responses in the financial markets, rather than in the physical markets.

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        Do Remittances Reduce Vulnerability to Climate Variability in West African Countries? Evidence from Panel Vector Autoregression (English)
        Discussion paper by Couharde, Cécile, Davis, Junior, Generoso, Rémi, 2011, 31 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Macroeconomic Policy, Migration and Development

        In this paper, we empirically examine the role of remittances in smoothing the GDP fluctuations induced by precipitation variability and both meteorological and natural shocks. To this end, we use a panel VAR to empirically study six West African countries from 1983 to 2009. Our evidence suggests that remittances are an important element of macroeconomic stability especially for those countries most vulnerable to precipitation variability. The estimated orthogonalized impulse responses show on one hand, that meteorological shocks and declining precipitation have both adverse consequences on GDP per capita. On the other hand, remittances are characterized by counter-cyclical patterns in cases of precipitation variability and climate shocks. Remittances inflows in the selected countries (countries of emigration) are also heavily dependent on economic shocks in host countries.

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        Do Sensitive Products Undermine Ambition? (English)
        Report by Vanzetti, David, Peters, Ralf, 2011, 22 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The long-running WTO negotiations remain unresolved. Agriculture is a main stumbling block. Members have agreed to linear tariff reductions within bands, but proposed exemptions for sensitive products, while providing for much needed flexibility, threaten to undermine the ambition. A detailed partial equilibrium global agricultural trade model is used to analyse the likely impact of exemptions from the formula tariff reductions. Applying one third of the formula cuts to the 5 per cent of lines with the highest tariffs increases the final developed country average agricultural tariff from 16 to 24 per cent but the negative impacts on trade and welfare are less dramatic.

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        Do Trade And Investment Agreements Lead To More Fdi? Accounting For Key Provisions Inside The Black Box (English)
        Working paper by Berger, Axel, Busse, Matthias, Nunnenkamp, Peter, Roy, Martin, 2009, 29 pages
        Categories: Investment, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The previous literature provides a highly ambiguous picture on the impact of trade and investment agreements on FDI. Most empirical studies ignore the actual content of BITs and RTAs, treating them as "black boxes", despite the diversity of investment provisions constituting the essence of these agreements. We overcome this serious limitation by analyzing the impact of modalities on the admission of FDI and dispute settlement mechanisms in both RTAs and BITs on bilateral FDI flows between 1978 and 2004. We find that FDI reacts positively to RTAs only if they offer liberal admission rules. Dispute settlement provisions play a minor role. While RTAs without strong investment provisions may even discourage FDI, the reactions to BITs are less discriminate with foreign investors responding favourably to the mere existence of BITs.

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        Drivers of Industrial Competitiveness in Tanzania: A Capability and Sectoral Approach (English)
        Presentation by Manuel Albaladejo, Queen Elizabeth House University of Oxford , 2004, 23 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: A presentation made in 2003 to an UNCTAD Expert Meeting giving an analysis of the competitiveness of different sectors in Tanzania. It gives an overview of growth in both the manufacturing and other sectors in Tanzania before looking at some of the reasons for underperformance and suggesting possible capacity upgrading strategies. Who: Useful to anyone concerned with economic development in Tanzania but also African LDCs more generally, particularly regarding policy options How: This presentation provides a good example of how to use empirical data to draw out specific policy inclusions and with additional background reading on could be the basis of an excellent country case study.

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        Dynamics of Human Trafficking: The Colombia-east Asia Case (English)
        Article by Hurtado, Monica and Pereira-Villa, Catherine Universidad de La Sabana, 2012
        Categories: VI Members Research

        This study characterizes the dynamics of transnational trafficking in humans for commercial sexual exploitation from a business dimension. Based on a review of Colombian judicial records (2005-2011), this study analyses the interaction between victims, traffickers and intermediaries involved in cases of trafficking between Colombia and East Asia. This research argues that victims occasionally have a double-condition for a trafficking network: on the one hand, they are subjects to the extent that they make decisions; and on the other, they are objects as they cannot exercise their free will. Since victims make decisions based on asymmetric information, this facilitates their exploitation and explains in part why trafficking in persons is both a profitable and growing illegal business. Among other topics, this study estimates the profits obtained by a network by exploiting a Colombian victim in Hong Kong or Singapore, and suggests criteria to evaluate exploitation.

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