A partnership with academia

Building knowledge for trade and development

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        East Asia’s Counterweight Strategy: Asian Financial Cooperation and Evolving International Monetary Order (English)
        Discussion paper by Sohn, Injoo, 2007, 24 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, International Financial System

        In the aftermath of the Asian economic crisis, East Asian countries including ASEAN member states, China, Japan and the Republic of Korea, have increasingly sought to establish a regional system of financial cooperation. The study looks at the main drivers of this process and examines the progress made. The two key initiatives are the 'Chiang Mai initiative', which is designed to provide liquidity to member countries with short-run balance of payments problems and could develop into an Asian Monetary fund, and the 'Asian Bond Fund initiative', a regional bond market aiming to keep foreign reserves in the region and to reduce vulnerability to external financial shocks. The author also discusses the prospects and the challenges faced by the initiatives, such as regional economic diversity, geopolitical rivalry (in particular between Japan and China), and the relation to the IMF, the US and the EU. How: Describing East Asian responses to financial crisis, thus raising awareness about regional options in this area. Who: Policy makers in the field of regional and multilateral financial cooperation.

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        E-Commerce and Development Report 2001 - Trends and Executive Summary (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2001, 60 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: Over the past decade the emergence of electronic commerce has changed the economic environment substantially. The E-Commerce and Development Report 2001 provides a review on recent trends in the branch of ICT. It discusses what developing countries need to be aware of as they try to position their economies to take advantage of ICT and the Internet and to what extent ICT and the Internet affects the different sectors of their economies. The Report provides basic facts and figures about e-commerce. Furthermore, it makes exemplary suggestions in which way developing countries can build the infrastructure, capacities and legal framework in order to create an environment enabling beneficial use of ICT and e-commerce. Who: Excellent reading for anyone interested in the development trends of e-commerce and its implications for developing countries. How: Can be used as a background guide for classes and research on e-commerce and development. Various issues and proposals can be used to provoke discussions in class.

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        E-Commerce and Development Report 2002 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Secretariat, 2002, 282 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: This report examines in detail international trends related to e-commerce in 2002. It provides factual information and analysis in regard to a range of issues that influence the expansion of e-commerce in developing countries such as the Domain Name System or Gender Equality in regard to the use of e-commerce. Furthermore, the report includes policy and business options available to developing countries and it outlines policy recommendations in order to maximize the contribution of e-commerce to social and economic development. Who: Teachers and students in international economics or international relations that want to focus on the impact of e-commerce and ICT for development. How: Each chapter and its bibliography can be used independently to deal with selected issues of e-commerce. The whole report can serve as an excellent background reading for classes on e-commerce and development. The data in the report can also be used for further scientific analysis and investigation.

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        E-Commerce and Development Report 2002, Chapter 2 - The Domain Name System and Issues for Developing Countries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD E-Commerce Branch, 2002, 42 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: A presentation of the issues that developing countries have to take into account while designing their ICT development strategy, considering the Domain Name System as a prominent regulation framework of the digital economy. Who: Since it is not too technical, this reading is suitable for both students and teachers interested in regulation frameworks for the Internet or in the relations between the Internet and development. How: Specialised course on domain names, or research works and case studies (the document provides a bibliography that can be updated and a list of related forums on the Web). Some issues, such as the mission and functioning of the ICANN, provide helpful starting points for general or group discussions.

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        E-Commerce and Development Report 2002, Chapter 3 - Gender, E-commerce and Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD E-Commerce Branch, 2002, 28 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade and Gender

        What: Focusing on developing countries, the chapter mainly examines the accessibility of ICTs, the effect of E-commerce on the participation of women in the economy, the new employment opportunities for women. Who: Especially teachers and researchers on gender, economic, labour or development issues. How: Useful material for a course on ICTs and economic and social development, with manifold examples or extra explanations in the form of boxes, figures or tables (which may be used in presentation, exercises, discussions, etc.). Annex III gives food for thought for a possible group discussion on ICT policies.

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        E-Commerce and Development Report 2002, Chapter 8 - E-Insurance (English)
        Report by UNCTAD E-Commerce Branch, 2002, 29 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: An explanation of how E-insurance works and how it has developed, as well as an analysis of the issues raised by the application of ICTs to the distribution of insurance services. Who: Teachers or researchers on international insurance, e-finance. How: A complete introduction to E-insurance; textboxes also provide several valuable case studies that can lead to a more in-depth seminar on E-insurance.

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        E-Commerce and Development Report 2003 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD E-Commerce Branch, 2003, 228 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: The report examines 2003 trends and previsions, as well as more specific issues related to E-commerce (e-finance, online dispute resolution, etc.). Who: Teachers in international affairs or international relations, interested in the impact of the Internet and ICTs on the economy and on development. How: Each chapter and its bibliographies may be used independently to cover specific aspects of E-commerce, or the whole document can be the basis of a course on E-commerce. Data, graphs and tables can be useful to design presentations or tests (document analysis, etc.)

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        E-Commerce and Tourism: New perspectives and challenges for developing countries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Commission on Enterprise, Business Facilitation and Development, 2000, 20 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology

        What: A cross-sectoral analysis of how ICTs can foster the development of tourism in developing countries. It shows the link between the old and the new economy and the possibility that developing countries have to maximize benefits from the tourism industry. Who: Students or teachers involved in tourism or ICTs applied to development How: This document can be a good background paper for an introduction on e-tourism. The annexes give excellent examples for case studies.

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        E-commerce in Developing Countries: Opportunities and Challenges for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises
        Report by World Trade Organization, 2013, 16 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Science and Technology

        This publication focuses on how e-commerce and mobile telephony have transformed the lives of many people in developing countries. It examines different ways of using e-commerce, and looks at specific sectors where Small and Medium Entreprises tap into important market information for their business.

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        E-Commerce Strategies for Development: Selected Trade and Development Aspects of ICT (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Commission on Enterprise, Business Facilitation and Development, 2004, 12 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: A sound summary of the very recent research work carried out by UNCTAD on ICTs and their adoption by enterprises, on free and open source software and on e-commerce. Who: Anyone interested in ICTs or microeconomics (especially researchers who will find the data very useful). How: A valuable source of information or update for any course on ICTs, especially if it focuses on development and SMEs; also a possible basis for discussion (in particular the conclusion part) after an introductory course on the subject.

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        E-commerce Trends and Impacts Across Europe (English)
        Case study by Martin Falk; Eva Hagsten/UNCTAD, 2015, 31 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This study investigates the patterns and trends of e-commerce activities as well as their impact on labour productivity growth in a group of European countries. At hand for the exercise is a unique panel of micro-aggregated firm-level data for 14 European countries spanning over the years 2002 to 2010. The empirical approach is twofold: A static specification and a dynamic panel data model. The former is a difference specification estimated by OLS and the latter uses system GMM to account for endogeneity of e-commerce activities. This study adds to the literature by presenting patterns of and first insights into the productivity effects of e-commerce activities.

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        E-Commerce, WTO and developing countries (English)
        Discussion Paper by Arvind Panagariya, University of Maryland, 2000, 32 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: The paper discusses policy issues that e-commerce raises for developing countries in the WTO context. With regard to the WTO rules, benefit developing countries would benefit if e-commerce is classified as trade in services with GATS discipline applied to it and Internet transactions as cross-border trade. Developing countries that have the capacity to export skilled services through Internet would gain if they negotiate market access with developed countries in the future WTO negotiations' in terms of liberalization of sectors in which they have a comparative advantage. Who: Useful for anyone teaching electronic commerce and WTO. How: A background reading on e-commerce and negotiations with WTO.

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        Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific 2010: Sustaining Recovery and Dynamism for Inclusive Development (English)
        Report by ESCAP, 2010, 252 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        The Asia-Pacific region leads the process of recovery from the global financial and economic crisis and emerges as a focus of global growth and stability. However, the recovery of the world economy at large remains fragile. This poses risks for sustained recovery in Asia as well, given its export dependence. A more balanced recovery is needed and this will require more globally concerted policy efforts. In this regard, the 2010 Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific provides a comprehensive analysis of the challenging policy landscape and offers recommendations for the way forward. In the aftermath of the crisis, we see clear momentum for regional economic cooperation.

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        Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific 2010: Year-end Update
        Report by UNESCAP, 2010, 48 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        2010 has seen an impressive recovery of the Asia-Pacific region from the Great Recession of 2008/09. Led by the large economies of China and India, output growth in the region rebounded in 2009 and gathered further strength in 2010. But the region is faced with a weakening of growth in the developed economies which are grappling with a combination of weak household demand and fiscal retrenchment. The Year-end Update of UN-ESCAP’s annual flagship publication, Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific 2010, considers the implications of these challenges for policy-makers in the region. The principal message of the Update is the need for the countries in the region to adopt a cautious approach in ending of fiscal stimulus packages while building in the medium term alternative sources of demand in the region, both domestic and external. For the former, the Update looks to reduce poverty and boost demand combined with more investment in infrastructure. For the latter, it highlights the need to deepen regional integration in the areas of trade and finance and more broadly in policy coordination in order to face the challenges confronting the region in 2011 and beyond. Management of capital flows is another important challenge for the region’s policy makers for maintaining financial stability.

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        Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific 2016: Nurturing Productivity for Inclusive Growth and Sustainable Development (English)
        Report by Akhtar, Shamshad/ ESCAP; Hahm, Hongjoo/ ESCAP; Hasan, Aynul/ ESCAP, 2016, 172 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Trade and Poverty, Trade Facilitation

        The first chapter of the Survey contains an examination of the macroeconomic performance of and outlook for the Asia-Pacific region, analyzing the implications of some of the economic challenges that the region is facing. It also contains a discussion on several policy options, with emphasis on the importance of fiscal policy. The chapter also includes an examination of the impact of the recent economic slowdown in the Asia Pacific region in terms of its effects on poverty, inequality and employment prospects, along with challenges posed by an expanding middle class and rapid urbanization. In the second chapter, the diversity of the region is considered by providing a more disaggregated analysis of economic issues and challenges that each of the five sub regions is facing. In doing so, a distinct issue is the focus for each sub region, which provides an opportunity for increased understanding of a variety of experiences and policy considerations. Finally, the third chapter contains analyses on the importance of productivity in the Asia-Pacific region and a set of policy recommendations on how to strengthen productivity growth.

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        The Economic Community of West African States: Fiscal Revenue Implications of the Prospective Economic Partnership Agreement with the European Union (English)
        Working paper by Zouhon-Bi, Simplice G.; Nielsen, Lynge /World Bank, 2007, 30 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper applies a partial equilibrium model to analyze the fiscal revenue implications of the prospective economic partnership agreement between the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the European Union. The authors find that, under standard import price and substitution elasticity assumptions, eliminating tariffs on all imports from the European Union would increase ECOWAS' imports from the European Union by 10.5-11.5 percent for selected ECOWAS countries, namely Cape Verde, Ghana, Nigeria, and Senegal. This increase in imports would be accompanied by a 2.4-5.6 percent decrease in total government revenues, owing mainly to lower fiscal revenues. Tariff revenue losses should represent 1 percent of GDP in Nigeria, 1.7 percent in Ghana, 2 percent in Senegal, and 3.6 percent in Cape Verde. However, the revenue losses may be manageable because of several mitigating factors, in particular the likelihood of product exclusions, the length of the agreement's implementation period, and the scope for reform of exemption regimes. The large country-by-country differences in fiscal revenue loss suggest that domestic tax reforms and fiscal transfers within ECOWAS could be important complements to the agreement's implementation.

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        Economic development in Africa 2002 - From Adjustment to Poverty Reduction: What is New? (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Division on Globalization and Development, 2002, 76 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        Focusing on Africa, this report from 2002 describes how the goal of development policy has shifted away from structural reform and towards poverty reduction however it argues that the emphasis is still on liberalization without a clear analysis of how pro-market policies in trade, finance and agriculture will actually benefit the poor. This could be useful for anyone debating Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers both in Africa and beyond. Raises some interesting, and controversial, discussion points about the benefits of liberalization.

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        Economic Development in Africa 2004 - Debt Sustainability: Oasis or Mirage? (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 98 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development

        What: Debt sustainability is basically a relative concept. The questions that beg for a response are: what level of debt is sustainable for countries in which the vast majority of the population lives on under $1 a day per person? Have debt sustainability criteria been based on internationally recognized benchmarks such as those of the MDGs, or on objectively and theoretically verifiable criteria? What is the relationship between Africa's total external debt stocks and the actual amount of debt serviced? Is complete debt write-off a moral hazard or a "moral imperative"? The report tries to put these and other related issues in perspective and makes a number of recommendations on how to deal with Africa's debt. Who: For teachers, students and researchers studying Africa's debt problems, poverty reduction and development challenges. How: Can be used as a background reading or for research work on debt sustainability and development in Africa.

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        Economic Development in Africa 2006- Doubling Aid: Making the “Big Push” Work (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2006, 6 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Finance for Development

        What: The 2006 report on Economic Development in Africa addresses the question of how \\"doubling aid to Africa\\" could substantially contribute to economic and social development in the region. It provides readers with a comprehensive historical overview of models of foreign aid and identifies flaws in the current aid system. The report suggests revisiting the \\"big push\\" development strategy first put forward in the 1950\\'s, and highlights the importance of coherence and quality aspects in aid supply on the donor-side, as well as the role of policies pursued by recipients. A new architecture of aid should ensure a stronger focus on developing productive capacities, and respond to local and regional needs instead of imposing conditionalities. A reduction of unnecessary competition among donors and a greater multilateralization can help to make aid more efficient. How: Can be used as an entry reading into the aid literature and contributes one position to the ongoing discussion. Who: Researchers and lecturers in international development economics dealing with aid issues.

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        Economic Development in Africa 2007 - Reclaiming Policy Space: Domestic Resource Mobilization and Developmental States (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2007, 123 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: The report urges African countries to rely more on domestic resource mobilization for their financial needs thus claiming ownership of their development processes and addressing their genuine priorities. It is informative in terms of actual and theoretical examples of beneficial macroeconomic state interventions, particularly in the African context and when it comes to development financing. How: The report can be used as background material for macroeconomics classes and may spark research ideas in the area of domestic resources mobilization. Who: Faculty engaged in teaching macroeconomics or in research on domestic resource mobilization.

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        Economic Development in Africa 2007: Reclaiming Policy Space: Domestic Resource Mobilization and Developmental States - Overview (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2007, 11 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: The report urges African countries to rely more on domestic resource mobilization for their financial needs thus claiming ownership of their development processes and addressing their genuine priorities. It is informative in terms of actual and theoretical examples of beneficial macroeconomic state interventions, particularly in the African context and when it comes to development financing. How: The report can be used as background material for macroeconomics classes and may spark research ideas in the area of domestic resources mobilization. Who: Faculty engaged in teaching macroeconomics or in research on domestic resource mobilization.

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        Economic Development in Africa 2008 Export Performance Following Trade Liberalization: Some Patterns and Policy Perspectives (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2008, 113 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This year's Economic development in Africa report examines Africa's export performance following trade liberalization, with a view to proposing policies to improve export performance. The report shows that the extensive trade liberalization undertaken by African countries has not been followed by a substantial improvement in their export performance. This suggests that there are serious obstacles hampering a supply response to the new incentive structure created by the removal of barriers to trade. The obstacles mainly consist of structural problems related to weak capacity in the production and marketing of exports in both the agricultural and manufacturing sectors. Strong State capacity is required to increase access to factors of production and improve the business environment. In the manufacturing sector, efforts to improve all aspects of productivity and to create efficient export promotion agencies that help firms to identify and seize opportunities in export markets should be at the heart of industrial policy. The agricultural sector would benefit from better research and development, irrigation facilities and extension services. Greater liberalization of agricultural trade in the markets of developed countries is also key to improving Africa's agricultural export performance.

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        Economic Development in Africa Report 2009 - Strengthening Regional Economic Integration for Africa's Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2009, 126 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        The global financial crisis requires the re-examination of current approaches to international development. One area which is important for Africa is the role of regional integration in addressing the long-standing structural weaknesses which have lowered the long-term growth performance of most countries on the continent, increased their economic vulnerability and undermined efforts to reduce poverty. The Economic Development in Africa Report 2009 focuses on ways of strengthening regional economic integration for Africa’s development. It complements existing institutional analyses of regional integration in Africa with an economic analysis of trade in goods and services, migration and investment. The report surveys recent trends in these flows and assesses the potential for increasing them in ways that will support economic development. The report finds that — when designed and implemented within a broader development strategy to promote economic diversification, structural changes and technological development — regional integration could help enhance productive capacities of African economies, realize economies of scale, improve competitiveness and serve as a launching pad for African economies’ effective participation in the global economy.

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        Economic Development in Africa Report 2010. South-south Cooperation: Africa and the New Forms of Development Partnership. (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 128 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Finance for Development

        The Economic Development in Africa Report 2010 examines recent trends in the economic relationships of Africa with other developing countries and the new forms of partnership that are animating those relationships.\\n The report discusses the variety of institutional arrangements that are guiding and encouraging these new economic relationships. It provides up-to-date information on African trade with other developing countries outside Africa, as well as on official financial flows and foreign direct investment into Africa from those countries. Finally, it assesses important policy issues that arise from the new relationships in each of these areas.\\n The report places the new relationships and multiplying partnerships within the context of South–South cooperation.

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        Economic Development In Africa Report 2011: Fostering industrial development in Africa in the new global environment
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 135 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The Report provides an overview of the stages, performance and lessons learned from previous attempts at promoting industrial development in Africa, and disusses key elements for a new industrial policy for Africa. The report also sets out a framework for the diagnosis of the current situation and the design of a a strategy tailored to the needs of each country and calibrated with the new global environment.

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        Economic Development in Africa Report 2012 - Structural Transformation and Sustainable Development in Africa (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 161 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The Economic Development in Africa Report 2012 examines how African countries can promote sustainable development. Chapter 1 is on conceptual issues. It discusses different views of the relationship between the economy and the environment and of how resource use and environmental impacts typically change during the course of a development process. Chapter 2 presents new stylized facts associated with resource use and productivity in Africa. Chapter 3 provides a strategic framework for sustainable structural transformation. Chapter 4 identifies policies for sustainable structural transformation in Africa, with a focus on three key economic sectors: energy, industry and agriculture. The final chapter presents a summary of the main findings and policy recommendations of the Report.

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        Economic Development in Africa Report 2013 Intra-african Trade: Unlocking Private Sector Dynamism (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 158 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Globalization and Development Strategies, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        The main message of this year's report is that intra-African trade presents opportunities for sustained growth and development in Africa, but that seizing these opportunitiesrequires private sector dynamism to be unlocked and a development-based approach to integration to be adopted. Chapter 1 provides empirical facts on intra-African trade and investment. Chapter 2 examines the drivers of intra-Africantrade. Chapter 3 focuses on the structure of enterprises in Africa and identifies the distinctive features of the enterprise structures that inhibit trade. Chapter 4 discusses how to boost intra-African trade in the context of developmental regionalism. Chapter 5 provides a summary of the main findings and recommendations of the report.

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        Economic Development in Africa Report 2014: Catalysing Investment for Transformative Growth in Africa (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 110 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment

        The report examines how to boost and use investment in support of economic transformation and sustained growth in Africa. The focus of the report on total investment reflects the fact that all components of investment matter for growth and development and so the focus of policy should be on how to exploit the complementarities among the various components, rather than promoting one component at the expense of the other. The report also provides actionable policy recommendations on how African countries could accelerate investment for transformative growth.

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        Economic Development in Africa Report 2015: Unlocking the Potential of Africa's Services Trade for Growth and Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 146 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        This report examines some of the major policy issues that underlie Africa’s services sector and provides policy guidance on how services could contribute to Africa’s regional integration and generate inclusive growth and employment. More broadly, it discusses how services can contribute to sustainable growth and development continent-wide, especially given the enabling role of services and their capacity to link with other sectors. The report makes specific and actionable policy recommendations on how to better leverage Africa’s services trade and the related development, employment and growth benefits.

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        Economic Development in Africa Report 2016 (English)
        Also available in French
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 166 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        The Economic Development in Africa Report 2016, subtitled Debt Dynamics and Development Finance in Africa, examines some of the key policy issues that underlie Africa’s domestic and external debt, and provides policy guidance on the delicate balance required between financing development alternatives and overall debt sustainability. This report analyses Africa’s international debt exposure and how domestic debt is increasingly playing a role in some African countries as a development finance option. It also examines complementary financing options and how they relate to debt. The report makes relevant and actionable policy recommendations which address the roles that African Governments, external partners and the international community can play in ensuring that Africa’s public debt remains sustainable.

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        Economic Development in Africa Report 2017 - Tourism for Transformative and Inclusive Growth (English)
        Also available in French
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 206 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        At a time when the continent is building its productive capacities, deepening regional integration and pursuing economic diversification, tourism in Africa continues to grow. The report suggests that to better harness the potential of the tourism sector to contribute to inclusive growth, structural transformation and achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals, Africa should adopt policies that strengthen intersectoral linkages, boost intraregional tourism and promote peace.

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        Economic Development in Africa: Rethinking the Role of Foreign Direct Investment (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2005, 115 pages
        Categories: Investment

        What: In this report UNCTAD affirms that the recent surge of FDI to Africa is largely due to increased demand for fuels and minerals. The traditional FDI attraction to Africa into enclaves of export-oriented primary production with limited linkages to the rest of the economy has not changed much in recent years and has contributed to undermining a self-sustaining and dynamic investment process. UNCTAD says it is time to rethink the one-sided emphasis on attracting FDI and its replacement with a more balanced and more strategic approach tailored to African socio-economic conditions and development challenges. Who: For anyone teaching and researching development challenges in Africa. How: A report that can be used to teach and/or research on approaches to FDI in Africa and the development challenges.

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        Economic development in Africa: Trade performance and commodity dependence (English)
        Report by UNCTAD/GDS Division, 2003, 84 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        A detailed analysis that presents major trends and issues in commodity trade in Africa such as market structure, market access and prices volatility, using examples and statistics. Useful for anyone interested in commodity trade particularly in Africa. Chapter 1 provides a good overview of issues in Africa's trade performance and the annex examines the issue of cotton subsidies from the point of view of Sub Saharan Africa.

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        Economic Diplomacy Course: University of Campinas (English)
        Outline by Mário Ferreira Presser, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), 2003
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, Trade Related Capacity Building, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This document provides an overview of the course outline for a Master's degree including the rational for the programme, a description of target students and compulsory modules as well as information about elective options.

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        Economic diversification and primary commodity processing in the second-tier South-East Asian newly (English)
        Discussion Paper by Jomo K.S. and Michael Rock, 1998, 50 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        What: This discussion paper examines successful agricultural diversification in South East Asia and how government initiatives to diversify national economies have been efficient. Who: For students and teachers interested in the link between agricultural diversification and growth, and implementation of national development strategies. How: Interesting papers that raises controversial points on government interventions in national economies. Good examples from Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia that can be used in activities or exercises.

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        Economic feasibility study course syllabus (English)
        Outline by Amir Bakir, University of Jordan, Department of Economics, 2004
        Categories: Trade Related Capacity Building

        This course is primarily concerned with the appraisal of projects/investments from the view points of the entrepreneur and the national economy. It starts with the financial evaluation of the inflows and outflows, and next a series of adjustments for any external effect to reflect the social costs and benefits to the country as a whole, is developed. Finally, risk analysis is introduced to deal with the problems of uncertainty.

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        Economic Partnership Agreements and the Export Competitiveness of Africa (English)
        Working paper by Brenton, Paul; Hoppe, Mombert; Newfarmer, Richard / World Bank, 2008, 29 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        Trade can be a key driver of growth for African countries, as it has been for those countries, particularly in East Asia, that have experienced high and sustained rates of growth. Economic partnership agreements with the European Union could be instrumental in a competitiveness framework, but to do so they would have to be designed carefully in a way that supports integration into the global economy and is consistent with national development strategies. Interim agreements have focused on reciprocal tariff removal and less restrictive rules of origin. To be fully effective, economic partnership agreements will have to address constraints to regional integration, including both tariff and non-tariff barriers; improve trade facilitation; and define appropriate most favored nation services liberalization. At the same time, African countries will need to reduce external tariff peak barriers on a most favored nation basis to ensure that when preferences for the European Union are implemented after transitional periods, they do not lead to substantial losses from trade diversion. This entails an ambitious agenda of policy reform that must be backed up by development assistance in the form of "aid for trade".

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        Economic Partnership Agreements: Comparative Analysis of the Agricultural Provisions (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2010, 99 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        This study analyses the development implications of the agricultural provisions of the Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) between the European Union (EU) and 36 African,Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries. It is argued that, for most countries, the loss of EU preferences was the decisive factor in signing the EPA, while the additional gains of improved market access have been limited. With respect to ACP countries’ import liberalization commitments, the analysis shows that ACP agricultural markets are not exposed per se to EU products but are affected very differently.

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        Economic Policy Challenges in an Open Economy: Coherence between Trade and Finance (English)
        Presentation by Heiner Flassbeck, UNCTAD, 2004
        Categories: Competitiveness, Macroeconomic Policy

        What: This paper emphasizes the importance of understanding competitiveness from the perspective of interdependence and analyses its applicability to developing countries. It explores the possibility and policy implications of using currency undervaluation as a general solution to maintaining competitiveness. Who: Can be used for a course on competitiveness. How: For a course on competition and competition policy in developing countries.

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        Economic Report on Africa 2005: Meeting the Challenges of Unemployment and Poverty in Africa (English)
        Report by UNECA, 2005, 298 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        What: The Economic Report on Africa (ERA) is the flagship publication of the UN Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The 2005 edition shows that despite record economic growth in Africa, poverty is actually getting worse. The report focuses on four key challenges for Africa in the fight against unemployment and poverty: structural transformation to break away from the under-utilization of rural labour, addressing widespread youth unemployment, harnessing globalization to create decent jobs, and creating an enabling environment for the fast expansion of private sector jobs through increased investments. The report stresses that it is up to governments to transform African economies, particularly by taking advantage of opportunities presented by globalization. How: Background reading on Africa's recent performance and on unemployment and poverty in the African context. Who: Policy makers, researchers and lecturers dealing with African economic development.

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        Economic Report on Africa 2005 - Overview: Meeting the Challenges of Unemployment and Poverty in Africa (English)
        Summary by UNECA, 2005, 24 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Trade and Poverty

        What: The Economic Report on Africa (ERA) is the flagship publication of the UN Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The 2005 edition shows that despite record economic growth in Africa, poverty is actually getting worse. The report focuses on four key challenges for Africa in the fight against unemployment and poverty: structural transformation to break away from the under-utilization of rural labour, addressing widespread youth unemployment, harnessing globalization to create decent jobs, and creating an enabling environment for the fast expansion of private sector jobs through increased investments. The report stresses that it is up to governments to transform African economies, particularly by taking advantage of opportunities presented by globalization. How: Background reading on Africa's recent performance and on unemployment and poverty in the African context. Who: Policy makers, researchers and lecturers dealing with African economic development.

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        Economic Report on Africa 2006: Capital Flows and Development Financing in Africa (English)
        Report by UNECA, 2006, 220 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Macroeconomic Policy

        What: The Economic Report on Africa (ERA) is the flagship publication of the UN Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The 2006 edition of the ERA places capital flows at the centre of the debate on development financing and examines how external capital can help countries accelerate growth and reduce poverty. Main recommendations include: promoting regional financial integration, establishing mechanisms for monitoring and managing capital flows to minimize the risks of financial instability, designing strategies to increase the contribution of the Diaspora to economic development, and development partners should honour their commitments with regard to the Monterrey Consensus. ERA 2006 points out that with appropriate capital management strategies, African economies could absorb higher external capital with minimal adverse effects. How: Background reading on Africa's recent performance and on financing for development in the African context. Who: Policy makers, researchers and lecturers dealing with African economic development.

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        Economic Report on Africa 2006: Capital Flows and Development Financing in Africa - Overview (English)
        Summary by UNECA, 2006, 30 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Macroeconomic Policy

        What: The Economic Report on Africa (ERA) is the flagship publication of the UN Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The 2006 edition of the ERA places capital flows at the centre of the debate on development financing and examines how external capital can help countries accelerate growth and reduce poverty. Main recommendations include: promoting regional financial integration, establishing mechanisms for monitoring and managing capital flows to minimize the risks of financial instability, designing strategies to increase the contribution of the Diaspora to economic development, and development partners should honour their commitments with regard to the Monterrey Consensus. ERA 2006 points out that with appropriate capital management strategies, African economies could absorb higher external capital with minimal adverse effects. How: Background reading on Africa's recent performance and on financing for development in the African context. Who: Policy makers, researchers and lecturers dealing with African economic development

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        Economic Report on Africa 2007: Accelerating Africa's Development Through Diversification (English)
        Report by UNECA, 2007, 184 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: The Economic Report on Africa (ERA) is the flagship publication of the UN Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The 2007 edition was the first in the series that was published in collaboration with the African Union. In the first part, the ERA always highlights recent economic and social developments in Africa, including global trends that have a major influence on the continent. The second part always focuses on a particular theme, this time "diversification". The report finds that the diversification process in Africa is highly influenced by investment, per capita income, and the degree of openness of trade, macroeconomic policy stance and the institutional framework. Based on these findings the report recommends several strategies to promote diversification in African economies. How: Background reading on Africa's recent performance and on diversification as a development strategy. Who: Policy makers, researchers and lecturers dealing with African economic development.

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        Economic Report on Africa 2007: Overview (English)
        Summary by UNECA, 2007, 12 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: The Economic Report on Africa (ERA) is the flagship publication of the UN Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The 2007 edition was the first in the series that was published in collaboration with the African Union. In the first part, the ERA always highlights recent economic and social developments in Africa, including global trends that have a major influence on the continent. The second part always focuses on a particular theme, this time "diversification". The report finds that the diversification process in Africa is highly influenced by investment, per capita income, and the degree of openness of trade, macroeconomic policy stance and the institutional framework. Based on these findings the report recommends several strategies to promote diversification in African economies. How: Background reading on Africa's recent performance and on diversification as a development strategy. Who: Policy makers, researchers and lecturers dealing with African economic development.

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        Economic Report on Africa 2008 : Africa and the Monterrey Consensus (English)
        Report by UNECA, 2008, 202 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development

        The Economic Report on Africa (ERA) is the flagship publication of the UN Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA)based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The 2008 edition is the second in the series that is published in collaboration with the African Union. In the first part, the ERA highlights recent economic and social developments in Africa, including global trends that have a major influence on the continent. The second part focuses on a particular theme, this time The Monterrey Consensus. The report finds that substantial progress has been made in a few areas, especially with regard to debt relief, however, progress is still slow in the areas of social and human development. Based on these findings the report advocates for innovative economic strategies to to broaden the growth base and maximize the impact of growth on poverty reduction.

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        Economic Report on Africa 2010: Promoting high-level sustainable growth to reduce unemployment in Africa (English)
        Report by UNECA, 2010, 235 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This report is organized into two parts. The first part, consisting of chapters 1 to 3,discusses current trends in the global economy and African economies. The second part, covering chapters 4 to 6, is the thematic part and deals with how to use the challenges created by the recent global economic crisis as an opportunity to develop and implement policies that lead to the structural transformation of African economies and result in sustained high growth with a high level of employment creation.

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        Economic Report on Africa 2013-Making the Most of Africa’s Commodities: Industrializing for Growth, Jobs and Economic Transformation (English)
        Report by United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, 2013, 260 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies

        The report examines the need for Africa to industrialize, accelerate and sustain growth, as well as create jobs for its youth, and achieve economic transformation. This report also underscores the need for African countries to develop appropriate local policies, boost infrastructure, develop human skills and technological capabilities, and foster regional integration and intra-African trade. This report is based on the studies of nine African countries, which have helped generate evidence-based policy recommendations.

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        Economic Report on Africa 2014: Dynamic industrial policy in Africa (English)
        Report by UNECA, 2014, 148 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        Based on commissioned studies of 11 African countries and experiences from the global south, this report identifies the challenges and pitfalls faced in designing and implementing industrial policy and how they have been overcome. And it points to the key institutional features that allow industrial policy to be dynamically and organically connected to the processes and players underlying industrialization.

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        Economic Report on Africa 2015: Industrializing Through Trade (English)
        Report by UNECA, 2015, 214 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        This Report examines and provides analysis on the critical elements of effectively fostering industrialization and hence structural transformation based on an extensive review of experience with industrialised countries and Africa’s post-independence attempt at industrialization. Ten country case studies were also conducted to shed light on industrializing through trade. The findings from this exercise informed the policy recommendations contained in this Report.

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        The Economics Behind Non-tariff Measures: Theoretical Insights and Empirical Evidence (English)
        Discussion paper by Marco Fugazza, 2013, 33 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        this paper from UNCTAD's study series reviews technical barriers to trade (TBTs) and sanitary measures (SPS) measures to generate different trade effects for different exporters and different industries. It adressess regulations and restrictions to protect human, animal or plant life or health and other technical regulations. It does so by showing variations in estimated trade effects through different forms of technical measures proxies, model specifications, and other methodology variations.

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        Economics development (English)
        Outline by Abed Kharabsheh, University of Jordan, Department of Economics, 2004
        Categories: Trade Related Capacity Building

        This course explains the concepts and theories related to social and economic development and deals with the identification of appropriate policies that help developing countries in their way towards modernization. It also analyzes economic development in Jordan as a case study. Overview of the course on Economics Development includes course outline and a reading list.

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        The Economics Of Trade Agreements In The Linear Cournot Delocation Model (English)
        Working paper by Bagwell, Kyle, Staiger, Robert W., 2009, 36 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Existing theories of trade agreements suggest that GATT/WTO efforts to reign in export subsidies represent an inefficient victory for exporting governments that comes at the expense of importing governments. Building from the Cournot delocation model …first introduced by Venables (1985), we demonstrate that it is possible to develop a formal treatment of export subsidies in trade agreements in which a more benign interpretation of efforts to restrain export subsidies emerges. And we suggest that the gradual tightening of restraints on export subsidies that has occurred in the GATT/WTO may be interpreted as deriving naturally from the gradual reduction in import barriers that member countries have negotiated. Together with existing theories, the Cournot delocation model may help to provide a more nuanced and complete understanding of the treatment of export subsidies in trade agreements.

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        Economists and Lawyers Working Together. A Multidisciplinary Approach for Policy Orientated Researches in the Fields of Foreign Investments and Economic Development
        Working paper by Michele Barbieri, 2010, 31 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Investment, VI Members Research

        The objective of the paper is to describe a methodology which can be applied in policy orientated researches on the following topic: the impact international investment agreements (IIAs) have on the relation between foreign investments on one side and economic development of the host States on the other side. The researches which adopt such method should provide guidance to policymakers of host States as to the way they can simultaneously achieve the following goals: to attract foreign investments and to fully benefit from them, to preserve their ability to adopt and maintain policies for the promotion of domestic development, to maximise the consistency of such policies with applicable IIAs. The peculiarity of the methodology consists in its multidisciplinary approach, which combines the efforts of economists and legal experts both.

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        The Effects of Anti-competitive Business Practices on Developing Countries and Their Development Prospects (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2008, 687 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy

        The publication illustrates some of the benefits of competition law enforcement for developing countries, and the intensification of legal frameworks in this area over the last decades. The lengthy (687 pages) publication is a collection of papers by academics and practitioners trying to identify the effects of anti-competitive practices on developing countries. The studies attempt to quantify the effects of anti-competitive practices and to show the benefits of competition policies and their interaction with other areas, such as consumer protection laws and macroeconomic policies. The last part of the collection looks at specific anti-competitive practices, such as cartels, abuse of dominance, and patent policy, and would provide a useful introduction to the issues in a taught course. The report also highlights further areas of research for developing countries, in particular, case studies of competition authorities and quantitative analysis of anti-competitive practices and the lack of competition regimes

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        Effects of Environmental Regulations on South Asian Food and Agricultural Exports: A Gravity Analysis (English)
        Working paper by Wijesinghe, W.P.A.S., 2014, 27 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper investigates the effects of environmental regulation on the food and agricultural trade of four South Asian nations, i.e., Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. For this study, the Gravity Model for international trade analysis was used with country- and time-specific fixed effects followed by Heckman sample selection model to avoid possible biases that are widely cited in the gravity literature. The Environmental Performance Index was utilized as a proxy measure for the environmental regulation of the four SAARC nations and their trade partners to denote environmental regulation of reporting and partner countries. The results of the coefficient estimates revealed that even though there appears to be a relationship between stringent regulations and foreign trade without these specific effects, its significance fades as soon as both the importing and exporting country-specific effects are taken into consideration.

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        Effects of the EBA initiative on the sugar industries of the Least Developed Countries (English)
        Report by DITC, UNCTAD, 2005, 72 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        What: An analysis of the effects of the EBA initiative on fourteen developing countries. This paper raises some key issues: Do LDCs benefit from this initiative? Which countries benefit from the EBA initiative? What can be done to improve it? Who: For teachers, researchers in regional/preferential trade. How: A well structured analysis with recent information on LDCs

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        Efficient transport and trade facilitation to improve participation by developing countries (English)
        Background note by UNCTAD Secretariat, 2003, 16 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation

        What: Article on how trade and production are affected by transports services. It highlights the importance of low cost and efficient services for trade and economic development. It also reviews the legislation on transports and its implications for developing countries. Who: Good introductory reading to the subject for anyone dealing with trade facilitation. How: Could be used as a starting point in a research/course.

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        E-Finance and Small and Medium-Size Enterprises (SMEs) in Developing and Transition Economies (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2001, 41 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Science and Technology

        What: A presentation of the emergence of e-finance as well as an analysis of the experience in e-finance and of specific initiatives aiming at the development of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). The final part is an overview of coming challenges in the field. Who: People who teach or research on international finance, on the new economy or on SMEs How: An introductory course to e-finance and development, or case studies based on the experiences mentioned in part 2 and on the list of Websites provided

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        Eight Strategies for Development in Comparison (English)
        Article by Jan Priewe, 2015, 42 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Macroeconomic Policy, VI Members Research

        The article provides a broad-based overview on competing development strategies and the economic performance of developing countries, mainly since the year 2000. Four traditional mainstream development strategies are discussed (Washington Consensus, neo-liberalism, “good governance” and MDGs) and three long-debated key strategic issues are reconsidered (inward or outward development with export-led growth, industrialisation or growth with predominant primary goods exports, foreign aid-based development). A heterodox approach to development with a focus on macroeconomic policies and structural change is added and discussed in more detail. Implicitly, this lays the groundwork for a macroeconomic theory of development.

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        Electronic Commerce and Information and Communication Technologies for Development: Selected Issues (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Secretariat, 2003, 15 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: This paper provides an insight into selected developments and issues in ICT and e-commerce. Special focus is laid on the impact of ICT on economic performance, ICT policies and strategies, the measurement of ICT and e-commerce and the application of ICT to business. Key areas for future activities in order to assist developing countries to increase their participation in e-commerce and ICT are outlined. Who: For anyone interested in an overview on the role and the implications of ICT and e-commerce for development. How: Can be used as a background reading on the effects of e-commerce and ICT for development.

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        Electronic commerce and international transport services (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2001, 21 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: This document introduces some of the crucial issues relating to the wider use of electronic means of communication in international trade and transport services. It covers the impact of e-commerce on both the organization of transport and the current paper-based legal framework of international trade transactions. It highlights how e-commerce is already transforming relationships between transport service providers and users by making access to information more readily available to all. It also deals with the legal and documentary aspects, reviews the role of transport documents, particularly that of the negotiable bill of lading, in the functioning of international trade transactions. Who: Useful for anyone teaching electronic commerce. How: Can be used as a background reading on e-commerce and international trade.

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        Electronic Commerce: Legal Considerations (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Secretariat, 1998, 59 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Science and Technology

        What: This study focuses on the discussion of legal issues that are relevant to electronic commerce on an international level. It gives an overview on international developments that aim at the facilitation of e-commerce and outlines legal issues which are considered to constitute obstacles in the cross-border use of e-commerce. Possible solutions to these obstacles from already existing legal documents are discussed. The study includes a number of recommendations for governments and commercial parties with regard to creating favourable frameworks for electronic commerce. Who: Useful for anyone who deals with the legal framework for international electronic commerce and wishes to get detailed information on existing legal provisions. How: Can serve as starting point to examine the progress made within the last years in the international legal framework on ICT.

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        Electronic Commerce Strategies for Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Commission on Enterprise, Business Facilitation and Development, 2002, 23 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology

        What: A synthetic overview of how developing countries can include the ICT dimension in their development strategies and create an enabling environment, so that the Internet and ICTs can effectively lead to economic and social development. Includes best practices and helpful instances of national e-strategies. Who: Anyone interested in the role of governments in fostering development through ICTs (especially e-commerce) How: Case studies, discussions or simulations based on the national policies outlined in the paper.

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        Emergence of a New South and South-south Trade As a Vehicle for Regional and Interregional Integration for Development (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2008, 17 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        What: This note provides information about the south-south trade expansion in recent years, identifying its drivers, the impact on world investment flows and the increasing number of southern Transnational Corporations (TNCs). Through an overview about south-south trade in goods and services, the document also points the importance of regional and interregional integration, the role of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) and the need for cooperation on trade logistics, competition and energy-related policies. The note concludes with a review of UNCTAD's role to enhance the emergence of a dynamic south. How: Background document on trends of south-south trade, its potential and prospects. Who: Policy makers, researchers and lecturers interested in south-south trade, new investment flows and developing countries' challenges to enhance exchanges.

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        Emergency safeguard measures in the GATS: beyond feasible and desirable (English)
        Discussion Paper by Mario Marconini, 2005, 28 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: An up-to-date resource on the issues arising on the context of WTO negotiations on an Emergency Safeguards Mechanisms (ESM) for services, it argues in favour of an ESM and special and differential treatment (SDT) for developing countries. Who: Could be of interest for anyone interested in current WTO negotiations. How: Detailed analysis on the need for an ESM for services and special and differential measures to implement services liberalization in developing countries.

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        The Emerging of a Multilateral Forum for Debt Restructuring: The Paris Club, Discussion Paper No. 192 (English)
        Discussion paper by Cosio-Pascal, Enrique /UNCTAD, 2008, 40 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, International Financial System

        This paper describes the evolution of intergovernmental relationships on debt rescheduling. It starts describing some experiences that aroused in the 18th Century and which negotiations were carried out, in many occasions, with the help of gunboat diplomacy. The settlement of liabilities that were created at the aftermath of the two 20th Century World Wars, which were – at least for some countries –- not exactly debt but war reparations, gave some insights in how to deal with these problems allowing the debtor country to find its own path to get out of the debt overhang. The settlement of these foreign liabilities may give some guidelines for dealing with debt restructuring in more general cases The creation of the Paris Club – which is a very civilized way to settle debt defaults compared to gunboat diplomacy – is analyzed and described here: first its emergency as an ad hoc transitory institution and later its evolution toward its definitive establishment in the international financial system landscape. It is also suggested that for a combination of events, which included the launch in Evian of the G-8’s so-called Evian Approach for the Paris Club, as well as the lack of support of some major industrialized countries to the implementation of a Sovereign Debt Restructuring Mechanism (SDRM), the Paris Club has become the only feasible international intergovernmental debt restructuring mechanism in spite of numerous shortcomings embodied in it. On this basis, some improvements of the actual mechanism are proposed, without precluding the possibility of the implementation of a more equilibrated SDRM in the future.

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        Empirical Insights on Market Access and Foreign Direct Investment (English)
        Working paper by Fugazza, Marco and Trentini, Claudia, 2014, 35 pages
        Categories: Investment, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper conducts a general examination of the influence of market access conditions on FDI decisions using a unique data set on bilateral FDI outward stocks and novel measures of market access. Authors find that over the period 1990–2010, export platform and complex-vertical investment strategies have been driving FDI decisions around the world.

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        Employment Dimension Of Trade Liberalization With China: Analysis Of The Case Of Indonesia With Dynamic Social Accounting Matrix (English)
        Case study by Ernst, Christoph, Peters, Ralf, 2011, 42 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The ASEAN – China FTA raises concerns regarding its employment impact in Indonesia. The loss of millions of jobs has been predicted as a consequence of the final liberalization round, though few studies on ACFTA consider employment explicitly. This paper has two objectives. First, the employment effects of ACFTA in Indonesia on different groups of the labour market such as rural and youth employment are assessed. Second, a relatively simple methodology is developed that can be used by government officials, employers, trade unions and civil society organizations to assess and quantify the impact of trade policy changes on employment and to deepen their understanding of the complex relationship between trade and employment. The methodology combines two analytical models. Trade shocks are assessed using SMART that calculates import changes resulting from tariff reductions. The resulting effects on employment are evaluated using a multiplier analysis based on the 2008 Social Accounting Matrix component of a Dynamic Social Accounting Matrix. The impact of the final step of ACFTA is likely to be limited for Indonesia in terms of employment. Our analysis shows a small net loss of employment in Indonesia in the short run with some losses for certain groups, including female and young workers, and gains for other groups, for example agriculture employment.

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        Empowering MDG Strategies Through Inclusive Economic Development (English)
        Outline by UNCTAD, 2010, 28 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty

        Summing up the recent experience of Least Developed Countries (shock waves of the global financial crisis, fluctuation in commodity prices), particularly the implications of the global ‘Great Recession’, this paper seeks to sketch the general outlines of a post-crisis MDG-related development strategy for Least Developed Countries. While there is obviously great variety among LDCs, they do share some important common structural characteristics. Consequently, they are likely to share some common needs for the kinds of reforms of their development strategies.

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        Empowering Women-legal Rights and Economic Opportunities in Africa (English)
        Book by World Bank, 2013, 236 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender

        This book looks at the effect of legal and economic rights on women’s economic opportunities. It examines family, inheritance, and land laws, which often restrict these rights in ways that hurt women, and looks at some labor law issues. In addition, the book provides a series of indicators that show whether a country does or does not provide particular legal provisions.

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        The 'emulator Effect' of the Uruguay Round on United States Regionalism (English)
        Case study by Fugazza, Marco, Robert-Nicoud, Frédéric, 2011, 46 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Using a detailed data set at the tariff line level, we find an emulator effect of multilateralism on subsequent regional trade agreements (RTAs) involving the United States. We exploit the variation in the frequency with which the United States grants immediate duty free access (IDA) to its RTA partners across tariff lines. A key finding is that the United States grants IDA status especially on goods for which it has cut the multilateral most favoured nation (MFN) tariff during the Uruguay Round the most. Thus, the Uruguay Round (multilateral) “concessions” have emulated subsequent (preferential) trade liberalization. We conclude from this that past liberalization may sow the seeds of future liberalization.

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        Enabling the Graduation of LDCs: Enhancing the Role of Commodities and Improving Agricultural Productivity (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 84 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies

        The Fourth United Nations Conference on Least Developed Countries (LDC-IV) took place in Istanbul (Turkey) in May 2011 and adopted the Istanbul Programme of Action (IPoA) for LDCs for the Decade 2011–2020. The overall question is how can as many LDCs as possible graduate from the LDC category, given the immense socioeconomic challenges facing them, especially in the face of excessive fragility and vulnerability to shocks of their growth performance? The present publication, argues that the boom-bust cycle of the 2000s showed in stark terms that natural resources play a crucial role in LDCs’ economic growth, poverty reduction and food security. In this regard, the publication articulates the dangers of excessive dependence of LDCs’ exports on a few commodities where some five product groups dominate the export earnings of these countries during the 1995–2010 period. The publication consists of four broad chapters. The first chapter sets an analytical construct (framework) for meeting the graduation objective, with a succinct analysis of the challenges, opportunities and prospects vis-à-vis the established criteria for graduation. The second chapter provides evidence-based analysis on the impact of the recent multiple global crises on commodity-dependent LDCs, including at household level, together with policy responses. Chapter three examines the food security situation in LDCs in the light of the precipitous decline in agricultural productivity and the immense shock which people in LDCs experienced as a result of the recent global surge in food prices. Finally, chapter four provides policy conclusions and recommendations on how LDCs can realize the potential of their commodities sector to become a lever for the development and structural transformation of their economies.

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        Endowments, Power, And Democracy: Political Economy Of Multilateral Commitments On Trade In Services (English)
        Working paper by Roy, Martin/WTO, 2010, 54 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        In spite of their growing importance in international trade as well as in bilateral and multilateral trade negotiations, services have only attracted limited attention from researchers interested in determinants of trade policies and trade cooperation. This paper seeks to account for countries' varying levels of market access commitments under the multilateral General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). I develop an argument suggesting how levels of democracy and factor endowments are associated with more commitments. The empirical analysis supports these propositions, and also suggests that relative size, as well as regulatory capacity, are positively linked to GATS commitments.

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        Energy and Environmental Services - Negotiating Objectives and Development Priorities (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2003, 429 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: This study provides insight and analysis of the negotiating positions taken by the WTO Member countries on energy and environmental services within the ongoing GATS negotiations. Readers will get a better understanding of what is at stake in the negotiations by learning about the business trends, the major market players and the national strategies in these two service sectors which have a huge economic value and immediate links with economic growth and investment, country competitiveness and, ultimately, sustainable development. Who: Useful for teachers and students studying energy and environmental services. How: Can be used as a background reading for courses on energy and environmental services.

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        Energy Services in International Trade: Development Implications (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2001, 25 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: Developing countries are faced with the challenge of, on the one hand, achieving more reliable and efficient access to energy, and on the other hand, of obtaining a greater share of the energy “business”. The pursuit of these goals requires access to knowledge, expertise, technology and managerial know-how. This discussion paper addresses the elements of an energy services sector strategy for developing countries. Who: For teachers and students specialising on energy services and their implications on development. How: Can be used as a background reading for courses on energy 'business' and the implications on development.

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        Engendering Trade (English)
        Working paper by Do Quy-Toan, Levchenko Andrei, Raddatz Claudio, 2012, 44 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Inspired by the third Millennium Development Goal ("Promote gender equality and empower women"), this study discusses both theoretically and empirically how female empowerment is a source of comparative advantage that shapes a country's response to trade opening. Reciprocally, it shows that as countries integrate into the world economy, the costs and benefits of gender discrimination shift. The theory goes beyond a potential aggregate wealth effect associated with trade opening, and emphasizes the heterogeneity of impacts. On the one hand, countries in which women are empowered--measured by fertility rates, female labor force participation or female schooling--experience an expansion of industries that use female labor relatively more intensively. On the other hand, the gender gap is smaller in countries that export more in relatively femalelabor intensive sectors. In conclusion, the road to gender equality is paradoxically very specific to each country's productive structure and exposure to world markets.

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        Enhancing Linkages Between Tourism and the Sustainable Agriculture Sectors in the United Republic of Tanzania
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 58 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The main objective of this report is to enhance the understanding of linkages between tourism and agriculture, as well as propose suggestions for how they could be strengthened with the aim of promoting bottom-up sustainable development in the United Republic of Tanzania. In order to promote sustainable development, this report proposes a set of potential thematic strategies that can be used as stepping-stones for building an institutional framework able to link the tourism and agriculture sectors at multiple levels – country, regional, local and community.

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        Enhancing the Role of Domestic Financial Resources in Africa's Development (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2009, 68 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Finance for Development

        Apart from the limited reforms to liberalize the financial sector and some attempts to increase public revenue through the introduction of consumption taxes such as VAT (value added tax), many African countries have not considered domestic resource mobilization as an important vehicle for increasing development finance. This handbook is expected to help fill this lacuna. It has been prepared as part of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) secretariat’s project on “Developing local capacities for the identification of growth opportunities through resource mobilization”, financed by the United Nations Development Account (Fifth Tranche). The objective of the project is to strengthen the capacity of African countries to identify and utilize efficiently non-debt-creating domestic resources in order to meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), especially the first goal of halving poverty rates by 2015.

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        Enhancing the Role of Regional Development Banks, G-24 Discussion Paper Series No. 50 (English)
        Working paper by Griffith-Jones, Stephany; Griffith-Jones, David and Hertova, Dagmar / UNCTAD, 2008, 38 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, International Financial System

        There are a number of important reasons why lending by regional or sub-regional development banks can and should play an important and valuable complementary role in the international development architecture. We look at the specific strengths of multilateral, regional and sub-regional development banks and drawing on the successful experience of the European Investment Bank and the Andean Development Corporation conclude that the time is now for creating new regional development banks and expanding existing ones. Creating new institutions or expanding existing ones will have very clear benefits, as for instance providing regional public goods which are currently undersupplied, such as regional infrastructure. Very large pools of savings and foreign exchange reserves originate in developing countries these days and therefore the potential for a significant expansion of regional or sub-regional development banks, with only or mainly developing country members has grown significantly. At the same time, it may be desirable to create new regional development banks where gaps exist, however too much duplication of services is not desirable.

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        Ensuring EU Farm Policy Supports the Millennium Development Goals (English)
        Note by ICTSD, 2009, 12 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This short information note addresses how aid that governments provide to developing countries can often be undermined by their counteractive domestic agricultural policies. The EU’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), originally intended to address post-war food shortages, now causes overproduction at home while undermining some development efforts abroad. Developing country farmers are not only unable to compete in the international market with subsidized European products, but are also denied access to the European market due to high tariff barriers. Although a series of reforms have taken place aimed at reducing overproduction and waste, more substantial reforms are needed in order to align EU farm policy with its policies on development.

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        Ensuring Gender-sensitive Implementation Of The Post-2015 Development Framework
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2015, 4 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Gender

        This policy brief offers stakeholders (government, civil society) some suggestions on elements and data that may help them to assess whether they are implementing the Post-2015 development framework in a gender-sensitive manner. The suggestions are linked to the proposed goals, targets and indicators and are meant to guide the implementation process once the post-2015 «package» is agreed upon by member States. While gender equality should be promoted throughout the goals, this brief offers suggestions on SDGs 1, 2, 5 and 17, the goals that are intimately related to the role of women as economic agents.

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        Ensuring Trade Policy Supports Food Security Goals (English)
        Policy brief by ICTSD, 2009, 13 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Policy Reviews and Briefs, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        While analysts, negotiators and policy-makers have long been aware of the trade barriers and distortions facing developing country agriculture, the renewed attention to food insecurity has yet to spark concrete action on trade policy reform. Indeed, if progress is to be achieved towards achieving food security goals, action to tackle the trade-related causes of hunger has to be an integral part of a broader set of development-oriented reforms in both the developed and developing world. This short analytical note attempts to summarise some of the relationships between trade policy and food security, and pinpoint some of the changes that might be required if governments are to achieve their goals in this area.

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        Enterprising Women : Expanding Economic Opportunities in Africa (English)
        Book by Hallward-Driemeier, Mary, World Bank, 2013, 306 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Trade and Gender

        The book looks at the ways to expand women entrepreneurs’ economic opportunities in Sub-Saharan Africa. What explains the gender sorting in the types of enterprises that women and men run? The analysis shows that many Sub-Saharan countries present a challenging environment for women. Four key areas of the agenda for expanding women’s economic opportunities in Africa are analyzed: strengthening women’s property rights and their ability to control assets; improving women’s access to finance; building human capital in business skills and networks; and strengthening women’s voices in business environment reform.

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        Enter the Dragon: Policies to Attract Chinese Investment
        Working paper by Ramasamy, Bala and Yeung, Matthew, 2014, 38 pages
        Categories: Investment

        Over the last ten years, Chinese enterprises have become more multi-national in nature. China’s outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) has been growing at a phenomenal rate. In 2012, China became the third largest investor, after the US and Japan; and the largest investor among developing countries. How can host governments attract more of this Chinese capital? What are some short to medium term policies that host governments can initiate to make their respective nations attractive to Chinese investors? This paper considers these questions by utilizing a best-worst choice exercise among 114 senior corporate decision-makers of Chinese companies who have planned or are planning to globalize. Using the maximum difference scaling methodology, this paper ranks 19 most common determinants that influence FDI location choice. It also proposes five “low hanging fruits” that policy-makers should consider that could ensure their countries come within the radar of Chinese multi-nationals.

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        Entrepreneurship Policy Framework and Implementation Guidance (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 69 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development

        Private sector development has become an important part of development policy. Until recently, however, policymakers around the globe as well as in international organizations adopted a narrow perspective of the challenges involved, focusing in particular on efficiency gains in existing enterprises. In the face of rapid social and technological change, slow economic recovery and jobless growth, many countries have shifted the focus of their policies to facilitating new firm creation. With the inclusion of entrepreneurship as part of the development policy agenda there is an opportunity to better link private sector development to the goals of inclusive and sustainable development. The Entrepreneurship Policy Framework developed by UNCTAD is, therefore, a timely contribution as it aims to assist policymakers in identifying the key elements of an entrepreneurship policy and formulating actions. It also provides policy options that will help developing countries and countries in transition to stimulate inclusive and sustainable growth. While cautioning that one-size does not fit all, the policy recommendations are clearly stated and are accompanied by practical checklists, an inventory of selected examples and monitoring indicators. The four design principles that underpin the findings in this document are the following: 1. Consensus building: development partners should contribute to a national entrepreneurship strategy that is the result of extensive consultation between the government and representatives of all sectors of business activity, local communities, education and financial institutions. 2. Sustainability: poverty reduction, gender equality and environmental protection are core goals. 3. Implementation: multiple ministries, as well as implementing agencies from the private sector and civil society should be identified and their role clearly defined 4. Monitoring and evaluation: the periodic measurement of policy effectiveness is essential for the management of entrepreneurship policy and should incorporate feedback from lessons learnt on an on-going basis.

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        Entrée sur les marches des produits de base : le rôle du financement des échanges et investissements (French)
        Background note by UNCTAD, 2004, 27 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        Quoi : Une analyse des problèmes que rencontrent les producteurs des PED à pénétrer les marches des produits de base. Ce papier étudie les obstacles au financement et l'impact sur les PED. Il donne également des recommandations en matière d'action publique. Qui : Pour quiconque intéresse par les questions des produits de base, et particulièrement en Afrique. Comment : Donne des exemples de financement réussi (Philippines, Inde et Zambie).

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        Environmental Goods and Services: Defining Negotiations or Negotiating Definitions? (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 29 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: This article from the Trade and Environment Review 2003 emphasizes the lack of agreed definitions and classifications concerning environmental goods and services and questions the goal of a win-win scenario in WTO negotiations (positive outcomes for both trade and environmental aspects), e.g. will environmental benefits go to one set of countries and trade gains to another? How to balance market access with public services? How:The article presents a good overview of negotiations in environmental goods and services, can be used as key reading for course related to trade and environment.

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        Environmental/Health requirements, Market Access and Export Competitiveness: Trends, Problems and Approaches (English)
        Presentation by Ulrich Hoffmann, UNCTAD, 2004, 5 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Trade and Environment

        What: Presentation defines environmental/health requirements by outlining their nature, range and some important trends. Main part of the presentation analyses then both policy and capacity issues concerning health/environmental requirements at WTO level, international level and national level (with special focus on developing countries). Good summary of key problems, e.g. lack of international standards Who: Anyone who wants a very quick overview about key issues in health/environmental requirements/use it as summary. How: Only bullet points, previous knowledge needed or has to be complemented with additional readings, e.g. corresponding paper "Environmental/Health Requirements, Market Access and Export Competitiveness - What is the Problem for Developing Countries and what can be the Answers?"

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        Erosion of preferences for the least developed countries: Assessment of effects and mitigating optionsErosion of preferences for the least developed countries: Assessment of effects and mitigating options (English)
        Note by UNCTAD Secretariat, 2005, 21 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        A background note by the UNCTAD secretariat for the Trade and Development Board, currently meeting in Geneva for its 52nd session, on the erosion of preferences for the Least Developed Countries. The paper highlights the countries and products benefiting from preferential market access initiatives and the scope of those initiatives. It considers the effects of preference erosion and cautions that the global welfare gains from trade liberalisation may be limited for those communities suffering the effects of preference erosion. The paper also briefly examines possible measures that could be taken to mitigate its effects.

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        Escaping the “middle Income Trap”: the Divergent Experiences of the Republic of Korea and Brazil
        Policy brief by ARTNeT, 2015, 12 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This policy brief reviews the key drivers behind the successful catch-up through a comparative analysis of the Republic of Korea and Brazil. These two economies represent an interesting case in that until the 1980s, the GDP of Brazil was higher than that of Republic of Korea. Thereafter, the two economies took different paths, with Brazil becoming stuck in the “middle-income trap” and the Republic of Korea making a significant progress.

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        Estimating the Benefits of Cross-border Paperless Trade (English)
        Report by UNESCAP, 2014, 36 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report focuses on determining the precise measures covered by cross-border paperless trade initiatives. It aims to estimate the possible economic benefits—export gains, and cost savings—from partial or full implementation of the determined set of measures. The approach of this report is to conduct counter factual simulations: “what if” exercises based on the current reality of cross-border paperless trade implementation, and two ambitious but realistic reform scenarios.

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        Estimating the Impact of Trade Specialization and Trade Policy on Poverty in Developing Countries- Trade and Poverty Paper Series No. 6 (English)
        Discussion paper by Santos-Paulino, Amelia and Thornquist, Disa/UNCTAD, 2015, 23 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Poverty

        The paper investigates the impact of trade specialization on reducing poverty in developing countries. It evaluates the contribution of agriculture in low-income economies as a primary source of income. It also examines how developing countries can move out from commodities to agriculture. The paper argues that agriculture has more potential benefits when placed with the right policy approach in relation to improving livelihoods, jobs, productive capacity, and enabling inclusive sustainable development.

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        EU-ACP Economic Partnership Agreements: Empirical Evidence for Sub-saharan Africa (English)
        Case study by Vollmer S.; Martinez-Zarzoso I.;Nowak-Lehmann D.; Klann N., 2009, 29 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The study estimates the welfare effects of the interim agreements for nine African countries: Botswana, Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, Tanzania, and Uganda. The analysis is based on highly disaggregated data for trade and tariffs (HS six digit level) and follows a simple analytical model by to quantify the welfare effects of trade liberalization.

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        EU Financial Market Reform: Status and Prospects (English)
        Case study by Dullien, Sebastian; Herr, Hansjörg/ HTW, 2010, 19 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Macroeconomic Policy, VI Members Research

        The financial and economic crisis has made it clear that the financial markets are in need of far-reaching reform and more effective regulation. Since the most pressing dangers have been averted and the economy in most industrialised countries is clear of recession, however, the topic of financial market regulation has largely disappeared from the public gaze. Having said that, a great deal is happening in the background with regard to financial market regulation, including at the EU level. Against this background, economists Sebastian Dullien and Hansjörg Herr present the current state of the debate in some of the most important areas of EU financial market regulation and ongoing legislative processes and evaluate the most important plans. The authors come to the conclusion that, although the current deliberations on reform are going in the right direction, they are insufficient to ensure the long-term stability of the EU financial system.

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        Euro Zone Debt Crisis: Scenario Analysis and Implications for Developing Asia-pacific (English)
        Working paper by ESCAP, 2012, 31 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Macroeconomic Policy, Trade and Poverty

        The ongoing euro zone debt crisis creates an undesirable scenario for the global economy as well as for the Asia-Pacific region given that the region has close economic linkages. The paper aims to provide quantitative estimates of the potential impact of the euro zone debt crisis on merchandise exports as well as on economic growth and poverty reduction efforts in the region. The results indicate that a one-percentage-point fall of output growth of the euro zone would result in a total export loss of $166 billion. In addition, the protectionist threats could further increase the loss in exports by $27 billion. On social development, the disorderly euro zone debt crisis scenario would prevent 8.19 million people to get out of poverty and another 1.15 million would be pushed back into poverty as per the $1.25-a-day poverty line. The paper illustrates that macroeconomic policy space appears adequate in most economies that tend to be more heavily affected by the euro zone debt crisis. But strong inflationary pressures and less favourable public debt conditions could prevent some economies from implementing swift and forceful macroeconomic policy responses.

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        EU Support for Biofuels and Bioenergy, Environmental Sustainability Criteria, and Trade Policy (English)
        Report by Swinbank, Alan/UNCTAD, 2009, 54 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade and Environment

        This paper provides a description of the EU’s biofuel policies, set in the context of its overall policy framework on renewable and bioenergy, and their interface with the WTO legal system. Although undoubtedly influenced by concerns about security of energy supplies, and a wish to find alternative market outlets for European farmers, the EU’s policy for biofuels (defined in EU legislation as liquid and gaseous fuels for transport use) is associated closely with its more generic policies to promote bioenergy, which in legislative terms is embedded in its policy on renewable energy, part of its strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The EU’s strategy, and its implementation by the Member States, has been evolving for a number of years; but its current ambition is that by 2020 some 20 percent of its primary energy supplies should come from renewable resources (including bioenergy) and that, in each Member State, renewables (largely biofuels) should provide 10 percent of energy use for transport. It is up to the Member States to deliver on these obligations, in the framework of EU rules …

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        An Evaluation of Tanzania’s EPZ Programme – Challenges and Prospects (English)
        Case study by Charles T L T Domician, 2009
        Categories: Competitiveness, Investment, VI Members Research

        This study employs OECD-DAC criteria to evaluate the Tanzania Export Processing Zones programme over the 2006 to May 2009 period. It finds that the programme is relevant for the country and global developmental orientations, although some respondents had a misguided opinion. On the other hand, the programme remains largely ineffective and inefficient due to the prevailing risks, including heavy hard and soft infrastructural challenges as well as the existing burden of the fiscal incentive regime. The study notes, however, that if properly handled, the discovery of uranium is potentially key to transforming the country’s energy and industrial sectors for domestic and international competitiveness. It is further suggested that unless necessary socioeconomic interventions are made well in time, the identified weaknesses stand to threaten the programme’s envisaged developmental impact and sustainability. Therefore, it is recommended that the government (through the Export Processing Zones Authority), in collaboration with all relevant EPZ stakeholders, devise an efficient and effective mechanism for financing export-enhancing infrastructures; and that special purpose vehicles in public-private partnership arrangements provide one such option. Other policy measures should include a review for streamlining the incentive regime, addressing inefficiencies at the Dar es Salaam port, financial empowerment for domestic export-oriented SMEs, enhanced stakeholder awareness of EPZ legislation and practices, and regional and global marketing of the programme’s production/exports.

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        Evolution Of Non-tariff Measures: Emerging Cases From Selected Developing Countries (English)
        Discussion paper by Basu, Ranjan Sudip; Kuwahara, Hiroaki;Dumesnil, Fabien, 2012, 39 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The objective of the paper is to provide a brief account of the international efforts in understanding non-tariff measure-related trade policies. It uses the NTMs classification system to reflect the increasing use and importance of these policy measures, and includes the concept of procedural obstacles, which refers to issues related to the process of applying an NTM, rather than the measure itself.

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        EXAMEN COLLÉGIAL VOLONTAIRE DE LA POLITIQUE DE CONCURRENCE: TUNISIE - RAPPORT DE SYNTHÈSE (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2006, 41 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Ce rapport de synthèse résume les principales informations tirées de « l'Examen collégial volontaire de la politique de la concurrence en Tunisie ». Après un bref rappel du contexte politique et économique du pays, le rapport présente la politique de la concurrence (la loi, les organes et le fonctionnement) en Tunisie. Cette synthèse comprend également un examen de l’application de cette politique au cours des dernières années, compte tenu du contexte tunisien (prix contrôlés, politiques sectorielles, etc.), ainsi qu’une série de conclusions et de recommandations.

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        Examen De La Politique D'investissement De Djibouti (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2013, 115 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The Investment Policy Review (IPR) of Djibouti identifies a number of weaknesses in the policy, legal, regulatory and institutional frameworks for investment in Djibouti. Taking into account Djibouti's development objectives and the Government's will to improve the investment environment, the IPR proposes remedial actions and puts forward a multidimensional strategy to attract FDI.

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        Examen De La Politique D'investissement: République Du Congo
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 70 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The Investment Policy Review (IPR) of the Republic of the Congo analyses the role that foreign direct investment (FDI) can play in meeting the country's development goals and proposes concrete recommendations to address the policy, legal, regulatory and institutional barriers to investment. The IPR also analyses the potential role of FDI in addressing food security and poverty through agriculture development. It advises the Government to adopt a clear vision for the sector and to pay particular attention to the agricultural development model that is advocated. In particular, it stresses the important role of the Government to promoting inclusive agriculture development and the integration of local operators in FDI-led value chains as it can maximize the sustainable development impact of FDI projects. It also highlights the fact that regular monitoring and rigorous evaluation of projects, based on reliable indicators, are among the best tools to ensure good results.

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        Examen De Las Políticas De Ciencia, Tecnología E Innovación : Perú
        Report by Sanz, Ángel González, Pérez Cusó, Marta, Rovira, Sebastián, López Martínez, Roberto, Rozenwurcel, Guillermo, Villarán, Fernando, Sol Golup, Romina, 2010, 188 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        El objetivo último del examen de políticas de ciencia, tecnología e innovación del Perú es ofrecer al gobierno peruano un diagnóstico actualizado sobre la efectividad de sus políticas y medidas relacionadas con la ciencia, tecnología e innovación; reforzar dichas políticas y medidas integrándolas al proceso nacional de desarrollo; y, mejorar la capacidad tecnológica, fomentar la innovación, e incorporar mayor valor agregado a la producción.

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        Exceptions to Patent Rights in Developing Countries (English)
        Case study by Garrison, Christopher, 2006, 104 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This Paper examines the principles and practice of “exceptions to patent rights”, especially as regards developing countries. Many WTO Members (“Members”) are convinced of the utility of the patent system in encouraging research and development activity for new inventions. Many other Members are less confident of the benefits of the patent system and indeed are concerned about the dangers that the patent system poses, in terms of, for example, the impact that it and other intellectual property rights syste ms will have on their economic and social welfare. Where the line is drawn between those areas that are the preserve of the patent holder to control, and those areas which the patent holder may not control, is therefore a very important policy question for Members. The subject of this Paper relates to one aspect of this policy question, that is to say, “exceptions to patent rights”, which for present purposes, is taken to mean certain “safe harbour” areas of activity where the rights of a patent holder do not extend. Other limitations of the rights of patent holders and other matters such as the scope of patentability of inventions or the compulsory licensing of patents are outside the scope of this Paper, although they are touched on as and when appropriate.

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        The Exchange Rate: Economic policy tool or market price? (English)
        Discussion paper by Heiner Flassbeck, UNCTAD, 2001, 52 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy

        There has been broad consensus among economists for decades that changes in the value of money over time cannot be used as an economic policy tool because people would quickly learn to adapt to any attempt to exploit the money illusion by inflationary policy. Paradoxically, the majority of economic analyses have never questioned the ability of policy makers to exploit money illusion over prolonged periods of time if the subject is the change in the value of money in space, i.e. exchange rate changes. The paper argues that the latter have to be treated in the same way as the former if economic theory is to be consistent. As a consequence, exchange rate changes can only be used to compensate for inflation differentials between countries, and nothing else. The paper draws on the European experience up to monetary union, as well as on experience in developing countries with different exchange rate regimes.

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        Exchange Rates, International Trade and Trade Policies (English)
        Article by Alessandro Nicita, 2013, 30 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper analyses the impact that exchange rate volatility and misalignment have on trade and whether exchange rate misalignments affect governments’ decisions on trade policies. It also shows that trade policy is used to compensate for some of the consequences of an overvalued currency, especially anti-dumping.

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        Expanding Trade Within Africa: the Impact of Trade Facilitation (English)
        Working paper by Njinkeu, Dominique; Wilson, John S.; Fosso, Bruno Powo / World Bank, 2008, 31 pages
        Categories: Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper examines the impact of trade facilitation on intra-African trade. The authors examine the role of trade facilitation reforms, such as increased port efficiency, improved customs, and regulatory environments, and upgrading services infrastructure on trade between African countries. They also consider how regional trade agreements relate to intra-African trade flows. Using trade data from 2003 to 2004, they find that improvement in ports and services infrastructure promise relatively more expansion in intra-African trade than other measures. They also show that, almost all regional trade agreements have a positive effect on trade flows.

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        Experiences Gained so far on International Cooperation on Competition Policy and the Mechanisms used (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Commission on Investment, Technology and Related Financial Issues, 2002, 43 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy

        What: The paper looks through the typology of legal instruments for cooperation on competition policy, be they bilateral, regional or multilateral. It also describes experiences in such cooperation Who: Teachers interested in international legal instruments and in competition policy How: The examples of instruments for cooperation presented in the first chapter and on the cooperation between the EU and the US can be an introduction for case studies or group work.

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        Export Promotion and the WTO: A Brief Guide (English)
        Book by ITC, 2009, 50 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Study looking at export promotion schemes which are consistent with international rules on subsidies, and are most frequently used by developing countries – examines the rules contained in the WTO Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (ASCM), covering manufactured goods; highlights rules in the WTO Agreement on Agriculture (AoA) on subsidies, covering certain primary or agricultural products; outlines tools such as duty drawback, export credits and export guarantees, which are at the disposal of countries wishing to promote exports; presents and analyses examples of schemes in place in selected countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America.

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        Exports, Equity, and Empowerment : The Effects Of Readymade Garments Manufacturing Employment On Gender Equality In Bangladesh (English)
        Working paper by Hossain, Naomi, 2011, 40 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Bangladesh has become known as something of a success in advancing gender equity since the 1990s. There have been rapid gains in a number of social and economic domains, yet by most objective standards the current condition and status of women and girls within Bangladeshi society remain low. Rapid progress has come about under conditions of mass poverty and interlocking forms of social disadvantage, political instability and under-development, overlain with prsistent 'classic' forms of patriarchy. This paper assesses the effects of the readymade garments (RMG) employment on women’s empowerment in Bangladesh.

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        Exports of services and economic growth in developing countries (English)
        Report by Alberto Gabriele, UNCTAD, 2004, 45 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        What: This paper illustrates the main trends in international trade in services during the last two decades of the last century, and explores quantitatively the nexus between GDP growth and exports of services, focusing particularly on developing and transition countries. Who: Relevant for anyone studying or teaching exports in services in developing countries and in economies in transition. How: Can be used as a background reading on international trade on services in developing countries. The paper uses several data and provides a number of reference materials.

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        Export Structure and Economic Performance in Developing Countries: Evidence from Nonparametric Methodology
        Discussion paper by Sudip Ranjan Basu, Monica Das, 2011, 59 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper offers a closer look of the impact on institutional quality, human capital on GDP per capita for various country-groups in the core model. It provides evidence that a flow of credit and well function financial markets are essential to support higher level of economic performance.The results of the shown nonparametric model support the higher level of skill and technology intensive manufactures and the positive impact they have on GDP per capita in developing countries.

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        Exposure to External Country Specific Shocks and Income Volatility (English)
        Working paper by Jansen, Marion, Lennon, Carolina, Piermartini, Roberta, 2009, 23 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        Using a dataset of 138 countries over a period from 1966 to 2004, this paper analyses the relevance of country specific shocks for income volatility in open economies. We show that exposure to country specific shocks has a positive and significant impact on GDP volatility. In particular, we find that the degree to which the cycles of different trading partners are correlated is more important in explaining exporters’ GDP volatility than the volatility of demand in individual export market. We also show that geographical diversification is a significant determinant of countries' exposure to country specific shocks.

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        Expropriation: A Sequel (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2012, 181 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law

        This sequel to the UNCTAD 1999 Pink Series paper on expropriation, analyzes expropriation provisions in international investment agreements (IIAs) and their interpretation by arbitral tribunals. Moving beyond a merely descriptive role, the paper offers policy options to assist States in drafting IIA clauses that help to promote sustainable development.

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        The External Debt Contentious, Six Years After the Monterrey Consensus (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2008, 44 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development

        This paper has three objectives. It discusses the main developments and new issues that have arisen after the Monterrey Conference. It critically reviews the Monterrey Consensus on external debt. It provides a set of recommendations for reviewing the implementation of the Monterrey Consensus, to take place in Doha, Qatar, in December 2008. In doing so, the paper discusses the shortcomings of standard debt sustainability exercises; it presents new results on the additionality of debt relief; and discusses the need for developing new financial instruments and institutions aimed at reducing the risks of sovereign and external borrowing. The paper also briefly discusses issues related to the definition of external debt and touches on the odious debt debate.

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        Extractive Industries : Optimizing Value Retention in Host Countries (English)
        Report by Sigam, Claudine, Garcia, Leonardo/ UNCTAD, 2012, 54 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies

        This paper examines ways in which local content in the extractive industries can be addressed.. In this respect, the paper is divided in five parts. Part 1 describes the structure of the oil and gas and mining industries, including a discussion of the margins in the oil value chain as well as the stakeholders. Part 2 explains the positive and negative impacts of natural resources exploitation in host countries. Part 3 identifies the main challenges that developing countries face in optimizing value retention and examines ways in which they can be addressed. Part 4 presents three different country experiences of local industry development strategies in the extractive industries. The paper concludes with some policy implications and conclusions with regards to local content development strategies.

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