A partnership with academia

Building knowledge for trade and development

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        Facilitating Biotrade in a Challenging Access and Benefit Sharing Environment (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 45 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Macroeconomic Policy

        With the entering into force of the CBD Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization, there is a new opportunity to improve the synergies for access to genetic resources and benefit sharing (ABS) in the context of BioTrade, and in turn contribute to legal certainty on this particularly important matter in regards to sustainable use of biodiversity. Though historically BioTrade has moved in the realm of sustainable biodiversity businesses, particularly with biological resources and certain ecosystem services, questions remain regarding when and how genetic resources become part of BioTrade and most importantly, whether ABS policy and legal frameworks are applicable or not. The Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit Sharing is a new multilateral environmental agreement under the CBD, seeking to clarify definitions, issues of scope and coverage of ABS, and specific actions by user and provider countries of biodiversity resources. The rapid implementation of the Protocol within the European Union and Switzerland is placing considerable pressure on providing countries to adjust, develop and implement effective and efficient ABS frameworks at the national level to be consistent with the Protocol and also benefit from it.

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        Farm Support and Trade Rules: Towards a New Paradigm Under the 2030 Agenda (English)
        Report by Musselli, Irene/UNCTAD, 2016, 30 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Facilitation, Trade Related Capacity Building

        There is a need to move beyond existing metrics in agricultural trade governance. This on account of major changes in farm support policies and in the overall policy framework. The way ahead requires a pragmatic and ground-breaking approach. A comprehensive approach is needed to improve coherence between farm support policies and sustainability concerns. The boundaries of the Green Box have to be redefined accordingly. Specifically, Green Box transfers have to be made conditional on the respect of specific agri-environmental practices. Decoupled income support not subject to agrienvironmental “cross-compliance” conditions should only be available to low-income or resource-poor producers. It is also important to acknowledge the fact that different developing countries have different agricultural profiles and different needs for farm support, and to give operational meaning to these differences. Overall, trade policy in agriculture should be re-oriented towards context-specific, circumstantial assessments, informed by equitable considerations and sustainability imperatives.

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        Fast-tracking Green Patent Applications: An Empirical Analysis
        Report by ICTSD, 2013, 42 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade and Environment

        This paper is the first study to empirically analyze green patent fast-tracking programmes and to examine whether these programmes may help the diffusion of green technologies. After pointing out the main differences among the approaches taken by different countries, the paper presents several key findings, such as there is a clear demand for fast-tracking procedures, climate change-related technologies represent the vast majority of patents in the fast-tracking programmes.

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        FDI-assisted Development in the Light of the Investment Development Path Paradigm: Evidence from Central and Eastern European Countries (English)
        Article by Boudier-Bensebaa, Fabienne, 2008, 32 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment

        This article analyzes the case of the Central and Eastern European countries (CEECs) as an interesting case of FDI-assisted development strategies in transition economies. CEECs saw a surge of inward FDI over the past decade and a recent increase in outward FDI from the region. The analysis is based on the investment development path (IDP) framework. First, a cluster analysis is used to divide the CEECs into more homogeneous groupings. Econometric and statistical analyses are then carried out to delineate the different IDPs followed by the CEECs. The results indicate that (i) the position of the CEECs is at stage one or two (out of five stages) of the IDP; (ii) the CEECs are diverging from EU15 in terms of outward investment position but converging in terms of GDP; (iii) the IDPs within the five sub-groups are converging, and (iv) within the group of the CEECs less developed and more developed countries converge in terms of outward investment position but not in terms of GDP.

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        FDI in Landlocked Developing Countries at a Glance (English)
        Working paper by Division on Investment, Technology and Enterprise Development, UNCTAD, 2003, 112 pages
        Categories: Investment

        This is an examination of national experiences and policy options for developing countries. Key data for selected developing countries are also given. Of interest to anyone teaching or researching investment and transfer of technology in developing countries This paper provides excellent tables, data and figures for several countries with special focus on LDCs

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        FDI in Least Developed countries at a glance: 2002 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2002, 136 pages
        Categories: Investment

        What: With only 2 per cent of all FDI to developing countries or 0.5 per cent of the global total, the 49 least developed countries remain marginal recipients. This report initially depicts recent trends in FDI to least developed countries and changes that have taken place in relevant areas of the regulatory legal framework. The second part presents country profiles for each of the 49 least developed countries to enable the reader, at a glance, to get a general picture of the role of FDI in these countries. Who: Useful for teachers and students focusing on FDI in LDCs. How: Can be used as a background reading for courses on FDI and its role in LDCs.

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        FDI In South Asia - Do Incentives Work? (English)
        Presentation by S.K. Das and Manoj Pant, 2003
        Categories: Investment, VI Members Research

        What: The paper deals with the role and impact of incentives in attracting Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in South Asia. Studies on cost-benefit analysis of incentives are rare and hence only such focused studies can tell us which set of incentives are effective and thus should be offered. The studies on incentives in South Asia seem to identify such benefits as the increase in employment and/or wages, reduced prices or improved product quality, more revenues for the government and indirect benefits through professionalism, learning and technology diffusion. The latter is also the principal motivation for developing countries. Who: Relevant for anyone teaching or learning the role of incentives in attracting FDI in relation to developing economies. How: Can be used for research or courses on FDI.

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        FDI participant activity workbook and reading list (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD Virtual Institute, Investment Division, 2004
        Categories: Investment

        This activity workbook and reading list complements other presentations on FDI covered in the investment section. This simulation exercise provides students with an opportunity to synthesize their learning by preparing FDI proposals based on particular country profiles. The reading list covers a wide range of publications that deal with FDI and related topics.

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        Feasibility and Implication of East African Community Monetary Union (English)
        Article by E.P Bagumhe, 2013, 31 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research

        This paper , seeks to employ the Bayoumi and Eichengreen’s (1997) OCA Index methodology as a framework of analysis to examine this objective of EAC. The paper will proceed by providing a brief historical background of monetary and economic arrangements in East African Community. Part two of this paper will review both the theoretical and empirical literature with a view of the theoretical prediction towards the OCA. The specific objective of this paper is to answer four policy questions; Will individual countries increase their welfare when they abolish their national Currency and adopt some currency of a wider area, what is the ideal arrangement of forming regional currency blocs before reaching a complete monetary integration? Thirdly, what is the similarity of output movements of the EAC partner’s states? Fourthly, Does the EAC Partner states meet the convergence criteria as proposed by OCA theory.

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        The Financial and Economic Crisis of 2008-2009 and Developing Countries (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2010, 340 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Finance for Development, International Financial System

        Most analyses of the financial and subsequent economic crisis, including those by leading international institutions like the International Monetary Fund, have focused on OECD countries. This can give the (mistaken) impression that the developing world, even sub-Saharan Africa, has been less severely affected by the crisis and is recovering relatively quickly. Most developed countries’ governments are preoccupied with their domestic problems. This collection of papers puts the South on centre stage. It examines how the countries of the South were affected by the global economic and financial crisis and how they responded, what lessons the South could learn and what policy agenda needs to be pushed forward to better support the interests of developing countries, least developed countries as well as emerging-market economies.

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        Financial economics course syllabus (English)
        Outline by Talib M. Awad, University of Jordan, Department of Economics, 2004
        Categories: Trade Related Capacity Building

        The course covers the basics of financial economics, valuation of individual firm, bonds and fixed income fundamentals, bond valuation and investment, market efficiency, investor's behaviours toward risk and capital market theory, and measures of portfolio performance.

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        Financial Liberalization and Economic Policy Options: Brazil 1994-2003 (English)
        Presentation by Maria Alejandra Caporale Madi, 2004
        Categories: Finance for Development, Macroeconomic Policy

        What: The paper focuses on the consequences of financial liberalization and recessive macroeconomic adjustment in Brazil covering the period from 1994 to 2003. The orthodox therapy has proved to create a "financial trap", reinforcing the inability to achieve sustainable economic development. Emphasis is given to the crucial economic issues in the agenda of President Cardoso (1995-2002). Finally, the continuity of the "financial trap" after President Lula's election and the challenges to develop a long-term financial system are discussed. Who: Relevant for anyone teaching or studying financial liberalization and its consequences in Brazil. How: Can be used for a background reading as a case study on financial liberalization.

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        Financial Regulation and Management of the Legal Risk. the Case of Alternative Investment Funds in the Eu. (English)
        Working paper by Michele Barbieri, 2018, 48 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, International Financial System

        The last decade has witnessed a sharp increase of the regulatory requirements applicable to investment funds, in an attempt to ensure that their operations do not undermine financial stability but, on the contrary, might be beneficial to economic growth both in developing and developed countries. The increase of fund regulation, and of its complexity, has made it imperative for investment funds to develop appropriate systems and tools to properly manage legal risks. The paper presents a methodology that may be used to identify, in the alternative fund management industry, which are the main legal risks arising in each phase of the fund lifecycle. Furthermore, the paper indicates how these legal risks could be properly detected and mitigated.

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        Financial Services and Trade Agreements in Latin America and the Caribbean: An Overview (English)
        Working paper by Goncalves, Marilyne Pereira; Stephanou, Constantinos /World Bank, 2007, 50 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        The authors review the international framework governing trade in financial services, describe the treatment of financial services in recent trade agreements involving Latin America and Caribbean countries, and analyze the liberalization commitments made in three selected country case studies-Chile, Colombia, and Costa Rica. They give emphasis to free trade agreements because of the generally deeper level of liberalization and rule-making achieved to-date. The authors discuss some of the causes and potential implications of their findings.

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        Financial Transactions Tax: Panacea, Threat, or Damp Squib?
        Working paper by Honohan, Patrick; Yoder, Sean/World Bank, 2010, 37 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development

        Attempts to raise a significant percentage of gross domestic product in revenue from a broad-based financial transactions tax are likely to fail both by raising much less revenue than expected and by generating far-reaching changes in economic behavior. Although the side-effects would include a sizable restructuring of financial sector activity, this would not occur in ways corrective of the particular forms of financial overtrading that were most conspicuous in contributing to the crisis.

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        Financing an Inclusive and Green Future: A Supportive Financial System and Green Growth for Achieving the Mdgs in Asia and the Pacific (English)
        Report by ESCAP, 2010, 132 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Finance for Development, Globalization and Development Strategies

        The report focuses first on the Millennium Development Goals, warning that the region is off track on many crucial indicators, including child and maternal mortality. But it also shows that the Goals are still within reach, given sufficient determination and financial resources. Just as important, it identifies potential sources for those funds – at the national, regional and international levels including changing spending priorities. It also looks further ahead, showing how Asia and the Pacific can take the lead in developing a new financial architecture that will best support the Millennium Development Goals.

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        Financing for Development (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2008, 68 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, International Financial System

        The present publication is part of UNCTAD´s contribution to the Follow-up International Conference on Financing for Development to Review the Implementation of the Monterrey Consensus. The first part of the publication captures the outcome of the deliberations which transpired during the forty-fifth executive session of the Trade and Development Board, held on 13 November 2008. The report of the debate reflects the concerns of member States about the implementation of the Monterrey Consensus, especially the anxiety from the severe setback the global financial crisis was going to have on the development process. The second part of the publication contains an issues note, which reviews from UNCTAD´s development perspective, the six core aspects of the Monterrey Consensus. These range from mobilization of domestic resources for development, to flows of official development assistance, to coherence of the international monetary and financial systems. It may be pointed out that all these issues fell squarely within the domain of the work programme specified under the Accra Accord. The Annex to the note provides analysis of the current global financial crisis, the impact of which is being increasingly felt in the developing world, particularly in its most vulnerable segments.

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        Financing Global Climate Change Mitigation (English)
        Report by UNECE, 2010, 193 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment

        This report is one of the first outputs of the Global Energy Efficiency 21(GEE21) project, launched by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) in December 2008 at COP-14 in Poznan(Poland). The GEE21 project is designed to develop a more systematic exchange of experience on capacity building, policy reforms and investment project finance among countries of the other regionsof the world through their UN Regional Commissions in order to promote self-financing energy efficiency improvements that raise economic productivity, diminish fuel poverty and reduce environmental air pollution such as greenhouse gas emissions.

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        Financing Innovative Development - Comparative Review of the Experiences of UNECE Countries in Early-Stage Financing (English)
        Article by UNECE, 2007, 118 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Finance for Development

        The Comparative Review focuses on the provision of early-stage equity financing to innovative technology-based enterprises with a view to identifying policy options and recommendations to facilitate the access of these enterprises to early finance. The UNECE region includes countries at very different levels of their innovative capability, which is reflected in the various degrees of maturity of the venture capital industry and the scope of the policy initiatives adopted in this area. This Comparative Review makes a contribution to transnational learning, that is to say, the transfer of good experiences and best practices across the whole UNECE region. In particular, in accordance with CECI mandate, it aims to facilitate the ongoing policy efforts on financing innovative enterprises in the catch-up economies of the region by promoting a better understanding of the international experiences.

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        Financing Mechanisms for Information and Communication Technologies for Development
        Study by Townsend, David; Yan, Yin; Wu, Dong/ UNCTAD, 2010, 35 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Science and Technology

        This paper presents observations and trends that have occurred in the key areas identified by the Task Force on Financial Mechanisms (TFFM) and Tunis Agenda, in terms of development of ICT opportunities and financing, and then identifies key challenges and opportunities going forward, for addressing continuing gaps and new conditions in ICT development policy and financing.

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        Financing Organic Agriculture in Africa (English)
        Report by Kane, Malick and Pacini, Henrique/UNCTAD, 2016, 10 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Poverty, Trade Related Capacity Building

        In recent years, there has been a steady reduction in the proportion of African government expenditure devoted to agriculture1. In view of the needs expressed by African OA stakeholders, UNCTAD sought to identify the needs, challenges and opportunities related to the funding of OA on the continent. Due to limitations in official data, a structured survey was conducted, with support from AfrONet2, among targeted OA stakeholders, including National Organic Agriculture Movements (NOAMs), farmers and exporters from 16 African countries. The results, presented in this technical paper, are in line with existing studies on both conventional and Organic Agriculture in Africa (FAO, 2012; UNCTAD, 2009). They highlight the existence of a persistent funding gap and the need to better address barriers faced by OA stakeholders in securing external capital to finance their activities.

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        Financing the Climate Mitigation and Adaptation Measures in Developing Countries (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD, 2009, 26 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Investment, Trade and Environment

        Climate funding currently available under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol is less than $10 billion per year, most of it through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). Additional funding is provided by the World Bank and by bilateral aid programmes, but the annual total of all existing multilateral and bilateral climate funding is less than $15 billion. This is too small, by an order of magnitude, to meet the needs for climate investments in developing countries. Streamlined and improved institutional arrangements, such as a much-simplified replacement for CDM, will be needed.

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        Firm Growth and Productivity in Belarus : New Empirical Evidence from the Machine Building Industry (English)
        Working paper by Jesus Crespo Cuaresma, Herald Oberhofer, Gallina A.Vicelette, 2012, 33 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development

        The paper uses a dataset comprising information of 153 firms in the machine building sector in Belarus. It investigates the determinants of firm growth for an economy where state ownership of enterprises is widespread. It uses panel data models based on generalizations of Gibrat’s law, total factor productivity estimates and matching methods to assess the differences in firm growth between private and state-controlled firms. The main finding indicates that labor hoarding and soft budget constraints play a particularly important role in explaining differences in performance between these two groups of firms.

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        The Fisheries Sector in the Gambia: Trade, Value Addition and Social Inclusiveness, with a Focus on Women (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 66 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Gender

        This analytical report - part of UNCTAD’s activities on trade, gender and development - is intended to accompany the Diagnostic Trade Integration Study (DTIS) Update for The Gambia: Harnessing Trade for Growth and Employment, carried out under the Enhanced Integrated Framework (EIF) for trade-related assistance for Least Developed Countries. It sets out a detailed analysis of the fisheries sector and its prospects for value-addition and social inclusiveness, with a focus on women. The intention is to capture all the information generated through the DTIS Update process, and disseminate this knowledge to a broader audience.

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        The Flying Geese Paradigm: a Critical Study of its Application to East Asian Regional Development (English)
        Discussion paper by Shigehisa Kasahara, 2004, 34 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        What: A discussion paper outlining the different versions of the flying gees paradigm of dynamic comparative advantage that try to provide a conceptual underpinning to the process of regional integration through transfer of technology and foreign direct investment in East Asia. The author analyzes the paradigm in the light of current developments in the region and makes some critical conclusions about its applicability. Who: Teachers and students of courses dealing with trade, regional integration, transfer of technology and foreign direct investment. Anyone interested in East Asian experience. How: Can serve as background reading to provide basic knowledge of the theory (good explanation with a graphical presentation), and to stimulate a discussion about its merits and shortcoming, its relevance to the current situation in the region and possibly also other regions.

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        Fog in GATS Commitments – Boon Or Bane? (English)
        Working paper by Adlung, Rudolf, Morrison, Peter, Roy, Martin, Zhang, Weiwei, 2011, 23 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The creation of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), in the Uruguay Round, and its entry into force in 1995 marked a new stage in the history of the multilateral system. It was motivated essentially by the rapid expansion of international services trade within an increasingly open environment in many countries. Given the peculiarities of services trade, including the intangible nature of the products concerned and the need for direct contact between supplier and user in many cases, the Agreement contains a variety of conceptual innovations, including its extension to modes of supply beyond conventional cross-border trade (consumption abroad, commercial presence, and presence of natural persons) and its coverage, and legitimization, of various types of non-tariff restrictions. In turn, the new concepts needed time to be absorbed by the ministries and agencies involved in services trade. Further, the positive-list, or bottom-up, approach to scheduling trade commitments under the GATS meant that great flexibility was given to Members in selecting the sectors concerned and specifying the levels of access provided under individual modes. Thus, not surprisingly, the schedules that emerged from the Uruguay Round, which still account for the majority of current commitments, contain a variety of unclear or superfluous entries that may cause interpretation problems. Their solution could contribute significantly to the clarity and comparability of access obligations across sectors and WTO Members. The scheduling conventions agreed for the Doha Round thus provide specifically for the possibility of technical refinements that leave the substance of commitments unchanged. However, not only was this possibility used more sparingly to date than might have been expected, but additional flaws would be introduced if some current offers were to enter into effect. The following discussion, with a focus on a particular group of entries (market access via commercial presence), tries to explain the scope for such refinement and develop a clearer picture of the areas where further action might be needed.

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        Food Reserves in Developing Countries: Trade Policy Options for Improved Food Security (English)
        Report by ITCSD, 2011, 41 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        The last few years (from 2006 to 2011) has seen the rise and volatility in prices of primary commodities, including agricultural products.Whereas the rise in food prices is fairly general, the increase in volatility is confined to grains and some vegetable oils.These developments impact particularly acutely on poor and other vulnerable non-farm households who devote a high proportion of their incomes to the purchase of food. The report encourages countries need to achieve a balanced food security policy, through the establishment of complementary strategies to address trade and stocks.It also discusses international and national policies to address high and volatile food prices. Finally, it considers the role of humanitarian stocks in the light of the P.R.E.P.A.R.E proposal by the FAO.

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        Food Safety and Environmental Requirements in Export Markets - Friend or Foe for Producers of Fruit and Vegetables in Asian Developing Countries? (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2007, 134 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment

        This book draws on recent UNCTAD research to analyse the new breed of food safety and environmental requirements for horticultural exports in key markets. It assesses their impact on producers in six developing countries in Asia (Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam) and outlines some pro-active adjustment strategies that could help maximize the benefits resulting from the new requirements while also minimizing the adjustment costs. The country-case studies in the book explore questions, such as: To what extent can small farmers profit from enhanced export opportunities, and how can their exports contribute to pro-poor development strategies? What should developing-country Governments do to support smallholder participation in global horticultural trade, and how can the donor community play a supportive role? The book also addresses the relationship between regulatory and voluntary requirements in key horticultural markets, including the "transnationalization" of voluntary standards.

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        Food Security and Agricultural Development in Times of High Commodity Prices
        Report by Herrmann, Michael/UNCTAD, 2009, 40 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Globalization and Development Strategies

        The paper provides a new perspective on rising food prices by out mapping the many complex ways in which higher food prices are affecting developing countries, in particular the poorest. The analysis presented herein develops important and differentiated policy implications by distinguishing not only between implications in the shot run and medium run, and challenges on the supply side and demand side, but also between countries with agricultural potential and countries without such potential. Although globally food security is a challenge on both the demand side and the supply side, the paper argues that not all countries can effectively address this challenge from both angles. Furthermore, while higher food prices can provide important stimulus for agricultural development, it should not be expected that agricultural output will automatically rise in response to price changes, as higher prices in international markets are frequently not passed through to producers, and as many producers lack the capacity to respond to positive price signals where they are passed on. Both failures bear important implications for policies to address the dual challenge of food security and agricultural development.

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        Foreign Direct Investment in the Ldcs: Lessons Learned from the Decade 2001-2010 and the Way Forward
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 244 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment

        This report provides a broad overview of FDI trends in LDCs over the last decade, focusing on the challenges LDCs face in attracting and benefitting from FDI, and suggests a plan of action to increase FDI and enhance its development impact in the next decade.

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        Foreign Investments in Belarus: Recent Developments in Regulatory Issues
        Article by Barbieri, Michele; Petrushkevic, Alena, 2010, 16 pages
        Categories: Investment, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research

        The article examines the policy and legal frameworks governing foreign direct investments (FDI) in Belarus and their consistency with commitments undertaken by the country through bilateral trade agreements.

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        Forging a Path Beyond Borders: the Global South (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 98 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation

        The report prepared by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), Forging a Path Beyond Borders: The Global South, analyses the rising global South – past and present – with an eye to reinvigorating this important and unique source of development cooperation. The report analyses the main challenges and opportunities in South–South trade, investment and finance and emphasizes growing opportunities for South–South cooperation on technology transfers and partnerships for technological innovation, as well as the suitable policies needed, to kick off innovative partnerships in key emerging areas such as “Industry 4.0”. It was informed by an earlier draft version, presented at an informal thematic consultation, held on 5 November 2018 and organized by UNCTAD in cooperation with the Permanent Mission of the Argentine Republic to the United Nations Office and other international organizations in Geneva. The outcome of the consultation and a set of non-binding recommendations are included in this final report.

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        Fourth Report on G20 Investment Measures (English)
        Report by OECD/UNCTAD, 2010, 33 pages
        Categories: Investment

        At the London, Pittsburgh and Toronto Summits, G20 Leaders committed to foregoing protectionism and requested public reports on their adherence to this commitment. Several G20 member countries reiterated this commitment at the UNCTAD World Investment Forum 2010, held on 6-9 September 2010 in Xiamen, China and at the Meeting of the OECD Council at Ministerial Level, held on 27-28 May 2010 in Paris, France. The present document is the fourth report on investment and investment-related measures in response to this mandate.2 It has been prepared jointly by the OECD and UNCTAD Secretariats and covers investment policy and investment-related measures taken between 21 May 2010 and 15 October 2010.

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        Free and Open-Source Software: Policy and Development Implications (English)
        Discussion Paper by UNCTAD, 2004, 20 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: The paper gives basic definitions, discusses the "free and open source software" (FOSS) phenomenon from a policy perspective, develops a brief discussion of possible opportunities for deployment in public and commercial activities, clarifies the intellectual property context of FOSS and provides an overview of development issues where FOSS has had a conceptual impact, besides practical use and deployment. Who: Useful for anyone teaching electronic commerce. How: Can be used as a background reading on FOSS.

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        Free trade or fair trade? An enquiry into the causes of failure in recent trade negotiations (English)
        Discussion paper by Mehdi Shafaeddin, UNCTAD, 2000, 44 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: Trade policy is at a crossroads. So is trade diplomacy. The failure of the traditional import substitution policies of the 1950s-1970s has been followed by the failure of trade liberalization in the 1980s and 1990s by developing countries. In particular, the deadlock in the negotiations during the recent meetings of WTO has demonstrated the severe differences among various groups of member countries. Focusing on frictions between developing countries and industrial economies in the particular area of trade in manufactured goods, this paper argues that the failure of the negotiations is related to a number of fallacies and contradictions surrounding the concepts and practices of universal trade liberalization and infant industry protection. Who: Can be used for course and/or research work on trade negotiations, policy and diplomacy, liberalization and WTO issues. How: As a background reading material on trade negotiations and WTO issues.

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        From Declarations to Actions on Commodities: Marking the Turning Point at UNCTAD XII (English)
        Policy brief by South Centre, 2008, 8 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This Policy Brief appeals to UNCTAD’s historical role to address the global development problems, including the commodities problem, and to start taking concrete actions within the framework of UNCTAD XII. After a short overview of the commodities problem and its implications, failures and lessons from previous conferences are pointed out, followed by corresponding policy recommendations how to tackle this problem within the international community.

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        from Regional Economic Communities to a Continental Free Trade Area - Strategic Tools to Assist Negotiators and Agricultural Policy Design in Africa (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 81 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This handbook provides a general explanation of the preferential tariffs of India for the least developed countries, to allow officials and users responsible or involved in duty-free quota-free issues to gain a better understanding of the Duty Free Tariff Preference Scheme of India. It is meant to serve as a general guide and is not intended to provide legal advice

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        from Regional Economic Communities to a Continental Free Trade Area - Strategic Tools to Assist Negotiators and Agricultural Policy Design in Africa (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 54 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Negotiations, Trade Related Capacity Building

        This report seeks to enhance knowledge among policymakers, experts and private sector stakeholders on essential policies and measures for establishing the CFTA and boost regional supply chains in not only agricultural commodities but also processed food products. This has been done through network analysis, which allows visualizing which country has competitive advantage over others in each trade agreement or regional context, as well as highlight overlapping regional agreements and identify trade hubs within Africa. It then carries out a specific analysis of agricultural products identified in the Abuja declaration and in other literature sources as being of interest. The ultimate purpose of this work is to inform African policy-makers with strategic tools to assist trade negotiations and agricultural policy design. Its focus is on the eight Regional Economic Communities that exist in Africa, as they do not only constitute key building blocks for economic integration, but are also important actors working in collaboration with the AU in ensuring peace and stability in their regions.

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        Frontier Markets in Africa: Misperceptions in a Sea of Opportunities
        Report by UNECA, 2014, 27 pages
        Categories: Investment

        This report identifies the opportunities for investment in Africa, corrects misperceptions about the business environment on the continent and suggests general areas of focus for future partnership between Africa and the United States of America.

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        The Future of Trade: The Challenges of Convergence Report of the Panel on Defining the Future of Trade Convened by WTO Director-general Pascal Lamy (English)
        Report by WTO, 2013, 54 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Chapter 1 of the Panel on Defining the Future of Trade Report discusses the contribution that trade opening has made to growth, development prosperity, the challenges of managing jobless growth, high unemployment, poverty, inequality, the environment and sustainable development, and the role of trade as well as investment in this context. Chapter 2 examines certain transformational actors that have shaped trade in recent years and will continue to do so in the future. Finally, chapter 3 contains a number of recommendations for possible action.