A partnership with academia

Building knowledge for trade and development

      • Preview
        G20 Policies and Export Performance of Least Developed Countries (English)
        Discussion paper by Nicita, Alessandro and Seiermann, Julia/UNCTAD, 2017, 34 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade Negotiations

        This volume of the Policy Issues in International Trade and Commodities Research Study Series provides an overview and analysis of G20 trade policies, in particular tariffs and non-tariff measures, and provides suggestions on how they could be improved to increase the export competitiveness of LDCs. It finds that G20 tariffs remain restrictive in several sectors of importance for LDCs. More importantly, the results indicate that the G20 countries’ regulatory frameworks and the corresponding non-tariff measures (NTMs) alter relative competitiveness to the advantage of exporters that are capable of efficient compliance with NTMs, therefore penalizing exports originating in LDCs. The paper concludes with recommendations and suggests progress in Aid for Trade initiatives and increases in technical assistance programmes, both on bilateral and multilateral levels will help minimize LDCs' costs of compliance with NTMs and facilitate the integration of LDCs in the global economy.

      • Preview
        Gains from Varieties: Analysis of the Benefits of Trade Agreements in South America
        Working paper by Orlando Monteiro da Silva; Jacqueline Silva Batista, 2015
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research

        This study analyzes the gains from imports and the contribution of Regional Trade Agreements to these gains in South America from 1995 to 2011. The results showed that there was a substantial increase in varieties of imported products and that smaller countries had benefited more from falling prices. Openness to international trade and participation in bilateral and regional trade agreements are the major factors leading to gains from importing varieties.

      • Preview
        Gender at Work: A Companion to the World Development Report on Jobs (English)
        Report by World Bank, 2013, 91 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Gender

        A companion to the 2013 World Development Report on jobs, Gender at Work finds huge, persistent gender gaps at work around the world. This major new report advances our understanding of key trends, patterns and constraints, and offers innovative, promising approaches to policies and programs that can level the playing field.

      • Preview
        Gendered Dimensions of Development (English)
        Book by UNRISD, 2015, 463 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Gender

        This volume shed light on the multiple challenges of gender equity in an increasingly unequal world and invites reflection on the possibilities and pitfalls of integrating gender into development policy and practice. The collection is divided into two parts. The first part brings together a series of contributions that analyse development institutions, processes and policies from a gender perspective. The second part of the volume is concerned with the diverse manifestations of women’s agency, the strategies that have been deployed to produce gender-egalitarian change, and the complexities of individual and collective empowerment. It draws attention to the multiple sites of struggle as well as to the different facets of feminism as a transformative project.

      • Preview
        Gendered Impacts of Globalization. Employment and Social Protection (English)
        Report by Razavi, Shara, Azra, Camilla, Braunstein Elissa, Cook, Sarah, Goulding, Kristine, 2012, 108 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Gender

        The paper examines how globalization affects gendered access to employment and social protection, with a particular focus on informal employment, and the implications of these connections for policy and practice.

      • Preview
        Generalized System of Preferences. Handbook on the Scheme of Switzerland (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2011, 124 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This handbook provides a general explanation of the Swiss Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) to allow officials and users responsible or involved in GSP issues to gain a better understanding of the scheme. It is meant to serve as general guide to the Swiss GSP and not intended to provide legal advice.

      • Preview
        Geospatial Science and Technology for Development
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 61 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        This study explores the ways in which tools and methodologies used to collect, manage and analyse data related to the Earth, can support development. Chapter 1 defines GS&T and provides an overview of its applications. Chapter 2 describes a multi-level approach for the examination of GS&T, and related recent developments. The next three chapters considerthree specific areas where GS&T can be applied to support development. Chapter 6 sets out challenges to implementation. Chapter 7 provides policy recommendations.

      • Preview
        Global and Regional FDI Trends in 2010 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 8 pages
        Categories: Investment

        Global FDI inflows remained stagnant in 2010 at an estimated $1,122 billion, compared to $1,114 billion in the previous year. However, they showed an uneven pattern among regions, components and modes of FDI. While FDI inflows to developed countries contracted further in 2010, those to developing and transition economies recovered, surpassing the 50% mark of global FDI flows. The improvement of economic conditions in 2010 drove up reinvested earnings, while equity capital and intra-company loans remained relatively subdued. Cross-border M&A volume rebounded in 2010, whereas greenfield investments continued to decline. The quarterly fluctuations during 2010, as reported in previous Global Trends Monitors, indicate that the worldwide FDI recovery is still hesitant, although after an unexpectedly weak second quarter, global FDI flows registered an increase in the third quarter of 2010. UNCTAD’s FDI Global Quarterly Index jumped upwards, reaching 121 for the quarter, its highest reading in 2010.

      • Preview
        Global Economic Crisis: Implications for Trade and Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD secretariat, 2009, 42 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Trade and Poverty

        The current global financial and economic crisis has the potential to seriously undermine all countries’ process of economic growth and transformation, and to jeopardize the efforts taken by developing and developed countries alike to promote the achievement of internationally agreed development goals. In addition to the ongoing global food crisis, volatile energy prices, and climate-change challenges, the current crises creates the most significant challenge facing the global community today – how to focus on buttressing development and poverty-reduction efforts globally and in developing countries, and on setting in place the conditions that will avert future crises and facilitate a sustainable process of economic transformation for all countries. This report by UNCTAD is an effort to contribute to consideration of this major challenge, with a view to identifying policies and strategies that can serve as the bulwark on which to restore confidence, build recovery, and promote inclusive development.

      • Preview
        The Global Economic Crisis: Systemic Failures and Multilateral Remedies (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2009, 80 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Macroeconomic Policy

        The report highlights three specific areas (financial deregulation, large-scale financial investors, currency speculation)in which the global economy experienced systemic failures and proposes measures to address them. While there are many more facets to the crisis, UNCTAD examines here some of those that it considers to be the core areas to be tackled immediately by international economic policy-makers because they can only be addressed through recognition of their multilateral dimensions.

      • Preview
        The Global Economic Crisis: Systemic Failures and Multilateral Remedies - Executive Summary (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2009, 18 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Macroeconomic Policy

        The report highlights three specific areas (financial deregulation, large-scale financial investors, currency speculation)in which the global economy experienced systemic failures and proposes measures to address them. While there are many more facets to the crisis, UNCTAD examines here some of those that it considers to be the core areas to be tackled immediately by international economic policy-makers because they can only be addressed through recognition of their multilateral dimensions.

      • Preview
        Global Economic Prospects 2009: Commodities at the Crossroads - Full Report (English)
        Book by World Bank, 2009, 196 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The release of this year's Global Economic Prospects finds the world economy at a crossroads. Markets all over the world are engulfed in a global economic crisis, with stock markets sharply down and volatile, almost all currencies having depreciated substantially against the dollar, and risk premiums on a wide range of debt having increased by 600 or more basis points. Commodity markets too have turned a corner. Following several years of increase, prices have plummeted, and although well above their 1990s levels, they have given up most of the increases of the past 24 months. This year's Global Economic Prospects analyzes the implications of the crisis for low- and middle-income countries, including an in-depth look at long-term prospects for global commodity markets and the policies of both commodity producing and consuming nations. The government responses to the recent price boom are also analyzed in this year's edition. Producing-country governments have been more prudent than during earlier booms, and because they have saved more of their windfall revenues, they are less likely to be forced to cut into spending now that prices have declined. The spike in food prices tipped more people into poverty, which led governments to expand social assistance programs. Ensuring such programs are better targeted toward the needs of the very poor in the future will help improve the capacity of governments to respond effectively the next time there is a crisis.

      • Preview
        Global Economic Prospects 2009: Commodities at the Crossroads - Overview (English)
        Report by World Bank, 2009, 13 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The release of this year's Global Economic Prospects finds the world economy at a crossroads. Markets all over the world are engulfed in a global economic crisis, with stock markets sharply down and volatile, almost all currencies having depreciated substantially against the dollar, and risk premiums on a wide range of debt having increased by 600 or more basis points. Commodity markets too have turned a corner. Following several years of increase, prices have plummeted, and although well above their 1990s levels, they have given up most of the increases of the past 24 months. This year's Global Economic Prospects analyzes the implications of the crisis for low- and middle-income countries, including an in-depth look at long-term prospects for global commodity markets and the policies of both commodity producing and consuming nations. The government responses to the recent price boom are also analyzed in this year's edition. Producing-country governments have been more prudent than during earlier booms, and because they have saved more of their windfall revenues, they are less likely to be forced to cut into spending now that prices have declined. The spike in food prices tipped more people into poverty, which led governments to expand social assistance programs. Ensuring such programs are better targeted toward the needs of the very poor in the future will help improve the capacity of governments to respond effectively the next time there is a crisis.

      • Preview
        Global Economic Prospects 2013: Assuring Growth Over the Medium Term (English)
        Report by The World Bank, 2013, 169 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report examines growth trends for the global economy and how they affect developing countries. It includes three-year forecasts and long-term global economic prospects and long-term global scenarios which look ten years into the future. Topical analyses cover financial markets, industrial production, global trade, inflation, exchange rates and commodities.

      • Preview
        Global Economic Prospects 2016 (English)
        Report by World Bank Group, 2016, 193 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        The 2016 Global Economic Prospects Report subtitled 'Divergences and Risks' argues growth prospects have weakened throughout the world economy. The report discusses the upcoming challenges to be faced by emerging market and developing economies, which include weaker growth among advanced economies and low commodity prices. It focuses on each region and highlight two main issues: the recent credit surge in historical context, and the quantifying uncertainties in global growth forecasts.

      • Preview
        Global Economic Prospects: Less volatile, but slower growth (English)
        Book by World Bank, 2013, 206 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The book is organized by topics such as industrial production, inflation, financial markets, trade, and others that give an overview of the world's economy and its main conclusion is that global economy appears to be transitioning toward a period of more stable, but slower growth. It also contains detailed information and figures by region where the figures show that growth is firming in developing countries, but conditions vary widely across economies.

      • Preview
        Global Imbalances: The Choice of the Exchange Rate-indicator is Key (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 2 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The path towards a more stable, balanced and equitable global economy received an important boost in recent days. In December 2010 in Seoul, the G-20 leaders acknowledged the need for a co-ordinated multilateral response to global trade imbalances and asked for “indicative guidelines composed of a range of indicators” which “would serve as a mechanism to facilitate timely identification of large imbalances that require preventive and corrective action to be taken”(paragraph 9 of the Seoul Summit Declaration). This is very much in line with UNCTAD's recent proposals (see, for example, Policy Brief No 17, published prior to the summit). UNCTAD recommended the use of the Real Effective Exchange Rate (REER) as a practical and effective indicator to differentiate between sustainable and unsustainable trade imbalances. This policy brief argues that a REER based on unit labour costs (the premium of nominal wages over productivity for the economy as a whole) is better suited to grasp changes in competitiveness than one based on consumer price inflation. The latter misses out important elements of the catching-up process of developing countries and may result in significant misinterpretation for some important emerging economies like China.

      • Preview
        Global Inequality and the Global Inequality Extraction Ratio ; The Story of the Past Two Centuries (English)
        Working paper by Milanovic, Branko, 2009, 29 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty

        Using social tables, the author makes an estimate of global inequality (inequality among world citizens) in the early 19th century. The analysis shows that the level and composition of global inequality have changed over the past two centuries. The level has increased, reaching a high plateau around the 1950s, and the main determinants of global inequality have become differences in mean country incomes rather than inequalities within nations. The inequality extraction ratio (the percentage of total inequality that was extracted by global elites) has remained surprisingly stable, at around 70 percent of the maximum global Gini, during the past 100 years.

      • Preview
        Global Inequality: From Class to Location, from Proletarians to Migrants (English)
        Working paper by Milanovic, Branko, 2011, 25 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Migration and Development

        Inequality between world citizens in mid-19th century was such that at least a half of it could be explained by income differences between workers and capital-owners in individual countries. Real income of workers in most countries was similar and low. This was the basis on which Marxism built its universal appeal. More than 150 years later, in the early 21st century, the situation has changed fundamentally: more than 80 percent of global income differences is due to large gaps in mean incomes between countries, and unskilled workers’ wages in rich and poor countries often differ by a factor of 10 to 1. This is the basis on which a new global political issue of migration has emerged because income differences between countries make individual gains from migration large. The key coming issue will be how to deal with this challenge while acknowledging that migration is probably the most powerful tool for reducing global poverty and inequality.

      • Preview
        The globalisation of R&D by TNCs and implications for developing countries (English)
        Presentation by Anne Miroux, UNCTAD, 2005, 20 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Investment, Science and Technology

        What: The presentation outlines the main actors of the process of R&D outsourcing. TNCs play a key role but public sector research institutions, universities and domestic enterprises should not be neglected. It provides the rationale for the increase in R&D-related FDI activities in developing countries. The impact as well as the benefits, costs and risks and the enabling policies are reviewed. Finally, it offers a few issues for discussion. Who: Can be used by a lecturer on a course on R&D outsourcing to developing countries. How: For a course on R&D and the role of TNCs.

      • Preview
        The globalisation of R&D: Key features and the role of TNCs (English)
        Presentation by Robert Pearce, University of Reading, United Kingdom, 2005, 13 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Investment, Science and Technology

        What: The aim of this paper is to elaborate on relevant aspects of strategic restructuring in TNCs and then provide some detail on how this becomes operational in terms of the increased decentralisation of their R&D programmes. This paper could also provide a basis for discussion of the implications of these more differentiated and dynamic strategic orientations in TNCs for host countries in which they operate, with particular emphasis on countries at early stages of competitiveness development and on economies in transition. The strategic changes in TNCs now involve them with creative resources (R&D; technology stocks; market research; entrepreneurial management) in national economies in a way not envisaged 40 years ago Who: Relevant for anyone teaching or studying strategic changes in TNCs and their R&D programmes. How: Can be used for a lesson/course on the role of TNCs in the globalization of R&D.

      • Preview
        Globalization and economic convergence: An assessment (English)
        Discussion Paper by Robert Rowthorn &Richard Kozul-Wright, 2000, 43 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: This paper offers a critical survey of a strong globalization thesis that predicts a direct link from more open trade and investment regimes to faster economic growth in developing countries and income convergence across the global economy. Its examination of recent experience suggests that while in a more open and integrated world economy both the quantity and the quality of investment are influenced by external factors. Who: For teachers and students of globalization issues. How: As a background reading paper on globalization and economic convergence.

      • Preview
        Globalization and Trade Flows: What You See is Not What You Get!
        Working paper by Maurer, Andreas, Degain, Christophe, 2010, 29 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The trade collapse that followed the recent financial crisis has led to a renewed interest on the measurement issues affecting international merchandise trade statistics in the new globalized economy. The international fragmentation of industrial production blurs the concept of country of origin and calls for the production of new statistics on the domestic content of exports, with a view of estimating trade in value added. Alongside, the international statistical community has revised in 2010 the concepts and definitions on both, international merchandise trade and trade in services statistics. This paper discusses the various issues related to the concepts of "goods for processing" and "intra-firm trade" in trade statistics, and provides an overview of the method of analysing the impact of the fragmentation of production in international value chains.

      • Preview
        Globalization for Development: the International Trade Perspective (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, Division on International Trade in Goods and Services, and Commodities, 2008, 105 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This publication provides analyses on some of the emerging trade and development opportunities and challenges for all countries, and developing countries in particular, in the context of rapid globalization, including south-south trade, increased international trade dynamism, increasing commodity prices, trade in services, energy and environment, aid for trade issues.

      • Preview
        Globalization myths: some historical reflections on integration, industrialization and growth (English)
        Discussion paper by Paul Bairoch and Richard Kozul-Wright, 1996, 35 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This interesting discussion paper says that it has become popular to draw parallels between current trends in globalization and the half century of international economic integration before the First World War. This paper assesses this historical parallel. It accepts that many features of today's international economy are not unique. However, it is skeptical of efforts to make a direct parallel with the earlier period and questions whether this earlier period of globalization should be seen as one of rapid growth and convergence rather than as one of uneven economic development, during which a very small group of countries were able to reinforce their domestic growth efforts through links to the international economy. For other countries, these same links did little to alter long-term growth prospects, and in some cases even hindered them.

      • Preview
        The globalization of innovation: knowledge creation and why it matters for development (English)
        Presentation by Rajneesh Narula, University of Reading, 2005, 18 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        What: The presentation points out the links between technology, innovation and knowledge creation. It then analyses the process of internationalization of innovation and the reasons for technology transfer - both between countries and among companies. It outlines the political, economic and technological factors, which influence the globalization of innovation and knowledge. Who: A very good presentation that can be used by a lecturer on a course on globalization of innovation. How: For a course on R&D and knowledge creation.

      • Preview
        Globalization of R&D and developing countries - Proceedings of the Expert Meeting (English)
        Presentation by United Nations, 2005, 242 pages
        Categories: Investment, Science and Technology

        What: This publication aims to elaborate key issues related to the trends towards globalization of research and development and their implications for developing countries: What is its development potential? How can the establishment of research and development abroad affect the transfer of technology – one of the main potential benefits from foreign direct investment? What types of research and development are the most desirable for development? What benefits and costs are involved and, how can policies in home and host countries influence the allocation of such activities and their economic impact?

      • Preview
        Globalization of R&D and TNC Strategies: Siemens (English)
        Presentation by Armin Sorg, 2005, 18 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Investment, Science and Technology

        What: An interesting power point presentation by Siemens chief economist for an UNCTAD expert meeting on Globalization of R&D and TNC strategies. The presentation deals with Siemens globalization of its R&D activities. Who: Relevant for anyone teaching globalization of R&D. How: Can be used for a lesson/course on globalization of R&D and TNC strategies.

      • Preview
        Globalization Reloaded: An UNCTAD Perspective (English)
        Discussion paper by Richard Kozul-Wright and Paul Rayment, 2004, 56 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This provocative paper questions the idea of the inevitability of globalization and argues that the form in which it has developed is the result of policy choices. Looking at trade and then finance they argue that for developing countries to remain committed to the international system, the rules and framework governing international economy must be more balanced and just This paper could be used as background reading for any course or presentation on the processes of economic globalization

      • Preview
        Global R&D activities in India (English)
        Presentation by Prasada Reddy, Research Policy Institute, Lund University, Sweden, 2005, 9 pages
        Categories: Investment, Science and Technology

        What: The presentation explains why India is an interesting location for outsourced R&D and then analyses the impact of such a process within the national economy. The question which sectors are particularly interesting for FDI in R&D is discussed in depth. The role of adequate policies forms the last part of the presentation. Who: Relevant for anyone studying or teaching R&D. How: This presentation can be used as a background reading for a course on R&D.

      • Preview
        Global Rebalancing: Effects on Trade Flows and Employment
        Study by UNCTAD, 2010, 48 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The persistently large imbalances in the world economy contributed to the outbreak of the current economic and financial crisis and facilitated its global spread. While global imbalances declined in the immediate aftermath of the crisis, they have been widening again with the ongoing recovery of the world economy. Global current-account imbalances are not necessarily undesirable. However, there is widespread agreement that the current imbalances are unsustainable. This paper examines the effects on trade flows and employment that global rebalancing might entail.

      • Preview
        Global Supply Chains: Trade And Economic Policies For Developing Countries (English)
        Discussion paper by Nicita, Alessandro, Ognivtsev, Victor and Shirotori, Miho/UNCTAD, 2012, 28 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Enterprise Development

        Although a substantial share of Global Supply Chains (GSCs) production processes is taking place in developing countries, the Least Developed Countries and other low-income countries lack the business supporting national policies to ensure that their participation in GSCs is more than that of providers of low value-added components.

      • Preview
        Global Value Chains and Development: Investment and Value Added Trade in the Global Economy (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 40 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Investment, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This study presents the value-added patterns in the global economy and in the developing world. It looks at the global value chains (GVCs) and their increasing complexity, which often results in distorted statistics on global trade due to double counting. The report estimates that the value chains administered in various ways by transnational corporations (TNCs) now account for 80 percent of global trade. Moreover, the data shows that developing countries are participating more and more in GVCs and this can play an important role in economic growth in the future. In addition, the report states that the balance of opportunities and risks associated with GVCs makes it important for governments to carry out well-informed policy debates on GVCs’ development impacts.

      • Preview
        Good Faith (lack Of) in Investment Arbitration and the Conduct of the Ethiopian Government in the Salini Case: Exercise of Legitimate Right or “exhibit A” for Guerrilla Tactics?
        Paper by Hailu, Martha Belete, Addis Ababa University, 2012
        Categories: Investment, VI Members Research

        This article looks at tactics that may frustrate investor-state arbitration, using arguments from the principles of good faith and equality of arms, and describing the case of Salini Consoruttori SPA Vs The FDRE Addis Ababa Water and Sewage Authority (ICC Arbitration No 10623/AER/ACS).

      • Preview
        Good Governance Guidelines: Independence and Transparency (English)
        Also available in Arabic, French
        Policy brief by Brusick, Philippe/UNCTAD, 2016, 43 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Sound policy outcomes are better assured when decisions by the competition authority are not politicized, discriminatory or implemented on the basis of narrow goals of interest groups. Hence, it is widely accepted that competition authorities should be insulated from undue political interference. Thus, the independence of competition authorities is often defined as their distinct legal personality and structural separateness from Government. In addition to defining the authority’s structure, enabling legislation usually prescribes functions, powers, the manner in which members of management and staff are to be appointed, their tenure and removal, and how the authority is to be financed, often providing financial autonomy. This also includes its obligations with respect to transparency, confidentiality and the possibility of recourse. Even when the law is quite explicit, “de-facto” practice may deviate from the “de-jure” letter of the law. Independence should, therefore, be considered in terms of degrees of independence rather than as absolute independence. This publication examines the degree of independence and transparency which the MENA Project countries, which have competition laws, have inscribed within their legislation and to a certain extent, how this is implemented in actual enforcement practice, taking into consideration the general trends of this particular subject, as observed worldwide.

      • Preview
        Governance and Anti-corruption Reforms in Developing Countries: Policies, Evidence and Ways Forward (English)
        Discussion paper by Khan, Mushtaq H., 2006, 38 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Globalization and Development Strategies

        International institutions and in particular the World Bank and the IMF are rightly giving a great deal of attention to issues of governance in developing countries, and particularly corruption. This paper identifies a number of different structural drivers of corruption that operate because of the poor fiscal capacities and structurally weak property rights of developing countries. These imply that aggregate corruption is likely to be high in all developing countries, but successful countries have institutions and governance capabilities that enable them to “manage” the structural drivers in ways that allow economic development and in turn create the conditions for a sustained improvement in good governance. In contrast, other developing countries lack these institutions and capabilities and suffer from poor economic prospects and political instability to varying extents.

      • Preview
        Governance, Corruption, and Trade in the Asia Pacific Region (English)
        Working paper by Abe, Kazutomo; Wilson, John S. / World Bank, 2008, 42 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper examines the impact of reducing corruption and improving transparency to lower trade costs in the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation region. The authors find, based on a computable general equilibrium model, significant potential trade and welfare gains for Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation members, with increased transparency and lower levels of corruption. Results suggest that trade in the region would increase by 11 percent and global welfare would expand by $406 billion by raising transparency to the average in the region. Most of the increase in welfare would take place in member economies undertaking reform. Among the reformers, the gross domestic product of Vietnam, Thailand, Russia, and the Philippines would increase approximately 20 percent. The benefits to Malaysia and China would also be substantial with increased transparency and lower levels of corruption.

      • Preview
        The Gravity Model of International Trade: A User Guide
        Manual by UNESCAP, 2012, 76 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The purpose of the Guide is to provide a “hands-on” introduction to gravity modeling for applied policy researchers. It is designed to be used in conjunction with a dataset of bilateral trade in services available for free download at http://www.unescap.org/tid/artnet/artnet_app/rgs_artnetgm.aspx. Readers are encouraged to replicate the results presented here using the Stata code provided in the text. Although some basic knowledge of Stata is required, more advanced commands and techniques are introduced in the text as necessary.

      • Preview
        Green Economy: Why a Green Economy Matters for the Least Developed Countries (English)
        Report by UNEP,UNC TAD,UN-OHRLLS, 2011, 15 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        This publication describes the policies and strategies that LDCs need to adopt to achieve successful transition to a green economy and accelerate their development

      • Preview
        Greenhouse Gas Reduction Policies and Agriculture: Implications for Production Incentives and International Trade Disciplines (English)
        Report by Blandford, David; Josling, Tim/ICTSD, 2009, 32 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Climate change and the instruments of policy that are emerging as a response to that phenomenon pose a multitude of challenges to the multilateral trade system. Both are likely to have an impact on agricultural production. There is also a potential for conflict with World Trade Organization (WTO) trade rules, both through the choice of policy instruments to address climate change and through the way in which governments react to pressures to avoid or deflect the costs of climate change mitigation and adaptation. We assess the implications of domestic policies designed to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture and to enhance the role of agriculture in GHG mitigation in the context of existing and future WTO disciplines. The following types of policies are examined: (1) performance standards, (2) best-practice requirements, (3) subsidies, (4) carbon taxes, (5) cap and trade (CT) schemes and (6) public expenditure for research and extension.

      • Preview
        Growing Green : The Economic Benefits of Climate Action (English)
        Report by Uwe Deichmann and Fan Zhang, 2013, 423 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Trade and Environment

        With prospects of a global climate agreement uncertain, this report identifies the actions that governments in Eastern Europe and Central Asia can take to reduce the carbon footprints of their economies. It identifies actions in three priority areas: using energy more efficiently, moving to cleaner energy sources, and increasing carbon capture in soils and forests.

      • Preview
        The Growing Interdependence Between Financial and Commodity Markets (English)
        Discussion paper by Mayer, Jörg/UNCTAD, 2009, 34 pages
        Categories: Commodities, International Financial System

        Financial investment has become increasingly important on commodity exchanges. This paper distinguishes two types of financial investors and emphasizes differences in their position taking motivation and price impacts. Index traders follow a passive strategy holding virtually only long positions. Money managers trade on both sides of the market and attempt to maximize short-term returns. Regression analysis indicates that: (i) index trader positions are particularly influenced by roll returns, while money managers emphasize spot returns; and that: (ii) money managers moved from emphasizing diversification to a more speculative strategy by taking commodity positions that are positively, rather than negatively, related to developments in equity markets. Granger-causality tests indicate that these differences translate into different price impacts: (i) index trader positions have a causal price impact particularly for agricultural commodities; and (ii) money managers had a causal impact during the sharp increases in the prices for some non-agricultural commodities.

      • Preview
        Growing micro and small enterprises in the LDCs -The "missing middle" in LDCs (English)
        Presentation by UNCTAD, 2001, 106 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development

        What: Dynamic medium-sized enterprises provide a competitive edge in two ways – as leading subcontractors and as venture firms in their own right. However, in many LDCs there is evidence of a “missing middle”: a shortage of middle-sized growth-oriented SMEs. Besides, the lack of a coherent policy for enterprise development, globalization and the opening of domestic markets has had an adverse impact on the enterprise structure in many LDCs. This paper presents a summary of the policy framework for small and medium-sized enterprise development in Burkina Faso, Nepal, Samoa and Zambia. Who: For anyone teaching LDCs' challenges in the expansion of growth-oriented SMEs. How: Can be used as a background reading for lessons on SMEs in developing economies.

      • Preview
        Growing Through Manufacturing: Myanmar’s Industrial Transformation
        Working paper by Abe, Masato, 2014, 43 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        Recent reforms in Myanmar have already shown some positive impacts on the manufacturing sector, which must play a key role in the industrial transformation, including increased investment flows domestically and internationally and the development of fundamental infrastructure for the sector. Government promotion of the development of industrial zones and special economic zones is one of the main development activities for further trade and investment promotion in the manufacturing sector. Also presented are the results of the recently completed country-wide business survey with over 1000 manufacturers in Myanmar, particularly concerning the business climate in the manufacturing sector and the crucial issues for the development of the sector.

      • Preview
        Growing Together - Economic Integration for an Exclusive and Sustainable Asia-pacific Century (English)
        Book by ESCAP, 2012, 196 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        The Asia-Pacific region’s rapid growth since the 1950s has been supported by a favourable external economic environment and opportunities arising from globalization. But in a dramatically altered post-global financial crisis scenario, the region’s dynamism, which is crucial for the elimination of poverty and hunger and the realization of the Asia-Pacific century, will critically depend on its ability to harness the potential of regional economic integration. Chapter one of the study gives an overview of the key issues in the context of regional economic integration in Asia and the Pacific. The following chapters deal with the process of a broader integrated market. Chapter three looks therefore at the aspect of connectivity, while chapter four is focussing on the financial cooperation aspect. The final chapter concludes with looking at the future - towards an inclusive and sustainable Asia-Pacific century.

      • Preview
        GSP - Handbook on the Scheme of Japan 2006 (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2006, 109 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This handbook has been prepared by the UNCTAD secretariat based on the information provided by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. It provides a general explanation of Japan´s scheme to allow officials and users responsible or involved in GSP issues to gain a better understanding of the scheme. The handbook is based on: • the Temporary Tariff Measures Law, • the Cabinet Order for Enforcement of the Temporary Tariff Measures Law; and • the Administrative Rule for Enforcement of the Temporary Tariff Measures Law. The original Japanese language versions of these texts are the sole authoritative versions in the event of a dispute. The tariff item numbers used in this publication are in accordance with the nomenclature of the International Convention on the Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System (HS number). The product descriptions found in the lists have been reformulated to help understanding. Readers may wish refer to the Customs Tariff Schedules of Japan, published by the Japan Tariff Association, for further information on tariff item numbers and descriptions of Japanese GSP-eligible products and other products. Further information on the Japanese GSP scheme is available on the following Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan website: http://www.mofa.go.jp.

      • Preview
        Guidance on Good Practices in Corporate Governance Disclosure (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2006, 52 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development

        This guidance is a technical aid for regulators and companies, particularly in developing countries and transition economies. The purpose of the guidance is to help those responsible for preparing company reports to produce disclosures on corporate governance that address the major concerns of investors and other stakeholders. The publication is relevant to enterprises eager to attract investment regardless of their legal form or size. It will also serve to promote awareness in countries and companies that do not adhere sufficiently to international good practices and consequently fail to satisfy investor expectations on corporate governance disclosures. The focus is on widely applicable disclosure issues that are relevant to most enterprises: • financial and non-financial corporate governance disclosures • disclosure issues regarding general meetings, timing and means of disclosure and compliance with best practice. UNCTAD draws upon recommendations for corporate governance disclosure contained in documents from other international organizations and national governments, as well as the deliberations of the Intergovernmental Working Group of Experts on International Standards of Accounting and Reporting (ISAR). For reference purposes, the guidance also contains a list of national and international resources on corporate governance disclosure. The publication is expected to serve as a useful tool for drawing attention to good corporate governance disclosure practices that enterprises in different parts of the world might wish to emulate.

      • Preview
        Guidelines for the Sustainable Management of Biotrade Products: Resource Assesment
        Manual by Francisco Cuesta, María Teresa, 2013, 42 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        Guidelines for the design and implementation of resource assesment for biotrade wil-collected species. It includes their appraisal for BioTrade management, biological and socio-economic information on the managed species. The documents shows how to conduct field inventories to collect data on key population and demographic calculations. It gives guidelides on management, gives examples of good practices and ideas on how to improve monitoring.

Login